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- Afloat, afraid, alike, alone, asleep – used only predicatively

- Some , - ing adj, can quality othen adj


- Some adj can follow nouns too – in expressions - Asia minor Govern general

Above – The above question ( question is an adverb, but can function as an inside – cover, the than
president attributive adj)

As

So

How + adj + article + noun

Too

this

- Too polite a person, too expensive a car


- When we compare onlz 2 things, we use the comparative with the meaning of the superlative:
he’s the taller of the 2 brothers

The Adjective

- Part of speech which describes a noun


Central adjectives - has to meet 4 coditions:
- It can be used attributivelz in a noun phrase: old man
- It can be used modified by intensifiers: mz old, extremely old, too old
- I can be used predicatilz with a verb: he looks / is old
- They can compansative superlative forms: old-older-oldest

The adjective phrase – a phrase in which the head is adjective

A C O M P N the order of adjectives

noun

Age color origin material preposition

We bought a new blue and white French steel and iron tennis racket

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a) Adj+ y’ drops - ier + iest - busy, busier, busiest
b) Irregular -> - much – more – most
c) Adj+ more + most little – less – least
Pleasant – more pl – most pl ill – worse –worst
d) Beneath = nether – nethermost

In – inner – inneemost

Out – outer – outermost

Up – upper – uppermost

Lastern – more eastern – easternmost (eastmost)

e) Shy – shyer – shyest


Sly – slyer – slyest
Spry – spryer – spryest
f) Good-looking – better-looking- best-looking
Bad-tempered – worse- l - worst – l
g) Ill paid – worse paid – the worst paid
Low priced – lower priced – he lowest paid
Well known – better known – the bes known
Intelligen looking – more i.l – most i.l
Grey eyed – greyer eyed – the greyest eyed

Have their own meaning and presive it as distinct from the meaning of the other one so
the first one gets comparative element

h) Up-to-date - more – the most


Narrow minded – more – most element 1+2 form a unit
Short-sighted – more - most
Old fashioned – more - most
i) Double faced
Self- conscious more/most first element dosen’t have comparative-
Heartbroken -> more/most

- The head noun has been mentioned before, so it isn’t expressed in the next sintence too
- Head-noun expresser = building St Paul’s (cathedral)
- The head-noun occurs in a double positive (analzthical+synthetical genitive)
Ex> a description of John ; a description of John’s
John is described made by him
A bone of the dog , a bone of the dog’s
From his body beloging to him

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2. Analythical/ prepositional of gentitive
- characteristic of neuter nouns (boh animate and inanimate)
Ex: the colour of the dress
The barking of the dog
-is prefered to the synthetical genitive; used with:
-proper and aimate nouns that occur in complex noun-phrase or in co-ordonate phrases
Ex: the pencil of the boy in the corner; the daughter of the mom who lives next door
- When go want phrase the head noun
Ex: the plays of Shakespeare
- The objective genitive: the murderer of Caesar

Gradable adjectives/ noun- gradable adjectives

Adjectives are gradable when we can modify them, when they have comperetive and superlative forms

Adj are non-gradable -> the opposite

Attributive adjectives – come before a noun and it’s part of the noun phrase: An old man -> head

determiner pre-modifier

Predicative adj: after verbs like BE, LOOK, SEEM, TASTE, SMELL- ex: the coffee tastes bitter -> adj

Adj orders: A C O M P / noun – basic guide

1. Articles
2. Posesives
3. Ordinal numers
4. Cardinal numbers
5. Size
6. Age
7. Shape
8. Colour
9. Origin
10. Material
11. Purpose

Ex: buildings, the, stone, city’s, Gothic, last, black, five, square, large, old

The city’s five last large old square black Gothic stone buildings

The companison of adj

Adj + -er + -est -cold – colder – coldest

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Adj+ double last consonant –er + -est - big – bigger – biggest

Adj + last vowel drops –er + - est fine – finer – finest

The Noun – Case- possesion

Case- refers to the relation in which the state to a another word

Geniive – generally speaking of the idea of possesion

1. Possesive genitive – John’s can like John has a car


2. Possesive of origin – expresses authorship ( who the authior is)
Shakespeare’s Hamlet – Sh wrote Hamlet
3. Descriptive genitive
Describes the head noun

The noun phrase (NP)

Structure:
1. Head alone : man, boy
2. Determiner +head : the/mz/this boy
3. Determiner+Modifier +Head : the young boy
- A determiner specifies how a reference of a noun is to be understood
- Determiners: articles, demonstratives, possesives, indefinites (some, many, any), wh- forms
(what, which) -> central determiners
- Predeterminers – that words which are used before central determiners ex: all, both, half,
double, twice, such, what
- Post determiners – used after central determiners ex: same, other, next, last
- A modifier is a word that affects the meaning of another word in the phrase, usually the head
ex: the young man; the man in the corner

This country Byron’s poems

Det. head premod. Head

Post modifier

The nature, of this part of Shakespeare’s Sonnet head

det head det. Head

pre modifier

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NP. Determiner : pre det, central det, post det.

