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Loads and

Effects

SNIP 2.01.07-85

1988

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

PUBLICATION IS OFFICIAL

GOSSTROY of the USSR Moscow 1988

UDK 69+624.042.4] (083.74)

SNIP 2.01.07-85.Loads and Effects by the vozdeystviya/Gosstroy USSR - M.:TSITP OF THE

GOSSTROY of the USSR, 1988.- 36 pages.

ARE DEVELOPED TSNIISK im. Kucherenko of GOSSTROY of the USSR (Cand. of tech. sciences A

A. Bat' - leader of theme;I. A. Belyshev, Cand. of the tech. sciences V. A. Otstavnoye, doctor of tech.

sciences, Prof. V. D. Reyzer, A. I. Tseytlin), THE MISY im. v. v. Kuybyshev Minvuz ╨ - Ministry of

Higher Education╩ THE USSR (Cand. of tech. sciences/7.V. Klepikov }

ARE INTRODUCED TSNIISK im. Kucherenko of GOSSTROY of the USSR

THEY ARE PREPARED to THE ASSERTION By glavtekhnormirovaniyem of GOSSTROY of the

USSR (Cand. of tech. sciences F. V. Bobrov).

With the introduction into the action SNIP 2.01.07-85 Loads and Effects "from 1 January, 1987, lose the

force:

p. 1 of decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR Ob the assertion of chapter SNIP II -6-74 Loads and Effects

"of 8 February, 1974.16;

the decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR,,0 addition and a change in the chapter SNIP II -6-74 Loads

and Effects "of 25 December, 1980.206;

the indentation of 2 applications/appendices to the decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR O the addition

of chapters SNIP of 16 January, 1981.4;

the decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR O addition and a change in the chapter SNIP II -6-74 Loads and

Effects "of 14 September, 1981.164;

the decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR O addition and a change in the chapter SNIP II -6-74 Loads and

Effects "of 31 December, 1982.343

On s. 34 are given Pravila calculation of the degree of the responsibility of buildings and construction

during the design/projection of constructions/designs "(applications/appendices to the decisions of

GOSSTROY of the USSR of 19 March, 1981.41 and of 29 July, 1982.196).

With the use of principal document should be considered the affirmed changes in the construction

standards and rules and state standards, published in periodical Bhlleten6 of construction technology ",

Sbornike changes to the construction standards and the rules "GOSSTROY of the USSR and the

information indicator Gosudarstvennye the standards of the USSR" state standard

To attention of the readers!

Required appendix 5 Karty division into districts of the territory of the USSR for climatic characteristics

", which consists of the set of maps/charts/cards on 8 sheets, is published in the form of insert/bushing to

SNIP 2.01.07-85 (enumeration of maps/charts/cards it is given in the insert/bushing).

©TSITP OF THE GOSSTROY of the USSR, 1986

GOSSTROY of the Construction standards and the rule SNIP 2.01.07-85

USSR Loads and Effects Instead of chapter SNIP P -6-74

Present standards apply to the design/projection of structures and bases of buildings and construction and

are established/installed basic condition/positions and rules regarding and to the calculation of permanent

and temporary loads and actions, and also their combinations

Loads and action on the structures and the bases of buildings and construction, which differ from

traditional, it is allowed to determine on the special technical specifications .

Notes:1. further on the text, where this is possible, term vozde1stvie "is omitted and substituted with term

nagruzka", and word zdani4 and construction "is substituted with word soorujeni4".

2. During the reconstruction computed values of loads should be determined on the basis of the results of

the inspection/examination of the existing constructions/designs, in this case atmospheric loads it is

allowed to assume/take taking into account data of Goskomgidromet ╨ - State Committee of the Council

of Ministers of the USSR on Hydrometeorology.

CONTENT

Page

1. General considerations 1

Classification of loads 1

Combinations of loads 2

3. Loads from the equipment, the people, the animal, stored materials and the articles. 3

Determination of loads from the equipment, the stored materials and the articles 3

Evenly distributed loads 4

Concentrated loads and load on the rails 6

6. Wind loads 9

9. Other loads 15

APPENDICES

the modes of operation (exemplary/approximate enumeration) 16

Appendix 2. Reference. Load from the impact/shock of crane/valve against blind rest 16

Appendix 5. Reference. Maps of the division into districts of the territory of the USSR

for climatic characteristics 34

Rules of the calculation of the degree of the responsibility of buildings and construction during

the design/projection of constructions/designs (application/appendix to the decisions of

GOSSTROY of the USSR of 19 March, 1981..41 and of 29 July, 1982.196) 35

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS Page 1

1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

1.1. During the design/projection should be considered the loads, which appear during erection and operation of construction,

and also with the production, the storage and the transportation of the structures

1.2. Their principal values are fundamental load lines, established within the present standards.

The load of the specific form is characterized, as a rule, by one principal value.For the loads from the people, animals,

equipment on the overlaps of habitable, public and agricultural buildings, from the bridge and suspension cranes, snow,

from the temperature climatic actions are established/installed two principal values:complete and lowered/reduced (it is

introduced into the calculation if necessary for the calculation of the influence of the duration of loads, checking to the

endurance and in other cases, stipulated within the standards of the design/projection of constructions/designs and bases).

1.3. Computed value of load should be defined as the work of its principal value for the coefficient of reliability on load f,

which corresponds to the limiting condition in question and taken:

а) during the calculation for the strength and the stability.in accordance with pp.2.2, 3.4, 3.7, 3.11, 4.8, 5.7, 6.11, 7.3 and

8.7;

b) during the calculation for the endurance.equal to one;

c) in the calculations according to the deformations/strains.equal to one, if within the standards of the design/projection of

constructions/designs and bases other values are not established/installed;

d) during the calculation according to other forms of limiting conditions.according to the standards of the

design/projection of constructions/designs and bases

Computed values of loads in the presence of statistical data it is allowed to determine directly on the given probability of

their exceeding

During the calculation of structure and bases for the conditions of the erection of buildings and construction computed

values of snow, wind, glare ice loads and temperature climatic actions should be reduced by 20 %.

If necessary for calculation for the strength and the stability under the conditions of fire, under the explosive influences, the

collision/encounter of transportation means with the parts of construction the coefficients of reliability with respect to the

load for all considered in this case loads should be taken as the equal to one

Note.For the loads with two principal values appropriate computed values should be determined with the identical

coefficient of reliability on the load (for the considered limiting condition).

CLASSIFICATION OF THE LOADS

1.4. Depending on period of loading should be distinguished the permanent and temporary (prolonged, short-term, special)

loads

1.5. The loads, which appear during the production, storage and the transportation of constructions/designs, and also with the

erection of construction, should be considered in the calculations as the intermittent loads

The loads, which appear at the stage of the operation of construction, should be considered in accordance with pp, 1.6-1.9.

1.6. One should carry to the dead loads:

а) the weight of the parts of the construction, including weight of the carrying and enclosing structures;

b) weight and the pressure of soils (mounds, fillings in), the rock pressure

Being preservable in construction/design or base of force from the preliminary stress it follows

They are introduced TSNIISK im. They are affirmed by the decision

Period the introduction in the action

Kucherenko of GOSSTROY of the GOSSTROY of the USSR of 29 August,

on 1 January 1987.

USSR 1985, N 135

to consider in the calculations as forces from the dead loads

1.7. One should carry to the constant loads:

а) the weight of temporary partitions, dressings and footings for the equipment

b) the weight of the stationary equipment: machine tools, apparatuses, motors, capacities/capacitances, conduits/manifolds

with the steel framework, the supporting/reference parts and the isolation, belt conveyors, conveyors, constant hoisting

machines with their ropes and guides, and also the weight of liquids and solid bodies, which fill equipment;

c) the pressure of gases, liquids and loose materials in the tanks and the conduits/manifolds, excess pressure and the

rarefaction/evacuation of air, that appear during the ventilation of mines/shafts;

d) of load on the overlaps from the stored materials and the drying equipment in the warehouse compartments/rooms, the

refrigerators, the granaries, the libraries, the archives and similar compartments/rooms;

e) temperature technological actions from the stationary equipment;

f) the weight of the layer of water on the water-filled flat/plane coatings;

g) the weight of the deposits of production dust, if its accumulation is not excluded by the appropriate measures;

h) of load from the people, animals, equipment on the overlaps of habitable, public and agricultural buildings with the

lowered/reduced principal values, given in table 3;

i) vertical loads from the bridge and suspension cranes with the lowered/reduced principal value, determined by the

multiplication of the total principal value of vertical load from one crane (see Section 4.2) in each span of building to

the coefficient:0,5.for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of cranes YAK.'K;0,6.for the group of the

regime/conditions of the work of the cranes of "K;0,7.for the group of regime/conditions the work of the cranes of 8K.

of the group of the regimes/conditions of the work of cranes start according to GOST 25546-82;

Page 2 SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

j) loads due to snow with the lowered/reduced principal value, determined by the multiplication of total principal value in

accordance with the indications p. 5.1 for the coefficient:0,3 - for III of snow region;0,5.for IV of region;0,6.for V and

VI of regions;

l) temperature climatic actions with the lowered/reduced principal values, determined in accordance with the indications

pp.8.2.8.6 under condition 1 = 2 = 3 =.4 =.5 = 0, I = VII = 0;

m) the actions, caused by the deformations/strains of base, not accompanying by a radical change in the structure of soil, or

by the thawing of permafrost soils;

n) the actions, caused by a change in the humidity, by shrinkage and by the creep of the material

1.8. One should carry to the intermittent loads:

a) load from the equipment, which appear in the start-stop, transient and test conditions, and also during its transposition or

replacement;

b) the weight of people, repair materials in the zones of maintenance and repairing the equipment;

c) load from the people, the animals, the equipment on the overlaps of habitable, public and agricultural buildings with the

total principal values, besides the loads, indicated in p. 1.7a, b, g, d;

d) load from the mobile lifting equipment (lift loaders, electric cars, stacker-packers, telphers, and also from the bridge and

suspension cranes with the total principal value);

e) loads due to snow with the total principal value;

f) temperature climatic actions with the total principal value;

g) wind loads;

h) the glare ice loads

1.9. One should carry to the special loads:

a) seismic actions;

b) explosive actions;

c) the loads, caused by the sudden breakdowns of technological process, by temporary malfunction or by a breakdown in

the equipment;

d) the effects, caused by the deformations of base, which are accompanied by radical change in the structure of soil (with

the moistening of settled earth) or by its settling in the regions of mine workings and in the the karstic

COMBINATIONS OF THE LOADS

1.10. Structural calculation and bases according to the limiting conditions of the first and second groups should be carried out

taking into account the most unfavorable combinations of loads or corresponding to them efforts/forces.

