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IUTKOI{ IIPOEJIEMI4 HA ETHOHI4MI4flTA

B IIEHTPAJIHA I,I IOIOLI3TOIIHA TPAriIIfl

Ilemtp f,EJIEB

Tpaxzitcxur:e rrJIeMeHHr4 uMoaq 3a[a3eHr.I B y Xepo4or; 3ailncatu B cpe.[ara Ha V lt. rtp,


AOCTr.rtHaJrrrTe AO HaC .rpes Xepo4HaHu CreSau npaKTI4Ka Te oTpa3.rrBaT rrcTopuqec(ar€l
BrzsaHrrficxu Sparueurlr na Xerarefi Mulercxu
TeJrHocr [pe3 BTopara [onosuua Ha VI u n ttirr
(@on 19756; Velkov l99l), ganar r.BBecrHa
npeA_ naV s. u qecro [oAJrexar Ha orHocuTerno
craBa 3a crrrlecrByBaHero Ha e4Ha sary6eHa 3aBrr_
Ha xpoHoJroruqecKa arpu6yuux (cp. Delcu
HarH Kaprr,rHa Ha paHHara [JreMeHHa
4eficrrzren_ c nodo6eu qHlJtu3 30 rueweHama B
HOCT, [peAIrrecTBaIIIa Bb3HtrKBaHeTO Ha foJrflMoTO Tparcun). Ct c cr6urs.{ or cpe.qara na VI n.
qapcrBo Ha oApr{crrre. flose.{ero or re3z rld
r,rMeHa He ce cB6p3Bar HanpaMep Xepo4ororure
ca 3acBr.rAeTeJrcTBaHH B tro_KbcHo BpeMe v 3a cT,_
3a flJreMeHara ga dotouKume v ancuH
xaneHrre He Morar 4a6rgar cvrynpanrAoprr rrpu_ (ancNHrzure); nrpnure o6?rrasajrz Tparu
6nzgprrenuo na reorpa$cKara Kapra. floua4uanz a
Xepcouec, BTopr{re - 3eMrrre s 6rzsocr
ron_rrMaracu qacr B HaqaJroro na V r.np.Xp. uo4 llo
oTKbAeTo HaxJryBanr{ Ha rroJryocTpoBa,
BnaCTTa Ha OApLICKITTe rlape, MHOIO OT IIneMeHaTa A(
Mranrraa4 Craput He [perpaAraJr rrpoBJraxa
ry6xr rerpAe paHo cBo{Ta oryerJrrrBa [oJr]rrrrqecxa s.{paBa crewa (Hdt. 6.34-36). Xepo4or crroMe
Susuonouu fl v He ca ocraBilrTr 3Harrr.ITerHa creAa ancuurlzitgure orqe BeAHbx, Beqe [o rroBoA Ha
B 3arra3eHr4Te ucropvqecxr{ Ir3BopIr.
.{ocrunranure 6urus or BpeMero Ha rpbro-lepczficxure ooliu
Ao Hac orKbcreqHr,r cBeAeHrrfl 3a [JreMenuara geficr_ s 478 r.np.Xp. re 3iuroBrrnu uz6xralus or
BHTeJTHOCT Ca ocBeH TOBa pa3HoBpeMeHHI{,
OTpa3.,r_ Hr,rf, or arr{H.rrHuTe Cecroc [epcueq Ofio6asoc
r.r
nafi rra e noseqeTo cJryqa H u3flByr Ha caMocrof, TenHa
npr{Hecnu B xeprBa Ha cBo, 6or flneficrop (il61t
[JIeMeHHa aKTT.IBHOCT B pa3rl,IrrHl,r
SOprr,rU. 9.119). Tesu nneueHa BnocJreAcrBrreHaIBJTHO H!*
qesBar or Kaprara ua
IIJIEMEHATA
1. lperua Tpaxw; r.rHrlHAeur_
HOTO trM crroMeHaBaHe y KbcHH aBTOpr.r uMa xapa(,
B IOIOII3TOqHA TPAKAfl Tep Ha HcTOpErrecKa peMHHLTCqeHTIIL{, OTTeBITAHO
flopagu Jrarrcara Ha Hf,KaKBo yrBbpAeHo perilo_ Bb3xoxAarla xru Xepo4oroBr{re cBegeuzx (uaupn-
HiurHo AeJreHHe ua flperua Tpaxut laep Plin. n. h. 4.41; Solin. 68.3; Steph. Byz.
$oprvrynupor_ s. v.
Kara,,IOroH3ToqHa Tpax:zl, e o6rya u Herrpeqrr3Ha. Dolonkoi). Xaparrepen e e.u.ru
Sparrraenr ua Crpa_
Tyr n weit:aus o6xsar ule 6rAar 3eMr.r_
6ou, n xofiro Enoc e craTyl{paH ,,B 3eM.f,Ta, Ko.f,To
Te r43TorrHo or AoJTHHTe reqeHu, ua"*orar,
Xe6poc u Tou- H.flKoza ce Hapl4r{iura Aucnurr.r4a, a ceza e r{3BecrHa
3oc MexAy Enoc u Ka6une,4o Xeuyc Ha ceBep, rcaro Kopuranuna; Ha 3arraA or He,x ce HaMupa 3e-
EsrcuHcxr,Lf, [oHT Ha rr3Tox, 3aJtuBaMenac r flpo_ M.f,ra Ha KuxoHq[re" (Strabo 7. fr 5g).
rroHTrrAa Ha rot Ho 6es rpaxrEfiqure s Mara As[q. B pasxasa cr.r 3a [oxoAa ua lapuir cpeqy cKr,r_
Pesylrarure Ha Hacrorrq[, xpoHoJroruqecxr{ [per_ r:zr:e Xepogor ctroMeHaBa, qe ,,TpaK nittlure,Kor.ITo
neA Ha erHoHlrMrrqecKara 4eficrrurennocr n IOro_ BJraAeeJrr,r CanuuAecoc rr xrrBeeJrr{ HaA rpaAoBere
r{sroqHa Tpaxux Beqe ca o6napo4sanu iracrr.rrrHo B AnononN.f, n Mecau6pux, :aapv*auu ciupt uadu
Apyr BapHaHr Qenee 2008, passim). vr Hunceu, ce flpeAaJrr.r rua
lapuit6es cruporzra,,
(Hdt. 4.93). Texcrrr il Moxe 4a ce pas6a-
e He.flceH
A. Xepodomosanm nrtacm coedeaun pa r.r B cMr{cbJr, qe Ha nepczfiqure ce ilpeqailfi
mpu
Hafi-pauuare, AocrtrrrHvr 3a ataJwr3 cBeAeHr{f, IIJIeMeHHH fpylla: OCTaHaJILITe aHOHIIMHLI,,ffipa_
3a rrreMeHaras lororrsrovua TparNx ce HaMr{par e Catnudecoc" (Beuedurcoe 19g2, 4S_4g
rcuilqu
y6e4Nrenuo u4eurz$urlupa Canuu4ecoc cBc

96
or Heto cBuAereJlcreo Ha Orasuit Apuau,
Crpan4Na), orAenlro or r-rlx crcupuuadume (s Jr.rrHoro
Anexcag-
Ha ABI/txeHI4ero na
Xepo,qorornre KoAeKcI'I ce cpeqa v BapvarrT Ha xofiro B o[]IcaHl,Iero
4rp Benzxu npes lOxna Tpaxur s 334 r.np.Xp.
rIMero ,,KI{pMI{aHI{") tr Hunceume, KoL{To B TaKT'B
c ly uafi. 6uxa o c't asanu orp aH I{ueH Ia
c aMo a p afi o n a [3putrHo rlocraBfl o6lacrra flairNra (fleru-
oKono Eypracxur 3aJII{B, eBeHTyaJIHo I{ B H}IcKI{Te ra) l,rsro.rrro or Xe6poc qaK Ao BnlrBaurara ce B
AtrJIoBe na Crpangxa ceBepHo or Pesoncxa
pera' AbHoro Ha 3a;fir*a Menac eAHoHMeHHa pexa (Arr.
Xepogoronoro cBeAeHHe He o3HaqaBa He[peMeH-' anab. l.ll.4), sacnyxara B cnyqa.f, rtoBeqe AoBe-
Ho, qe e [peMIrHaJI c q.xnara cI4 apMl{'f, [pe3 pue. Jloranv3at\vtflTa na uafiuEre rr3ToqHo, a Ha
flapuit
Crpan4xa u lrruzwtts, xIrHrepJIaHA na Eypracxux KLIKoHIIIITe 3a[aAHO oT AOIHoTO TeqeHlae na Xe6-

3aJrrrB, Ma(ap I,I rloHfKora Aa ce TSJIKyBa I'IMeHHO B


poc npeA[onara rpocro, ue Xepo4or B pa3Ka3a
To3r4 cMlrcbil ; ABI'IxeHI'Iero Ha nepcufi cxar a aplrufl
crr e noAxBanal us6poflBaHero Ha nJleMeHara or
no Aocrarbqno 6lusxo no-3a[aAHo rpace, 4opu 6e: HaqaJloro na rparuficKl{tr eran Ha rloxoAa, Bpb-
eBeHryaJluoro npeMI'IHaBaHe Ha Qlaurora KoJroHa urafixu ce MaJIKo rra3a4,3a Aa Ao[bJrHIr [polycHa-
TOTO B npeAxoAHOTO OIIlICaHrre HMe Ha fIJIeMero,
it
lpe3 3eMI,ITe Ha BtltpocH?ITe rIJIeMeHa, 6u 6uto
r* o6urasauro ceBepHH.,I 6pxr ua 3alrvBa Melac
AocrarbqHo Aa rI4 TIoATI4KHe Aa 3aflBflT (naupullep
c [pareHI.IqII B IroxoAHlrfl narep nafiapuia) cBoero
(cp.Hdt.7.58). Tyx cblrlecrBeHllflr Bbrlpoc e no-
,olrr*r"rre. 3a pa:nura or oApuclrre,re ca6uttu cKopo aaqo Xepo4or He c[oMeHaBa B ToBa H3-
orpaHl'IqeHl{ Ha Z3TOK OT MOpeTo u oqeBuAHO He 6pornaue Ha rIJIeMeHa I,IMero Ha rIo3HarHTe My arr-
CA WMraIIvl HaKbAe Aa Ce OTTeIJIflT, 3A Aa LI3qaKaT
cuurufiqu. BrsN{oxgo o6xcnenue 6I'r Aorulo or
rrpeMl,IHaBaHero Ha uepcuficrara orracHocr' npeAnOnOXeHLIeTO, lle TexHI'ITe 3eMI'I Ca oCTaHaJILI
BcrpaHI{ or ocHoBHoro rpace na KceprcoBufl rlo-
fluuur"rp [euer cBBp3Ba Hl4rrcelare c rpaAa
Hunca, 3acBLIAereJrcrBaH y Crqtf an Buganrrlficrtr xoA; B TaKbB cnyuafi re 6E cneAsaJlo Aa ce rr,pcrr
r{3ToqHo Ir ceBepol'I3ToqHo or 3eMI{Te ua uafirute,
C LIAeHTLIqeH Ha IIJIeMeHHOTO IIMe eTHHKOH II
ua Xepo4o:r (Steph. Byz' s'v'Nip- B 3eMI{Te Ha ceBep I'I I{3ToK or uuitrara ua Tparufi-
no3oBaBaHe
sa; cp.Herodian. de prosod. cathol. p'378; peri cxux Xepcouec. Anrepnarl{BHo Moxe Aa ce l.rlacItla,
qe nafirure ca 6unu KJIoH Ha anclEurufiqvtre vrvt
paronym.875; Suda s. v. Nipsa), vt Ha 6azara sa
e,rlHo He cSBCeM cl{rypHo nocoqBaHe Ha cbIrIu''I lrso6uo caMHTe ancuurufiqu, HapeqeHI'I ryK c
rpa4 (?) rrn Bpt3Ka c6c c upuilt4ume naA EusaHrroH Apyro urr,te; uogo6lro peIxeHI'Ie ce cbnlacyBalr,ail-
no-dony) ru ao6pe pI c KBcHoro cBuAereJlcrro ua Crpa6oH, cu-
{Steph. Byz. s. v. Sires; 3a mnx euuc
noKaJIIi3I4pa ,,im Berglande zwischen dem Fl' Ergi- Tyrrpaqo Enoc s upeAenuTe Ha H-f,Koralusara An-
ttlas und der pontischen Kilste", roecr IOxna B crl:a'rv1L no-KbcHara Kopuulrrxa (Strabo 7. fr. 58
: Steph. Byz. s. v. Korpiloi).
.erpas.qxa (Detschew 1957, 332). Tasu roncrpyx-
,llltlt o6aqe r{3rJlexAa HecllrypHa I'I rpyAHo Moxe Aa
no- E. KcenofroHmoruflm nnactn ceedenun
Cc cburacyBa c Xepo4oroB[I-fl TeKcr' H3pI{lIHo
Br{r{ cKrrpMlr atrkrre I{ HI{IrceI{Te,,ua4 AnoloHu-f, B nocne,qnara, ceAMa KHIlra na KceuoSonronux
Mecan6pNx". ,,AHa6a3uc" e 3aua3eHa aBTeHTIriIHa uuQopuaqux
llar y Xepo1or ca crloMeHarlr, Ho Belle no no- 3a [JIeMeHara s Ioro[groqna Tpaxur Ha rpaHlrllara
crlurusra or 480 r.up.Xp., nailmume (te- na V u IV r. up. Xp., KoflTo cJIeABa, c IrHTepBan or
li're) n KuKoHqume (ruronure), c I'IMeHara Ha oKoJIo eAHH BeK, cleA Xepo.qoroBrlfl nJlacr cBeAe-
ti'o 3artoqBa lcpexAaHero ua rpaft6pexHlrre HVs.3a ctlrlu.tr pafion. OnuceafirN Aefictsxma Ha
a, rlpe3 3eMlrre Ha KoETo rIpeMI'IHaJI (or us- Irrecrte xvnfl.Avt orrenrrrJll{ ce or Asux rprqxu
tta :ana4) c orpoMHara ch apwrtfl' clrHtr ua ,{a- HaeMHIIIIIT Ha cnyN6a y rparueqa Cesr II Ia rrl'ruoro
B..,I(ceprc (Hdt. 7. I 0 B, I 1 0). 3apaau rocneAoBa- cr4 yrracrl4e s cr6[rufra, KceHosoHT crloMeHaBa
ttocrra ua XepogoroBuf, pa3Ka3, s xoitro HaKparKo u rpaxuficxllre nneMeHa, cpeilry Kolrro
p{'}ellnre rraca)Kv CneABaT olucaHlreTo Ha rlpe- ce BoAqr BoeHHHTe 4eficrrux [pe3 Kparxara 3uM-
[ancro na nepcuficrara soficxa r ,{optlcx Ha KaM[aHI{fl B rIr,pBI{Te Meceqr{ sa 399 r. np' Xp.
y$n{cro ua Xe6poc, A- Ool e cKnoHeH Ha [oA- (Xen. an ab. 7 .2.32 ; 5. 1 2). Hxna rpeKl{ cbBraAeHI{,I
, ttatirl4Te Ir KI{KOHIIIITe [ocJIeAoBareJIHO Ha MexAy erHoHI{MpITe, Ir3rIoJI3BaHz o:r Xepo4or rr or
or /lonHoro reqeHl{e na Mapuqa, ocrae'flfixfl Kcerio$orir; I{ AoKonKoro HqMa I{ ocHoBaHI'Ifl Aa ce
trpt{ ure Ha II3ToK or peKara 3a arrclEnrnfiuure lpeAfloJlara, B paMKI'ITe Ha V a. up. Xp., ruraruo cr-
lq|Z, 20). Crpysa MI'I ce o6aue, ue orxBbp- ruecrBeHo pa3MecrBaHe Ha HaceneHl{ero n pafiona,

