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B.E. / B.Tech.

DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER 2017


EI2352 – PROCESS CONTROL

ANSWER KEY
1.Why we need mathematical model?
To improve understanding of the process
To optimize process design and hence operating conditions.
To design a control strategy for the process
To train operating personnel.
2.Name the input and output variable for continuous and batch process.

3.Why the minimum output of an electronic controller is 4 mA and not 0 mA?


Zero output can be interpreted as an open loop condition. So, 4-20 mA signaling is
used to determine an error condition.

4.State the importance of bias term in a controller.


Bias term is added to a proportional controller to make possible for the controller to
keep the set point at the desired value.

5.What is controller tuning?


The method of finding the optimum values for controller parameters is known as the
controller tuning.
6.Why gain margin and phase margin are to be considered, while tuning a
controller?
The gain margin provides a measure of relative stability, because it indicates how
much gain in feedback loop component can increase before instability can occur. The
phase margin also provides a measure of relative stability, because it indicates how time
delay can be included in the feedback loop before instability can occur.

7.What is meant by inferential control?


Inferential control is one in which the desired parameter is controlled not by directly
measuring the controlled variable but inferring from another linked parameter.
8.State the advantages of feed-forward control.
 Acts before the effect of disturbances has been felt by the system.
 Is a good for slow systems (multi capacity) or with significant dead time.
 It dose not introduce instability in the closed-loop response.
9.How is cavitation different from flashing in a control valve?

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Flashing happens in the control valve if the liquid pressure drops to the value below its
vapor pressure. Cavitation happens in the control valve if the liquid pressure is increasing
to a value over its vapor pressure

10.The flow rate of water through a fully open 3 inch valve is 150 gpm, at a differential
pressure of 6 PSI. Calculate the size coefficient.

ΔP G
q = Cv  C v = 150 = 61
G ΔP

PART B – (5 X 16 = 80 marks)
11.(a) Derive the mathematical model for the given process. (16)

C1, C2 – Capacitances of the tank I and II respectively.


h1, h2and A1, A2 – Heights of liquid level and areas of the tanks I and II respectively.
R – Resistance of the value
qi and q1 – Inflow and outflow of tank I
qo – Outflow of tank II
Solution:
The mass balance around tank I is,
dh1 t
qi t  q1 t  C1
dt
dh1 t
qi t  q1 t  C1
dt
h1 t  h2 t
Where q1 t 
R
& for tank II, the mass balance is,
dh2 t
q1 t  q0 t  C2
dt
dh2 t
q1 t  q0 t  C 2
dt

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11. (b) (i) Distinguish between Servo and regulatory operation. (6)
Consider the generalized closed – loop system shown in fig

The closed loop transfer function is,


Gc S Gp S Gd S
y S  ysp S  d S
1  Gm S Gp S Gc S 1  Gm S Gp S Gc S

When setpoint of a process undergoes a change while the disturbance affecting the
process remains constant, i.e. , the ability of the control system to track the
output close to the set point is called servo operation. In such situation,
Gc S Gp S
y S  ysp S
1  Gm S Gp S Gc S

However, when the setpoint remains constant, i.e. , while the disturbance
forces the process output to move out of the track of the setpoint, the ability of the
control system to reject the effect of disturbance as soon as possible and track the
output close to the set point is called regulatory operation. In such situation,
Gd S
y S  d S
1  Gm S Gp S Gc S
11.b.(ii) Explain the self-regulation process with an example. (10)
The ability of an open loop process or other device to settle out at some new operating
value after a set point change has taken place with no control action.
LIQUID LEVEL SYSTEM
Consider the liquid level system shown in Figure which consists of a tank of uniform
cross sectional area (A) to which a drain pipe is attached with a valve which has a flow
resistance ‘R’.