These combinations are established from the analysis of the real versions of joint action of different loads for the stage of

the work of construction/design or base taking into account the possibility of the appearance of different diagrams of the

application of temporary loads in question or in the absence of some of the loads

1.11. Depending on the composition of loads considered one should distinguish

a) the basic combinations of loads, which consist of the constants, prolonged and short-term;

b) the special combinations of loads, which consist of the constants, prolonged, short-term and one of the special loads

Temporary loads with two principal values should be included in combinations as prolonged.upon consideration of the

reduced principal value as short-term - upon consideration of the total principal value

In the special combinations of the loads, which include explosive actions or loads, caused by the collision/encounter of

transportation means with the parts of construction, it is allowed not to consider the intermittent load, indicated in p. 1.8.

1.12. Upon consideration of the combinations, which include constants and not less than two temporary loads, computed values

of temporary loads or corresponding to them forces it follows to multiply by the coefficients of combinations, equal :

in the basic combinations for constant loads 1 = 0,95;for the the short-term 2 = 0,9;

in the special combinations for constant loads 1 = 0,95;for the the short-term 2 = 0,8, besides the cases, stipulated within

the standards of the design of construction for the seismic regions and within other standards of the design of constructions

and bases. In this case special load should be taken without the decrease

Upon consideration of the basic combinations, which include constant loads and one temporary load (prolonged or short-

term), coefficients 1, 2 introduced should not be.

Note. In the basic combinations upon consideration of three or more intermittent loads of their computed values it is allowed to

multiply by the coefficient of combination 2, taken for the first (according to the degree of influence) intermittent load.1,0,

for the second.0,8, for the rest.0,6.

1.13. One should assume/take upon consideration of the combinations of loads in accordance with the indications p. 1.12 for one

temporary load :

a) the load of the specific kind from one source (pressure or rarefaction/evacuation into the capacity/capacitance, the snow,

wind, glare ice loads, the temperature climatic actions, the load from one lift loader, electric car, bridge or suspension

crane);

b) load from several sources, if their combined action is taken into account in principal and computed values of load (load

from the equipment, the people and the stored materials to one or several overlaps taking into account coefficients A

and n, led in pp.3.8 and 3.9;load from several bridge or suspension cranes taking into account the coefficient, led in p.

4.17;glare ice- the wind load, determined in accordance with p. 7.4).

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS Page 3

2.1. The principal value of the weight of the structures of in-house production should be determined on the basis of standards,

working drawings or specifications of manufacturing plants, other structures and soils.according to the design dimensions

and by the specific weight of materials and soils taking into account their humidity under the conditions for erection and

operating the construction

2.2. The coefficients of reliability on load factor for the weight of structures and soils are given to table 1.

MATERIALS And THE ARTICLES

3.1. The standards of present division apply for loads from the people, animals, equipment, articles, materials, temporary

partitions, that act on the overlaps of buildings and hem on the soils

Table 1

Coefficient of reliability

Type of Structures and the form of the soils on load factor

Constructions/designs:

metallic 1,05

concrete (with the average density of more than 1600 kg/me), ferroconcrete, rock, reinforced 1,1

stone, wooden

the concrete (with an average density of 1600 kg/me and less), insulating, leveling and

decoration layers (plates/slabs, materials in the cylinders/reels, filling in, tightening

device, etc.), carried out :

under the plant conditions 1,2

on the construction site 1,3

Soils

:in the natural bedding 1,1

filled 1,15

Notes:1. during checking of constructions/designs to the resistance of position to the tilting/reversal, and also in

other cases, when the reduction of the weight of constructions/designs and soils can worsen/impair the

conditions for work of constructions/designs, should be produced calculation, assuming/taking for the

weight of structure or its part the coefficient of reliability on load f = 0,9.

2. При определении нагрузок от грунта следует учитывать нагрузки от складируемых материалов,

оборудования и транспортных средств, передаваемые на грунт.

3. for the metal constructions, in which the efforts/forces from the dead weight exceed 50 % general/common

efforts/forces, should be assumed/taken f = 1,1.

The versions of the load of the overlaps by these loads should be assumed/taken in accordance with the provided conditions

for erection and operating the buildings.If the data about these conditions are insufficient at the stage of design/projection,

during Structural calculationand bases it is necessary to examine the following versions of the load of the separate overlaps:

continuous load by assumed load;

unfavorable partial load during Structural calculationand bases, sensitive to this diagram of load;

the absence of the temporary load

In this case summary temporary load on the overlaps of multistory building with their unfavorable partial load must not

exceed the load with the continuous load of overlaps, determined taking into account the coefficients of combinations n,

whose values are calculated from formulas (3) and (4).

DETERMINATION OF LOADS FROM THE EQUIPMENT,

THE STORED MATERIALS and THE ARTICLES

3.2. Loads from the equipment (including of conduits/manifolds, transportation means), the stored materials and the articles are

established/installed in the construction task on the basis the technological solutions, in which they must be given:

a) are possible on each overlap and floors on the soil of location and the overall sizes of the supports of equipment, the

sizes/dimensions of the sections of storing and storage of materials and articles, place of the possible rapprochement of

equipment in the process of operation or re-planning;

b) the principal values of loads and the coefficients of reliability on the load, taken in accordance with the indications of

present standards, for the machines with the dynamic loads.the principal values of inertial forces and the coefficients of

reliability on the load for the inertial forces, and also other necessary characteristics.

During the replacement of actual loads on the overlaps by the equivalent evenly distributed loads the latter should be

calculated and assigned differentiated for different structural elements (plates/slabs, joists, cross bars, columns,

foundations).The values of equivalent loads adopted must ensure the bearing capacity and the hardness of the elements of

constructions/designs, their required on conditions loads with actual loads.The total principal values of the equivalent

evenly distributed loads for the production and warehouse compartments/rooms should be taken for the plates/slabs and

joists not less than 3,0 kPa (300 kgs/m2), for the cross bars, columns and foundations.not less than 2,0 to Pa (200 kgs/m2).

The calculation of a promising increase in the loads from the equipment and the stored materials is allowed with the

Page 4 SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

3.3. The principal value of the weight of equipment, including of conduits/manifolds, should be determined on the basis of

standards or catalogs, and for the optional equipment.on the basis of specifications of manufacturing plants or working

drawings

In the composition of load from the weight of equipment should be included the dead weight of installation or machine

(including of drive, constant adaptations, supporting devices, dressings and footings), the weight of isolation, fillers of

equipment, possible with the operation, heaviest workpiece, the weight of the transported cargo, which corresponds to

nominal load capacity and, etc.

Loads from the equipment on the overlaps and the hem on the soils must be assumed/taken depending on the conditions for

its arrangement/position and virtual displacement during the operation.In this case should be provided for the measures,

which prevent the need of amplifying the frameworks, the connected/bonded with the displacement/movement

technological equipment during installation or operation of the building

The number simultaneously of the lift loaders considered or electric cars and their arrangement/position on the overlap

during the calculation of different elements should be assumed/taken on the construction task on the basis of the

technological solutions

The dynamic effect of vertical loads from the lift loaders and the electric cars is allowed to consider by the multiplication of

the principal values of static loads on the dynamicity coefficient, equal to 1,2

3.4. The coefficients of reliability on load f u for the weight of equipment are given in table 2.

Table 2

Coefficient of reliability on load

Weight

factor

Stationary equipment 1,05

Isolations of stationary equipment 1,2

Fillers of equipment (including of reservoirs and conduits/manifolds): 1,0

liquids 1,1

suspensions, slimes, loose materials 1,2

Lift loaders and electric cars (with the load)

3.5. The principal values of the evenly distributed temporary loads on the plates/slabs of overlaps, stairs and hem on the soils

are given in table 3

3.6. The principal values of loads on cross bars and plates/slabs of overlaps from the weight of temporary partitions should be

taken depending on their construction/design, arrangements also of the nature of support to the overlaps and the walls.The

loads indicated it is allowed to consider as the evenly distributed extra loads, taking their principal values on the basis of

calculation for the assumed schematics of the arrangement/position of partitions, but not less than 0,5 kPa (50 kgs/m2).

3.7. The coefficients of reliability on load f for the evenly distributed loads should be assumed/taken:

1,3 — with the total principal value less than 2,0 kPa (200 kgs/m2);

1,2 — with the total principal value of 2,0 kPa (200 kgs/m2) and more

The coefficient of reliability on the load from the weight of temporary partitions should be assumed/taken in accordance

with the indications p. 2.2.

3.8. During the calculation of beams/gullies, cross bars, plates/slabs, and also columns and foundations, which receive loads

from one overlap, total principal value of loads, indicated in table 3, one should descend depending on cargo area A, m2,

the designed element by multiplication for the coefficient of combination A, equal:

a) for the compartments/rooms, indicated in poses.1, 2, 12a (with A > Ay = 9 m2),

Error!Error!; (1)

b) for the compartments/rooms, indicated in poses.4, 11, 12b (при А >А2= 36м2),

Table 3

Principal values of loads r, kPa

Buildings and the compartment/room (kgs/m2 )

complete lowered/reduced

1. Apartments of habitable buildings;sleeping quarters of children's pre-school 1,5 (150) 0,3 (30)

establishments and boarding schools;living quarters of the houses of leisure

and boarding houses, the hostel also of hotels;the chamber of hospitals and

sanatoriums;the terrace

2. Official compartments/rooms of administrative, technical-engineering, scientific 2,0 (200) 0,7 (70)

personnel of organizations and establishments;the class

compartments/rooms of the establishments of education;the everyday

compartments/rooms (wardrobe, showers, wash, restrooms) of industrial

enterprises and public buildings and construction

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS Page 5

3. Offices and the laboratory of the establishments of public health;the laboratory Not less Not less

of the establishments of education, science;the compartment/room of 2,0 (200) 1,0 (100)

electronic computers;the kitchen of public buildings;technical floors;the

basement compartments/rooms

4. Halls

.a) are reading 2,0 (200) 0,7 (70)

b) dinner (in the cafe, the restaurants, dining rooms ) 3,0 (300) 1,0 (100)

c) of meetings and conferences, the expectations, visual and concert, sport 4,0 (400) 1,4 (140)

d) commercial, exhibition and exposure Not less Not less

4,0 (400) 1,4 (140)

5. Libraries;the archives Not less Not less

5,0 (500) 5,0 (500)

6. Scenes of the entertainment enterprises Not less Not less

5,0 (500) 1,8 (180)

7. Platforms:

a) with the fixed seats 4,0 (400) 1.4 (140)

b) for the spectators confronting 5,0 (500) 1,8 (180)

8. Garret compartments/rooms 0,7 (70) —

9. Coatings in the sections :

a) with the possible accumulation of people (outgoing from the production 4,0 (400) 1,4 (140)

compartments/rooms, halls, audiences/auditoriums and the like.)

b) of those utilized for leisure 1,5 (150) 0,5 (50)

c) of other 0,5 (50) -

10. balconies (lodzhii) taking into account the load:

a) by band uniform in the section with a width of 0,8 m along the 4,0 (400) 1,4 (140)

enclosure/protection of balcony (lodzhii)

b) by continuous uniform over the area of balcony (lodzhii), action by which is 2,0 (200) 0,7 (70)

more unfavorable than determined from pos. 10a

11. Sections of maintenance/servicing and repairing the equipment in the Not less -

production compartments/rooms 1,5 (150)

12. Vestibyuli, foyer, corridors, stairs (with the relating to them passages), which

adjoin the compartments/rooms, indicated in the positions :

а) 1, 2 and 3 3,0 (300) 1,0 (100)

b) 4, 5, 6 and 11 4,0 (400) 1,4 (140)

c) 7 5,0 (500) 1,8 (180)

13. Platforms of the stations 4,0 (400) 1,4 (140)

14. Compartments/rooms for the cattle:

small Not less Not less

2,0 (200) 0,7 (70)

large Not less Not less

5,0 (500) 1,8 (180)

Notes:1. Loads, indicated in poses.8, one should consider over the area, not occupied with equipment and materials

2. Loads, indicated in poses.9, one should consider without load due to snow .

3. Loads, indicated in poses.10, one should consider during the calculation of the frameworks of balconies

(lodzhiy) and sections of walls in the places of jamming these constructions/designs.During the calculation of

the underlying sections of walls, foundations and bases of load on the balconies (lodzhii) should be taken as

the equal to the loads of those adjoining basic compartment/room building and decreased they taking into

account indications pp.3.8 and 3.9.

