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1. A 1-phase transformer has 400 primary and 1000 secondary turns. The net cross-sectional area of

the core is 60 cm2. The primary winding is connected to a 50Hz supply of 500V. The mean length of

the flux path in the core is 0.7m. Determine the flux density (peak) of the core and the magnetizing

current. The B-H curve of the material of the core is provided below in a tabular form.

[Ans: 0.94 Wb/m2, 1.18 A]

B(Wb/m2) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3

H(AT/m) 62.5 125 187.5 250 312.5 375 500 625 750 900 1200 1500

2. The following parameters refer to two mutually coupled coils ‘a’ and ‘b’:

Ra = 20 Ω, La = 120 mH, Na = 1500; Rb = 4 Ω, Lb = 31 mH, Nb = 750;

Co-efficient of coupling, k = 0.95

An alternating voltage of 20V r.m.s. at angular frequency of 1000 rad/s is applied across coil ‘a’.

Compute, under steady state condition, (i) voltage across the terminals of coil ‘b’ when it is open

circuited, and (ii) current in coil ‘a’ when the terminals of coil ‘b’ are short circuited.

[Ans: (i) (9.4+ j1.56) V, (ii) (0.511 – j0.2) A]

3. A 1-phase, 10 kVA, 220/110 V, 60 Hz transformer is connected to a 220 V supply. It draws rated

current at 0.8 power factor leading. Considering ideal transformer,

(a) Determine the kVA rating of the load.

(b) Determine the impedance of the load.

[Ans: (a) 10kVA, (b) 1.21∠-36.87° Ω]

4. A 2500/250 V, 500kVA, 60 Hz transformer has the following values:

r1 = 0.1 Ω, xL1 = 0.3 Ω, r2 = 0.001 Ω, xL2 = 0.003 Ω

When the transformer is loaded to its capacity (at u.p.f.) with rated voltages at the terminals and used

as a step-down transformer, find the ratio of primary and secondary induced voltages.

[Ans: 9.901]

5. For the transformer shown in Fig. Q5, NEF = 600, NAB =150 and NCD =300 turns. Also the load

resistances RAB = 30Ω and RCD = 15Ω. The voltage applied to the primary is 16V. Considering the

transformer to be ideal, calculate

(a) Total load impedance reflected to the primary.

(b) Total current drawn from the supply.

[Ans: (a) 53.3 Ω, (b) 0.3 A]

I1 A

NAB RAB

E

B

16 V NEF

C

F

NCD RCD

D

Fig. Q5

6. Determine the input current I1 if RAB = 50Ω and ZAC = (30+j40)Ω. Number of turns between D-E is

100, between A-B is 150 and between B-C is 50. [Ans: 11.29∠-34.53° A]

I1 A

D

100V, RAB ZAC

50Hz

E B

C

Fig. Q6

7. Reconnect the windings of a 1-phase, 3 kVA, 240/120 V, 60 Hz transformer so that it can supply a

load at 330 V from a 110 V supply.

(a) Show the connection

(b) Determine the maximum kVA the reconnected transformer can deliver (for the given supply

voltage). [Ans: 4.125 kVA]

8. A 1-phase, 440 V, 8 kW load having a lagging power factor of 0.8 is supplied through a feeder of

impedance (0.15 + j0.4) Ω and a 1-phase, 10 kVA, 220/440 V, 60 Hz transformer. The equivalent

leakage impedance of the transformer referred to high voltage side is (0.2875 + j1.125) Ω. Determine

the voltage at the sending end of the feeder. [Ans: 247.34∠4.34° V]

9. A 50 kVA, 2400/240V, 60 Hz transformer is used to step down the voltage at the load end of a

feeder whose impedance is 0.3 Ω + j1.6 Ω. The voltage at the sending end of the feeder is 2400V.

The leakage impedance of the transformer is (1.42 + j1.82) Ω referred to h.v. side. Find the voltage

at the secondary terminals of the transformer when the load connected to its secondary draws rated

current from the transformer and power factor of the load is 0.8 lagging. Neglect the voltage drops in

the transformer and feeder caused by exciting current.

[Ans: 233V]

10. A 100 kVA transformer has 400 turns on the primary and 80 turns on the secondary. The primary

and secondary resistances are 0.3Ω and 0.01Ω respectively and the corresponding leakage reactances

are 1.1Ω and 0.035Ω respectively. The supply voltage is 2200V. Calculate (a) equivalent impedance

referred to primary and (b) the voltage regulation and secondary terminal voltage when full load

current is drawn at 0.8 power factor lead.

[Ans: (a) (0.55+j1.975) Ω, (b) -1.6%, 447.1V].

11. A 20 kVA, 2500/500 V, single-phase transformer has the following parameters:

HV Winding: r1 = 8 Ω, x1 = 17 Ω; LV Winding: r2 =0.3 Ω, x2 = 0.7 Ω.;

The supply Voltage is held constant at 2500 V. Find the voltage regulation at full load for (a) 0.9 pf

lag (b) 0.9 pf lead.