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The mass balance around the tank is,
In flow rate – Out flow rate = Rate of accumulation
d 
qi t  qo t  V t 1
dt 
dh t
qi t  qo t  A
dt
h t dh t
qi t  A 2
R dt
Using deviation variables,
Qi  qi  qis

H  h  hs

Equation 2 can be written as,


1 dH t
Qi t  H t  A 3
R dt
Taking the Lap lace transform on both sides of Equation 3 gives
1 
Qi s    AS H s
R 

R Qi s  1  ARS H s

H s R
 
Qi s 1  ARS

The step response of the self regulating process is shown in Fig below.

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It is clear from the step response of the process that when a step input is applied the
output reaches a constant steady state value. Thus the liquid level process with
discharge through a drain valve has the self regulating characteristics.
12.(a) (i) Design of electronic PID controller (8)
Solution:
The input range is 4V, the output range is 8V.

For the proportional mode, a 1% error causes a voltage change of 0.01x 4=0.04V,and cause
an output change of 4.2% or 0.042x8=0.336V. Thus ,
0.336
Gc   8.4
0.04
For the integral term, a 1% error causes the output to change by 10%/min
which is 10/60 = 0.167 %/% sec-1. Thus,
0.00167 X 8
Gi   0.334 sec1
0.04
For the derivative term, a 1% error should cause the output to change by 0.7% min which
is 0.6x 60 = 36 %/% sec . Thus,
36X 8
Gd   72 sec
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These results provide the following relations:
R2 1
 8.4  0.334 RdCd  72
R1 RiCi

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From the fastest period specification, 2  R3Cd  0.16  0.6

Let R1=10 k ohm, Ci= Cd= 100 micro farad R2= 8.4 R1=84 K ohm
1 72 0.6
Ri   300 K Rd   720 K R3   95.5 K 
0.334Ci Cd 2Cd

12.a.(ii)

12. b) (i) Explain about the characteristics of on-off control. (8)

Two position control is a position type of controller action in which the manipulated
variable is quickly changed to either a maximum or minimum value depending upon
whether the controlled variable is greater or less than the set point. The minimum
value of the manipulated variable is usually zero.

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The equations for two-position control are

P t  Pon when e  0

P t  Poff when e  0

Where
P(t) : Manipulated variable or controller output
Pon : Maximum value of manipulated variable
Poff : Minimum value of manipulated variable
e : Deviation or actuating error
If the actuating error signal e(t) is noisy, an ON/OFF controller will try to control the
noise. This effect can be reduced by modifying the original design to include a dead
band or hysteresis band or differential gap.

Pon
 if e  e 0 


 

P t  
nochange if  e0  e  e0 


 


Poff
 if e  e 0 


The input-output relationships of the on-off controllers are illustrated in fig 1.
On-off controllers are expensive and easy to implement. They are used in many level
control loops, and have found wide commercial application as thermostats in domestic
heating systems and refrigerators.

Fig. 1. Input-output relationships of Two position control

Whenever the signal to the controller is below set point the controller
output is maximum, and as the error signal crosses the set point the controller output
goes to minimum, and this variation is shown in fig.2. This cycle will continue
indefinitely because the controller cannot balance the supply against the load. Rapid
cycling causes frequent upsets to the plant and leads to excessive wear and tear to the
final control element. Thus ON/OFF controller is recommended for large capacity
processes. The output of the system with ON/OFF controller cannot follow the set
point.

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Fig.2. On – off controller characteristics
A differential gap in two position control causes the manipulated variable to maintain
its previous value until the controlled variable has moved slightly beyond the set
point.
12.b.(ii) Explain in detail the electronic controller to realize proportional and integral
control action. (8)
Implementation of this mode requires a circuit that has a response given by,
t
k
p t  kc e(t )  c
i  e t  dt  po
0

The op amp circuit implementation of this mode of controller is shown in Fig below.
R
The gain of the controller is , kc = 2
R1
The integration time is ,  i = RiCi . The adjustment of this controller are the PB through
R k
kc = 2 , and integration gain is , ki = c
R1 RiC i
13.(a) (i) How controllers are tuned based on frequency response methods? (8)

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13.a. (ii) Explain in detail the various evaluation criteria. (8)
ERROR PERFORMANCE INDEXES:

There are several error criteria in which the corresponding performance indexes
are integrals of some function or weighted function of the deviation of the system
output from input. Since the values of the integrals can be obtained as functions of the

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system parameters once a performance index is specified, the optional system can be
designed by adjusting the parameters to yield, the smaller value of the integral.