4. Principal values of loads for the buildings and the compartments/rooms, indicated in poses.3, 4g, 5, 6, 11 and

14, one should assume/take on the construction task on the basis of the technological solutions .

Error!Error!. (2)

Note. During the calculation of the walls, which receive loads from one overlap, the values of loads should be reduced depending

on the cargo area A of the calculated elements (plates/slabs, beams/gullies), which rest on the walls .

3.9. During the determination of longitudinal forces for calculating of columns, walls and foundations, which receive loads from

two overlaps and more, the total principal values of loads, indicated in table 3, should be reduced by multiplication by the

coefficient of combination n:

a) for the compartments/rooms, indicated in poses.1, 2, 12a,

ψА1 – 0

ψn1 = 0,4 + ; (3)

4; n

Page 6 SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

ψА2 – 0

ψn2 = 0,5 + , (4)

5; n

where A1, A2.they are determined in accordance with p. 3.8;

п — the total number of overlaps (for the compartments/rooms, indicated in table 3, poses.1, 2, 4, 11, 12a, b), loads from which

are considered during the calculation of the section in question column, wall, the foundation

Note. With the determination of the bending moments in the columns and the walls should be considered a reduction in the loads

for the adjacent them beams/gullies and the cross bars in accordance with the indications p. 3.8.

CONCENTRATED LOADS And LOADS ON THE RAILS

3.10. The carriers of overlaps, coatings, stairs and balconies (lodzhiy) must be checked for the concentrated vertical load, applied

to the element, in the unfavorable position on square area with the sides not more than 10 cm (in the absence of other

temporary loads).If in the construction task on the basis of the technological solutions the higher principal values of

concentrated loads are not provided, them should be taken as the equal:

а) for the overlaps and the stairs.1,5 kN (150 kg);

b) for the garret overlaps, the coatings, the terraces and the balconies.1,0 kN (100 kg);

c) for the coatings, on which it is possible to be moved only with the aid of the ladders and the bridges.0,5 kN (50 kg).

the elements, designed for possible with the erection and operations local loads from equipment and transportation means,

it is allowed not to check against concentrated load indicated.

3.11. The principal values of horizontal loads on the handrails of the rails of stairs and balconies should be taken as the equal:

a) for the habitable buildings, the pre-school establishments, the houses of leisure, sanatoriums, hospitals and other

therapeutic establishments.0,3 kN/m (30 kG/m);

b) for the platforms and the sport halls.1,5 kN/m (150 kG/m);

c) for other buildings and compartments/rooms in the absence of the special requirements 0,8 kN/m (80 kG/m);

For the operating areas/sites, the bridges, the enclosures/protections of roofs, intended for a short stay of people, the

principal value of horizontal concentrated load on the handrails of rails should be assumed/taken 0,3 kN (30 kg) (in any

place along the length of handrail), if the larger value of the load is not required on the construction task on the basis of the

technological solutions

For the loads, indicated in pp.3.10 and 3.11, should be assumed/taken the coefficient of reliability on load f = 1,2

4.1. Loads from the bridge and suspension cranes should be determined depending on the groups of the modes of their

operation, established BY GOST 25546.82, from the type of drive and from the method of the suspension of load.The

exemplary/approximate enumeration of the bridge and suspension cranes of the different groups of the operating modes is

given in reference application/appendix 1.

4.2. The total principal values of the vertical loads, transferred by the wheels of cranes to the beams/gullies of crane way, and

others necessary for the calculation data should be assumed/taken in accordance with the requirements of state standards

for the cranes, and for the nonstandard cranes.in accordance with the data, indicated in the passports of the manufacturing

plants .

Note. By crane way are understood both beams/gullies, which carry one bridge crane, and all beams/gullies, which carry one

suspension crane (two beams/gullies.with the single-span, three.with the double-transit suspension crane and the like.)

4.3. The principal value of the horizontal load, directed along the crane way and the called party by braking the bridge of

electrical crane, should be assumed equal 0,1 total principal value of vertical load on the brake wheels of the side of the

crane in question

4.4. The principal value of the horizontal load, directed across the crane way and the electrical cart caused by braking, should be

assumed equal:

for the cranes with the flexible suspension of load.0,05 sums of the lift of crane and weight of cart;

for the cranes with the rigid/hard suspension of load.0,1 sum of the lift of crane and weight of the cart

this load should be considered during the calculation of the transverse frames of buildings and beams/gullies of crane

ways.In this case it starts that the load is transferred to one side (beam/gully) of crane way, is distributed equally between

all resting on it wheels of crane and can be directed both inward and the outside considered/examined span

4.5. The principal value of the horizontal load, directed across the crane way and the called party by the misalignments of

travelling electric cranes and by the nonparallelism of crane ways (lateral force), for each running wheel of crane should be

assumed equal 0,1 total principal value of vertical load on the wheel

this load must be considered only during the calculation of strength and stability of the beams/gullies of crane methods and

their fastenings to the columns in the buildings with the cranes of the groups of the modes of operation of "K, 8K.In this

case it starts that the load is transferred to the beam/gully of crane way from all wheels of one side of crane and can be

directed both inward and the outside considered/examined span of building.The load, indicated in p. 4.4, should not be

considered together with the lateral force

4.6. Horizontal loads from braking of bridge and crane truck and lateral forces are considered applied in the place of the contact

of running wheels of crane with the rail

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS Page 7

4.7. The principal value of the horizontal load, directed along the crane way and the called party by the impact/shock of crane

against blind rest, should be determined in accordance with the indications, given in required application/appendix 2.this

load must be considered only during the calculation of rests and their fastenings to the beams/gullies of the crane way.

4.8. The coefficient of reliability on the load for the crane loads should be assumed/taken f = 1,1.

Note. Upon consideration of the local and dynamic action of the concentrated vertical load from one wheel of crane the total

principal value of this load should be multiplied during the calculation of the strength of the beams/gullies of crane ways by

the additional coefficient of f1, equal:

1,6— for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the cranes of 8K with the rigid/hard suspension of load;

1,4— for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the cranes of 8K with the flexible suspension of load;

1,3 — for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the cranes of 7K;

1,1 — for the remaining groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of cranes.During testing of the local stability of the

walls of beams/gullies should be assumed equal the value of additional coefficient to 1,1.

4.9. During the calculation of strength and stability of the beams/gullies of crane method and their fastenings to the frameworks

computed values of vertical crane loads should be multiplied by the dynamicity coefficient, equal:

with the step/pitch of columns not more than 12 m:

1,2— for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the bridge cranes of 8K;

1,1 — for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of the bridge cranes of 'K and "K, and also for all groups of the

regimes/conditions of the work of suspension cranes;

with the step/pitch of columns it is more than 12 m.1,1 for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the bridge

cranes of 8K.

Computed values of horizontal loads from the bridge cranes of the group of the mode of operation of 8K should be

considered with the dynamicity coefficient, equal to 1,1.

In the remaining cases the dynamicity coefficient is taken as equal, 1,0.

During Structural calculationto the endurance, testing of the saggings/deflections of the beams/gullies of crane methods and

displacement of columns, and also upon consideration of the local action of the concentrated vertical load from one wheel

of crane the dynamicity coefficient considered should not be.

4.10. Vertical loads during the calculation of strength and stability of the beams/gullies of crane ways should be considered not

more than from two most unfavorable according to action bridge or suspension cranes. .

4.11. Vertical loads during the calculation of strength and stability of frames, columns, foundations, and also bases in the

buildings with the bridge cranes in several spans (in each span on one tier) should be assumed/taken on each way not more

than from two most unfavorable according to action cranes, but upon consideration of combination in one range of the

cranes of different spans.not more than from four most unfavorable according to action cranes.

4.12. Vertical loads during the calculation of strength and stability of frames, columns, rafter and frame-supporting

constructions/designs, foundations, and also bases of buildings with the suspension cranes on one or several ways should be

assumed/taken on each way not more than from two most unfavorable according to action cranes.Upon consideration of

combination in one range of the suspension cranes, which work on the different ways, vertical loads should be

assumed/taken:

not more than from two cranes.for the columns, the frame-supporting constructions/designs, the foundations and the bases

of an extreme number with two crane ways in the span;

not more than from four cranes:

for the columns, the frame-supporting constructions/designs, the foundations and the bases of an average/mean number;

for the columns, the frame-supporting constructions/designs, the foundations and the bases of an extreme number with

three crane ways in the span;

for the rafter constructions/designs with two or three crane ways in the span

4.13. Horizontal loads during the calculation of strength and stability of the beams/gullies of crane ways, columns, frames, rafter

and frame-supporting constructions/designs, foundations, and also bases should be considered not more than from two most

unfavorable according to action cranes, arranged/located on one crane way or on the different ways in one range.In this

case for each crane it is necessary to consider only one horizontal load (transverse or longitudinal).

4.14. Number of cranes, considered in the calculations of strength and stability during the determination of vertical and horizontal

loads from the bridge cranes on two or three tiers in the span, during the simultaneous arrangement/position in the span

both of suspension and bridge cranes, and also during the operation of the suspension cranes, intended for the transfer of

load from one crane to another with the aid of the reversable bridges, one should assume/take on the construction task on

the basis of the technological solutions

4.15. During the determination of the vertical and horizontal saggings/deflections of the beams/gullies of crane methods, and also

horizontal displacements of columns the load should be calculated from one most unfavorable on the basis of action crane

4.16. When, on the crane way, one crane is present, and when the second crane will not be established/installed during the

operation of construction, load by this method they must be taken into account only from one crane

4.17. Upon consideration of two cranes of load from them it is necessary to multiply by the coefficient of the combinations:

ψ = 0,85 — for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work Of the yk-'k cranes ;

ψ = 0,95 — for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of the cranes of 7K, 8K.