Premodifiers : adjm nouns, non- finite forms

Head –noun , pronouns, adjective

Post modifiers - relative clause

Non-finite forms

The English Noun

-the noun is a part of speech that manners beings things, objects that can be described by means of the
grammatical categories of numbers , gendre and case

- plato identified a class of words in greek that he called ‚onoma’ (name) (nomen in latin) = origin of the
word

- a noun can function as a subject, attribute, direct object, indirect object, subject complement ( John is
a doctor -> completes the meaning of the subject) object complement (we elected Joh president)

Clasification of the nouns:

1. According to form, nouns can be:


 Simple (dog, boy)
 Compound (bathroom, blackboard)
 Frasal nouns (mother-in-law, Alexander the Grea)

2. According to particular proprieties


 Common
 Proper

3. According to how reality is seen:


 Concrete (material things that are perviced by senses)
 Absract (things perviced by our mind)

4. According to the idea of numbers:


 Semantic criterion : contable nouns, uncountable nouns
 Formal critetion: invariable (singularium tantum, pluralia tantum), variable (sg form and
meaning, plural form +meaning)
Singularia tantum – substances, concepts, notions which cannot be counted
Pluralia tantum – have plural meaning

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-includes summation plurals (nouns that denote objects made of .... ex: trousers,
sussois, shorts) + parts of the body, -ing verbal nouns, effects, nationalities etc.

The plural of English nouns. The plural of compounds

Ex: trade union – trade unions


1. Forget-me-not forget-me-nots
Spoonful-spoonfuls
Knock out- knock outs

- Most compunds have a regular plural ( -s added to the last element), especially if the compound
has no noun in it; +ful compounds; + phrasel verbs used as nouns

2. Passer by – passes by
Coming-in - comings-in
Maid-of-honour - maids-of honour

- In some cases the first element is made plural ( when there’s an agent noun ending in ‚er’, a
verbal noun ending ‚ing’, a noun +preposition + noun)

3. Woman doctor – women doctors


Man singer – men singers
Man cater – men caters =the last element - plural

4. In-and-out - ins-and-outs = in compounds wih ‚and’ both


Up-and-down - ups-and-downs =element take the plural
Gin-and-tonic - gin-and tonics = exception - drink

Tooth (premodifier) brush (head) – toothbrushes

The plural of compounds (see the seminary)


The plural of proper nouns
The plural of numbers, letters, abbreviations : p-pp
4 – 4’s
I - i’s
1980 – 1980s
Nouns ending in –s

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1. Regular plurals
- Pronountation: s, z, iz
- S after voiceless consonants (p –
- Z after voiced consonants ( b
- Iz after sibilants

2. Nouns ending in y
 Regular plural if the noun ends in vowel y (boys, days)
 Ies -> if the noun ends in consonant +y (stories, spies)
 Regular plurals if there’s a proper noun ( Marys, Lennedys)
 Sustentionsied part of speech -> regular plural

3. Noun ending in o
4. Mutation plurals: men, women feet, teeth
5. –en plurals = children, oxen
6. Nouns ending in f/ - fe : valves, halves, knifes, scarfes, cheffs
7. Zero plural : deer, sheep, japanese, speecies, swime
-fishes of the Atlantic because we are refering to multiple species
- 6 mile walk -> modifier a it doesn’t get the plural or six mile’s walk
-10 meters long because it’s followed by an adjective

8. Foreign plurals: latin: ending in us -> i, o, x, um

9. Foreign plurals: greek: ending in –is, -on, -ma, -x

10. Foreign plurals: french : ending in

Italian: - o + hebrew : cherub, seroph, kibbutz

Ex: children’s boys -> toys for children

Today’s newspaper

4.Subjective genitive

Ex: the doctor’s arrival -> the doctor arrived


The crying of the baby -> the baby cried
5. Objective genitive
Ex: the child’s education -> somebody educates the child

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The translation of the paragrah -> somebody translates the paragraph
John’s beating - subjective : John did the beating
Objective : somebody else beat John

Partitive genitive
Ex: loaf of bread, slice of.., five of my books, part of the audition

Genitive of gradation
Ex: king of kings, song of songs

According to form, genitives are classified in 2categories:


Synthetical/saxm/inflected/ s genitive
- Is used with:
Nouns denoting persons: the teacher’s book
Nouns of persons: John’s book
Collection nouns: the nation’s development
Nouns denoting beings and their names other than persons: cat’s tail, dog’s barking
Nouns denoting measurements in time/space/ : a week’s holiday, today’s newspaper, a 2
mi....walk
Inanimate nouns that can be refered as ‚he’ or ‚she’: London’s briges
used frequently with inanimate nouns because of its conciesion ex: one of the city’s streets

elliptical genitive: a: Is this your car? B: no, it’s John’s