97
oqeBuAHo ocHoBeH npo6reM npeA npoyqBaHero e poI.r3TOK 3eMHTe Ha THHVTe Ca AocTr{faru A0
ycraHoBrBaHero Ha BB3MoxHara u4enrusuxaqr,rx
floAHoxr{ero ua CrpanAxa, Ko.rrro nafi_reporrHo
Ha H3IIOJI3BaHLITe OT ABaMaTa aBTOpr{ TIJTeMeHHU
cJreABa Aa ce r{AeHTuSnqupa c [naHrrHara, B Ko.fl_
I4MCHA.
TO TrrHrrTe ce
yKpHBanr{, cJreA KaTO HanycKaJIIr Ce_
Cuopeg KceHo$onr 6atlara Ha Cerr, Me4ox, rara cv B paBHr{Hara (Xen. anab. j.4 passim).
BJraAeen HaBpeMero nJleMeHara lr,a.ttenandumume,
Tepuropraxra Ha rvHvtre oqeBr{AHo e 6zna ronx_
muHume H mpaHuncume, a IocJIe, KOTaTO MOrb_ Ma, 3arloTo o[epaqlrrTa rro TrxHoTO IIoAqIIHr_
rrlecrBoro Ha oApr{crrre 3arraAHaJro, 6u:r uporoneu BaHe rpoAaJrxrno rlfln Meceq (Xen. anab. 7.5.4).
or r.f,x (Xen. anab.7.2.32). B xoAa Ha pa3xasa crr KcenoQonr He crroMeHaBa [oBTopHo MeJraHArcrtr_
3a KaM[aHr{.rrra trpe3 399 r. KceHoQon:r cnouenara Te r{ TpaHr{rrcHTe r.r oT pa3Ka3a My ocTaBa HercHo
nafi -.recro muHltme, KoHTo onpeAen_{ Karo xr{Tenz
Aarv *t te ca 6utu rroArlrrHeHlr, Hrrro KbAe roqHo
Ha rrnoAopoAHa paBHvHa, 3ao6nxo;reHa or nra*r4_
ce HaMHpar reprrropur.rre rau. trfuero Ha tweraH_
Hu; rbpr{rrre Aocrr.rrHaJrn ro sait-1tu3Krrre rexHpr
dumume Moxe yBepeHo Aa ce cBbpxte c zMero Ha
ceJra cJreA eAuH HorrIeH rrpexoA, rpurafirn or
Jra_ n pexara Menac (Capocxzx 3anr4B 14 peKa
3arrlzma
tepa cv 6nnso go flepuar ua MpauopHo Mope Ir Kasax uair, cp. Hdt. 7.58; Strabo 7.
lpeMr{HaBafixu npes xpafi6peNurrre rrJraHuHrr. fr. 5t) u rc
cborBerHo Ia ce pa3[oJroxar s 6rugocr 4o xpafi_
,,PanHzHara Ha tI4tu.ITe,. Moxe cJIeAoBareJIHo Aa 6pexlrero B yqacrbxa MexAy Euoc z Kap4nr.
6rAe ra4euru$zqapata AocrarttrHo crrypHo I{saH BeHeAr{KoB ru ra4eurz$ HrJLrpa eAHo3HaqHo
c ropHara (zsrouna) lracr or lacefirta Ha peKara c Xepo4oroBnre arrcuHruirtTu (Beneduxoe 1982,
Arpraauec (Eprene), roecr c pafioua oKoJro Jftone_
a\-a); Bb3 ocHoBa Ha nplrBeAeHure rro_rope cb_
6yprac (cp. Benedurcoe 1982, 4l-44). Ha cese_ o6paxeuux o6a.ie Moxe Aa ce Mr.rcn[ flo_cxopo

98
3 a eBeHTyaJIHa I4AeHTI'Io il]Ka;\Lts' Ha MeJraHALl TLITe rl fipr,rBexAa Karo aHaJlorux Xepo,4oroBoro cBeAe-
c [afiTLITe. B rarss cnyuafi Ir cBtp3BaHero Ha a[- Hr4e 3a pa3crorHlrero or XepafioH rlpr flepuur
cNHrufiqure c KceuoSouToBlrre rI'IHH craBa rBbp- ,4o Anononur (orolo 160 rn no [paBa tuuut),
Ae BepofrHo; KaKTO Beqe craHa AyMa, HMeHHO [O- Koero ce paBIUIBano Ha qerllpu AHI4 nBT. Xepo4o-
Ao6ga noKanlr3allu.fl , ocraBatUa ceBeporl3TollHo or ToBoro pa3croflHze rlpeAlonara oKoJIo 40 xru Ase-
Tpacero Ha rlbr.r MexAy Tparxficrux Xepconec r'I BeH npexoA, Koero e npu6nusureJlno paBHo I{ Ha
Kuncena, 6u olscsutta s a6erexuMoro orcbcrBl{e rr3rroJl3BaHara or Tyru4IrA MrpKa 3a orlpeAenf,He
Ha arrcIrHTlrfiqure or pa3xa3a na Xepo4or 3a [oxo- Ha pa3crorHl{ero or EusanruoH Ao ropHoro re-
qeHue na Crpurraou (Thuc. 2.97 : 13 AHI'I nbr 3a pa3-
4a ua Kceprc s 480 r. rp. Xp. flleuenara Ha MeJIaH-
ArrTure, TktHlrre I,I TpaHl{ficure BeporTHo ca 6utu crosHr,re oKono 520 xu rro rpaBa rr:rrr.ttt); TyxIE-
poAcTBeHI'I U aKO TpaHIrncI{Te ca rl3prrllHo 3aCBIrAe- AuA o6a.re a3puqHo rlocoqBa, ile craBa A5rtrla 3a
TEJICTBAHH NO-K6CHO KATO CbCTABHO TIJIEME IlATId- rrbrr, KofiTo Moxe Aa I{3MIrHe go6tp neruexoAell.
r{e Kceno$oHroBara Mf,pKa e 3HaqurerHo rIo-MuuI-
nure (y Teonoun, cp. Steph. Byz. s. v. Ladepsoi),
To cbrrloro I,BrnexAa nafi-ua.nxoro BS3MoxHo l{ Ka, cJIeABa He CaMo or cro6paxeHl'Iero, qe IIpu
3a MeJraHAIuIrUre. B raKsB Ctryuait' Ir orHolxeHlrero Hero ce loBopll 3a IIpIABI'IXBaHeTO Ha ror.sMa ap-
MEJIAHAI{TII_TLIHI{ II3TJIEXAA HAIIbNHO I'IAEHTUTIHO MHfl, HO II OT Cb[OCTaBKara c Apyro [pI'IBeAeHO
Ha Beqe KoMeHTlrpaHoro tair'tu-arrcuurufiqx s Xe- B ceAMara KHI{ra na ,,Aua6asuc" pa3croflgue: 12
poAoroBlu nJlacr cBeAeHIrr, no4xpenxfixu o6ura- AHr{ rlbr o:r flpouonrv4a Ao pe3IrAeHIII'ura Ha o.{-
Ta ilAefl 3a nocoqeHoro I{M BB3MoxHo NgenruSIE- pr.rcKr,rfl qap Megor (Xen. anab.7 .3.16). Maxap Aa

rlr{paHe. IpuulEnure 3a rlpoMflHara Ha I{MeHara, c HE 3HAEM TOTIHOTO MECTOIOJIOXEHI{E HA TA3I'I PE'


KOr,rTO Te3I4 n Jre MeHH I'I rpy rrv c a 3acBltAerencrB aH I'I 3r.r,4eHrlpu, ABe oT Bb3MOXHrrTe Uafi-gauaAHH JIo-
y Xepo4ot l,r (carlo BeK ro-KbcHo) y KceHoQonl KaJrlr3aIIIrH .4aear upu6lI{3I'ITeJIHo eAHaKBo pa3-
OCTABAT EHI,IIMATIIqHU. crof,Hlre (oxolo 300 rur or flepunr ,qo pafioua ua
I4ueto ua KcenoQoHroBure mpaHuncu Ha[o- fiysaurruu, I,BMepBaHo rlo ilpaBa ItYIH:afl, ll Ao Ka-
4o6ana roBa Ha Xepo4oroeure HI'IrrceH; eAHa or 3aHJrbrrIKoTO rIOJIe, I{3MepBaHO rlo AoJILIHaTa Ha
Bb3MOXHplTe I4HTeplpeTaIIpII{ lo T6JIKyBa KaTO
gbc- Tyn4xa) H ro rrpeArloJlara M.,IpKa or caMo 25 ru
TaBHo c rlpeAcraBna ,,Tpa", BS3MoxHo B cMl{cb- AHeBeH flpexoA. CeAeu AHLI tI6T or flepIaHr n ra-
JIa Ha JIarI{HcKoro ,,trans", Toecr ,,orrarbK", ,,or- xrn cnyuafi HI,I orBexAar eABa Ao paftona na En-
Br,g" Hllflceure (Beuedurcoe 1982, 49-50). Axo xono (usrraepBaHo orHoBo no flpaBa nwuut') I{ ToBa
ruIeAHara rorlKa e or ron, rosa 6ll o3naqaBaulo JIo- rrpaBr{ Bepo{rHo orpaH[qaBaHeTo HaTepl4Topur-
KanrI3alll,rfl Ha TpaHlrIrcI'ITe ceBepHo oT Hl',IilCeu- Ta Ha [apaALIHacrI{qecKOTo BJIaAeHI{e na Mecag e
Te; BeHeA[KoB cborBerHo rH HaMecrBa B xuHTep- ceBepHa [ocoKa Ao ecrecrBeHara rpaHI'IIIa, oQop-
JIarrAa na Mecarrl6pua, Karo sa IreJITa MzuIKo MeHa or 6wru;ra na ,{epeeurcKl{Te BI3BI'IuIeHI4rI IrI

llpoH3BoJIHo u3MecrBa Hulcelrre Ha Ior (r Cerepna Crpan4xa. EAno cse.qeHl4e or MzLIIKo no-KbcHo Bpe-
erpau4xa), [porlrBHo ua Xepo4otoBara JIoKtuIu- Me CbIIIO IIOAKpeIIr I'IAeflTa, qe TpaHIIIICII[Te He CJI€A-
'5{lur.rr, Kof,To I{3HIex.4a cBBceM KoHKperHa (cxup- Ba Aa ce noKaJII,I3I{par roJIKoBa Aareq Ha ceBep: B
MnaAr,rre Ir Hllrrcelrre ctorBerHo naA Anoronus 14 e4uu $parrvrenr ua TeonoM[ Te ca rrocoqeHI'I, 3aeAHo
6pus.). IOxnara flIe.4Ha roqKa o6a're He e c HeIr3BecrHLITe or Apyru I{3ToqHpIqIr,7 adencu,xaro
aTa B63MOXHa, AOrIycrHMo e Aa ce MHc- cbcraBHo rIJIeMe HarrIHlITe (Theopomp. fr. 16 Jaco-
H 3a raKaBa orKbM 9epuo Mope ll B TaKbB cJIy- by: Steph. Byz. s. v. Ladepsoi). Pa:remruero Ha
fi uecrononoxeHl4ero Ha rpaHI{[cI4Te Moxe rrJIeMeHHara repl{Toplrfl Ha rI{H}ITe C BC}rqKUTe LIM
ee Tbpclr 3arIaAHO I'I AOpH IOrO3a[aAHO OT TO- Eb3MoxHI4 ctcraBHl{ IrJIeMeHa, sa Aa o6xsaHe IIf,JIa
lr& rrnrlcel{Te, eBeHryaJtro n Kapno6arcxo, -f,u- IOrou:roqn aTpaxut rraeN4y Xeuyc u flpououru4a
w 1Lopv s Erxoscxo. Ha resara na Bene- H3TOTIHO OT MEPI{AI,IAHA HA AOJIHI4TE TCqEHI4,f, HA

KoB MOraT Aa ce flpoTlrBorlocraB T rt Apyflr Xe6poc u Tonsoc (B eu edurco e I 9 B 2, 4 B), I{3rrlexAa


xeHr{fl. Tofi 4onycxa, qe crloMeuaroro y crrJIHo npeyBeruqeuo. Bnpoueu, epuqafiKl{ ce
T pa3cro;lHl{ e ot ,,7 duun ?rFn ", Koero ctlo- KbM CTIOMCHATATA B HA!{IINOTO JII{H|BI,ICTIIqECKA I'IH-
eerr rqsno la 6rle Hafi-ro.flsN'Ioro orAane- Teprlperalll4fl Ha I,IMero Ha rpaHI'IlcI{Te, HeKa Ao-
lo Ha lpsllKara BoI'IcKa oT I43XOAHI4fl nyHKT 6anuu, qe r.n cbBceM He e cllrypHa; BS3MoxHo e
6pera na Ipououruga (Xen. anab.7 .3 .tZ), or- TpaHlrnclrre Aa H.f,Mar HI,IuIo o6ulo c HI{nceI{Te, oc-
Ha pa3crotrt{rlero Ao tr{gro'{Hu.r Ealrau, BeH Ha qlrcro eTITMOJIO|ITiIeCKO HITBO. AXO USpeX-