Upon consideration of four cranes of load from them it is necessary to multiply by the coefficient of the combinations:

ψ = 0,7 — for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of cranes 1К-6К;

Page 8 SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

ψ = 0,8 — for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of cranes 7К, 8К.

Upon consideration of one crane vertical and horizontal loads from it must be assumed/taken without the decrease .

4.18. During the calculation for the endurance of the beams/gullies of crane ways under the electric traveling cranes and

fastenings of these beams/gullies to the frameworks should be considered the lowered/reduced principal values of loads in

accordance with p. 1.7i.In this case for checking the endurance of the walls of beams/gullies in the zone of action of the

concentrated vertical load from one wheel of crane the lowered/reduced principal values of the vertical effort/force of

wheel should be multiplied by the coefficient, considered during the calculation of the strength of the beams/gullies of

crane ways in accordance with the note to p. 4.8.The groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of the cranes, with

which should be performed the calculation to the endurance, are established by the standards of the design/projection of the

constructions/designs

5.1. The total principal value of load due to snow on the horizontal projection of coating s should be determined from the formula

s = s0 μ , (5)

where S0 the principal value of the weight of snow cover on 1 m2 horizontal earth's surface, taken in accordance with p. 5.2;

μ — the conversion factor from the weight of snow cover of the earth/ground to load due to snow on the coating, taken in

accordance with pp.5.3-5.6.

5.2. The principal value of the weight of snow cover S0 on 1 m2 horizontal earth's surface should be taken depending on the snow

region of the USSR for data of table 4.

5.3. The diagrams of the distribution of load due to snow and value of coefficients. should be assumed/taken in accordance with

required application/appendix 3, in this case the intermediate values of coefficients.it is necessary to determine by linear

interpolation .

When the more unfavorable conditions for work of the elements of constructions/designs appear with the partial load, should be

examined diagrams with load due to snow, which acts on half or fourth of span (for the coatings with the lamps/canopies.in

the sections with a width of b).

Note. In the necessary cases loads due to snow should be determined taking into account the provided further expansion of the

building

5.4. The versions with increased local loads due to snow, given in required application/appendix 3, must be considered during

the calculation of plates/slabs, flooring and girders/drives of coatings, and also during the calculation of those elements of

the frameworks (farms/trusses, beams/gullies, columns, etc.), for which the versions indicated determine the

sizes/dimensions of the sections .

Note. The application of the simplified diagrams of loads due to snow, equivalent on the action to the load diagrams, given in

required application/appendix 3, is allowed during calculations of constructions/designs.During the calculation of frames

and columns of production buildings the calculation only of evenly distributed load due to snow, with exception of the

places of drops/jumps in the coatings, where it is necessary to consider increased load due to snow , is allowed

5.5. Coefficients, established/installed in accordance with the indications of diagrams 1, of 2, 5 and 6 required appendices 3 for

the gently sloping (with the inclines to 12% or with f l < 0,05) coatings of single-span and multispan buildings without the

lamps/canopies, projected/designed in the regions with average wind speed for three most

Table4

The snow regions of the USSR (they start on

the map/chart/card of 1 required appendix 5) I II III IV V VI

s0, kPa (kgs/m2 ) 0,5 (50) 0,7 (70) 1,0(100) 1,5(150) 2,0 (200) 2,5 (250)

Note. The principal value of the weight of snow cover in the mountain and insufficiently studied regions, designated

on the map/chart/card of 1 required appendix 5, and also in the points/items with a height above sea level of

more than 1500 m and in the places with the complex relief should be established/installed on the basis of data

of Goskomgidromet ╨ - State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on Hydrometeorology╩.In

this case as the principal value of the weight of snow cover s0 should be taken the average/mean value of the

yearly maximums of the water supply according to the results of snow surveying in the section, protected from

the action of wind, during the period not less than 10 years

cold of month.> 2 m/s, one should descend by multiplication by the coefficient for = 1,2.0,yg.

For the coatings with the inclines from 12 to 20 % single-span and multispan buildings without the lamps/canopies,

projected/designed in the regions s in.4 m/s, coefficients, established/installed in accordance with the indications of the

diagrams of 1 and 5 required appendices 3, one should descend by multiplication by the coefficient, equal to 0,85.

Average wind speed v in three coldest months should be assumed/taken on the map/chart/card 2 required appendices 5.

In the indicated cases for the buildings with a width of b to 90 m and with the height of yu > of 10 m the coefficient for

must be additionally reduced by multiplication by the coefficient

k1 = 1 – 0,2 Error!, но не менее 0,7.

The reduction in load due to snow, provided for by present point/item, is not extended:

а) for coatings of buildings in the regions with the average/mean monthly temperature of air during January above minus

of 5 °C (see the map/chart/card of 5 required appendices 5);

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS Page 9

b) for coatings of the buildings, protected from the direct action of wind by the adjacent higher buildings, removed less

than to 10 h1 where h1.altitude difference of adjacent and projected/designed buildings;

c) in the sections of the coatings with a length of b, by and b2 in drops/jumps in the heights of buildings and parapets (see

the diagrams of 8.11 required appendices 3).

5.6. Coefficients.during the determination of loads due to snow for the unheated coatings of shops with the increased heat

emissions with the inclines of roofing it is more than 3 % and the guarantee of the proper outlet of melt water one should

descend by 20 % independent of the decrease, provided by p. 5.5.

5.7. Should be assumed equal the coefficient of reliability on load f for load due to snow to 1,4.During the calculation of the

elements of the construction/design of coating, for which the relation of the considered principal value of the evenly

distributed load from the weight of coating (including the weight of stationary equipment) to the principal value of the

weight of snow cover S0 less than 0,8, f should be assumed equal to 1,6.

6.1. Wind load on the construction should be considered as the totality :

а) the normal pressure she, applied to the external surface of construction or element;

b) the frictional forces shf, directed tangentially toward the external surface and in reference to the area of its horizontal

(for the north-light/sawtooth or wavy coatings, the coatings with the lamps/canopies) or elevation (for the walls with

lodzhiyami and similar constructions/designs);

c) the normal pressure shi, applied to the internal surfaces of buildings with the permeable enclosures/protections, with the

opened/disclosed or constantly open apertures;

or as the normal pressure shkh, shy, caused by the total resistance of construction in the direction of axes X and in and

conditionally applied to the projection of construction on the plane, perpendicular to the appropriate axis

6.2. Wind load should be defined as the sum of average/mean and pulsating components .

During the determination of internal pressure shi, and also during the calculation of multistory buildings with a height of up

to 40 m and the single-story production buildings with a height to 36 m in the ratio of the height to the span of less than 1,5,

the placed in the terrains types A and V (see Section 6.5), pulsating component of wind load it is allowed not to consider

6.3. The principal value of average/mean component of wind load shm at the height z above the earth's surface should be

determined from the formula

wm = w0 kc, (6)

where W0 — the principal value of wind pressure (see p.6.4);

k — the coefficient, which calculates a change in the wind pressure on the basis of height (see p.6.5);

с — aerodynamic coefficient (see p. 6.6).

6.4. The principal value of wind pressure Sh0 should be taken depending on the wind region of the USSR for data of table 5 .

For the mountain and insufficiently studied regions, designated on map/chart/card 3, the principal value of wind pressure Sh0 is

allowed to establish/install on the basis of data of the meteorological stations of Goskomgidromet ╨ - State Committee of

the Council of Ministers of the USSR on Hydrometeorology╩, and also results of the inspection/examination of the regions

of building taking into account experience of operating construction.In this case the principal value of wind pressure Sh0,

Pa, should be determined from the formula

w 0 = 0 , 61 v 02 , (7)

where V0 — wind speed at the level 10 m above the earth's surface for the terrain of the type A, which corresponds to the 10-

minute interval of averaging and exceeded on the average of times in 5 years (if the technical specifications, approved in

the routine, do not regulate other periods of the repetition of wind speeds),

6.5. The coefficients k, which calculate a change in the wind pressure on the basis of height z, are determined by

Table 5

The wind regions of the USSR

(they start on the map of 3 Iа I II III IV V VI VII

required appendices 5)

w0, kPa (kgf/m2) 0,17(17) 0,23 (23) 0,30(30) 0,38 (38) 0,48 (48) 0,60(60) 0,73(73) 0,85(85)

table 6 depending on the type of terrain .The following types of terrain start:

А - the open coasts of seas, lakes and reservoirs, desert, steppe, wooded plain, tundra;

В - urban territories, forests and other terrains, evenly covered with obstacles with the height are more than 10 m;

С - urban regions with the building by the buildings with a height are more than 25 m .

Construction is considered located in a terrain of this type, if this terrain remains from the windward side of construction at

a distance To z0yu.with height of construction yu to 60 m and 2 km.at the larger height

Table 6

Height of z,m Coefficients k for the types of the terrain

А В С

≤5 0,75 0,5 0,4

10 1,0 0,65 0,4

Page 10 SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

40 1,5 1,1 0,8

60 1,7 1,3 1,0

80 1,85 1,45 1,15

100 2,0 1,6 1,25

150 2,25 1,9 1,55

200 2,45 2,1 1,8

250 2,65 2,3 2,0

300 2,75 2,5 2,2

350 2,75 2,75 2,35

≥ 480 2,75 2,75 2,75

Note: During the determination of wind load the types of

terrain can be different for the different calculated wind

directions.

6.6. During the determination of the components of wind load the we, wf, wi, wx, wy

should be used the appropriate values of the aerodynamic coefficients:external pressure se, friction sf, internal pressure by

SI, and drag chkh or Chews, taken on required application/appendix 4, where by the pointers.wind direction is shown.Sign

plhs "in coefficients che or SI corresponds to the direction of wind pressure on the appropriate surface, sign minus".from

the surface.The intermediate values of loads should be determined by linear interpolation

During the calculation of fastenings of the elements of enclosure/protection to the frameworks in the angles of building and

according to the outer duct of coating should be considered the local negative wind pressure with the aerodynamic

coefficient se = 2, distributed along the surfaces on the width of 1,5 m (diag. 1).

In the cases, not provided by required application/appendix 4 (other forms of construction, calculation with the proper

substantiation of other directions of the wind current or components of the total resistance of body on other directions, etc.),

aerodynamic coefficients it is allowed to assume/take according to reference and experimental data or on the basis of the

results of the testings of model in wind tunnel of constructions/designs in the wind tunnels

Note.During the determination of wind load on the surface of internal walls and partitions in the absence of external

enclosure/protection (at the stage of the installation of building) should be used aerodynamic coefficients of external

pressure se or of drag сх.