INTEGRAL SQUARE-ERROR CRITERION:

According to the integral square error (ISE) criterion, the quality of system

performance is evaluated by the following integral:  e 2  t  dt
o

A system designed by this criterion tends to show rapid decrease in a large


initial error. Hence the response is fast and oscillatory. Thus the system has poor
relative stability. However, that the integral square error criterion is often of practical
significance because the minimization of the performance index results in the
minimization of power consumption for some systems, such as space craft systems.

INTEGRAL OF TIME MULTIPLIED SQUARE ERROR CRITERION:

The performance index based on the integral of time multiplied square error (ITSE)

criterion is  te 2  t  dt . The optimal system is the one that minimizes this integral. This
o

criterion has a characteristics that in the unit-step response of the system a large initial
error is weighed lightly, while errors occurring late in the transient response are
penalized heavily. This criterion has a better selectivity than the integral square-error
criterion.

INTEGRAL ABSOLUTE ERROR CRITERION:

The performance index defined by the integral absolute error (IAE) criterion is

 e  t  dt . This is one of the most easily applied performance indexes. If this criterion
o

is used both highly under damped and highly over damped systems cannot be made
optimum. An optimum system based on this criterion is a system that has reasonable
damping and satisfactory transient response characteristics. However this performance
index cannot evaluated by analytical means.

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INTEGRAL OF TIME MULTIPLIED ABSOLUTE SQUARE ERROR CRITERION:

According to this criterion, the optimum system is the one that minimizes the

following performance index  t e  t  dt . A large initial error in a unit step response is
o

weighted lightly and errors occurring late in the transient response are penalized
heavily.

A system designed by use of this criterion has a characteristic that the overshoot in the
transient response is small and oscillations are well damped. This criterion posses good
selectivity and is an improvement over the integral absolute error (IAE) criterion. It is
however very difficult to evaluate analytically although it can be easily measured
experimentally.

The general guidelines are:

 If it is needed to strongly suppress large errors, ISE is better than IAE


because the errors are squared and thus contribute more to the value of the
integral.
 For suppression of small errors, IAE is better than ISE because when we
square small errors they become even smaller.
 To suppress errors that persists for long times, the ITAE criterion will tune
the controllers better because the presence of large t amplifies the effect of
even small errors in the value of the integral.
13.(b) (i) Explain the PID controller tuning using, zeigler Nichols technique. (12)

Zeigler Nichols method:


This method is described as a closed loop method because the controller remains in the
loop as an active controller in an automatic mode. This method is also called the
continuous cycling method, is based on adjusting a closed loop until steady oscillations
occur. The ultimate gain Kcu and ultimate period Pu is computed from the frequency
response based on the model of the process.
Zeigler Nichols method is summarized as given below:

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Excluding controller, the process and measuring elements are considered in series and
by applying Bode stability criterion, the phase cross over frequency is obtained.
According to the Bode of stability criterion, amplitude ratio is equal to unity at

phase cross over frequency  p when the system is on the verge of instability. Thus

by equating G ( j )   1 the ultimate gain Kcu is determined.


p

The ultimate period Pu is defined as the period of the sustained cyclic that would occur

2
if a proportional controller with a gain Kcu where used and Pu=
p
kc =0.6 Kcu  i = Pu/2  d =Pu/8

13.b. (ii) What are the draw backs of process reaction curve method? How to
overcome it? (4)

METHODS TO OVERCOME IT

14.(a) (i) Design a feed forward controller for a heat exchanger. (8)

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14.(a) (ii) What is split range control? Explain with a simple example. (8)
Split-Range Control

This split range control configuration has only one controlled output and more than one
manipulated variable. Since there is only one controlled output, there is only one control signal,
which is thus splits into several parts, each affecting one of the available manipulations.
Split-range control of a chemical reactor
Consider the reactor shown in fig..a, where a gas-phase reaction takes place. Two control
valves manipulate the flows of the feed and the reaction product. It is clear that in order to
control the pressure in the reactor, the two valves cannot act independently, but should be
coordinated. Fig .3.20.b indicates the coordination of the two valves’ actions as a function of the
controller’s output signal.