99
AaHeTO Ha I4MeHaTa Ha MeJIaHApTTI{Te, Tr4Hr{Te ra 4e:runu o6o3HaqeHu c Konoee yuac.t"l,t1lt
{
TpaHr4[crrre y KcenoQonr 4eficrnnreJrHo cJreABa 7.5.12-14), ce noBrap, B rro-Kbcrro,r,(r
TexHH, reorpaScxu noprAbx, 6u uorno:recno (ua_ Crpa6ou sa acrefiqure (Strabo 7.6.1).
Kap z .{ocra rrpor.r3BoJrHo) 4a ce rpeA[oJroxr,r Ha_ B orr<rc:re.rHara r.r3BopoBa rpaAH qHri
rrpl4Mep, qe TprHHTe Ca 3aeMaJrr{ u paBHHHaTa oKoJro IIIa.np.Xp. ca sana3eHr{ Miurro cBererll{t
AoJrHoro reqeHrae Ha peKara Arpuanaec, [pr.rMepHo MeHara a lOrovgrouna Tparur.a. B oc
n pafioua MexAy Ysynxronpro N O4pun, a"rpalun_ Ha cBo.rITa ,,@HrilrH.Iecxa rzcropux,. tttl
crrre B TaKbB clyuafi Aa ce pasrroJroxar ceBepHo q,6urus or 353-352 n np. Xp. TeonoMrr
or rrx, oxono Jla"nanaura*Jlo3eHrpaA u 4o
flepren_ HaBaJI nadencume v mpaHuncume Kilro
TCKIITe BS3BLIIUeHV{ Ha CeBep, [JI]I MaKCI{Ma,THO
,,orruHure" (Theopomp. fr. l6 Jacoby = g
4o pafiona ua Erxoso-EoJrrpoBo orBbA rxx. flpyr s.v. Ladepsoi); la4eucure He ca r.r3BecrtrH ory
Bapr{aHr rrpeAJrara {. flevea, xofiro pa3[onara LI3ToqHIIqH, HO [OpaAH yclopeAHoro
TpaHzrrcr.rre B roxHara qacr Ha Crpan4xancrux BeporrHo u re rpx6na Aa ce pa3rronoxar Il
MacHB, ,,zwischen dem FluB Erginias und der pon_
Ao rr3BecrHr{Te rr Ha Kceno$our rpau[rRe]tr
tischen Kiiste"; ro 6u Moruro Aa ce cBrpxe rpeA_ B npeAenr,rTe Ha HsKorarrrHoTo napaAr{r.Ia
[oJroxrrreJrHo orHoBo c peAa ua us6po.anaHero y BJraAeHr{e ua Meca4 H Cesr II s loroa:r:o.rug
KcenoSour (uenaugnru-rr{Hr{-rpaHr{[ca), uo upu Kt4s.HIH safr-uanxoro B HerrocpeAcrBeHa 6Jl
nogpeg6a or3araA KBM r4zrox(Detschew 1952, 332,
Ao Hero. Brr nprsxa c rpaxzficrara sofiHa qlr
520). leuevne o6ocnoeaBa r.r3pr,rqHo MHeHr{ero crr, 340 n up.Xp. y Teouorun ca 6ulu crroMeuarli
HO TO rr3DrexAa npor.r3Jrr.r3a oT cBsp3BaHeTO Ha Tpa_ HoBo H uanuruoQazume (fr.223 Jacoby;. Llerei
Ht4rlcrrre c Hlrrrce[Te, Ha Ko]ITo rofi npnnucBa, He e JroKaJIIr3a\uflT a Ha cloMeHaTr.ITe eAr.rHcTBelIo
oco6eno y6e4zrenno no Moe MHeHr.re, cbrrrara Jro_ Teononan (fr. 214 Jacoby) xaro rpaxzficKo nneil
Kzura3arlrrfl (nuN no-rope). sepauuilt4u; y E$op ce cpeqa r{Mero Ha rrxtrati
KceHo$oHr crroMeHaBa B ceAMa KHr4ra Ha o6nacr 3epanun (fr. 88 Jacoby, :aABaraSpanra,
,,AHa6a3t4c" orqe 4re rpaxuficrz rrJIeMeHHr{ rpynu y Steph. Byz. s. v. Zeranioi). Brn spr:xa c
n o6cera na 4eficrnr.rflTa Ha lplrlKara apMua B qzuroro sa AlexcanApoBt4f, rroxoA n
334 rnp.Xp,
cn5ax6a ua Cesr II: e4uara e aHoHr{MHa H e rrocra_ y Aplran rrbK e cnoMeHara, xarro 6erue Docoqello
BeHa B pafioua Ha raKa HaperleHara
,,!erra,,,Toecr [o-rope, H TO BeporTHO Bb3 OCHOBa Ha aBTOICH,I
nonyocrpoBa ua E[saHTrIoH r.I3ToqHo or BT,3_ Ha HeroBru ocHoBeH [3ToqHr{K flroleuefi JIar, cl6_
Br.rrueHrrrra npu Varal4xa (Xen. anab.7.5.l), a Jracrra Ha na?imume, flailnuxa. u3purrHo noMec-
Apyrara ca TaKa HapeqeHr.rre uenuuoeazu (,,npo_ reHa or Hero MexAy peKr{re Xe6poc
colgqu"), Kor.rro o6urasaru nlanuucxzs Can_ u Melac
(Ar.anab.1.ll.4).
MHAecoc, roecr CrpaugNa (Xen. anab.j.5.9,l2_
14). EgHa neMa 6ee rocoqeH u3roqHflK y Cre$an B. K'ucruunm nJtacm ceedeaun
BrzsaHrlrficr]r crroMeHaBa rrMero cupuiuqu (utru
cupu) rcaro rparuficxo rneMe ua4 BrzsanruoH
Ipes xrcuara u pa:rraar:a pilM_
ervravrcraryecxa
cKa erroxa qpe3 aBTopr-r xaro
flonu6uit,Tur llunuit,
(Steph. Byz. s. v. Sires; cp. Detschew 1957, 448),
Crpa6on, fltru:aufr. Crapu n Knaa4ufi flroleuefi
HO HeTOBOTO CBbp3BaHe c aHoHrrMHaTa rpyfla y ce HaTpylBa
KceHoQour ocraBa HecrrrypHo He roJrKoBa B [nacT cBeAeHUf, 3a [JIeMeHHaTa
HOB
To_
norpa$cxra, KoJIKoro B xpoHojloruqecKlr nJraH. 4eficrnnrenHocr B lperua Tpaxzr, 3HaqurenHo
no-uuQoplrarlrBeH B cpaBHeHHe c 6egnara zH@op_
ZnaH Bene4ilKoB r{AeHru$nqupa Kceno$on:ronz_
MarIHflor rro-paHHo BpeMe, oco6eso uo ce Kacae
re uenuuo@arz c Xepo4oroBr{re ctprpvruary,l- H :rrt4_
Ao BbrperrrHocrra Ha rpaxuficxare 3eMH; B Hero
lrceu (Benedurcoe 1982, 45-46, 4B), uo axo B rra_
ce c:sAbpxar HoBt4 cBeAeHus. H 3a pafiona na flpo_
caxa Ha Xepo4or: cxr,rpMhaAure h Hzrrcerrre ce
nonrrzficxa Tpaxux. Y Tm llunufi HanprzMep e 3a_
pa3rpaHl{qar or,,rpaxuilqr,rre B Caruu4ecoc..,
IIIBeHO CBeAeHLIe 3a HaIIaAeHIIeTO, OCbrrIecTBeHO
r{MeHHo nocireAHr,rre u1e rpx6ra Aa ce cBlpxar c
or.Koanuur{, Ha qerr.rpu rpaxuficxr,r nJreMeHa _
KceuoSouroBprre,,[pocof,Aqr{,.. Jfto6ouurHo e Aa
acmeil4u (acrr.r), xeuuilt4u (xeHu), uadyameruu u
ce cloMeHe caulo, qe olrurcaHr{ero y KcenoQoHr ua
Koperu, HaA orrenr.fiqara ce or Aszs apuLtfl, Ha
o6u'tas, na uenlruo$arure Aa cr6upar r{3xBbpJrr_
Hlrre Ha 6pera ocranxu or qecruTe no re3rr Mec_
flreft Mannuii Bylsou s l8g r.np.Xp. (T. Liv.
38.40.6- I 5). Hana4euuero 6lrno ocbqecrBeHo He_
ra xopa6orpyrueur.rrr, 3a Koero Aopu cH 6utm pas_
Aareq or Kzncena, [peArr apvrilflTaAa ce npexB6p_

100

Edii-+
rlr4Te, a rro-cKopo c Xepo4orosute naiara
u Kce-
rpe3 Xe6poc; Ha AecHIrfl 6pm ua peKara
u
Jrr{
no$onronrare MenaHArrrI'I; KaKTo Beqe 6eure
xaAHa 3a [JLq-
6ura npecperlluara or olqe eAHa
cB6p3aHI'I
KOMeHTI.',IpaHo Iro-rope, Te I43fJIexAaT
ra rpaxuficKa apMlrf,, Ta3v Ha mpascume (T'Liv' c [o-muporara [JIeMeHHa
cpaxe- (r<aro ctcranno uleue?)
38.41.6; 3a MecrolroJloxeHl{ero Ha ABere
5l-56)' Onucanuero .pynu s 6acefiua na Eprene, Hoceua y Xepo'qor
Hlrfl Bx. BeHeArlxoe 1982,
Hallusuircbc clarypHocr Bb3xoxAa KtM [6pBoHa-
,r"to aucunrufiqt4, a y KcenoQour - uEnIE' Oc-
3a Bce cr'nro-
cpeA TaBa HeflcHo o6aqe AanI'I craBa AyMa
qut.tleH TeKcr y flonu6ufi, rofiro He e 3ala3eH
TO HaceJIeHI',Ie, I',I3BeCTHO B pa3rur{Hu eloxl{ c pa3-
or
AOCTLITHZuIITe AO Uac sparrraeHTlr -HeroBaTa T PAfiOTTA CA
rler rpaKI'ItrcKI'I nJIe- NIILIHI1I UMEHA, I'INI'I MEXAYBPEMEHHO
2l-sa rcHura. Or uoco'{egl{Te v HA MfcToro
ce cpeqar y HacTbrII4JIIr H.flKaKBIr pa3MecTBaHvfl',
MeHa MaAyareHI'ITe I.I KOpeflI',ITe He ce e Ha-
Ha npeAlrrrr:rture taitrltt/trlelanAu'ru cela
Apyflr aBropl'r. cTaHrrJIO HOBO nJIeMe - TOBa Ha KOp[]InI4Te'
I4lrero Ha uadyameuume o6[ruroseHo ce Acmeilqume, c KoI{To 3anoqBa rrcpexAaHero
Ha
cBbp3Ba erl'tMororl.rttecKl{ c rpaAa
MaAuroc r Tpa-
rpyflara or qerupl4Te IIJIeMeHa y Tnr Jlunufi'
cuqo
n f"*r,Xepcouec (Detschew 1957' 279-280)' uo ca ,4o6pe 3acBr{AereJIcrBaHI'I B K:scHlIg rtllacr cBe-
TOBa eABa nL [peACTaBnfBa AOCTaTbIIHO ocHOBa- y cre-
/teiHvfl. Te ce cuotvteHaBaT
B eAIrH 3ana3eH
KOf,TO
Hrre 3a JIOKZUII43auI{frTArlM. B floJryocTpoBa',
rpan Bllsanruficxra Qparrt'reur o'r Jrcropu'Ta
Ha
ce MI'Ic-
lr3rnex,qa MalIKo Bepo{THa' BrsMoxHo Aa
e
Steph' Byz' s' v' Kaby-
BTOpara cbc- ioru6r.rf @olyb. 13.10'10:
nlr clbIIIO 3a eBeHTyiuHo cBbp3BaHe Ha
le), a cutlo B Apyrl{s wrrlrpaH Iracax rta flusuit'
TABKA HA }IMETO C TOBA HA TI'IHI4TE' c MeAE I{
B Hfl- 3a npareHl{qecrBoro raNl s PltN'I 3aeAHo
Kopetume, tta lazata Ha pa3Hor{ereuufl HflKoiIKo Mecra y Crpa6ou
*o, *oA"*av Ha Iirilrluit u uge:aruQuxaqrlxra ua '(l.0.t-2, (42.19.6),Ha
,,Ken'Hatu"
y Anuan 12, fr. 47),flm'Inrafi crloMeHaBa o6nacrra
[onecpaxeHl{ero or 188 r' c ouilcanttfl' cbc c5-
rpoxoA Acruxa (n. h. 4.45),Ironeuefi - crparerl{s
no rIoBoA Ha Apylu c:.;6urvs Kopuuncrn
rlloro I'IMe (3.11.6); I{Mero e sacBlrAereJlcrBaHoj2)'
LI
(App. civ.368-370), Morar aa 6'slran
cBbp3aHH
n enurpaScxll IraMerHuryu (Detschew 1957'
[peAnonoxl'IreJlHo c no -4o6pe AoKyMeHTI'rpaHI{Te
oue Crele"usra ua Crpa6ou JIoKaJIIT3I{par acrefiuure
Kopnuttu (Detschew 1957' 254)' Ha
"'r."oprt. r Caluulecoc (Crpan4Na), rrgero rrxHa croJII'Iua
eAHo Mflcro y JIuYuit ce [peArlonara I{3onaqeHo s'v' Bi-
rofi or6e- 6un rpa4rr Buzul-(7 ft' 47;cp' Steph' Byz'
npeAaBaHe Ha lrMero Ha KopnI{JIIrre: LIM
III MareAoncxa sofiHa zye); roi,tAopfi I'r3p[qHo clroMeHaBa rIpaI$I'IKara
JIfl3Ba B HaBeqepuero na xopa6oxpyluenr'Ie rpait
Ha MoAL1 Ken' aa o.pa6r- rperr,pneilllre
npueMaHero s PIEN'{ Ha rrpareHlrqll (7'6'1)' roero
ro3l4 Herocronpl{eMeH 6prr ropa6u
,,)*u (cepnati) u acrefi\u (42'19'6) I'I He3acBr{Ae- Ha KceuoSour sa
BTOporo rIJIeMe ce e rIpf,K rlapanen Ha cBeAeHlrero
TeJICTBaHoTO ApyraAe rrMe Ha
KopnI{JII{'Kop- vlenuuoQaurre B cbllrur Pafiou'
nolpaBf, or lr3AareJrl{re orHoBo Ha
Crpa6on nocraBf, acrefiqure ,,Hag E[3aHTuoH"
nHJrr.Ire ca crIOMeHaBaHu or
peA Apyru aBTOplr'
rpaAbr
Ce HaMI'IpaJI I4
r{ AOfIbJIBa, qe B TexHlrre 3eMI4
,,unp"*.p Crpa6on (7 fr'47; fr'58)'. fhuuufi Kanu6e (: Ka6r'ue?), n xofiro @ltlun' cl{Hbr Ha
ilr"p" 6.n +.it; n nmEr Xepo.4uan (de prosod' Auuurac, 3aceJILIJI nafi-o'lssreHl'r npecrBlHl{q}r
crloMeHaBa
iol.3 16); Auuan, Karro craHa AyMa'
ea
(Strabo 7.6.2). CseAeHrero e ly6nupauo or eAIrH
I