Figure.1. sections with the increased negative wind pressure

6.7. The principal value of pulsating component of wind load shp at the height z

should be determined:

а) for construction (and their structural elements), whose first natural vibration

frequency fy, Hz, is more than the limiting value of natural frequency fl (see

Section 6.8) - according to the formula

wp = wm ζ v, (8)

where wm – it is determined in accordance with p. 6.3;

ζ – the ripple factor of wind pressure at the level z, taken according to table

7;

v – the coefficient of the space correlation of the pulsation of wind

pressure (see Section 6.9);

Table 7

Ripple factors of wind pressure.for the types of the terrain

Height z, m

А В С

≤5 0,85 1,22 1,78

10 0,76 1,06 1,78

20 0,69 0,92 1,50

40 0,62 0,80 1,26

60 0,58 0,74 1,14

80 0,56 0,70 1,06

100 0,54 0,67 1,00

150 0,51 0,62 0,90

200 0,49 0,58 0,84

250 0,47 0,56 0,80

300 0,46 0,54 0,76

350 0,46 0,52 0,73

≥ 480 0,46 0,50 0,68

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS Page 11

1 — 1.for the ferroconcrete and concrete construction, and also the buildings with the steel frame in the presence of the

enclosing constructions/designs (. = 0,3);

2.for the steel towers, the masts, the lined chimney stacks, column type apparatuses, including on the ferroconcrete

pedestals (. = 0,15)

b) for the construction (and their structural elements), which can be considered as system with one degree of freedom (transverse

frames of single-story production buildings, water towers, etc.), when fie < fl - according to the formula

wp = wm ξ ζ v , (9)

where ξ — the dynamicity coefficient, determined from Figure.2 depending on the parameter

ε = Error! and the logarithmic decrement of oscillations/vibrations 6 (see Section 6.8);

γf — the coefficient of reliability on the load (see Section 6.11) ;

wo — the principal value of wind pressure, Pa (see Section 6.4);

в) for the buildings, symmetrical in the plan/layout, which have fy < fl also for all construction, which have fy < fl < f2 (where

f2.the second natural vibration frequency of construction). according to the formula

wp = m ξ ψy, (10)

where т - the mass of construction at the level z, in reference to the surface area, to which is applied the wind load ;

ξ - dynamicity coefficient (see Section 6.76);

у - the horizontal displacement/movement of construction at the level z over the first form of the natural

oscillations/vibrations (for the symmetrical in the plan/layout buildings of a constant height as u it is allowed to assume/take

displacement/movement from evenly distributed horizontally applied static load);

ψ - the coefficient, determined by means of the separation of construction on r of the sections, within limits of which the wind

load is received as constant, according to the formula

r

∑y w k pk

ψ = k =1

r

, (11)

∑ y Mk

k =1

2

k

yk - the horizontal displacement/movement of the center of the k-th section ;

wpk - the resultant of pulsating component of the wind load, determined from formula (8), in the k-th section of the

construction .

For the multistory buildings with the constants on the height by hardness, the mass and the width of windward surface the

principal value of pulsating component of wind load at the level g is allowed to determine from the formula

Error!, (12)

where to shpyu - principal value of pulsating component of wind load at the height yu of the top of construction,

determined from formula (8).

6.8. The limiting value of the natural vibration frequency fl, Hz, with which it is allowed not to consider the inertial forces, which

appear during the oscillations/vibrations on the appropriate its own form, should be determined on Table.8.

Table 8

The wind regions of the USSR (they start fl, Hz, with

on the map/chart/card of 3 required

appendices 5) δ= 0,3 δ= 0,15

Ia 0,85 2,6

I 0,95 2,9

II 1,1 3,4

III 1,2 3,8

IV 1,4 4,3

V 1,6 5,0

VI 1,7 5,6

VII 1,9 5,9

Page 12 SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

For the construction of cylindrical form when fy < fl it is necessary to additionally perform calculation for the vortex/eddy

excitation (wind resonance).

Value of the logarithmic decrement of oscillations/vibrations.one should assume/take :

а) for the ferroconcrete and rock construction, and also for the buildings with the steel framework/body in the presence of

the enclosing constructions/designs δ = 0,3;

b) for the steel towers, the masts, the lined chimney stacks, column type apparatuses, including on the ferroconcrete

pedestals,δ = 0,15.

6.9. The coefficient of the space correlation of the pulsation of pressure in should be determined for the calculated surface of

construction, on which is considered the correlation of the pulsation

Calculated surface includes those parts of the surface of windward, leeward, lateral walls, roofing and similar

constructions/designs, from which the wind

pressure is transferred for designed structural

member .

If calculated surface is close to the rectangle,

oriented so that its sides are parallel to the major

axes (diag. 3), then coefficient in should be

determined according to table 9 depending on

the parameters r and.taken according to table 10.

During the calculation of construction as a whole

the dimensions of calculated surface should be

determined taking into account the indications of

required appendix 4, in this case for the lattice

construction it is necessary to assume/take the

dimensions of calculated surface on its outer

duct

Figure.3. basic coordinate system during the determination of the correlation coefficient in Table 9

Table 9

Coefficients in pri., m, equal

р, м

5 10 20 40 80 160 350

0,1 0,95 0,92 0,88 0,83 0,76 0,67 0,56

5 0,89 0,87 0,84 0,80 0,73 0,65 0,54

10 0,85 0,84 0,81 0,77 0,71 0,64 0,53

20 0,80 0,78 0,76 0,73 0,68 0,61 0,51

40 0,72 0,72 0,70 0,67 0,63 0,57 0,48

80 0,63 0,63 0,61 0,59 0,56 0,51 0,44

160 0,53 0,53 0,52 0,50 0,47 0,44 0,38

Table 10

The basic coordinate plane, in parallel which arranged/located the calculated surface р χ

zoy b h

zox 0,4 a h

хоу b а

6.10. For the construction, in which f2 < f1 it is necessary to perform dynamic calculation taking into account from the first forms

of natural oscillations/vibrations.The number s should be determined from the condition

fs < fl < fs+1.

6.11. The coefficient of reliability on wind load f should be assumed equal 1,4

7. GLARE ICE LOADS

7.1. Glare ice loads must be considered during the design of the air electric power lines and communications, overhead electric

transport power lines of the electrified transport, antenna- mast devices and similar construction

7.2. Principal value of linear glare ice load for the elements of the circular section with a diameter of up to 70 mm of on

(wires/conductors, ropes, guys, masts, guys, etc..)i, N/m, one should determine from the formula

i = π b k µ1 (d + b k µ1) ρ g⋅10–3 . (13)

Principal value of surface glare ice load i'.Pa, for other elements one should determine from the formula

i' = bk μ2 ρg. (14)

In formulas (13) and (14):

b – the thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface, mm (exceeded of times in is 5 years), on the elements of the circular

section with a diameter of 10 mm, arranged/located on height 10m above the earth's surface, taken according to table 11,

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS Page 13

and at the height of 200 m and more.according to table 12.For other periods of repetition the thickness of the wall of ice-

covered surface should be assumed/taken on the special technical specifications, approved in the routine;

k – the coefficient, which calculates a change in the thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface on the basis of height and taken

according to table 13;

d –- the diameter of wire/conductor, rope, mm;

μ1 – the coefficient, which considers a change of the thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface in the dependence on the

diameter of the elements of circular section and determined according to table 14;

μ2 – the coefficient, which considers the relation of the surface area of element, subjected to icing, to the total surface area of

element and taken to the equal to 0,6;

ρ – ice density, taken equal to 0,9 g/sme ;

g – the acceleration due to gravity, m/s2 .

Table 11

The glare ice regions of the USSR (start on the

I II III IV V

map/chart/card of 4 required appendices 5 )

Thicknesses of the wall of ice-covered surface b, mm Not less than 3 5 10 15 Not less than 20

Table 12

Thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface b, mm, for the different regions of the USSR

Height above the The region of the glare

In the region of glare icing the northern part of the

earth's surface, m icing of the Asian part of the rest

and mountain localities European territory of the USSR

the USSR

200 15 It starts on the basis of the It starts on the chart of 4,g 35

special inspections required appendices 5

300 20 The same The same, on the chart 4,д 45

400 25 " The same, on the chart 4,е 60

Table 13

Height above the earth's surface, m 5 10 20 30 50 70 100

Coefficient k 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0

Table 14

Diameter of wire/conductor, rope or rope, mm 5 10 20 30 50 70

Coefficient μ1 1,1 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6

Notes (to table 11.14):1. v in the region, the mountain and insufficiently studied regions of the USSR, designated on the

map/chart/card of 4 required appendices 5, and also in very rugged terrains (at the peaks of mountains and hills,

on the crossings, on the high mounds, in the closed mountain valleys, basins, the heavy cuts t, p.)the thickness of

the wall of ice-covered surface must be determined on the basis of data of special inspections/examinations and

observations

2. The intermediate values of values should be determined by linear interpolation .

3. The thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface on the suspended/hung horizontal elements of circular section (ropes,

wires/conductors, ropes) it is allowed to assume/take at the height of the arrangement of their given center of gravity .

4. For determining the glare ice load on the horizontal elements of circular cylindrical form with a diameter of up to 70

mm the thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface, given in table 12, should be reduced by 10%

7.3. The coefficient of reliability on load f for the glare ice load should be assumed equal to 1,3, with exception of the cases,

stipulated in other principal documents

7.4. Wind pressure on the elements covered with ice-covered surface should be assumed equal 25 % of the principal value of

the wind pressure Sh0, determined according to p. 6.4.

Notes: 1. The separate regions of the USSR, where are observed the combinations of significant wind speeds with the large

sizes/dimensions of glare ice- hoarfrost deposits, the thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface and its density, and also

wind pressure should be assumed/taken in accordance with actual data .

2. During the determination of wind loads on structural members, arranged/located on the height it is more than 100 m

above the earth's surface, the diameter of iced wires/conductors and ropes, established/installed taking into account the

thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface, given in table 12, it is necessary to multiply by the coefficient, equal to 1,5.

7.5. The temperature of air with the rime independent of the height of construction should be assumed/taken in the mountain

regions with the mark:more than 2000 m.minus 15° C, from 1000 to 2000 m - minus 10° C;for the remaining territory of

the USSR for the construction with a height of up to 100 m.minus 5 ° C, is more than 100 m.minus 10 ° C .

Note. In the regions, where with the rime is observed temperature below minus 15° s, it should be assumed/taken according to

actual data .

Page 14 SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

8.1. In the cases, provided by the standards of the design/projection of constructions/designs, should be considered change in

time t of mean temperature and temperature differential.over the section of the element .

8.2. The principal values of changes in mean temperatures over the section of element respectively in warm tw, and cold tc the

season should be determined from the formulas :

Δtw = tw – toc; (15)

Δtc = tc – tow, (16)

where tw, tc - the principal values of mean temperatures over the section of element in the warm and cold time of the year, taken

in accordance with p. 8.3 ;

tow, toc - initial temperatures in the warm and cold time of the year, taken in accordance with p. 8.6.

8.3. The principal values of mean temperatures tsh and tch and of temperature differentials over the section of element in warm

w and cold s the season for the single-layer constructions/designs should be determined according to table 15 .