[Ans: (a) 10.57%, (b) 0.396%]

12. A 1-phase, 25 kVA, 2300/230 V transformer has the following parameters:

Zeq,H = (4.0 + j5.0) Ω, Rc,L = 450 Ω; Xm.L = 300 Ω

The transformer is connected to a load with variable power factor. Determine the worst-case

voltage regulation for full load output. [Ans: 3.03%]

13. Calculate the regulation of a transformer in which the ohmic loss is 1% of the output voltage and

the reactance drop is 5% of the output voltage, when the power factor is 0.8 lagging, unity and 0.8

leading.

[Ans: 3.8%, 1%, -2.2%]

14. A single phase transformer has voltage regulation of 6% and 6.6% for lagging power factors of

0.8 and 0.6 respectively. Full load ohmic loss is equal to iron loss. Calculate the lagging power factor

at which full load voltage regulation is maximum and the full load efficiency at unity power factor.

[Ans: 0.4472, 94.34%]

15. (a) During no-load test of a transformer, a voltage of v = 200sin(314t) is applied and the resulting

current is i = 3sin(314t-60°). Determine the core loss and rms value of the no-load current.

(b) A transformer gives the following results during tests:

Test 1: 100% voltage, 6% current, power factor 0.2.

Test 2: 8% voltage, 100% current, power factor 0.3.

Identify the tests. Obtain the parameters of the transformer in p.u.

[Ans: (a) 150 W, 2.12 A, (b) zeq = (0.024 + j0.0763) p.u., Rc = 83.33 p.u., Xm = 17.01 p.u.]

16. A 4 kVA, 200/400 V, 50 Hz, single-phase transformer gave the following test figures:

No Load: LV Side: 200 V, 0.7 A, 60 W; SC Test: HV Side: 9V, 6A, 21.6 W;

a) Find the magnetizing current and the iron loss component of current.

b) Calculate the secondary terminal voltage on full load at power factors of 0.8 lag and 0.8 lead

[Ans: (a) 0.63 A, 0.3 A, (b) 387.05 V, 403.7 V]

17. The nameplate on a 50-MVA, 60 Hz 1-phase transformer indicates that it has a voltage rating of

8kV/78kV. An open circuit test conducted from the low voltage side and the corresponding

instrument readings are 8kV, 62.1 A and 206 kW. Similarly, a short circuit test from the low voltage

side gives readings of 674 V, 6.25 kA and 187 kW.

(a) Calculate the equivalent series impedance, resistance and reactance of the transformer referred

to the (i) low voltage terminals, (ii) high voltage terminals

(b) Determine the efficiency and regulation of the transformer if it is operating at rated voltage and

load (at unity power factor).

(c) Recalculate the efficiency and regulation when the power factor of the load changes to 0.9

lead.

[Ans: (a) (i) (0.00479 + j0.1077) Ω, (ii) (0.4553 + j10.247) Ω, (b) 99.2%, 0.725%, 99.13%, -3.01%]

18. The maximum efficiency of a 50 kVA transformer is 97.4% and occurs at 90% of full load and at

unity power factor. Calculate the efficiency at full load and with 0.8 lagging power factor.

[Ans: 96.75%]

19. The nameplate of a single-phase transformer reads: 10MVA, 50Hz, 25kV/10kV, Zpu = 0.12.

During short-circuit test on the high voltage (HV) side of this transformer (with low voltage (LV)

side shorted), the ammeter and wattmeter readings were 200A and 50kW respectively. During open

circuit test on the LV side (HV side open) at rated frequency, the voltmeter and wattmeter readings

were 10kV and 180kW.

(i) Find the values of leakage reactance (xeq) and winding resistance (req) referred to HV side.

(ii) While supplying a load, the terminal voltages of the HV side and LV side of this

transformer are found to be 25kV∠0° and 10kV∠6° respectively. Find the active power

delivered by the transformer and the corresponding power factor. Also find the regulation and

efficiency of the transformer under this operating condition.

[Ans: (i) (1.25 + j7.3951) Ω, (ii) 8.5128 MW, 0.9759 (lead), 0, 96.25%]

20. A 1-phase, 10 kVA, 2400/240 V, 60 Hz transformer has the following characteristics:

Core loss at full voltage = 100 W, Copper loss at half load = 60 W

(a) Determine the efficiency of the transformer when it delivers full load at 0.8 power factor lagging.

(b) Determine the per unit rating at which the transformer efficiency is maximum. Determine this

efficiency if the load power factor is 0.9.

(c) The transformer has the following load cycle:

No load for 6 hours

70% of full load at 0.8 power factor for 10 hours

90% of full load at 0.9 power factor for 8 hours

Determine the all-day efficiency of the transformer.

[Ans: (a) 95.92%, (b) 0.6455, 96.67%, (c) 95.93%]

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