IrpoxoA, a Knar'4ufi .flrolerr'rerl -


' Kopnunclcrrf, (Ptol' 3' 11' 6)' 3a noxalu- 6pu.r"*rt sa flolu6ufi y CreQan
Bnsauruficxu'
,. e'rnarellasra Kopuuluxa ce rBbpArr' qe
K:bAero rpaAbr e HapeqeH Ka6rEle I4
,u,,rrtu ru ,rr"*a,o ocHoBHO 3HaqeHl',Ie I{Ma eAI4H Ha
to'iiuutu y tofi ce HaMupan He BbB, a,,HeAaJIeqe oro'3eMI'ITe
Crpa6ouoeu Qparneura' 3arla3eH -Cre- Byz' s'v' Kaby-
*p"""'1:y;1o acrefiqure (iolyU. 13.10' 10: Steph'
iii*t g".u"*ficru; cnopeA Hero
Kop- I e). Hara3l{ ocHoBa ilecro
IrJIeMeHHara repuropus
ruffcr<o fIJIeMe, a 3eMflTa I'IM ce Hapuqana
sa acreituure pI crparerlrsra Acruxa ce pa3Tf,rar
B
iJnrrnu- 6rna ussecrHa rlo-pauo raro Alcuuu'IAa qaK
CeBepO3aIIaAHO Ha[paBneHLIe' 3a Aa AOCTI'{rHaT
r nefl ce HaMI{pan rpag Euoc (Strabo 7' fr'58: Bnpouerrl, Aonycrl'rMo e Aa
firl6ol'
Jloxarusa\vflra Ha Kop- 4o pafioua ua
$tepn. nyr. s.v.Korpiloi)' I
KbAero ce e ce MHCnI4 I{ 3a arTepHarl{BHara B53MOXHOCT AA
ftrt,,,nr. MexAy Euoc lt Kuncela, LIMaJIO ABa rpaAa c no.4o6uu IIJII{
eAHaKBH I'IMeHa;
MnpaJI Kopnulcxuf, npoxoA, Toecr
rlo JIeBI{f,
eAI4HI,IflT e cI',IrypHO JIOKaJII'I3lIpaHIrf,T
npfi 3aBofl Ha
reaIeHI'Ie unu
nr ira Xe6poc s Hafi-AoJIHoro My gpyruxt 6u
Ba Kop- Tyu4Na q*6orcro rpaa Ka6Nle' a
I{TepnaHAa Ha 3aItvua Melac,
[o3BoJIf, "
c aucunruft- ce HaMIrpaJI eBeHTyanHo n pafioua na Crpau'u'xa'
H',I'9 .II,a ce cBbpxaT He TOJIKOBa

101
TOeCT r4MeHHO B 3eMIITe Ha acTefiIlr4"re. Ta3kr vles. BflBaT B KBCHaTa eloxa eAHlrc.r.trello g
ce IIoAKpen.rI B HsKaKBa CTerreH oT crroMeHaBaHeTO u ro Ha rept4Topufl, Korro y XcpoTtrll
B rcorpaQcKrlf, peqHuK Ha CreQaH Busanruficrv, pr4r{Ho npl4nr.rcaHa Ha KHKoHul,trc. Itc/l
orAeJrHo or Ka6ane, uua,,Kalu6e, rpaA e Tpaxnr, u{r{re y K,raeluft flroleueil (Carralrxel;
MaKeAoHcKa KorroHr4.f,'( (Steph. Byz.s.v. Kalybe), ra, Keuuxa) flpeArroJrara o6a.re n lcru
KaKro pr or KoopArrHarvre Ha Knasllrfi flro;rerraefi, or AoJrHr4rr Xe6poc B Ta3rr eloxa /1il eg
Kor,rro rrocraBqr eAr.rH rpaA c prMero Ka6rEne rurKble ilvt canaume, Korrro a Xepo4oroBo BpeM€
oxono rIeHTparHH_s MacLrB ua Crpau4xa, B cbpuero [onaraJll{ Ha 3alaA or Eucrogcrrlro
sa Acrr,ma H HeAEureire or rrocoqeHara c [oirrr.I cb- MoxHo e cneAoBareJrHo Aa ce MlrcJ.lu 3A
rrlr.rre KoopA vmarv EN:ns. Karo ctcraBHo rrJreMe (unu alrepr
Mex,qy acrefiqrzre, Kot4To oqeBr{AHo 3aeMar B Ha canarrre. flpucrcrazero Ha canapt.r* B
TzBLr enoxa Mscroro ua KcenoQouToBrrre MeJrr4Ho_ Hr{re 3eMV Ha Kr.rKOHrIt4Te B Xr.{Hrepxarul8 t
Saru a Canuu4ecoc, r{ 3aMecrrrJlure H{KorarrrH}rre Hes e AoKyMeHTr,rpaHo v3pprr{Ho r{ B eAHH
d
naittu r{ MeJraHAr.rru xpafi 3zur}rBa Menac rr AoJr- ua Crpa6ou (7 fr.43).
Hux Xe6poc Koprunr.r ocraBa nno4opo4uara o6_ I{sNaecrsaHero Ha calarrre Ha }r3ToK
Jracr B 6aceima ua Epreue, 3aera orHaqano or arr- 3Ba Ba3MOXHOCTTa r{ Apyru [JreMeHa /{n],
cr.rurufiqzre, flocJre or Moxe 6u u4eHrz.rH]rre c rf,x [pptABr.Ixr4Jlyr LtJtu pa3MecTHJrr4 B r.rHTepB0Jlg
Tptuu, a cera, KaKTO H3nIeXIa, Or nepoxruo uafi_ V-IV a. up. Xp. (nnacrrr c6c
Ay cBeAeHHl
CI{JIHOTO tIJreMe B orIopTIoHHCTUqHaTa KOaJILIq}r.'I poAor u KceaoSonr) u xrcuoeJrlrHr{crurtee
or 188 r. - xeuuilt4ume (za Jrorrurn3arlrrra cp. Be- paHHopI{MCKara erroxa. Trfi rrJII{ r{Har{e,
uedurcoe 1982, 58-59). tr{rrxnoro rrMe ce cnoMeHa-
AaHI{Te CBeAeHHf, AaBaT HOBa Cepu{ oT ltJl
Ba MHOIOKpaTHO B I,I3BOpI4Te OT TZI3LI efIOXa, Ha[pu- LIMeHa, KOI4TO MOraT Aa Ce pa3nOJrOXaT npU6JI
uep y Auonoaop (fr. 64: Steph. Byz. s. v. Kainoi), reJrHo Bbpxy repr,rropr{r.rre n xpafi6pexHr4, g
Crpa6ou ( I 3 4. 2), floune fi Tpor Qt ro t. 3 6), tlrruuufi
.
o6vtarianu rto-paHo or Lr3BecrHI{Te Hrr or
Crapu, rofiro [o3HaBa.Lr ,,o6Jracrra Kenuxa.. (n. rIecKlITe aBTOpr.I [JreMeHa, c oTKpr.{TaTa
h.4.40,47), n Klaa4ufi flroneruefi, xofiro coqLr Hocr Aa craBa A)aMa 6uto sa HoBr.r erHoHHMl,
cTparerilrl cbc cBIIIoro LIMe B cBo, crrlacBx (3.11.6). 3arra3eHoTo lrpeAr{rrlHo HaceJreHrre c HeroBLtTe
flpes II r. np. Xp. qapere na xenufiqzre fiueruluc
lpynu, 6uno ga pe3yJrrar or HflKaKBu
KzurHr.r
u 3n6emaraoc ca ocraBrrJrr.r MparreH crroMeH c xec- AvIIJHkr eTHI{IIeCKLI pa3MeCTBaHI{fl B perI.IOHa.
TOKOCTUTe, KOTITO r{M Ce npurrr4cBa! BeporTHO 3a_ B,,EcrecrneHara Lrcrop t4fr,, Ha flluttuit Crapg
paAr{ yIIopI,ITuir orrrop, oKa3aH Ha OnrrTr.rTe Ha [ep_ (4.40) e 3acBr{AereJrcrBaHo orqe eAHo rJreMeultg
raMcrru qap Ara;r II 4a ualoxr{ BJracrra cH B HMe, KOeTO C rOJI.rrMa Ao3a BepoflTHocT MOx(e
Atl
Tparnficxur Xepconec (Diod. 33.14-t 5; 34- ce oruece xrna lOror.rsroqHa Tparux _ ToBa u&
35.1 2); rosu nou$lrrxr cbilIo rorBrpxAaBa KocBe- xuncarmume (Hypsalti). Te se ca rr3BecrHn or lpy.
HO npeAloJlaraeMaTa noKaJlpr3aullf, Ha [neMeTo B rr{ r.l3Bopu, Ho aKo Bb3npr.{eMeM yAarrHo npeAno.
HelocpeAcTBeHO CSCeACTBO C rroJlyocTpoBa, cblr{o xeuoro or I4nan BeHegaxos (1952, 60) csrpzsa_
xaro Xepo4oroBure ancuuruillu BeKoBe no-paHo. He Ha rf,xHoro r{Me c roBa Ha rpaAa Kuncena, nqe
B e4nu HaAlEc or KnuAoc ce c[oMeHasa ffo6o- loIyrILrM Bb3MOXHOCTTa Aa rH pa3[oJroxHM CeBep-
flrrrHara Soprr,ryla,,Keuzficxu XepcoHec,., Ho Ho or KopnI.IJIr.rre r{ 3anaAHo o:r xeuufiqrre, Koe-
Bepof,THo He Karo BapilaHTHo Ha3BaHHe na Tpaxr.rfi_ To ortoBap, uprl6nnsrlrenHo Ir Ha M{croro I4M B
crux XepcoHec, [oBJrr.L{Ho or lrMero ua Hafi-uorq- us6poxranero Ha rrneMeHara y lllutt*tit; roBa e
HOTO TpaKlrficxo nneue z paitoua, a KaTo HeTOIIeH upu6lasurenHo pafiourr MexAy l4tcata n ysyn-
npeBoA Ha craporpbrlKrr Ha JraruHcxara Kbolpro, orpaHr{qeH or ga6lareuara AoJrrrHa Ha
Soprrayna
,,Chersonesus Caenicamque", Toecr,,Xepconec Xe6poc Ha 3arraA rz BepoflTHo o6xsaqarq Ha rr3roK
H KeHrra" (Loukopoulou 1987, 74-78). Moxe 6u r:yrcnara rrJraHr{Ha f,.itilagar, Kof,To to orAen, or
rJraBeH lpaA Ha reuufiqure e 6un Aupoc, peopra_ paBHr{Hara ua Eprene. B cle4rauloro H3peqeHr.re
Hr{3r.rpaH lpes I n. cn. Xp. Karo pHMcKa KoJroHtrfl flrlu*luit crroMeHaBa r,r r{MeHara Ha ,,4oroHr[Te..
(Jones 1971,1B). (roecr 4onouxure) vr rr4Hme, Kor{To oqeBr.rAHo ca
Tpaecume, KoHTo Moxe u Aa He ca I{AeHTr.rqHrr aHaxpoHHqHr.I yc[opeAHo c Te3Ir Ha 3aerr4Te TSX_
Ha eAHorEMeHHoro rrJreMe, cnoMeHaro (6e: uspzu_ Hara repr.rropr{f, Kopnr,rJru a renufiqu r4 Morar Aa
Ha JroKzurr.r3aUza) y Xepo4or (Hdt. 5.3-4), ce roq_ 6t4ar orAaAeHr{ Ha HeBH}rMareJrHa 3aeMKa or rro-

102
cu fiapuit Ko.f,ro, clopeA I'r3pur{Horo rBbpAeHlre
crapil aBTopI{. Ocuornara cxeMa Ha pa3noJloxe-
14

ua Xepo,4or, TerraJla ,,rlpe3 3eMI{Te Ha ogpl.{cure", He


HI{ETO HA IJIEMEHHI'ITC MACHBI'I I{ TflXHATA YTB6P-
ce noTBbpxAaBa ce cnoMeHaBa B Apyrll aHTI{qHH TeKcToBe rr I{AeH-
AeHa HOMeHKna-rypa B Ta3I'I e[oxa
na rpaxaficKlrre crpa- rnQrxaquxra ir ocraga Hecl{rypHa' PasrlrqHlare
oilIe eAHH Irbr H B crlrrcbKa
BapI{aHTI',I Ha
rerlrll y Klar4ufi flroleuefi, KbAero Karo crpa- AOIyCTI{MI4 peIIIeHI',Ifl rlpeAlloJlaraT
na ,(apraeBara apMI'Ir rlpe3 lOxua
Teru[ s lorousro'rua TparIEa ca flocoqeHu Kopnu- ABrrxeHI,Iero
pa3rutrHa JIoKaJII43aIII{f, Ha
.nzra, Keuuxa n Acrurca, nocJleAHara C I'I3puaIHo'
Tparux pI ctorBerHo -
BbnpocHara ilacr or 3eMI'ITe Ha oApI'IcI{Te' 3a clr-
orrxcaHo MecrolroJloxeHHe,,B Xpafi6peNaara o6-
flepuur 4o Auo;roum" (Ptol' geogr' rypHo Moxe Aa ce cMflra eAHHcrBeHo, ue paftonrr
Jracr or rpaAa
e 6nl nepusepeu 3a oApl{cllre, Kol{ro uz6srsaru
3. 1 I .6).
xonsnurra c nepcuftqure, or,qptuaafiru
BepoflTHo
ce B5B BBTpeIIIHOCTTa Ha 3eMI{Te cI{ AaJIeq oT rlb-
I',I