Note. For the multilayer constructions/designs tsh, tch, w, s they are calculated. The constructions, prepared from several

materials, close ones in the thermo physical parameters, it is allowed to consider as the single-layer

Table 15

Buildings and construction in the stage of the operation

unheated buildings

(without the building with artificial climate or with

Constructions/designs of the buildings the heated constant technological heat sources

technological heat

buildings

sources) and the

open emplacements

Not protected from the action of solar tw = tew + θ1 + θ4 tw = tiw + 0,6(tew - tiw)+ θ2 + θ4

radiation (including external

enclosing) υw = θ5 υw = 0,8 (tew - tiw) + θ3 + θ5

tc = tec - 0,5 θ1 tc = tic + 0,6 (tec - tic) - 0,5 θ2

υc = 0 υc = 0,8 (tec - tic) - 0,5 θ3

Protected from the action of solar tw = tew tw = tiw

radiation (including internal )

υw = 0

tc = tec tc = tic

υс = 0

Designations, accepted in table 15:

tew, teс - average/mean daily temperatures of surrounding air respectively in the warm and cold time of the year, taken in

accordance with p . 8.4;

tiw, tiс - the temperature of internal air of compartments/rooms respectively in the warm and cold time of the year, taken

according to GOST 12.1.005.76 or on the construction task on the basis of the technological solutions;

θ1, θ2, θ3 - the increases in average/mean over the section of element temperatures and temperature differential from

daily variations of the temperature of surrounding air, taken according to table 16 ;

θ4, θ5 - increase in average/mean over the section of element temperatures and temperature differential from the solar

radiation, taken in accordance with p. 8.5.

Notes: 1. in the presence of the initial data about construction/design temperature in the stage of the operation of

buildings with constant technological sources of heat of value tsh, tch, w, s one should assume/take on the basis

of these data

2. For the buildings and the construction in the stage the erections tsh, tch, w, c are defined as for the unheated

buildings in the stage of their operation .

Table 16

Increases in the temperature, °C

Structural Design

θ1 θ2 θ3

Steel 8 6 4

Composite, concrete, reinforced

concrete and rock by thickness, cm :

to 15 8 6 4

from 15 to 39 6 4 6

over 40 2 2 4

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS Page 15

8.4. Average daily temperatures of surrounding air in warm tew and cold tec season should be determined from the formulas:

tew = tVII + ΔVII ; (17)

tec = t1 - ΔI (18)

where tI, tVII - long-standing average/mean monthly temperatures of air during January and July, taken respectively on the

maps/charts/cards of 5 and 6 required appendices 5 ;

ΔI, ΔVII - the deviation of average/mean daily temperatures from the average/mean monthly (I - starts on the chart.7

required appendices 5 , ΔVII = 6°С).

Primechaniya:y.V the heated production buildings at the stage operation for the constructions/designs, protected from the

action of the solar radiation, THE VII is released not to consider .

2. For the mountain and insufficiently studied regions of the USSR, designated on the charts5.7 required appendices 5, tec,

tew are determined from the formulas:

tec = tI,min + 0,5AI; (19)

tew = tVII,max – 0,5 AVII, (20)

where tI,min, tVII,max - average/mean from the absolute values of respectively minimum temperature of air during January and

maximum.during July;

AI, AVII — average/mean daily temperature range respectively during January and during July with the clear sky .

tI,min, tVII,max, AI, AVII they start according to the data of Goskomgidromet ╨ - State Committee of the Council of

Ministers of the USSR on Hydrometeorology╩ .

8.5. Increases 4 and 5, °C, should be determined from the formulas :

θ4 = 0,05 ρ Smax k k1; (21)

θ5 = 0,05 ρ Smax k (1 – k1), (22)

where ρ - the coefficient of absorption of solar radiation by the material of the external surface of construction/design, taken on

SNIP II-3-79 **;

Smax - the maximum value of summary (straight line and scattered) solar radiation Of vt/m2, taken on SNIP 2.01.01-82;

k - the coefficient, taken according to table 17 ;

k1 - the coefficient, taken according to table 18.

Table 17

Form and the orientation of surface (surfaces) Coefficient k

Horizontal 1,0

Vertical, oriented to:

the South 1,0

the West 0,9

the East 0,7

Table 18

Structural Design Coefficient k

Steel 0,7

Composite, concrete, reinforced concrete and rock by thickness, cm:

to 15 0,6

from 15 to 39 0,4

over 40 0,3

8.6. The initial temperature, which corresponds to closing/shorting construction/design or its part into the final system, into

warm TOSh and cold tos the season should be determined from the formulas:

tоw = 0,8tVII + 0,2 tI ; (23)

tос = 0,2tVII + 0,8tI. (24)

Note. With the presence of the data about the calendar period of closing/shorting construction/design, the order of the production

of works, etc. initial temperature it is allowed to refine in accordance with these data.

8.7. Coefficient of reliability on load f for the temperature climatic actions t and.should be assumed equal to 1,1.

9. OTHER LOADS

In the necessary cases, provided for by principal documents or installed in the dependence on the conditions for erection

and of operating the construction, should be considered other loads, not included in the present standards (special

technological loads;humid and shrinkage actions;the wind actions, which cause aerodynamically unstable oscillations of the

type of galloping, buffeting).

Page 16 SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

GOSSTROY of the USSR OF 19 MARCH, 1981.41

OF 29 JULY, 1982.196

RULES OF THE CALCULATION OF THE DEGREE OF THE RESPONSIBILITY OF BUILDINGS And

CONSTRUCTION DURING THE DESIGN/PROJECTION OF THE CONSTRUCTIONS/DESIGNS

1. Present rules are adapted during the structural designs of buildings and construction of the objects of industry, agriculture,

power engineering, transport, connection/communication, water management and civil housing designation/purpose,

besides the objects, for which the order of the calculation of the degree of their responsibility is established/installed in

those corresponding to SNIP.

2. During the design/projection of constructions/designs the degree of the responsibility of buildings and construction should

be calculated by the coefficient of reliability on the basis of designation/purpose according to ST OF COMECON

(COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE) 384-76.

The degree of the responsibility of buildings and construction is determined by the size/dimension of the material and

social damage, possible upon the reaching/achievement by the constructions/designs of the limiting conditions

3. To the coefficient of reliability according to designation/purpose n should be divided the limiting values of the bearing

capacity, computed values of resistances, limiting values of deformations/strains and crack opening or multiplied computed

values of loads, efforts/forces or other actions

4. The values of the coefficient of reliability according to designation/purpose n are set in the dependence on the class of the

responsibility of buildings and construction according to the following table

Coefficient of

reliability according to

Class of the responsibility of buildings and construction

purpose γn

Class I . Basic buildings and the construction of the objects, which have the separately great 1,0

national-economic and (or) social value: main housings TES, AES, central knots

of blast furnaces, chimney stacks with a height are more than 200 m, television

towers, constructions of main primary network YEASS, reservoirs for the oil and

the petroleum products by capacity are more than 10 thousand me, the covered

sport construction with the platforms, the building of theaters, cinemas, circuses,

covered markets, educational institutions, children's pre-school establishments,

hospitals, maternity wards, museums, archives, etc.

Class II. Buildings and the construction of the objects, which have the great national- 0,95

economic and (or) social value (objects of industrial, agricultural, civil housing

designation/purpose and connections/communications, not entered in I and III

classes)

Class III. Buildings and the construction of the objects, which have the limited national- 0,9

economic and (or) social value:storages without the processes of sorting and

packing for storing of agricultural products, fertilizers, chemicals, carbon/coal,

peat, etc., hot-house, greenhouses, single-story apartment houses, the support of

wire communication, support of the illumination of the populated areas, fence,

1

temporary/time buildings both construction and, etc.

For the temporary buildings and the construction with the period of service of up to 5 years it is allowed to assume/take γn = 0,8.

Note. For the noncarrying brick walls of the self-supporting panels, partitions, cross connections above the apertures in the walls

from the piece materials, the fundamental beams/gullies, the fillings of window apertures, bindings of light and aeration

lamps/canopies, constructions/designs the winch, ventilating shafts and ducts, floors on the soil, composite

constructions/designs in the process of transportation and installation, all forms of constructions/designs during the

calculation in the stage of installation should be all values of coefficient of n, given in the table, multiplied by 0,95.

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS Page 17

HOUSING OF THE PRODUCTION DESIGNATION/PURPOSE

Order of 30 October, 1992, N 91 for the purpose of providing safety of life and health of people, protection of the environment

1. To establish/install the class of the responsibility of buildings and construction of civil housing and production

designation/purpose according to the application/appendix.

2 During the design/projection of buildings and construction of civil housing and production designation/purpose to calculate

the coefficient of reliability p on the basis of designation/purpose, established by SNIP 2.01.07-85.

Application

CLASSES

responsibility building and the construction of the civil housing and production designation/purpose

Class I Coefficient of reliability according to the designation/purpose γп = 1

Apartment houses

— With height 9 floors and more

Public buildings

— The children's pre-school construction ;

— the educational institutions of all forms (school, VUZ - Institute of Higher Education-, training combines);

— Extra-scholastic establishments for the children and the adolescents;

— Hospital to 100 cots and more, maternity wards and obstetrical housings ;

— Enterprise of retail trade with a commercial area of 200 sq. meters and more ;

— Enterprise of public nutrition in 200 places and more ;

— Enterprise of domestic maintenance/servicing in 150 work sites and more;

— Hotel, sanatorium, the establishment of leisure and tourism;

— Motel, campgrounds, boarding houses, dispensary by the capacity of 250 places and more ;

— theaters, circuses, cinemas, concert and dancing halls, palaces and the house of culture, clouds/clubs, museums,

exhibition buildings, library, archives;

— administrative buildings, besides entering the group V (SNIP ii -84-78) ;

— design, prospecting, scientific research and institutes for comprehensive studies and organization, computer centers ,

— covered sport construction with the platforms for the spectators in 400 places and more ;

— stations of all forms;

— cooperated and blocked complexes of public, public-trading- VYKh and cultural centers ;

— industrial objects (plants, factories, large shops, enterprises with the harmful isolations);

— agricultural, production units (large cattle-breeding - 400 and more than cows, to 1000 and more than the heads of

fattening, on 5 thousand and more than pigs, poultry-breeding farms/trusses and the factory of more than 10 thousand).

Apartment houses.

— with height 3 floor and more

Public buildings.

— hospital with a quantity of cots to 100 places;

— polyclinic, dispensary, the station of first aid, female consultations, sanitary-epidemiological stations, drugstore ;

— enterprises of retail trade with a commercial area are more than 50 square meters ;

— enterprises of public nutrition with a quantity of places are more than 20 ;

— enterprises of domestic maintenance/servicing with a quantity of work sites are more than 5;

— hotel, sanatorium, the establishments of leisure, tourism, moteli, campgrounds, boarding houses, dispensary by capacity

to 250 places;

— administrative buildings, entering the group В on SNIP II-84-78);

— covered sport construction without the places for the spectators, and also with the places for the spectators to 250 ;

— industrial type separate buildings, agricultural, production farms/trusses and the complexes, which did not enter in I the

class of the responsibility.

