Sie sind auf Seite 1von 63

Gas Engine

Combustion
Normal
Combustion
Normal Combustion
Normal Combustion Processes Section
Combustion Program
Section Objectives
• Describe how fuel is turned into
energy
• Define how different air fuel ratios
effect an engines operation
• Define Btu, HHV, LHV, WKI™ and
how they affect an engine’s operation
Direction Of
Flame Travel

Cylinder Wall
Normal Combustion
Combustion
Rapid oxidation (O2) of fuel where
the temperature of the elements rises.

CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O


Three Types of Combustion

Rich
Stoichiometric
Lean
Stoichiometric (Ideal)
Combustion
Correct proportion of oxygen and
fuel so that they completely
react in the combustion
Results:
Exhaust without excess oxygen or fuel
Highest combustion temperature
H H N
O O C H N
H
H H
C O
N O
H H O O O
N O

Stoichiometric Combustion
OH N
O O H H
H N
C O
N C
H N O O
O
H OH
H

Stoichiometric Exhaust
Rich Combustion
More fuel for approximately the
same amount of oxygen
Results:
Higher fuel consumption
Additional power (if slightly rich)
Excess fuel remaining in the exhaust
Lower combustion temperature
H H
O H H N
H
C H
O H
C H N

O O
H H
N O C
N O H H

Rich Combustion
OH N
O H
H
O N
C H C
N O
H H
H
H N OH C
O H
H H

Cooler Flame

Rich Exhaust
Lean Combustion
Less fuel for approximately the same
amount of oxygen
Results:
Excess oxygen remaining in the exhaust
Lower fuel consumption
Lower combustion temperature
Loss of power
O N
O O O N
H H
C O
N O
H H O O O
N O

Lean Combustion
O N OH N
O H
N
C O
O N
H O O O
H O
O
Cooler Flame

Lean Exhaust
NOx Production
C° F° Temperature vs. Oxygen
807 1300 5

670 1250
4
EXHAUST TEMP
EXHAUST O2
642 1200
3 O2 %
615 1150
2
587 1100
1
559 1050
Max NOx
532 1000 0
14 15 16 17 18 19 20

AIR / FUEL RATIO


Emissions
% CO & NOX NOX, CO, & HC %HC

CO

NOX

HC

AIR /FUEL RATIO


GL Emissions vs. Ignition Timing
G/BHP/HR

CO

NOX

NMHC

IGNITION TIMING (BTDC)


Emissions
%CO & NOX NOX, CO, & HC %HC

CO HC

NOX

AIR / FUEL RATIO


O2
NO2
O
NO HC
O3
HCO Ozone
Main Toxicant
NO2 Photochemical
HC Smog
GL Operating Window
- High NOx
- Detonation
Timing
Advance

- High
Combustion Rich Lean - Power Loss
Temperature - Misfire
- Detonation

Timing Retard
- Poor
BSFC
Low Heat Value (LHV):
Useful energy of fuel
(Btu’s per cubic foot)

Propane 2316
Field Gas 1000 - 1200
Natural Gas 900 - 950
Digester Gas 500 - 550
Landfill Gas 450 - 550
Abnormal Combustion

Detonation and
Preignition
Section Objectives
• List the causes of pre-ignition and
detonation
• Realize the importance of catching
detonation and pre-ignition early
• List several types of damage that
occur due to detonation and pre-
ignition
• Describe how detonation differs from
“Normal Combustion”
Ka Knock Knock

Ka Ping
Knock

WAUKESHA
Knock
Ka Knock
Knock
Bang Bang
No Insignificant
Detonation or Pre-ignition
Pitting and galling
Exposed puller hole Hollowed out area
Aluminum deposits
on the cylinder wall
Damage in the ring groove area
Severe piston crown damage
Aluminum deposits
from the piston
Detonation
Auto Ignition of the End
Gas
The End Gas is the air fuel mixture inside the
combustion chamber that is ahead
of the normal flame front.
Detonation
Detonation

Normal
Detonations pinging
sound is caused by
pressure waves forcing
the cylinder walls to
vibrate
OCTANE NUMBER
A FUEL STABILITY RATING

A MEASURE OF A FUEL’S ABILITY TO


RESIST DETONATION

NO LONGER USED BY
WAUKESHA
WAUKESHA
KNOCK INDEX™
• Pure Methane 100
• Digester 125
• Landfill 140
• Processed Natural Gas 91
• Propane 34
Btu

WKI™ Number

When a fuel’s Btu rises, the Waukesha


Knock Index™ Number drops
Detonation affects an
engines potential power
output
Effect Of Operating Conditions
On Detonation
• Spark Timing
• Compression Ratio
• Inlet Fuel/Air Temperature
• Coolant Temperature
• Waukesha Knock Index™ Number
• Engine Speed
• Exhaust Back Pressure
• Atmospheric Humidity
• Combustion Chamber Deposits
• Fuel Air Ratio
• Engine Load
Ignition Timing
Pressure

60° 50° 40° 30° 20° 10°

Degrees before TDC


Compression Ratio and
Detonation
11:1
Detonation
10.5:1 tendencies increase
with the
10:1 compression ratio

9:1

8.7:1

8.2:1
Pressure Higher combustion
chamber pressures
tend to increase
detonation tendencies
Deposits Anything that raises the
HEAT
temperature of the
combustion chamber
can increase detonation
tendencies
140

130
Waukesha
Knock Index™ 120
Number (WKI™)
Requirement
110

100

90

80
Low Engine Speed High
Effect of Back Pressure
on Detonation

Combustion Compression
Temperature Temperature
Water
Vapor

Water vapor in the


combustion chamber
decreases detonation
tendencies
A .060” (1.52 mm) deposit
can raise the compression
by 1/4 ratio
Deposits
16.09:1

Exhaust
Temp

Rich Air/Fuel Ratio Lean


HIGH

Engine Heat
Load Pressure

LOW HIGH

WKI™ Number Requirements


A misfiring cylinder can
cause detonation
in neighboring cylinders
Engine design factors
can influence an engines
tendency to detonate
• Spark plug location
• Combustion chamber shape
• Piston head shape
• Cylinder head size
Detonation Review
Detonation Promoters Detonation Reducers
Higher Cylinder Temps Lower Cylinder Temps
Lower WKI™ Number Fuels Higher WKI™ Number Fuels
More Advanced Timing Less Advanced Timing
Higher Compression Ratio Lower Compression Ratio
Higher Inlet Pressure Lower Inlet Pressure
Higher Coolant Temp Lower Coolant Temp
Lower Engine Speeds Higher Engine Speeds
Lower Atmospheric Humidity Higher Atmospheric Humidity
Higher Engine Load Lower Engine Load
Stoichiometric A/F ratio Lean or Rich A/F ratio
Preignition
Ignition before the timed spark
Preignition Promoters
• Incandescent cylinder deposits
• Spark plug with incorrect heat
range
• Burning valve
• Overheated piston crown
Detonation may
lead
to preignition
Preignition may
lead to detonation