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Meeting : 7-8

TIPS FOR SECTION 2 – STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSIONS

SENTENCES WITH ONE CLAUSE

SKILL 1: Be sure the sentence has a subject and a verb


Example: The boy ….going to the movies with a friend.
a. he is b. he always was c. is relaxing
d. will be

….was backed up for miles on the freeway.


a. Yesterday b. In the morning c. Traffic d. Cars

Exercise: Underline the Subjects and verbs. Then indicate if the sentences are
correct (C) or incorrect (I).
1. Last week went fishing for trout at the nearby mountain lake. (….)
2. A schedule of the day’s events can be obtained at the front desk. (….)
3. A job on the day shift or the night shift at the plant available. (….)
4. The assigned text for history class it contains more than twenty chapters. (….)
5. Yesterday found an interesting article on pollution. (….)

SKILL 2: Be careful of objects of Prepositions – A noun or a pronoun that


comes after a preposition,such as in, at, to, by, behind, , on, and so on to form a
prepositional phrase. If a word is an object of a preposition, it is NOT the
subject.
(After his exams ) Tom will take a trip (by boat )
This sentence contains two objects of prepositions. Exams is the object of the prep.
After and boat is the object of the prep. by.

Example: With his friend…found the movie theater.


a. has b. he c. later d. when

Exercise: Underline the Subjects and verbs. Circle the prepositional phrases that
come before the verb. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
1. The interviews by radio broadcasters were carried live by the station. (…)
2. The progressive reading methods at this school are given credit for the
improved test scores. (…)
3. For the last three years at various hospitals in the country has been practicing
medicine. (….)
4. In the past a career in politics was not considered acceptable in some circles.
(….)
5. Shopping in the downtown area of the city it has improved a lot in the recent
years. (…)

SKILL 3: Be careful of Appositives – A noun that comes before or after another


noun and has the same meaning.
Sally , the best student in the class, got an A on the exam.
Example: ….,George, is attending the lecture.
a. Right now b. Happily c. Because of the time d. My friend

….., Sarah rarely misses her basketball shots.


a. An excellent basketball player
b. An excellent basketball player is
c. Sarah is an excellent basketball player
d. Her excellent basketball play

Exercise: Underline the Subjects and verbs. Circle the appositives phrases that
come before the verb. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
1. The son of the previous owner, the new owner is undertaking
some fairly broad changes in management policy. (….)
2. Last semester, a friend, graduated cum laude from the university.
(…)
3. Valentine’s day, February 14, is a special holiday for
sweethearts. (C)
4. In the cold winter, a wall heating unit, would not turn on. (I)
5. The only entrance to the closet, the door was kept locked at all
times. (?)

SKILL 4: Be careful of Present Participles – the ing form of the verbs. The
present participle can be (1) part of the verb or (2) an adjective.
(1) The boy is standing in the corner.
(2) The boy standing in the corner was naughty.
Example: The child …playing in the yard is my son.
a. now b. is c. he d. was

Exercise: Underline the Subjects and verbs. Circle the present participles and label
them as adjectives or verbs. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or
incorrect (I).
1. The companies offering the lowest prices will have the most customers. (C)
2. Those travelers are completing their trip on Delta should report the Gate
Three. (i) subjeknya seharusnya kta sifat
3. Any students desiring official transcripts should complete the appropriate
form. (C)
4. The advertisements were announcing the half-day sale received a lot of
attention. (i)
5. The spices flavoring the meal were quite distinctive (khas). (C)

SKILL 5: Be careful of past participles – The –ed form of the verb can be (1) the
simple past, (2) the past participle of a verb, or (3) an adjective /passive.
(1) She painted this picture
(2) She has painted this picture
(3) This picture painted by Karen is now in a museum.

Example: The packages… mailed at the post office will arrive on Moinday.
a. have b. were c. them d. just

Exercise: Underline the Subjects and verbs. Circle the past participles and label
them as adjectives or verbs. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or
incorrect (I).
1. The money was offered by the client was not accepted. (i) (which)
2. The car listed in the advertisement had already stalled. (C)
3. The chapters were taught by the professor this morning will be on the next
week’s exam. (…)
4. The loaves of bread were baked in a brick oven at a low temperature for
many hours. (…)
5. Those suspected in the string of the robberies were arrested by the police.
(…)

SENTENCES WITH MULTIPLE CLAUSES

SKILL 6: Use Coordinate Connectors Correctly – And, Or, But, So, etc
Tom is singing, and Paul is dancing
Tom is tall, but Paul is short
Tom must write the letter, or Paul will do it
Tom told a joke, so Paul laughed
Tom is tired , yet he is not going to sleep.
Example: A power failure occurred …the lamps went out.
a. then b. so c. later d. next
Exercise: Underline the Subjects and verbs. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if
the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
1. The software should be used on an IBM computer, and this computer is an
IBM. (…)
2. The rain clouds can be seen in the distance, but no has fallen. (…)
3. They are trying to sell their shoes, it has been on the market for two months.
(…)
4. So the quality of the print was not good I changed the typewriter ribbon. (…)
5. The lifeguard will warn you about riptides, or she may require you to get out of
the water. (…)