Class III. Coefficient of reliability according to the designation/purpose γп = 0,90

— apartment houses to the echo of floors;

— building of auxiliary and economic designation/purpose in the composition of the complexes of public, industrial and

agricultural designation/purpose;

— temporary buildings and construction;

— enterprise of retail trade with the commercial area to 50 sq. m .;

— enterprise of public nutrition with a quantity of places to 20 ;

— enterprise of domestic maintenance/servicing with a quantity of work sites to 5.

Page 18 SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1

Reference

BRIDGE AND SUSPENSION CRANES/VALVES OF THE DIFFERENT

GROUPS OF THE MODES OF OPERATION

(EXEMPLARY/APPROXIMATE ENUMERATION)

Groups of

Cranes/valves the Use conditions

operating

modes

Manual of all forms with the driving/homing 1К-ЗК Any repair and shifting works of the limited

suspension pulley blocks, including with the intensity the machine rooms of power stations,

attached seizures with the winch cargo carts, installation works, the shifting works of the

including with the attached seizures limited intensity

With the winch cargo carts, including with the 4К-6К Shifting works of average/mean intensity,

attached seizures technological works in the machine shops, the

storages of the finished articles of the enterprises

of building materials, the storages of metal-sale

the mixed storages, work with the diverse loads

the storages of semi finished products, work with

With two-cable type grabs, the magnetic- grab

the diverse.

magnetic

Tempering, forging, bolt, foundries.With two- 7К Shops of metallurgical enterprises the storages of

cable type grabs, magnetic- grab bulk cargos and scrap metal with the uniform

loads (with the work in one or two changes)

With the winch cargo carts, including with the technological cranes/valves with the round-the-

attached seizures clock operation

Transverse/traverse, mul'dogreyfernye, 8К Shops of the metallurgical enterprises

mul'dozavalochnye, for undressing of ingots, pile

driver, cupola, kolodtsevye magnetic Shops and the storages of metallurgical

enterprises, large metal-bases with the uniform

With two-cable type grabs, magnetic- grab loads

Storages of bulk cargos and scrap metal with the

uniform loads (with the round-the-clock operation)

APPENDIX 2

Required

The principal value of horizontal load F, kN, directed along the crane way and the called party by the impact/shock of

crane/valve against blind rest, should be determined from formula

Error!,

where C - the speed of the movement of crane/valve at the moment of impact/shock, taken equal half of nominal, m/s;

f - the possible greatest sagging/settling of buffer, taken by equal to 0,1 m for the cranes/valves with the flexible suspension

of load load capacity is not more than 50 t of the groups of the modes of operation 1 K."k and 0.2 m - in the remaining

cases;

t - reduced mass of crane/valve, determined from the formula

Error!

here tb. the mass of the bridge of crane, t;

тc — the mass of cart, t;

mq — crane load, t;

k — the coefficient ; k = 0 — for the cranes/valves with the flexible suspension ; k = 1 — for the cranes/valves with

the rigid/hard suspension of the load ;

APPENDICES SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS Page 19

l1 — the approximation/approach of cart, m. computed value of the considered/examined load taking into account the

coefficient of reliability on load f (see Section 4.8) starts not more limiting values, indicated in the following table:

Cranes/valves

(тc)

Suspension (manual and electrical) and bridge manual 10 (1)

the electrical bridge:

the general purpose of the groups of the modes of operation 1К-ЗК 50 (5)

the general purpose and special of the groups of the modes of operation 150 (15)

4К—7К, and also the foundries

the special groups of the mode of operation 8 K with the suspension of the

load:

flexible 250 (25)

rigid 500 (50)

APPENDIX 3

Required

Diagram Profiles/airfoils of coatings and diagram of

Coefficients.and the field of application of the diagrams

number loads due to snow

1 Buildings with the lean-to and two-slope

surface coatings

μ = 1 with α ≤ 25°;

μ = 0 " α ≥ 60°.

two-slope surface coatings (profile/airfoil b), in this case version

2 - with 20°°≤ α ≤ 30°;version 3- with 10 °≤ α ≤ 30 ° only

in the presence of the pilot bridges or aeration devices on the

horse of the coating

Page 20 SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS APPENDICES

Continuation of Appendix 3

Diagram Profiles/airfoils of coatings and diagram of

Coefficients and the field of application of the diagrams

number loads due to snow

2 Buildings with the arched and close to them in

the outline coatings Error!, but not more 1,0 and not less 0,4.

Version 2 should be considered withError!:

assumed/taken not more than 1,4

= l´; with β < 15° diagram 2

µ3 = Error!, but not more:

4,0 – for the farms/trusses and the beams with the principal

value of the weight of coating 1,5 kPa and less;

2,5 – for the farms/trusses and the beams with the principal

value of the weight of coating it is more than 1,5 kPa;

2,0 – for the ferroconcrete flooring slabs with span 6 m and

less and for the steel shaped flooring;

2,5 – for the ferroconcrete plates/slabs by span it is above 6

m, and also for the girders/drives independent of span;

b1 = h1, but not more b.

During the determination of load in the end/face of lamp/canopy

for the zone into the value of coefficient.in both versions

should be assumed equal to 1,0.

APPENDICES SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS Page 21

Continuation of Appendix 3

Diagram Profiles/airfoils of coatings and

Coefficients and the field of application of the diagrams

number diagram of loads due to snow

surface and vaulting of two- trispan buildings with the

lamps/canopies in the middle of the buildings

2. influence of the vetrootboynykh panels on the distribution of

load due to snow near the lamps/canopies not to consider.

3. for the flat/plane slopes with b > of 48 m should be

considered the local increased load in lamp/canopy as in the

drops/jumps (see diagram 8)

4 North-light/sawtooth coatings

including with the inclined glazing and the arched outline of the

roofing

two-slope surface coatings

Page 22 SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS APPENDICES

Continuation of Appendix.3

Diagram Profiles/airfoils of coatings and diagram of

Coefficients and the field of application of the diagrams

number loads due to snow

Two- and multispan buildings with the arched

and close to them in the outline coatings

6 For the ferroconcrete flooring slabs of the value of

coefficients.should be assumed/taken not more than 1,4

surface and vaulting with the longitudinal

lamp/canopy

lamp/canopy in accordance with versions 1 and 2 diagrams 3,

for the spans without the lamp/canopy.with versions 1 and 2

diagrams 5 and 6.

For the flat/plane two-slope surface (α < 15°) and the arched

Error! coatings with l’ > 48 m should be considered the local

increased load, as in the drops/jumps (see diagram 8)

a)

accordance with diagrams 1.7, and to the lower as most

unfavorable of the diagrams 1.7 and the diagram 8.

APPENDICES SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS Page 23

Continuation of Appendix. 3

Diagram Profiles/airfoils of coatings and diagram

Coefficients and the field of application of the diagrams

number of loads due to snow

8 Coefficient μ should be assumed equal:

1

µ0 = 1+ (m1 l1′ + m2 l 2′ ), but it must not exceed :

h

Error! (where h - в м; s0 - в kPa);

4 - for the buildings (profile/airfoil A);

6 - for the sheds (profile/airfoil b).

Values m1 (m2) for the upper (lower) coating depending on its

profile/airfoil should be taken as the equal:

0,5 - for the flat/plane coatings α ≤ 20° and arched - с

Error!

0,3 - for the flat/plane coatings α > 20 °, arched - с

Error! and coatings with the transverse lamps/canopies

For the lower coatings by width α < 21 m (profile/airfoil c) value

m2 should be determined from formula

m2 = 0,5k1 k2 k3 but not less than 0,1,

where Error!; Error!; Error!, but not less than 0,3

(α - в м; а, β - в degree).

The height of drop/jump yu should be counted off from the cornice

of lower coating in the place of its contiguity to the wall

The values of l’1 (l’2) for the upper (lower) coating depending on

the presence and orienting the lamps/canopies should be taken as the

equal:

а) with the longitudinal lamps/canopies:

l1′ = l1* − 2h1h ;

l 2′ = l 2* − 2 h 2l − 2h;

б) without the longitudinal lamps/canopies or with the transverse

lamps/canopies

l’1 = l1; l’2 = l2 – 2h,

in this case l’1 and l’2 it is necessary to assume/take not less than 0.

The length of zone b should be taken as the equal:

2h

приµ 0 ≤ b = 2 h, but not more 15 m;

s0

2h µ −1

" µ0 > b= 0 2 h,

s0 2h

−1

s0

but not more 5h and 15 m.

Notes:1. with d1, (d2) > 12 m value.for the section of drop/jump by

the length d1 (d2 it follows to determine without taking into account

the influence of lamps/canopies on the increased (lowered/reduced)

coating.

2. If the spans of upper (lower) coating have different

profile/airfoil, then during the determination it is necessary to take the

appropriate value m1 (m2) for each flight/span in the limits of l’1 (l’2).

3. Local load in drop/jump should not be considered, if the height of

drop/jump, m, between two adjacent coatings is less

Error! (where s0 – в kPa)

Page 24 SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS APPENDICES

Continuation of Appendix. 3

Diagram Profiles of coatings and diagram of loads due

Coefficients and the field of application of the diagrams

number to snow

9 Buildings with two jumps in the height Load due to snow on upper and lower coating should be

assumed/taken according to diagram 8.Values μ1, b1, μ2, b2

should be determined for each drop/jump independently, in this

case:

for the leftist l’2 = l2 – 2h1 – 5h2;

for the right l’2 = l2 – 2h2 – 5h1;

If, l2 < b1 + b2, то

l2

(µ 1b1 + µ 2 b2 ) 1 − − (b1 + b2 )

b1 + b2

µ= ,

l2

µ 1 b2 + µ 2 b1

but not more

b1 + b2

Error! (h – в м; s0 – в kPa);

Error! but not more 3

11 Sections of coatings, which adjoin raised above Diagram relates to the sections with the superstructures with the

the roofing ventilating shafts and other diagonal of base not more 15м.

superstructures Depending on the calculated construction/design (flooring slabs,

frame-supporting and rafter constructions/designs) it is

necessary to consider the most unfavorable position of

the zone of the increased load (at the arbitrary angle β).

Coefficient, constant in the limits of the zone indicated, should

be assumed equal:

1,0 при d ≤ 1,5 м;

Error! " d > 1,5м,

but not less 1,0 and not more:

1,5 with 1,5 < d ≤ 5м;

2,0 " 5 < d ≤ 10 ";

2,5 " 10 < d ≤ 15 ";

b1 = 2 h, but not more 2 d

µ1 = 1,0; Error!

Page 25

DIAGRAMS OF WIND LOADS and THE AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS

Diagram Diagrams of buildings, construction, elements of

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients Notes

number structures and wind loads

1 The separate flat/plane continuous

constructions/designs.