r x na [apueB ara apM I'I fl . flo cleAuoro nup ouelnr 6r't


2.fIJIEMEHATA B
o6scnuno u ocraBeHara ot Xepo4or 6es rorr'leurap
TOPHOTPAKI,Ifr CKATA HII3IIHA
aKIIHfl c HaTpynBaHero Ha KaMeHHI{Te rpaMaAI{ OT
CseAeHu-f,ra Ha Kracl{qecKl'rre aBTopLI 3a
Bbr-
nepcnficrara soficxa Karo aKT 3a pecrlexTl{paHe Ha
qacrHocr aa lopuo-
pelxHorparuficxnre 3eMu rr B He6srsaq cpaxeHl{e flporIrBHLtK, c qlrero rroKo-
ca ocKbAHI{ H He flo3BonflBar
rpaxnficxara:nvr3vtna pflBaHe Ha ro3l{ erarl Ha IroxoAa cu fiapuit' oqeBuA-
Ha rlneMelrHara Aefi-
AopL{ olI.IT 3a peKoncrpyKlllrf, HO He e I{MaJI HI{TO BpeMe, HI'ITO XeJIaHI're Aa
ce 3a-
.rrrr"rro"r e pafioua npeg V r'l IV s' ry' Xp' Equn- HI{MABA.
CTBeHOTO nJIeMeHHO LIMe, 3aIIa3eHO B TpaAI'IqpItTa
I4sau BeHeAIlKoB, olrupafixu ce na csoero y6ex-
cBo's-
3ara3I'I elox a, e roBana o dpucume,lmoxl4rl'I AeHr.re, ve Aprecroc e ApAa,
peKoHcrpyHpa eAHo
qacr oT TepuropHara Ha
Ta BJIacr HaA 3HarII{TerHa cJroxHo la sao6uxorHo ABI{xeHI{e ua nepcuficrara
[perna Tpaxun; ocrauzull{Te rIJIeMeHa B paMKlrre apwkrfl. (unu ria eAHa or nefiurre eBeHTyaJIHIr Ko-
rro-
na Ogpucxoro qapcrBo cazary6unu,3aeAHo c lonra): or il3Bopure na Teapoc HaAoJIy (a o6ua
IIOnaAHaT
JILITI'IqeCKaTa CH aBTOHOMI4fl', LI UIaHCa Aa rcro3alaAHa nocoxa) no reqeHl4flTa Ha Teapoc,
Ha-
l4]HAvrBuLyailHO B IIOJIe3peHI'IeTo Ha aHTIrlIHrrTe KonraAecAoc, Arpuanec u Xe6poc (cnope4 us-
6lro4areml v ce BKJIIouBaT s o6qara xapaxTe-
la 6poxranero y Hdt. 4.90) ao Ereficro Mope, KbAe-
qape 6uno
pr{crlrKa Ha [oAaHHIrr4Te Ha oApI'IcKI{Te ro fiapuit Ir3rpaAl{n Kpenocr I'I ocraBrrJl rapHL3oH
n-o o4pr"u,6utto uso6qo r<a:ro rparzfiqr (sI,rx n ,{oprcr (ctrnacao Hdt. 7.59); orraM Ha ceBep
lranpl4Mep Thuc. 2-96.1, 2.98'4)' Ta:u pasruuplE- ,ro l".rr, (eaua4en) 6prr ua Xe6poc (Mapnua),
TerIHa yuorpe6a Ha I{Mero Ha oApl'Icllre
3a cbxaJre-
3a Aa rpeceue Aprecxoc (Apaa) r nafi-Aonnoro
i
HLIe He [o3BOrsBa Aa ce ycTaHoBqT
cbc cl{rypHocr O4puu, ToBa, [pe-
TerreHI,Ie cpeqy AHeIITHI'IS a cJreA
H rexHlrre co6crnenu tep vropkrt4v La6r4ar
pasrpa-
xrtpnxfixrl ce orle eAI'IH rr5T upes Xe6poc, a eBeH-
IIOA
Itl,IqeHU OT Te3Lt Ha OCTaH€UII{Te, IIOIIaAHaJIII ryur*o u rpe3 Tougoc (Tyu4xa), Ha ceBep uoxpafi
oApI{cKa Bnacr rpaKl'Ificru nneuesa' neBlrfl 6pxr ua nocneAHara peKa KtM rIpoxoAI'ITe
Pasraabr ua Xepo4or 3a rloxoAa ua,flapufi cpe- na I4sroqHr.s EamaH (Venedikov 1970, 25-32;
ttly cKI{TI.'ITe cr,Abpxa nafi -paunoro cnoMeHaBaHe Beuedurcoe 1982, jB-41 c Kapma 2)' Xunotesara
Cuopea
tta o4pucure (Yuxtt'fienee 2008, 212-214)' npeAnoJlara KaTo cTpaHuqeH pe3yrrar v cvrryu'
OCTaBaq eHIAr-
HO
TO3I,! MHOloKparHo KOMeHTI{paH, paHeTO Ha KOpeHHaTa TepI{TOpI',Ifl Ha oApI'ICI{Te B
MarHqeH rexcr (Hdt. 4.92),rptrsafiru or
I{3BopI'{-
I{gro'rHllre PoAonu (Beueduxoe 1982' 40, 160)'
6unu orAaneqeHll Ha
Te ua pera Teapoc, KoLIro Pasxa3t'r 3a crpyrlaHlme rpaft peKara Aprecroc
nrrBuo purato"rr" or Xepafion
npu flepuur LI or
KaMeHHrr rpaMaAI'I IlpeAflonala ToJUIMO MHOxe crBo
A,,ororrru sa Enxcuucxllx floHt, ,,[apuit' AocrI.Ir- oT xopa ,r ilpu roBa II3pIIrrHo crroMeHaBa II{LIHOTO
I Apyfa peKa Ha urrae AprecKoc, KOTTO Teqe npllctcrBl{e ua fiapuit, Toecr Ia3rilexAa olrllcBa
li6c, ,"orrra Ha oqpuc*lre. Karo AoIITIJI npI'I He-s' ABLIXeHI{eTO Ha OcHOBHIIfl KOHTIIHIeHT
Ua lepCufi-
iri nnurt,.,t cne.IlHoro: rIoKa3aJI eAHo Mrcro Haeofic- cxara apMl4r; no nefinoro BKJIroqBaHe s noAo6Ho
'a H 3aloBf,AaJl BceKI{ nofiuux, wuuaaaitxu' 5a aao6uxonno ABI{xeHI{e, tlpeAflonaralrlo HeKoJIKo-
H TaM KaMbK. Karo usnrplrlrJla roBa Borrc- KparHO [peMI'IHaBaHe Ha roJreMlr peKlr H HeHyxHo
oT KaMbHI{ I{
, ocTaBrrJI TaM roJIeMI',I XbJIMoBe 3a6aBflHe, He e crpareruqecKll qelecro6pasuo c
ar c soficxara no-narattx". orJIeA JIorI{K ula Ha Ilqnara KaMnaHI{'lr' lapnusourt
Pcrara Aprecxoc, Korro AocrIlrHaJI c apl.r;aflTa

103
B ,,qapcKara KpefrocT.. B
IOpucK cnoKofiHo MOXe apl.anxra Ha rlap flapnfi, Ho no3BoJrrr]il (
Aa e 6ur [ocraBeH n [pH orreuurHero Ha cHryilpaHe oKoJIO I{ }I3TOtrHo oT AoJil]r),l_o
Aapriit B
Asux, Lt ilopLr ou1e [o-KbcHo or ocraua,rrx n Tpa_
ua Tylr4Na, tpu1tttsure.nuo rrlexgy 1l
Kr{rr HeroB [tjrKoBoAerl Mera6a:, r<oero
6u 6uno pzH.
AocrartqHo 4a o6tcttu sarqo Xepo4or ro cBbp3Ba Tyx e uxcroro Aa ce npr4noMHr.r xAcrt.lri
(raro o6rqo yxa3aHr.re:a aperrre) cbc cKlrrcxara exc_
MOXHOTO JrOKiUrr43HpaHe Ha [bpBoHaqaJlll
[eAr.rur{fl . Zgeurn$ux a\usra na Aprecxo
c c Ap.ua MeHeH rIeHTtp Ha oApr.rcaTe s pafloHa lrtt
He cTaBa [o-Bepo.rrTHa v npv xurroTeTl4qHLrfl BA_
lrnauu;aa (D elev I 9 B 3, 2 2 2_2 2 4).B ocuonarn
puauT apMHfrTarua lapwit Aa e
Aocrr4rnaila reBvrfl Ba lpeArroJroxeHze CTOr.r cTpylBaHeTO,
6prr na Xe6poc r pafiona Ha AHerrrHr.r.fl O4puH, 6lz_ ll
no ceBepHr.ITe cxnoHoBe ua Caxap, Ha 3flarlll1
30 Ao ycrr.rero na ApAa, [r orraM, 6es
4a ce [pexBbp_ 6pofi rpaxzficxa 4onueHu, cpeA Konro ca
Jrr [pe3 pexaTa, Aa e rrpoAbJrxr{Jra Ha ceaep li.
noxpafi BHy[II4TeJTHHTe r{ npeAcTaBrITeJrHr.t t4
Tonsoc (Tyuaxa); no4o6eu Bapr.raHr Ha KaTO
ABprxeHr{e H KaTo apxl{TeKTypa [aMeTHrrrI[
ua nepcaftcKara OT TO3r.r THIIr
apMLtA e Bb3MoxeH rro rrprrHr{r{rr,
craBJUrBarrIH uafi -paunure MoHyMeHTaJrr{H
Ho eABa tu6u onpaBAaJr cloMeuaBauero ToqHo
Ha rpo6uuqu a flperna Tpaxux, qr4flTo a
r{Mero Aprecxoc (axo :rona e 6uno HMero Ha peKa rrecKa AaTr.rpoBKa tlr
oTHaC' HMeHHO KbM nep
Apaa) BMecro Ha peaJrHo Aocrr.rrHarr{re Xe6poc
z rrpeAlrrecTBalrl Bs3HlrKBaHeTO Ha roJrrMoTO
Tou3oc, oqe rtoBeqe qe BJrHBaHero na ApAa s
Ma_ Ko rlapcrBo @enee 1982, 3gB*399; Detev
pHr{a e Ha H{KOJTKO KEJTOMeTpa rrpeAr{ ycTr.reTo I
Ha 32).Krrurasv:a1eflMorar Aa ce Ao6asrr HrKoH
Tyu4xa, Toecr.Mf,croro zso6rqo He Moxe
Aa ce lbJrHraTeJrHrr aptyt\{eHrr{
z cro6paxenrz.a.
AocrrrrHe 6es rpexnrpr.rrHe [pe3 H.rrxo.f, oT peKr{Te Pafiosrr na Caxap rrJraHHHa, xofiro (cr,aefi
(cp. @on 1972, ttS).
tro [aMeTHlrqzre) e rrMUUI B rrrrxaKBa cTerreH np
Bnpoveu r,r3tJrexAa MHoro [o_Bepof,THo, Tpbr_ pr4TeTHO rroJroxeHrre [pe3 paHHaTa xeJrJr3Ha
safixu or rr3Bopr4Te ua Teapoc, BepoxrHo H.rrKbAe
xa, BrlocJreAcrBpre oqeBrr.{uo e sary6uJl cBoero
B roto3arraAHoTo [oAHOXr{e Ha ilTaBHOTO CTpaH_ 3l
r{eH[e; upes V u IV s.np.Xp.B
Hero Beqe He cui
AxaHcKo 6u-rro (cnope4 Xepo4or Mf,croro 6uno ea_ H3rpaxAaHr,r [peIcTaBr,rTeJrHH apucToKpaTr{qecKH
HaKBo orliurer{eHo or 6pera ua flpononrkrxa
nptt rpo6uuqz. Tona o6rqo Ha6nro4euz. 6, ,o.ro
Xepafiou r,r or Auonouua), apmutra ua
fiapufi-ga Aa ce cBbpxe c Bepo.rrTHoTo rr3MecTBaHe Ha rleu.
e [poAsJIXrrJIa cBoeTo ABr{XeHAe Ha ceBepo3a[aA,
TSpa Ha o.qprrcKara noJrHTlrqecKa BJIaCT
Aa e rpeMuHaJra AHerruara 6rnrapo_TypcKa rpa_ KbM HOBH
pafiouu Karo cJreAcrBlre or Bb3HrrKBaHero H&
Hr{r{a B pafioHa ua {epneurcxr.rre Bb3B yrruelyrs.,
,,re-
JrrMoro" O4pucxo qapcrBo _ a 3arrlo He v Karo
MexAy AonHoro reqeHpre na Tyu4xa u pafioua na At4-
peKTeH pe3yJrrar ua uepczftcxoro HaruecrBue
c. @arax, rr orraM Aa ce e ornpaBr.rJra no nafi_rpar_ HB
qacrHocr, Ha rroxoAa ua
Krrrr rrbT Ha ceBep xsrrr crapa [JraHrrHa. fIolo6HO lapuia cpeqy cxnrnre?
flpeguonaraHoro HeBeAHtx,,orrer.lulHeo, IlJIn,,or_
rrpe.4rroJroxeHrre ce cBbp3Ba AocrartqHo
4o6pe u ,upbfleaue" Ha oAp]rcr.rre or rpacero ua
c Beqe KoMeHTHpaHoro cBeAeHr.re sa go6ponoJrHoro flapzena_
Ta apMLtA 6u uorno B TaKbB cnyrafi ga
loAqr{HrIBaHe na rpaxuficKuTe ruIeMeHa B xr.rHTep_ 4o6ue
cbBceM KouxperHra r.BMepeHr.rc. Or csos paHeH
raH4a ua Alononus z Mecarra6pax. B raxrn Ar.r_
cny_ Hacrr4qecKr.r rIeHTrp, eBeHTyaJrHo n pafioua
vafi pera:ra Aprecroc qe rpx6aa ga 6r4errAeHrrr_ na Ca_
Kap, oApr.rcure 6zxa ce orreDruJru,3a
Sxqnpaua 6uno c nsxofi or uafi-sana4Hr.rre AecHa Ia ns6eruar
lpexaJreHo 6tuzxus. KoHTaKT c flpeMr.rHaBaruara
flpr{Torlu ua Eprene, 6zlo c Tyn4xa unu c HsKofi
H3roqHo or Tyu4xa orpoMHa nepcuficxa apnvrfl,
or uefinzre JreBr.r rrpuToqu (flononcra pexa, Mo_
4rn6oxo Ha 3anaA. Trrp4e rrpr.rMaMJrrzBa r.r3rJrexAa
uypuqa), 6uno c HflKo, or no-roJreMHTe peKr{,
fiAeflTA rr3MecTBaHeTo Ha [oJrrlTuqecKr4f, rIeHTGp
BJrrrBarrlr{ ce Ha r{3ToK n r{epno rrlope ((Daxuficxa,
ua $oprr,raparrroro ce O4pucxo qapcrBo Ha sarra1
Cpe4eqxa, Pycoxacrpencxa); naft_cerepuara
Ao_ Aa ce cBbpxe c [o.rrBaTa, IIpe3 IIbpBaTa [oJroBIrHa
nycrr{Ma rl4eura$r,magux 6u 6uta rasu c llyla
ua V n.np.Xp., na paHHhre 6orara rpo6ose ga_
Kauvrax, Ha lpaHuqara cbc 3eMr.rre na n
rgrure. Ba_ Hacrlrgecrrr,a HeKponoJr npz
pHaHTr.rTe [peAnoJraraT AocTa rrrr4poK {ynaunuu AoJr}rHara
B
[epr.rMeT]p Ha Crpxua (<Dunoe et al. 1934; Archibarld 1998,
Ha Bb3MOXHI{ JIOKULI]I3A\UV\ 3a OH3r.I B€pO{THO
158-165)..{anz zlreuHo ro BpeMe (u rrn nprsxa)
KpaeH pafton Ha KoHTponvrpa:aara no roBa
BpeMe c noxoAa na [apuir cpeqy cxrrrrrre oAprrcr{Te ca
or oApr{cr.rre repr4Topvr, rrpe3 xofiro e [peMr.rHaJra
HzuroxI4JIIr cBo.{Ta Bnacr HaA 3arran:avffe pafioulr