SKILL 7 & 8: Use Adverb ( Time and Cause, condition, contrast, manner, and
place ) Connectors Correctly
I will sign the check before you leave
Before you leave, I will sign the check
Example: ….was late, I missed the appointment.
a. I b. Because c. The train d. Since he

Exercise: Underline the Subjects and verbs. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if
the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
1. Their backgrounds are thoroughly investigated before are admitted to the
organization. (…)
2. The citizens are becoming more and more incensed about traffic accidents
whenever the accidents occur at that intersection. (….)
3. We can start the conference now that all the participants have arrived. (…)
4. It is impossible to enter that program if you lack experience as a teacher. (…)
5. No one is admitted to the academy unless he or she the education
requirements. (…)
6. As the nurse already explained all visitors must leave the hospital room now.
(…)
Meeting 9-10

TIPS FOR SECTION 2 (Part2)

SKILL 9: PASSIVE CONSTRUCTION

a. Study this example:


The mouse is eaten by the cat
He doesn’t enough experience to be elected minister.
Prices for the new computers have been decreased several times by the IBM
Company

b. the presence of passive verbs to build a sentence is used to give an


information of causes.
Located near the mountain, the city has fresh air a lot of rain (because the city is
located near the mountain, ….)
Forced to take the school program she didn’t like, Varen couldn’t do very well in her
study (Because Varen was forced to take the school program she didn’t like,…)

c. passive in the reduced form – to modifying the noun


Sherly’s father who (was promoted)- promoted into the marketing department
lives in Surakarta
With special enzymes (that are called )– called restriction enzymes, it is possible to
split off segments of DNA from the Donor organism.

Exercise:
1. The surface of the tongue covered with tiny taste buds.(…)
2. By passing sunlilght through a prism, the light is separate into spectrum of
colors. (…)
3. Alloys of gold and copper have been widely using in various types of coins
(…)
4. The target products by Canon are office equipment such as computers,
monitors, printers, facsimiles, and copies.(…)
5. Rubber that produces from vulcanized silicones with a high molecular weight
is difficult to distinguish from natural rubber. (…)
SKILL 10: PARALLEL STRUCTURE
Focus to the parallelism (in the noun phrase, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) in the
sentence you made.
Examples:
The president wanted to see the senate members, minister, and the people.
A woman usually loves a man who is very energetic, optimistic, independent,
confident, romantic, and ambitious.
People like jogging, swimming, playing volleyball, and travelling as parts of their
routine activities.

Exercises:
1. What make people unsatisfied about the current reform movements in some
of the developing countries are…(it/they/their/its) bad effects and economic
safety.
2. The earth spins on its axis and …(need/needing/needs/needed) 23 hours, 56
minutes and 4.09 seconds for one complete rotation.
3. When rhinos take mud baths, the mud …(create/creates/creating/creator) a
barrier to biting insects.
4. Recently people have seen the need to eliminate the unfair taxes, to improve
the business climate and …(reduce/reducing/to reduce/reduced) health costs.

SKILL 11: INVERTED STRUCTURE AND REDUNDANCY

A. INVERTED STRUCTURE
A predicate is placed before subject
Adverb is placed in the beginning of the sentence to emphasize extreme
meanings
Examples:
What is the homework? (introduces a question – s and v are inverted)
I don’t know what the homework is.(contains two clauses – s n v are inverted)

Invert the subject and verb with NEGATIVES (no, not, never, neither, nor, hardly,
only, rarely, seldom)
Examples:
Not until they graduate from the university, should students begin to look for
good jobs.
At no time can the woman talk on the telephone.
I don’t want to go, and neither does Tom
Invert the subject and verb with the place expressions (here, there, nowhere) and
the prepositional phrases
examples:
Here is the book that you lent me.
In the middle of the rainy night, came one of the oldest friends of mine to my
small apartment

Exercises – Decide which one is correct or incorrect sentences


The phone company is not certain when will the new directories to be ready.(…)
The professor does not understand why so many students did poorly on the
exam.(…)
In front of the house were some giant trees. (…)
Around the corner are the offices that you are trying to find.(…)
There a big house is on the corner. (…)
Never the boy wrote to his sisters. (…)
Seldom their secretary has made such mistakes. (….)

B. REDUNDANCY
Double element in the sentences, then it is not allowed
Example:
All of the students at school they can work together with friends during the class
activity.
The village which is located on the slope of the mountain, it is very clean and the
people are friendly.

Exercises:
1. Not until a monkey is several years old …to exhibit signs of independence from its
mother.
a. it begins b. does it begin c. and begin d. beginning
2. …business, a merger is a combination of two or more corporations under one
management.
a. the b. at c. on d. in
3. Between the California Coast range and the Sierra Nevada …
a. great central valley
b. the great central valley
c. being the great central valley
d. lies the great central valley