Vertical and deflecting from the vertical not are

––

more than to 15 ° surfaces:

се = + 0,8

windward

се = - 0,6

leeward

2 Buildings with the two-slope surface coatings

1. With the wind, perpendicular

to the end/face of buildings, for

the entire surface се = - 0,7

2. During the determination of

coefficient.in accordance with 6.9

h = h1 + 0,2 l tg α

APPENDICES

APPENDIX 4

Required

Page 26

Continuation of Appendix.4

Diagram Diagrams of buildings, construction, elements

number of structures and wind loads

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients Notes

3 Buildings with the arched and the close ones to

them in the outline to the coatings

diagram 2.

2. During the determination of

coefficient.in accordance

with p. 6.9 h = h1 + 0,7 f

The value of see starts according to diagram 2

transverse frames of buildings

with the lamp/canopy and the

vetrootboynymi panels the

The coefficients this, се1, се2 and се3 should be determined in value of the summary drag

accordance with the indications to diagram 2 coefficient of system of fonar6-

panels is taken as equal to 1,4

1. During the determination of

coefficient.in accordance

with p. 6.9 h = h1

5 Buildings with the longitudinal lamps/canopies

1. For the windward, the

leeward and lateral walls of

buildings the pressure

For coating of building in the section AV the coefficients se should be

coefficients should be

assumed/taken according to diagram 4.

determined in accordance

For the lamps/canopies of section SV with λ ≤ 2 сх = 0,2; with 2 ≤ λ with the indications to

≤ 8 for each lamp/canopy сх = 0,1λ; with λ > 8 сх = 0,8, here Error! diagram 2.

APPENDICES

For the remaining sections of coating се = - 0,5

2. During the determination of

coefficient v in accordance

with p . 6.9 h = h1

Continuation of Appendix.4

Page 27

Diagram Diagrams of buildings, construction, elements of

number structures and wind loads

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients Notes

6 Buildings with the longitudinal lamps/canopies of

different height

The coefficients of с’е1, с’’е1 and се2 should be determined in

accordance with the indications to diagram 2, where during the

determination this after се1 за h1 it is necessary to assume/take the

See that annotated 1 and 2 to diagram

height of the windward wall of the building

5

For the section AV se one should define just as for the section

VS of diagram 5, where after h1 – h2 it is necessary to assume/take

the height of the lamp/canopy

7 Buildings with the north-light/sawtooth coatings 1. Frictional force must be

considered in any direction of

wind, in this case

cf = 0,04.

For the section AV se one should determine in 2. See that annotated 1 and 2 to

accordance with the indications to diagram 2.

diagram 5

For the section VS ВС се = –0,5

lamps/canopies

determined in accordance with the indications to diagram 2, See that annotated 1 and 2 to diagram

for the remaining part of the coating.as for the section VS of 5

diagram 5

APPENDICES

Continuation of Appendix.4

Page 28

Diagram Diagrams of buildings, construction, elements of

structures and wind loads

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients Notes

number

9 Buildings, constantly opened from one side Coefficients se on the external surface should

be assumed/taken in accordance with the

indications to the diagram

Permeability of enclosure/protection should be

defined as the ratio of the summary area of the

With μ ≤ 5% сi1 = сi2 = ±0,2; with μ ≥ 30% сi1

existing/available in it apertures to the total area

should be assumed equal of see, determined in

of enclosure/protection for the airtight building

accordance with the indications to diagram 2; сi2 = +

should be assumed/taken сi = 0. In the

0,8 buildings, indicated in p. 6.1v, the principal

value of internal pressure on the light partitions

(at their surface density less than 100 kg/m2)

should be assumed equal to 0,2 w0, but not

less 0,1 кПа (10 kgс/м2).

For each wall of building sign plhs. or minus.

for the coefficient of siy with..5% one should

determine on the basis of the condition of the

realization of the most unfavorable version of

load

10 Ledges of buildings with α < 15º

се it follows to determine by linear interpolation of

values, adopted at points В and С.

The coefficients this and see in the section АВ

should be assumed/taken in accordance with the

indications to diagram 2 (where b and l -

sizes/dimensions in the plan/layout of entire

building).

For the vertical surfaces the coefficients se must be

determined in accordance with the indications

APPENDICES

to diagrams 1 and 2

Continuation ofAppendix.4

Page 29

Diagram Diagrams of buildings, construction, elements

number of structures and wind loads

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients Notes

11 Sheds 1. The coefficients this се1, се2, се3,

се4 sowing one should carry to the

sum of pressures on the upper and

lower surfaces of the sheds.

For the negative values this се1, се2,

се3, се4 sowing the direction of

pressure on the diagrams one

should change to the the opposite.

2. For the sheds with the wavy

coatings cf = 0,04

12а Sphere

> 4 ⋅ 105.

сх = 1,3 при Re < 105; 2. During the determination of

сх = 0,6 ″ 2 ⋅ 10 ≤ Re ≤ 3 ⋅ 105;

5

coefficient in accordance with

сх = 0,2 ″ 4 ⋅ 105 > Re, p.6.9 should be assumed/taken b =

where Re.Reynolds number ; h = 0,7d

Re = 0,88d w 0 k ( z )γ f ⋅10 ; 5

APPENDICES

k (z) – it is determined in accordance with p. 6.4 , Pa;

z – distance, m, from the earth's surface to the center of the

sphere;

γf – it is determined in accordance with p .6.11

Continuation ofAppendix.4

Page 30

Diagram Diagrams of buildings, construction, elements

of structures and wind loads Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients Notes

number

12,б Construction with the circular cylindrical surface се = k1 сβ

where k1 = 1 with cβ > 0;

1. Re one should determine

from formula to diagram 12,

and, assuming/taking z = h1

.

During the determination of

coefficient one should

assume/take in

accordance with p. 6.9:

b = 0,7d;

h = h1 +0,7f.

2. The coefficient of сi should

be considered during the

omitted coating («the

floating roofing »), and also

in the absence of it.

APPENDICES

Continuation ofAppendix.4

Page 31

Diagram Diagrams of buildings, construction,

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients Notes

number elements of structures and wind loads

13 Prismatic of the construction 1. For the walls with lodzhiyami

with the wind, parallel to

these walls,, cf = 0,1; for the

wavy coatings cf = 0,04.

сх = k cx∞; cy = k cy∞ For the rectangular in the

Table 1 plan/layout buildings with

l

= 0,1 – 0,5 и β = 40 -

b

50º cy∞ = 0,75; the resultant

λе it is necessary to determine according to table 2. of wind load is applied at

Table 2 point 0, in this case

eccentricity

е = 0,15b.

2. Re one should determine from

formula to diagram 12, and,

assuming/taking z = h1, d –

the diameter of the

circumscribed circle .

During the determination of

the coefficient υ

correspondence with p. 6.9 h

the height of construction,

b.size/dimension in the

plan/layout with respect to the

axis y.

l

In table. 2 λ= , where l, b – the respectively maximum and minimal sizes of

b

construction or its element in the plane, perpendicular to wind direction .

APPENDICES

Continuation ofAppendix.4

Page 32

Diagram Diagrams of buildings, construction,

number Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients Notes

elements of structures and wind loads

13 Prismatic construction

Table 3

Table 4

APPENDICES

Continuation of Appendix.4

Page 33

Diagram Diagrams of buildings, construction,

number Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients Notes

elements of structures and wind loads

14 Construction and their elements with the 1. Re one should determine from formula

circular cylindrical surface (reservoirs, to diagram 12, and, assuming/taking z =

cooling tower/salt pan, tower, chimney h, d – the diameter of construction.

stacks), wire/conductor and ropes, and Values Δ they assume/take for the

also the circular tubular and continuous wooden constructions = 0,005 m; for

elements of the through construction the brickwork = 0,01 m; for the

сх = k cх∞ concrete and ferroconcrete

where k – they will be determined according to table 1 of diagram 13 ; constructions/designs Δ = 0,005 m; for

cх∞ - it is determined according to the graph: the steel constructions/designs Δ = 0,001

m; for the wires/conductors and the

ropes with a diameter of d Δ = 0,01d; for

the ribbed surfaces with the edges/fins

with a height of b Δ = b.

2. For the wavy coatings

cf = 0,04.

3. For the wires/conductors and the ropes d

≥ 20 mm, free from the ice-covered

For the wires/conductors and the ropes (including covered with ice-covered surface, values сх are allowed to descend

by 10%

surface) сх = 1,2

15 The separate flat/plane lattice frames 1. Aerodynamic coefficients for diagrams

15-17 are given for the lattice frames

1 with the arbitrary form of outline and

cx =

Ak

∑c xi Ai , ∑ Ai

ϕ= i ≤ 0,8.

where cxi – the aerodynamic coefficient of the i-го element of Ak

constructions/designs; for the profiles/airfoils of cxi = 1,4; for the 2. Wind load should be carried to the area,

tubular elements of cxi one should determine according to graph limited by the outline Ak.

to diagram 14, in this case it is necessary to assume/take λe = λ 3. The direction of axis X coincides with

(see Table 2 of diagram 13 ); the wind direction and it is perpendicular

Ai – the projected area of the i-го element on the plane of the to the plane of the construction/design

construction/design;

APPENDICES

Ak – the area, limited by the outline of the construction/design

Continuation of Appendix.4

Page 34

Diagram Diagrams of buildings, construction,

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients Notes

number elements of structures and wind loads

16 Number of the flat/plane in parallel For the windward construction/design the coefficient of skhy is See annotated 1-3 to diagram 15.

arranged/located lattice frames defined just as for diagram 15. 1. Re one should determine from formula to

For the second and subsequent constructions/designs diagram 12, and, where d – the mean

сх2 = сх1 η diameter of tubular elements; z – it is

For the farms/trusses from the pipes with Re ≥ 4 · 10

5

allowed to take as the equal to distance from

η = 0,95 the earth's surface to upper flange.

2. In the table to diagram 16 :

h – the minimal size of outline;for the

rectangular and trapeziform farms/trusses h

length of the smallest side of outline;for the

circular lattice frames h - their diameter;for

the elliptical and close ones to them in the

outline constructions/designs h - length of

minor axis;

b – the distance between the connections by the

farms/trusses

Coefficient.one should determine in accordance

with the indications to diagram 15

APPENDICES

Continuation of Appendix.4

Page 35

Diagram Diagrams of buildings, construction,

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients Notes

number elements of structures and wind loads

17 Lattice towers and the three-dimensional trusses ct = cx (1 + η) k1, See that annotated.1 to diagram 15.

where cx - it is defined so as for the diagram 15; 1. ct it relates to the area of the outline of

η - it is defined so as for diagram 16 . the windward face.

2. in the wind direction along the

diagonal of tetrahedral square towers

the coefficient k1 for the steel towers

from the single elements should be

decreased by 10 %; for the wooden

towers from the basic elements.to

increase by 10 %

18 Guys and the inclined tubular elements, located in

flow plane

c xα = c x sin 2 α ,

where сх – it is determined in accordance with the indications to -

diagram 14

APPENDICES

MAPS OF THE DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS OF THE TERRITORY OF THE USSR FOR THE CLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS

Page 36

(they are published by various document)

APPENDICES

APPENDIX 5

Required

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