104
Ha fopHorpa:rnfrcKuta :ar43rrlrra, rrJII{ Beqe ca 6vrvt ceaep (cp. Kaqapoe 1924, 31; fauoe 1968, 118-
pa3[pocTpeJll4 BJIaCT'ra crl AoTaM lI cera flpocTo 124; Capaboe 1974, 119-191; <Don 1972, 7i-
ca ce orrefJlvtrvt B 3a[aAHara qacr Ha BnaAeHI'LflTa 75; 1975a,77-83; Taueea 1995, 12-14; Bomeea
cu, ocraBa BrrpoqeM HaIrbJIHo He.f,cHo. Hancrwta 2000, 150-159). Korraeurupannnr ryx Crpa6onon
Tyxragrz4 ilpvfftncBa cb3AaBaHero Ha,,rorqMoro" flacaxc B[porreM Moxe Aa 6r,qe npurnelleH KbM
O4pr.rcxo qapcrBo na Tepec (Thuc. 2.29), to rova cBrrAereJlcrBara, rrocras.f,rrltl 6ecure s Po4onu-
He rr3KJIIOqBa Bb3MOXHOCTTa lpoqecbT Ha IIoJIUTI{- re (xaro cbceALI eAHoBpeMeHHo Ha BnaAeeIIrI{Te
qecKa rr TepI,ITopktiIJIHa eKcrlaH'3ktfl. Ha oAplrclrTe'B lopHorpaxuficxara Hr.r3r.rHa oAprdcr4 r,r Ha pa3rrono-
lopuorparuficxara lavrcytma Aa e 6sl 3a[oqHar otqe xeHI,ITe B loxHure llacrl{ Ha fIJIaHVHara, s 6nra:ocr
or [peArrre crBeHI{IIIrre My, a v cBeAeHl{ero (Lucian. Ao Ereficroro rqafi6pexue canan). 3a qennre na
longaev.l0) :a AbJlronerllero Ha [bpBIrJ{ H3BecreH HaCTOfltIILttr aHa,III'I3 OT nO-C5UIeCTBeHO 3HaqeHLIe e
oApucxr,r qap (xpaxr Ha quero yrIpaBJIeHLIe ocraBa TBbpAeHr4ero ua Crpa6ou 3a [prrcbcrBnero na 6ecu
xpoHoror[qecxl{ Hecurypeu) 4onycr<a I{ Bb3Mox- oKono nafi-ropnar:a rrJraBareJrHa qacr na Xe6poc;
HOCTTa CaMHTIT rOfi Aa e noAxBaHan 3aBoeBaHI4.rITa 3aeAHo c JroKanr,r3auvflTa Ha Eecauapa ro HacorlBa
cu oqe npeAfi flapuer.ut roxoA. rrlr pafiona CenreMspu-Ilasap.txr{K, MaKap 14
3a pasrzra or KracuqecKara erloxa, cpeA cBe- ocHoBHrrre reprrropul{ na 6ecure Bepof,THo Aa He
AeHr{.r{Ta or KSCHI{{ nep}roA I{Ma MHOrO [OBeqe ca 6ulu B AoJllrHara, a B rrralrrv:HrlTe Ha Ior aIII4
uuSoplraqus 3a BbrpellrHocrra na rparlrftcxrEre uoxe 6u Ha 3arraA or ro3l4 pafiou. O.regrAHo s ra-
3eMIr, BKJTTOqpITeJIHO 3a apeana oKono cpeAHoTo Te- rrs clyrafi Ha Her43BecrHr.rre or Apyruuzsopu6pe-
qeHr{e Ha peKa Xe6poc (nuN u fenee 2008, 223- uuilqu Crpa6ou orpexAa MecronoJroxeHr.Ie oKoJro
230). 3a cbxaJreHlle rasu uuSopMaullq e Aocra cpeAHoro reireHr.re ua Xe6poc, npuMepHo r pafio-
flporuBopequaa u npo6reMarllrlHa s Aerafirure pI Ha MexAy (Dranunouonnc u YcxyAaua. I4uero
B rrpeAJraraul{Te BB3MoxHocrI,I :a u4eHruQI,IKaII[tr ua 6penure nanoAo6.f,sa roBa Ha xe6peuuilqume
rr JroKzuIIr3aI{I4JI Ha ITJIeMeHHI{ rpyfiel. Ha $oria na (re6peuuure), cuoirrenaur B Apyr nacax na Crpa-
K,BaHOTO no-rope IIo orHolneHHe Ha [poMeH.f,IrlaTa 6oHosara,,leorpa$ux" Karo rparufiqu, o6[rasa-
ce erHoHr.rMr4fl. Ha IOrossro.rHa Tparcut ryK cb- qv pafioua Ha peKara Aplrc6oc, xoxro 6u.na npu-
rrlecTByBa cbIIIaTa He cLIrypHo cT oTHo cHo B63Mox- ror Ha Xe6poc (Strabo 7 fr. 6l : l3.l.2l; cp. Eust.
HOCTTa Aa Ce npexBbpJlrT perpocneKrvBHo LI B6p- ad Hom. Il. 2.838\; Apuc6oc ce cIIoMeHaBa Karo
xy [o-paHHHTe [ep]IoAV cBe4eHldflTa, orpa3.rIBaIIIlI pexa B Tpaxux 6eg nose.{e yrorrHeHus u y CreSau
erHoHuMr.rqecxara AeficrsurerHocr [pe3 KBcHara Busauruficru(s.v. Arisbe). Irlrrrero Ha peKara e rpu-
eJIuHIIcTuqecKa LI paHHaTa pHMcKa eloxa; KbM To- MaMJrrlrBo 6nzsro rrr SoueruqHo orHolreHHe Ao
Ba Moxe Aa ce Ao6asu I,I Ha[bJIHo 3aKoHoMepHoro aHrr,rqHoro r.rMe Ha cautuirxa,Apsoc (cp. Detschew
o6parno cbMHeHI4e ilaru qacr or BbrIpocHI4Te cBe- 1957, 24; sa nbmHama cmaHqufl Apsoc,{uuumpoe
AeHlrr He cbAbpxaT cbxpaHeHll IIO JII4repaTypeH 1932-1933, 305-308; ,[emee 1946, 176; IGBulg
flbT CBeAeHLI-f, OT [o-paHHO BpeMe. 3.2, 131). Ke6peuufiqrrre ce cnoMeHaBar B orrle
B e4uH Sparuenr ua Crpa6ou HarplrMep ce cb- eAr{H aHTHqeH TeKCT - eAHa CTpareferua na flonrnen,

Abpxa rBtpAeHVerO, qe tro 6peronere ua Xe6poc B Kof,To xe6peuuilquu u cKau (rasuouerenvs, cvt-
xnneeJrr{ KopIrIlJIIdre, rlo-Harope rro peKara - 6pe- xait6ou nnn craft6ou) 6uttu ynpaBJrrBaHu or o6ul
HufiIIHre (6penure), a rocneAHl{ - 6ecute, uax qap, Kocuurac (Polyaen. strat. 7.22.1). Cr<aure ca
,.Ao KoHTo pexara 6una nnasarenna. BcuqKIr re3l{ crroMeHarr{ oure BeAHbx y Crpa6ou, pr ro r{MeHHo B
.,furerrreua 6Nnu pas6ofiHr.rqecxu u oco6eno - 6e- rluTr.rpaHr,r;r Beqe flacax 3aeAHo c xe6penufiqr{Te r,r
glrl'e, Kolrro 6utfit cloce4ll Ha oApHcLlTe g car:ail- peKara Apuc6oc, KaKro rr y Cre$an BusaHruficxpr
ft (Strabo 7 fr4n.MecrouonoxeHl{ero Ha Kop- c rro3oBaBaHe ua Xexarefi (Steph. Byz. s. v. Skaioi),
rr3ToqHo oT HaLI-AOJIHOTO TeqeHI{e Ha KbAero ca ttocoqeHrl Karo ,,rrJIeMe MexAy Tpoaga
ee.{e 6eme KoMeHTHpaHo rlo-rope H Ia3- u Tpaxur'. flocre4noro BeposrHo e B Ayxa Ha
AocrartqHo cr{rypHo. Eecume ca [o-npo- r{3TbKHarprre yr y Crpa6oH rrapanenrur Ha I{MeHara
; 3a rflxHara JroKzullr3a\va ca u3Kas- ua re6penufiqure I{ cKaI{Te cbc cxoAI{H I4MeHa B
llu pa3JIL{qHLI X[IIOTe3[I, TIOCTaBTIqIE rU OUIO Mara AsH, rr eABa nr{ cneABa Aa ce cxBarqa 6yn-
HTenHo r PoAoucxara o6lacr, 6uro u s BrLrrHo, KaKro npaBu tr{sau BeHeAr{KoB, xofiro no-
lrr.rre AqJroBe ua lopuorpaxuficrara paBIJ,vr- craB{ ABere rrJreMeHa e pafiona na Tpaxuficrux
6r,uo 4opu 4o CraponnaHlrHcrara o6nacr na Xepcouec (Beuedurcoe 1982, 61).

105
Tluero na 6peunfiqvre Moxe 6z cle4na la 6r- r4MeHa Bc[]rcbKa Ha fllnnufi 3acnyxiul{t,r
Ae pa3[o3Haro B cfroMeHaroro B HaArruc o:r Xu_ AaT pa3fnelaHr.r TyK rro-BHVMaTenHO ilC
cap.rr rpaKr4ftcxo ceno Eperumonapa (IGBulg j.I, 3aqoTo AocTOBepHOCTTa Ha H.rrKoIr o1. l.Ix I
1473, ped 7-B); n flnsocxrs HaArrr{c nrx pa [orBbpxAeHrze tr y apyrz aBropH, ]to lt
$nry-
pvpar eguu Myxarpanuc Edperueoc (voxe 6u c Au B:b3MoxHocrra aa 6rgar orHecer{}.t lr
ilpu4laxanne - Xe6peueoc?) u 6par vy (IGButg rru pafioHa ua fopHo:rpaxvficxara Hrr3lfltil,
3.2, 1690, ped b 41-42), quero 6auluuo uMe c{- Br{ BneIIaTJIeHVe npeAr.I BCI{!rKO, qe 3a pfl
Karrr xBtpJUr Souerrauen Mocr MexAy zrrleHara 6pe- or Crpa6ou fllwtuir He rrponycra Ia ct
uuityu u xe6peuufiqv. Bss BceKH crryr.rafi resu odpucume, u ro trocraBxitxuru.f,cHo B n
lapaneJrr{ Ha [neMeHHoTO [rMe HacoqBaT oTHOBO HO nOJIOXeHr.re cnp.f,Mo ocTaHaJIlrTe lt
xru pafioua na lopnorpaxuficxara a ro-
Hr.r3rrHa, nJreMeHa KaTo AoMr{Hr-rpaqa [JreMeHHa rpy
Ba flpeAloJroxeHrre [oryqaBa AOnbJrHHTenHa noA_ 6aceirsa ua Xe6poc. Kap1utemume, c Kor,re
Kpena OT TBbpAe BepOflTHaTa eTIItMOIOTUrreCxa 6nu_ loqBa LI3peXAaHeTO Ha OCTaHaJrilTe fIJreMeHa,
3ocr Ha lrMeHara 6peuufiqu/xe6penufiqu c r{Mero Jrrr cJIeABa Aa ce pa3rnexAaT KaTO B?I.qOH3M0
Ha pexara Xe6poc.
Qopua Ha IrMe, cBbp3aHo c roBa Ha rpa.qa
,{onrluureJrHrr cBeAeHufl npeAJlara }I crroMeHa- y fltrulauit SNrypupa oilIe eAHo rroqrr{ r{Ae}r.r}r
Tllf,T Beqe [o-rope rracax. or ,,EcrecrBeHara Hc_
ropr.s" s,a fltuuui.t Crapz (4.40-41): ,,IIpe3 se-
r.rMe - xap6unecu, IlocoqeHo MaJIKO IIO-rOpe B
.qo6uo u3pexAaHe Ha rrJreMeHa B Aojruuara Eli
Mf,Ta Ha oApr{cKoro rrJreMe reqe peKara Xe6poc, Hecroc. {onycruuo u3rJrexAa rrpeAfloJroxeur{e1,6;
norpafi Ko.flTo xHBe.flT xap6uneru, [uporeprr, qe ABere IdMeIg'a rraoxe 6u ce oTHac.f,T xrna eAua n
Apyrepr, xeHufi qz (Caenici), xuncaJrrrr, 6euuil7u, crrla[neMeHHa rpyna, Ko"f,ro B TaKBB cryuaii 6fi
KoprrrrJut, 6orueu, eAoHrlr.r. B crrqara o6nacr ce Motna Aa. ce cr.rTyl4pa TaM, KbAeTO ABaTa pertull
HaMI4paT CVaJIeTIITe, [prraHTrrTe, AoJroHrvTe, TI{_ 1acefisa ce npu6nuxaBar MaKcrrMaJrHo, npr{M$p,
rofinaneru (Coelaletae maiores),
Hr.rre, toJreMure uo a pafiona na Eeroso-Be:utrrpa4-flropyaa (erp
pa3rroJroxeHu rroA Xeuyc, pr MaJrKilTe (mino_ Detschew 1957, 227). To o6a.re cbBceM He e 3fl.
res) - no4 Po4onure. Mexgy r.rrx reqe pexa Xe6- ABJTXI{TeJIHO; HanSJrHO np[reMJrHBa aJrTepHaTLlBil
poc, a noA PoAonNTe e rpaAbr, KofiTo no-paHo ce AaBa Bb3MoxHocrra B ABara rercra ua lhusufi
Hapr.{qan flonepononuc, flocJre rto uMero Ha ocHo- Ia c'raBa,qyMa 3a ABe orAeJrHr{ rpylz c uoAo6go
Barers cu - (Du:rr.rnorroJrr4c, cera rrbx rropaAlr [o- vril uIelJ-rrlqHo r{Me rr B TaKbB Clyuafi xap6u.ne- l.
JloxeHl{ero cr{ ce Hapr{.ra TpuuonqrEyu,,. Kaxto rute 6prxa Monrrur Aa uMar [por.r3BonHa Apyra ro,
ce BAxAa, il TyK craBa AyMa sa u:6pomaHe Ha Karu3arrls HsKbAe n 6acefisa ua Xe6poc.
rpaxuficxu [JreMeHa B AoJrr.rHara ua Xe6poc, llo Ifupozepume u dpyeepume rrpvHa1Jrexar KbM
flrunuesara unsoprr,raqH.rr, MaKap r.r cbAspxarqa rpyla ABycGcraBHu rpaxzfi cru rrJreMeHHr4 r.rMeHa,
MHOrO rroBeqe HMeHa, OtIIe Ha IIpbB rrorneA il3_ BxrroqBarla crulo 6ererepu, Ar.rrcplr, KeJrerepu u
rJrexAa Henpeqr/I3Ha v AocTa [por.r3BoJrHa. flnelle_ Ap. (D ets chew I 9 5 7, I 0 2). fipyreprrre He ce cpeuar
Hara Ha 6orrzenre r{ eAoHrIr{Te HarrpnMep oqe- B Apyrr{ }r3Bopu, AoKaTO raMeTo Ha nr{porepr{Te
BT.IAHO Ca [OrraAHaJrr,rflorpemHo B TO3tr C[[IcbK; Qzrypupa r{ Bbpxy flerruHrepoBara Kapra (Tp 9.2)
TrxHaTa JIOKaJrI.r3arIu, IIpe3 KnacHqecKaTa eloxa n pafioua uerqy
(DznznofloJrrrc n Xa4puauoloJrprc,
Aarerl Ha 3arra!\, cborBerHo n pafiona na Xalxu_ B HerrocpeAcrBeHa 6nltsocr c rrtTHara craHqllrr
Auqecxu,r floJryocrpoB ga 6orzeure ]r oKoJro rrna_ ApsW (: Apsoc); Ha cbrrlr.rrr lucr ca or6en-f,sauu
HI{Hara flasreft 3a eAoHrIHTe, npaBr{ [orBara ]rM z 6ererepzre (a crce4crBo c rrnaHrHara Acruryc,
B AoJrr4Hara ua Xe6poc MaJrKo BepofiTHa, Aoprz rr c roecr Crpan4xa).
oDIeA Ha AOIycTHMOCTTa Ha H.TIKaKBIT rIOCneABaJrI{ Or ocrana.nlrre [neMeHa B rrbpBara qacr Ha
npeceJreHr4, il
nJreMeHHr.r pa3MecrBauux. flpu_ fllplr:uesus cnrrcbx rceuuilyume u Kopnurume
cbcTBr.reTo HM B TeKCTa na flnunr.rfi no-cxopo 6u r4MaT Cr{rypHa noKuurrr3allulr Ir3ToirHo oT
AOJTHOTO
MOInO Aa Ce OTAaAe Ha HeBHLIMaTenHa 3aeMKa OT TeqeHue na Xe6poc, 3a Koero Beqe craHa Ayr!{a no-
rro-crapra aBToprr; na uogo6na rrAe, HaBex Aar Lr rope, KaKTO I.I 3a Bepo.f,THOTO pa3[IonaraHe B Cbrql4fl
$r.rrypraparqr4Te B crrvcbKa AonoHrrr (: 4onouxu) pafion sa or6ensgalvfie MexAy rflx xttncaflmu,
vr THIlkt, Kor{To cbrrlo, KaKTo Beqe cTaHa AyMa IIo_ ql{eTo rrMe Moxe Aa ce cBbpxe c ToBa Ha tpaAa
rope, Bepof,THO npeAcTaBJrflBar JrrrTepaTypHa pe_ Krancena. Cle4 xrancaJrrrrre rr [pe.qr{ KopnrrJruTe B
MrrHHcrIeHrIHfl or no-paHHo BpeMe. Ocrananure rora us6poaaane o6a.{e crorr HMero ua6euuit4ume,