Let the controller’s output signal corresponding to the desire operation of the reactor be 6 psi(8
mA). From fig.3.20.b.it is seen that, valve V2 is partly open while valve V1 is completely open.
When the pressure in the reactor increases, the controller’s output signal also increases. Then it is
split into two parts, affects the two valves simultaneously, and the following action takes place:

As the controller output increases from 6 psi(8 mA) to 9 psi(12 mA) , the valve V2 open
continuously, while valve V1 remains completely open. Both actions lead to a reduction in the
pressure.

For large increase in the reactor’s pressure, the control output may exceed 9 psi (12mA). In
such a case, valve V2 is completely opened while V1 starts closing. Both actions again lead to a
reduction in pressure until the reactor has returned to the desired operation. The table given
below gives the output signal and valve positions.

Table: output signal and valve positions.

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Controller’s output signal Valve V1 Valve V2

Pneumatic Electronic Stem position Stem position

3 psi 4 mA Open Closed

9 psi 12 mA Open Open

15 psi 20 mA Closed Open

14.(b) (i) Explain issues involved in multivariable control. (8)

Any change in either of the inputs will lead to change in the values of both the outputs. This
phenomenon persists even when two control loops are formed as in Fig. This is termed as
control loop interaction. There are two types of effects of an input on an output, viz . direct and
indirect.

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14.b. (ii) Explain control of boiler, using three element method. (8)

Similar to feed flow, changes in steam flow can also cause large deviations in drum level, and
could possibly trip the boiler. Changes in steam flow rate are measurable and this measurement
can be used to improve level control very successfully by using a feedforward control strategy.

For the feedforward control strategy, steam flow rate is measured and used as the set point of
the feedwater flow controller. In this way the feedwater flow rate is adjusted to match the steam
flow. Changes in steam flow rate will almost immediately be counteracted by similar changes in
feedwater flow rate. To ensure that deviations in drum level are also used for control, the output
of the drum level controller is added to the feedforward from steam flow.The combination of

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drum level measurement, steam flow measurement, and feed flow measurement to control
boiler drum level is called three-element control.

15.(a)

15. (b)(i) Explain the operation of pneumatic actuators with and without positioned. (8)
Pneumatic actuator:
Pneumatic actuators may operate directly from the pneumatic output signal from a
pneumatic controller or they may employ a separate source of compressed air. The
types of pneumatic actuators are,
 spring actuator
 spring actuator with positioner
 spring less actuator
 piston actuator

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spring actuator:
These actuators consist of a flexible diaphragm placed between two casings.
One of the chambers resulting from this arrangement must be made pressure tight. The
force generated within the actuator is opposed by a range spring. The controller air
signal goes into the pressure tight chamber and an increase or decrease in air pressure
produces a force that is used to overcome the force of the actuator’s range spring and
the forces within the valve body. The action of the valve, fail open or fail close is
determined by the actuator.
The size of the actuator depends on the process pressure against which it
must move the stem and on the air pressure available. These diaphragm actuators are
simple in construction and also dependable and economical. The construction of the
spring actuator is shown in fig 4.9.

Spring actuator with positioner:


The spring actuator often requires a positioner when static friction forces are
large or when the response of the motor is too low. The positioner consists of an input
bellows, a nozzle and amplifying pilot and the feed back levers and spring. An air
supply of 20 to 100 psi must be provided. When the input air pressure increases, the
input bellows moves to the right and causes the baffle to cover the nozzle. The nozzle
back pressure change is amplified by the pilot and is transmitted to the diaphragm.
The diaphragm moves down and the feedback lever compresses the spring to return
the baffle to a balanced position. Thus the actuator stem assumes a position indicated
by the input air pressure. The spring actuator becomes a power means and the
characteristics of the spring and diaphragm are relatively less important. The use of the
positioner results in several improvements in performance.