106
Koero rro aHzurorplfl 6u uorno cbxro Aa ce orHece qap PenreraJrx, Ho 6u:rn pa:rpoMeHil or puMcKara
xru pafiona na IOrousrouna Tpaxux, aKo He cBB- ap}drts. Ha rrpuTeKnvrfl. ce Ha floMoul [poflpeTop Ha
laAarxe c flroneueeBara crparerux Eenzxa (Ptol. MugN.fl lly1truir Berefi. Knan4ufi flroreuefi cuo-
3.11.6). EeuIExa e croMeHara N y Cre$an BrsaH- MeHaBa cmpameeuflmct Roilnemuxa (Ptol. 3. I 1.6),
ruitcxu B JreMara 3a tpaAa n Tpaxux Eena NlI.r xo.f,ro o6urHoBeHo ce cBbp3Ba eAHo3HarrHo c xofi-
Eexua, KbAero ce crloMeHasa u EeHuficKpI 3iuII{B JIzuIerLITe, B6npeKr{ JrrrrrcBarqara cpuqKa. 3saqu-
(Steph. Byz. s. v. Benna). Ouurure 3a cbqeraBaHe TeJTHO rro-cnopHo r.r3rnex,4a cBbp3BaHeTo c T{x Ha

Ha Te3II [IpOTI{BOpeqI|IBI,I I.AHH.I4 e IIpeALI3BI4KaJIo o6tacrr a If em eilt emuKq or6ersgaHa na flesruHre-


qfln peA B3ar.rMHor43KJrroqBau{u ce JIoKaJII{34\vr4 Ha poBara rapra (TP 8.2) Nsrovno or Ka6une (roecr
6euziiqure, Kor4ro rrpecKaqar or paiioua na.{zuo- eBeHTyaJrHo n Kapno6arcKo - Afirocro?), qr{ero
ruxa (Jones 1 97 1, 20 ; Detschew 1 9 5 7, 5 1) rpe3 ro- unae,{uuump .{euee peKoHcrpyr{pa Aocra [por.r3-
gu na Kouoruuw (B erued urco e I 9 8 2, 5 9- 6 0) to AoiIIr- BonHo 4o flere[ro]r[o]neruxa v cv.flTa sa rparcufi-
Hara Ha Hecroc Ha 3arlaA (@on 1975a, 75-76) uttu cKr{ Bapr{aHT Ha r{Mero na o6racrra, orroBaprula Ha
CraposaropcKo Ha cenep (Muxailnoe 1967, 44). flrNrlllesure Coelaletae maiores (Detschew I 957,
Or nneuenara 86B BTopara qacr ua flnunueel,Ix 248-249).
cflr,rc:sK cu alt emum e c a clroMeHart u y fluolr, Kacufi Onurure 3a HaMecrBane na 6enufiqure a xofi-
IIo [oBoA Ha T{xHo Ha[aAeHI'Ie cpeqy IpoBITHIILL JrurJrerlrre ua reorpaQcKara Kapra ua flpenna Tpa-
MareAourac s 11 r. np. Xp., ctBrla.(aqo rro BpeMe c KLI{ OlupaT AO BapLIaHTI{Te 3a HHTepIIpeTaIIpH Ha
roJrf,Moro aHTr{pr.rMcKo BbcraHl{e na 6ecure (Cass. eAHo or Hafi-gIacxlT HpaHI{Te B Ha) rHara nvrepa-
Dio 54.34.6). I,lrraero Ha cuzulerure nanoAo6ssa Typa aHTHqHr{ cBHAeTeJrcTBa oT Ta3r,r eloxa: crr[-
AirneqHo roBa Ha Tyxn4u4ou.rre rIrJIareH, claTyla- cbKa Ha rparuficrure crparerr{fi n ,,leorpa$uxra"
paHr{ oKoJro ropHoro reileHue na Ocrcuoc, Toecr na K-rasArafi llroreuefi (P to I. 3. I I . 6 ; cp.,[uuump o e
r CoQuficro (Thuc. 2.96.4; Steph. Byz.s.v.Tila- 1932-1934; Muxailnoe 1967; Jones 1971, 10-23;
taioi)- trIruero Ha npuaHmume rrbK nauoAo6ssa ro- <Don 1975a, 60-92; Taqeea 1983; Delev in print).
Ba Ha cloMeHarara y Xepogor o6nacr Epuanulxa Kparxraxr reKcr Ha flro.neuefi rJraclr: ,,Crparerr,ru-
Ha KrrKoHcxoro rcpafi6pexue (Hdt. 7.108; cp. Pria- re B ra3r,r flpoBuHqr{f, [Tparux] orKbM 4nere Mu-
ticus campus y T. Liv. 38.41.8), Ho no4o6na LIAeH- unanunara XeMyc, Karo ce noqHe or 3a-
3r,rr{ r.r oKoJro

ru$uxaqur (msuprera or Detschew 1957, 87) ue ilaA, caresu: .{anreJrerr.rKa, Capltxa, Yc4r,rxecurca,
6lr onparga:ra flocraBsHero LIM y llnunufi cpe4 Ceneruxa; orKbM MareAonuq u Ereficxo Mope B
IrJreMeHara s 6acefiHa ua Xe6poc; ocBeH ToBa, KaK- c:srrlr{fl peg: Me4rarca, ,{pocr,rxa, Kofireruxa, Ca-
To Beqe cranaAyMa, TIBLI qacr or Ereficxoro rpafi- rrarrKa, Kopnunuxa, Kenuxa; H r.aA MeAura Be- -
6peNue I,I3rJrexAa rlorlaAa B KbcHara efloxa noA cHKa, rroA He.f, rrbK Eeuuxa, flocJle Cauauxa; a n
KOHTpOJTa Ha Ca[aUTe. rpafi6peNuara o6racr or rpaAa flepunr Ao Ano-
flpecxavafircrl,,{oJIoHrI{Te'o pI TLIHI{Te, KoHTo, JroHa[ e crparerr{Jrra Acrurca". flpe4ronara ce,
KAKTO Beqe 6e[re nocoqeHo, pl3Hlex.{ar aHaxpo- qe cBeAeHHflTa Ha Krangufi flroreuefi 3a .{peBHa
l!r{qHr{ B To3u TeKcr, crlllaMe I4 Ao rIocJIeAHpITe B Tparu.a ca6azupawu Ha AocroBepna un$opuaqnx,
cnuc:sKa rcoilnaaemu, Korrro cflopeA llnuruufi ce 3arrucaHa B nbpBoHaqallH-vtfl. cr4 BrtL no BpeMe Ha
IcJIenu Ha ,,roJIeMI,I" LI ,,MarKu" il xI,IBeerI'I cbor- yrrpaBJreHr,rero Ha r.rMfleparop TpaxH (Muxailnoe
Ee'ruo ,,[oAo' Xervryc v PoAouIare (Coelaletae 1967, 37-38). .f,cuo e cbrrro raKa, qe roBeqero crpa-
maiores Haemo, minores Rhodopae subditi). Koit- TerI{I{ HocflT I4MeHara na rpaxuficxl,I rIJIeMeHa r,r
,IBrerHTe ca cnoMeHaru u y Tagur Karo ,,MorbIIIo cneAoBarejrHo Moxe Aa ce nprreMe, qe Tepr.rTopr.r.f,Ta
IireMe" 3aeAHo c oApHclrre il A]1I,]SIT} no rIoBoA Ha HM nOHe qacTl{rrHp oTtoBap.fl Ha MecrofloJroxeHl{e
GTTBMOCTHOTO aHTI{pI'IMCKO BBCTaHIIO Ha TpIITe nJIe- Ha re3rr [JreMeHa B eloxaTa Ha yTBSpxAaBaHe Ha
$ rpe3 21 r.cn.Xp. (Tac. ann.3.38). Pomra ua pzMcKara BJracr B Tparur.
,Elalerure ToBa BtcraHlre qe Aa e 6uta oco6e-
B Or flro.nerraeeBrrre crparerr4 H cpaBHrrreJrHo clr-
BoxHa He caMo 3aIIIoro Tauur ru rrocollBa Ha fypHa JroKaJrr,r3arlus. uuar re3r{ B nafi-sanaAHara
tlo Mflcro, Ho v 3apa\V eApIH HaATIHC OT TOBa z nafi-ugroqHara qacr: ,[arumenemuxa, Meduxa u
HaMepeH n pafiona Ha Bv3ux, s xoiiro ce Capdurca cborBerHo s Krcc:reuAr.rJrcKo, Enaroes-
ana ,,Kofiralercxara sofiua" (Dumont I892, rpaAcro Lr Co$uficro; Canaurca, Ropnunuxa, Reuu-
7V/{t2e). Cnope4 pa3Ka3a Ha Taqur BtcraHuullrre rca u Acmuxa B oqepraHxTe Beqe no-rope [JreMeH-
rr i1 ur,r o6ca.qr,rJrrr BbB (Dpuunononuc oApIrcKI{, Hr,r repr.rropur,r s Iorousro.rua TpaHus,. Vcdurcecurca

t07
u Cenemurca r,r3rnexAa rpx6ra Aa ce pa3floJroxar xapaxTepHara flnuHuesa sa6ererxxa .ta
Ha ceBep or Xetryc, Ho ocraBa He.f,cuo Aanr.r cJrerBa prv,eHa'' Ha AureprzTe z 6ecNre.
.{a ce cBtpxar c rpaAcrlrre repr4Topvru Ha Huro_ Eneuryannoro pa3rronaraHe Ha Eccrrgg
rroJrr{c a1klcrpywt u Mapquauoron[c ulu, o6par_
Bep u ceBepou3roK or pn:ra ocso6oxllfl$*,
HO, Aa cepa3[oJIOXaT B OCTaBaIIIilTe H3BbH r4
MexAy 3a pa3rroJraraHero B pa:noNxoro rroJle [t
Tf,X TepvTopkru; Ijflr.T.Ae B Te3H 3eMH Ce e HaMr4pa_
3alaAnr.rTe Po4onu Ha ocTaHaJIaTa
Jra r{ H3BecrHara caMo no enxrpaQc(lr [aMerHrlqlr ,,lr5J4i
crparerlls Kofineruxa, xosro uuaqe 6H
crpar erut Py c urca. B roxHil s pe.q ua flroneNleesrls
IA ce IIpaTr4 BBB BrrcoKITTe qacT]r Ha
cII[rcbK BepoTTHOTO pa3rrolaraHe Ha cTpaTet4flTa (cp. Jones 1971, I3; @on t9Z5a, B3-B5)
nrru
,\pocuxa BbB r{ oKoJro Heapoxoncxara KorJroBrrHa, otr1e ro-rr3rouno (flauoe 1968, 126), atea,,
roecr MexAy Meguxa u Canauxa (Delev in print), nocTaBrl, [poTr,IBHO Ha Nlscroro
BOAI.I AO [peArIoJIOXeHHeTO, qe c[oMeHaTaTa cJreA
i e
flroleuefi, vaxn lopuorpaxuficnara HH3HI
ses. Koilnemurca e lurau3MecreHa BcrpaHu
or reo_ Aa ce cBbpxe TaM C eBeHTyaJrHaTa JroKanH3a
rpa$cxara [ocJreAoBareJrHocr Ha z:6po.anaHero. roJreMrrre vnv Ha MirJrKrrre xofinanetll,
Hefiuoro eBeHTyaJrHo noranu{zpara 3aBucut_ ,,[oA" Xeuyc Hrkt,,iloa,, pogolure. I{eau Bet
MOCT OT perrraBaHeTo Ha ", TpyAHr{{
cbrrlo TonKoBa KOB npeAnoJroxH B}3MOXHOCTTa r{MeTo Ha
Bbnpoc c MecTorroJIoxeHHeTO Ha pa3rIoJIOXeHaTa
crropeA flro:reuefi ,,HdAo, Me4nxa crpar erux E ecu_
JrerHTe Aa ce cBtpxe c
lplrlxoro ,,koilon.. *
IroBr.rHa, nglr6naruna, AoJraHa (Beuedurcoa I
rca.3a 6eczre II clopoBere oxono r.flxHara JroKanil_
fi-60; HeroBara Lr1efl,, qe roBa orroBaprJlo
3arlrurfl Beqe cTaHa AyMa no_rope; sa o6xsara Ha flro_ sao6uxoreHara c rrJraHnuu lopnorparcufi cxa rtr
JIeMeeBaTa CTpaTerHt CbITIO Ca rr3Ka3BaHr.I TBEpAe
ua, o6aue Mr.r ce crpyBa rrpecuJreHo H
lporuBopeqvBvr Mr;.erllas. leopru Muxafi lon .s uo_ rqo Ha reorpaQcrure AaAeHocrz na rasu o6mn
craB.fl B pairorua MexAy pasror u flasap4Nz R (lulu- paBHr.rHHa o6nacr. O6parno, ToqHo raxoBa r
xqilaoe 1967, 43), roecr B ctsrqr.rf, paioH, s xofiro MeHoBaHr{e 6u 6uto rroAxoA_,rrqo sa o6zrarerurc
.{uurErrp fle.ren toxa, tuzupa npeA[oJroxrureJrHo Ha _{cHo H3pa3eHara pasnoNxa KorJroBrrHa. B pat.
xap6unerure (ax. no-rope); ocHoBaHu.f, 3a roBa, Hopr-rMcxara erroxa rrMero Xeruyc e 6uno H3noJI3.
ocBeH Texcra Ha flroneuefi, xofiro zsucrsa EecaKa
BaHO [oH_rrKora sa o60gHaqaBaHe r.r Ha I]JraHHHal.fll
Aa rpaHlrqlr c Me4ZXa, My AaBa z or6eaxsagoro Pwta@arce 2003).Axo 4onycueM, se a rr3Bopbr ua
Berre cBbp3BaHe Ha 6eczre cbc 3alaAHlrre pafioHz
fl:runufi e r{3noJr3BzIJI rrMero no no4o6en Haq}IH, To
na lopnorpaxprficrara :avr;uHa (rr4ero, 6nraso rosa 6l,t rro3BoJrprJro 4a ce ns6erne 3arpyAHrBarrloro
Ao
Iasap4xnx, e JroKaJrlr3npaHa Eecanapa), KaKTo BCrltIKH AOCeraIxHr{ orrHTH 3a JroKzulrr3arurfl
I{ TBbpAeHyero Ha lltuttuit Crapu, qe [o rrerlufl. AeJre_
Hae Ha xofinanerure Ha ABa orAirJTeveH[ eAHH or
6prr Ha Crpznaou xlrBeqr ,,1ivffepr u 6ecu, Kolrro
lpyl Mrra;,,roreM[Te" xofi:ralerz 6uxa uoruz r
HOCST MHOrO vrMe}la, H Ce npocTr.rpaT qaK ,qo peKa TaKBB cttyuait xa 6rlar flocraBeH]r s pa3roxxara
Hecroc" (Plin.r. h.4.40). Axo JroxaJrrr3arlarra KorJroBuHa, B [oAHoxr,rero Ha prana (,,Xeuyc.,),
sa Muxai.tnos 6eue Bflpaa, 6uxue or{aKBarr.r
flnnnufi Aa [ocraBr{ 6eume flo-cKopo MexAy
MZUIKTITE
- ApyraTa yAo6rra ga xzgoT KoTJIOBI{Ha B
B
roeu pafion - 9euuncxoro Kopr{To oxoJro
Hecroc n Xe6poc; lloxe 6z ryx e Mrcroro Aa cu AHerrrHtu
Benr,rurpa4, B rrpeAeJrlrre na Cesepo3anaAHrare
rpanoMHr,rM cbrqo, qe cropeA Tyxu4uge.96)pu-
Po4ouu, a IronelreeBara crparera.f, Kofirer uxa 6u
ta e 6utn neo6uraerraa. Bnpoueu eAHo MaJrKo He_ ce cBbp3ana flcHo KaTO eAr{HHa Tepr.rTopaf, c ToBa
oqaKBaHO, HO ClopeA MeH HaIIbJIHO
AOTIyCTT4MO AByAeJrHo flneMe. Z oqe Herrlo _ [ppr eAHo raKoBa
perrreHrre 6r,r uorno Aa nortpca Mrcro na flro_ perlreHze MOXe Aa ce MHCJII,I Lt AUIktuMeHaTa,,KOfi_
JreMeeBara crparerr{, Eecuxa v3roqHo or lopna raJterla'o ll ,,KofileruKa,. He cJIeABa
Crpyrrra lr cborBerHo ceBepHo or pula, 868 Br{_ Aa ce cBbpxar
c re3rr Ha AoH.,rK6Ae cxoAHo 3B)nrarrluTe Inr.urue_
coKlrre [oJreTa oKoJro cauoror, Irlxruuau z Koc_ nu ,,xap6nlecLf' t4,,rap6ulerN.., or[pareHl{ or
TeHeII H Ha rr3Tox or rqx, no AoJrHHr{Te na Ma- Ao_
ra.{Kara Ha [. leuer roqHo B cbtqu, pafiou; na
pur\a v TouonHraqa - qax Ao 3arraAHr.rre qacru
Qoua ua ocraH€uraTe HeroqHocril y ImtHafi loo-
ua lopuorpaxuficxara AorrilHa (flaaap4xzruxo). Tap_flHero Ha pa3rzrrHa (louepneHu or pa3r[rrHu
.{onrpaara ToqKa MexAy MeAVTe }r 6ec}rre s ra_ rr3ToqHurlz ?) yapuauru Ha r.rMeHara Ha e1:au rt
rtn cnyvafi 6u 6uta n flynnuuno, a cJroxHrr.rrr c:sryu nJreMeHa He 6u 6uto HeoqaxBaHo.
pene$ na pafiona 6v olxcnul 3aAoBoJrzreJrHo r{
Mexay JroKiuru3rrpaHlrre npeAnoJroxrrreJrHo

108
crparerfir{ - Yc.ulrreczxa r.r Cenerrzxa ua cerep, Ee- ga(utru ro-ToqHo rexHprre rpaAcKr,r repuropuu) ne
cura, KoiineruKa u ,{pocuxa Ha 3aIIaA, Canarara, oTroBap.f,T B HflKaKBa CTerreH r4 Ha eBeHTyirrrHaTa
Kopnuruxa rE Keunra Ha Ior u Acruxa Ha Ir3ToK - noxaJrrr3arlr{.f, Ha BblpocHuTe crparerr{H Eeuuxa
ocraBa eAHa olpoMHa replrroplat, o6xnarqalrla He u Cawauxa? I4naero Ha crparerl,r-flra Eenraxa qsuo
caMo roJreMr{ rrJIaHI{HcK V l,r,acvrBvt (ocnonnara uacr orroBap, na flnraHpreeoro rrJreMe 6euuilqu; ro o6a-
ua Po4onure, Crapa nJIaHuHa I{ Cpegna ropa), no r.r qe 6u rraorno.(a ce cBtpxe [peArroJroxuTeJrHo r4 c
nafi-o6ruupnata v rrJIoAopoAHa paBHHHHa ilacr or ToBa Ha Crpa6ononure 6peruuilqu, a qpe3 Hero -
,qpeBHorpaKuficrzre 3eMV MexAy flnor4urcroro u c xedpeuuilqume; cburacHo HanpaBeHoro Beqe
noJre l,t Eypracxux 3aJrrrB, cbBnaAaIIIa u c ocHoB- no-rope fipeArroJroxeHrre cbqecrByBa (uarap ra
Hara qacr or repr,rropr4flTama O4pucroro qapcrBo. Aocra uecurypua) Bb3MoxHocr Bcr.rrrx[ Te Aa ce
Ocrasar Ir oule ABe ,,HeHaMecreHuo' crparerull cBtpxar c peKara Apsoc (: Aprc6oc ?), roecr
or cnac:rKa Ha KrasAHfi flroleuefi - Eeuuxa u crc CraposaropcKus pafion u 6acei,maruaCaumit-
Cauaurca, qu.f,To JToKEIJII,I3aIII{, H3ruIexla oco6e- Ka Ao AoJrHHara Ha Xe6poc oKoJro Cnueoxorrpa4
Ho rpyAHa, Aopv Aa ce a6crpaxupaMe or rIJIaHrrH- Ha ron, Maxap u sa 6azar a Ha Apyrlr cro6paxenrlx,
crure pafi onu c [pe3yMnt\v!flT a, rle nopaAn ptAKoro s CraposaropcKo rrocraB.rr crparern.f,ra EeHr,rxa
cr{ HaceJreHr{e re BepoflTHo ca 6unu Hso6rqo l,rs- u leoprrE Muxafinos (1967, 44); rofi uo4elx lop-
KJrroireHr{ oT cr.rcTeMara Ha cTparetvtuTe. flpo6ne- norpaxuficxara r'lu3vtma MexAy EecNxa u Eeuuxa,
M:sr oflupa Ao roBa, Aalil4 t\Alrara paBH]IHa e 6wla uocrassfixu qqnara repvroprrJr sa Ounplnononhc
pirrrpeAeJleHa MexAy crparerl{vre (rtnpocnure a 6ecrxa, a rpaHurlara MexAy ABere crparervv-
ABe r,r eBeHTyiurHo HrKou oT ocraHzul[re uaoxono), 3anaAHo or 9upnan. HegaeucuNao LaJrut pafiourr
vnvqacrvt or Hef, (u Ha nrpno M{cro pafiourr oro- H3roirHo or Ka6une qe 6r.qe rpurucaH Ha crpa-
.no OununorroJrr{c, xofiro urpae oco6euo BaxHa Terr{{Ta Acrara la:lv Ha rpaAcrara replrroplr-fl Ha
poJr{ B KbcHara ilcroprrs ua O4placxoro qapcr:so) .{eyrryru, ga Cauarxa B TaKbB cnyuafi oqeBr.r.qHo
Ca IIOIyIIHJII{ HTKaKT,B [O-pa3nHqeH CTaTyT II3BbH ocraBa nafi-uo4xo4xrrlo Aa 6r4e pasnoJroxeHa B
cr,rcTeMara Ha crpaTeruzre. @ulullorloJll{c, Be- 6rgeqara repr.rropr{, ua Xa4pxaHorroJr}rc, rcrou3-
posrHo eAr{HcrBeHr{flT 3aBapeH or pt4MJL[HHre ro- ToqHo or Eeuura, 3alaAHo or Acruxa lr ceBepHo
r.flM rpaA BbB Bbrpe[Hocrra ua Tpaxux, ruoxe or Kopnnnura; no4o6ua JroKeurr{3arluf, orroBap-rr
Aa e IIOCIyXLIJI KaTO npOTOTHn 3a Cs3AaBaHeTO, B v Ha peAa ua uo6poxraHero Ha crparerrrr4Te B
Haqaroro na II r., Ha cl{creMara Ha rpaAcKI{Te re- cpeAHVs perlrcrbp na Krargufi flronerrefi. 3apa-
pu'topurkr n Tpaxur. I,Iurepecno e Aa ce pa3cbxAaBa Ail ycnopeAHoTo cnoMeHaBaHe B lr3Bopr.rTe Ha Ke-
HanprrMep Bbpxy $arra, qe or ocHoBaH[Te ilJIu 6peruufii1utrre pr cKarrre Moxe clrrlo raKa Aa ce
o6noseur B HaqaJloro ua II e. rpaAoBe n Tpaxux MLICnU AaJIIZ IOCJIeAHI,ITe He CJIeABa
Aa Ce CBbpXaT
y flroleuefi orctcrBar cauo Anrycra Tpaxta u c:sc crparerutra CavrauKa, BbrrpeKrr ve Soneruu-
ocHoBaHr.rsr ellBarrpu HacneAHHKa ua Tpaxn Xa4- Hara 6nusocr Ha vMeHara e rBbpAe AanerrHa r4 He-
puaHorronuc. flarlu BrrpoqeM I{MeHHo re3u ABa rpa- crrrypHa.

UI{TI{PAHA JITITEPATYPA .[eren 2008: II..{ener. Hagrpo6Hr{Te MorrrJrrr rrpu


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ti"-1 1t-+2.
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SOME PROBLEMS OF ETHNONYMY IN CENTRAL


AND SOUTH-EASTERN THRACE

Summory

Peter DELEV

The paper discusses the ancient tribes and tribal be clearly differentiated. In the first, Herodotean
names in Central and South-Eastern Thrace. In layer,. the main tribes attested in this area are the
the latter of these two areas (comprised among Dolonki in the Thracian Chersonesos, the lp synthii
the lower Hebros and Tonzos, the Haemus and presumably in the plain of the upper Ergene around
the coasts of the Pontos Euxeinos, the Bosphoros, Liileburgaz, the Paitoi above the Gulf of Melas
the Propontis, the Hellespont and the Gulf of presumably separated by the lower Hebros from
Melas) three successive ethnonymic layers can the Kykones in the west, the Slqtrmiadi and Nypsaei

110
respectively above Apollonia and Mesambria not however necessarily imply real movements and
with eventually a further anonymous group in changes ofpopulation.
the main Strandja range to the south. Xenophon
offers a completely changed set of ethnic names The tribal panorama of Central Thrace (contained
in the same region, although some of these can be between the Haemus, the Rhodopae and the lower
correlated topographically with the earlier tribes Tonzos in the east) was obscured in the Classical
of Herodotus. The place of the Apsynthii is now age by the name of the Odrysians who established
occupied by the Thynoi, that of the Paitoi - by the their rule over the whole territory. The original
Melanditai, and the Melinophagi appear instead of tribal territory of the Odrysians themselves is
the anonymous group of Herodotus in the central difficult to establish; the idea to link it with the
part of the Strandja, with a new anonymous group Sakar Mountain with its pronounced Early Iron Age
in the peninsula of Byzantium (called the Delta). tombs is sustained by the author against the view
The Tranypsoi are tentatively placed in the area of Ivan Venedikov who placed them in the Eastern
of Lalapasha-Kirklareli and eventually as far as Rhodopae. The later evidence from Hellenistic and
Elhovo and Bolyarovo in the north; in the fourth Roman Imperial times oflers a number of ethnic
century these were mentioned by Theopompus as names from this area which are however difficult
a constituent tribe of the Thynoi, together with the to pinpoint on the map. The Breni or Cebrenii are
Ladepsoi who were not known to Xenophon. A tentatively equated with the Beni and the strategy
third toponymic layer appears in later Hellenistic Benica andplaced in the future territory ofAugusta
and early Roman Imperial times in authors like Traiana, while the Skaioi are associated rather
Polybios, Titus Livius, Strabo, Pliny the Elder more arguably with the strategy Samaica and
and Claudius Ptolemy. The Kainoi supersede now eventually placed in the territory of Hadrianopolis.
the Apsynthii and Thynoi in the Erigon plain, The westernmost part of the Hebros plain would
the Korpili - the Paitoi and Melanditai above the have been inhabited by some of the Bessi, and the
Melas Gulf, and the Astoi - the Melinophagi in the Ptolemeian strategy Bessica is placed by the author
Strandja. Among the other ethnic names attested in between modern Dupnitsa and Pazardzhik, to the
this period that of the Hypsalti can be associated north of Rila Mountain. In another suggestion
with the city of Klpsela and they can accordingly diverging from previous localizations the strategy
be placed tentatively next to the Kainoi and Korpiloi Coeletica is placed on the upper Nestos and in
in the area between Ipsala and Uzunkdprii. The the north-western Rhodopae, and the tribes of the
reasons for these rather frequent mutations in the Coelaletae Maiores and Minores are accordingly
cthnonymy of the area remain enigmatic; they do positioned in the basins of Razlog and Valingrad.