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 Hysteresis is reduced and linearity is usually improved because the static
operation is governed by the feedback spring and input bellows.
 The actuator can handle much higher static friction forces because of the
amplifying pilot.
 Variable thrust forces on the motor stem do not disturb the stem position to any
great extend.
 Speed of response is generally improved because the pneumatic controller must
supply sufficient air to fill the small input bellows rather than the large actuator
chamber.

15. (b) (ii) Describe the standard control valve characteristics. (8)

Valve characteristics:

The function of a control valve is to vary the flow of fluid through the valve
by means of a change of pressure to the valve top. The relation between the flow
through the valve and the valve stem position (lift) is called the valve characteristics,
which is described by means of a graph as shown in fig.4.3. where three types of valve
characteristics are illustrated.
In general, the flow through a control valve for a specific fluid at a given temperature
can be expressed as :
q = f1 (L, p1, p2 ) -------- 1
where q = volumetric flow rate
L = valve stem position (or) (lift).
p1 = upstream pressure
p2 = down stream pressure.

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The inherent valve characteristics is determined for fixed values of p 1 & p2 for which
case equation 1 becomes,
q = f2 (L)
q L
Let m  and x 
qmax Lmax
Where q max is the maximum flow when the valve stem is at its maximum lift L max

(valve is full-open)
x – is the fraction of maximum lift
m - is the fraction of maximum flow
q  L 
Thus,  f  
qmax  Lmax 
(or) m = f (x)

fig. inherent valve characteristics


I) linear
II) equal percentage valve
III) quick opening valve
The types of valve characteristics can be defined in terms of the sensitivity of the valve,
which is simply the fractional change in flow to the fractional change in stem position
for fixed upstream & downstream pressures ; mathematically sensitivity may be
written as sensitivity = dm / dx
In terms of valve characteristics, valves can be divided into three types :
decreasing sensitivity, linear & increasing sensitivity. These types are shown in fig.
where the fractional flow m is plotted against fractional lift x. For the decreasing
sensitivity type, the sensitivity (or slope) decreases with m. For the linear type, the
sensitivity is constant & the characteristic curve is a straight line. For the increasing
sensitivity type, the sensitivity increases with flow.
Two types of valves that are widely used are the linear valve & the
logarithmic (or equal percentage) valve. The linear valve is one for which the
sensitivity is constant & the relation between flow & lift is linear. The equal percentage
valve is of the increasing sensitivity type.
LINEAR VALVE CHARACTERISTICS:
A linear flow characteristics produces a flow rate that varies in direct
proportion to change in valve stem position at a constant pressure drop (i.e) for 10 %
of valve travel, the valve will pass 10 % of its rated Cv and for 20 % of travel valve
passes 20 % and so on.
For the linear valve,
dm / dx =  (where  is a constant)

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Assuming that the valve is shut tight when the lift is at lowest position, (ie) m = 0 at x =
0. Integrating equation 4.3 & introducing the limits m = 0 at x = 0 & m = 1 at x = 1
gives,
dm  dx
1 1

 dm   dx
0 0
1 1
m   x
0 0

which implies   1
hence m  x
q L
(or) 
qmax Lmax
Thus for a linear valve the flow through the valve is directly proportional to stem
movement.

EQUAL PERCENTAGE VALVE CHARACTERISTICS:


The equal percentage valve characteristics is so named because for equal
increments of stem travel at constant pressure drop an equal percentage change in
existing flow occurs. This means that the same percentage increase in flow will occur
when the stem position changes from 40 % to 50 % of travel as would occur when stem
position changes from 70 % to 80 % of stem travel.
dm
For the equal percentage valve, the defining equation is  m -----------(2)
dx
Where  is constant.
Integration of above equation gives,
m x
dm
 m
  dx
mmin 0

q x
L
  R  q  qmin  R Lmax
qmin
QUICK OPENING VALVE CHARACTERISTICS:
In this type, a relatively small motion of valve stem results in maximum
possible flow rate through the valve. For example, 30 % of stem travel the flow may be
90 % .

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