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POSSIBLE PROBLEMS 300 MILLION BOOKS SOLD!

  (SB p54)
1 Students often think the Present Perfect is
interchangeable with other past tenses, notably the
Present Perfect – simple, continuous, passive
Past Simple.
About the text
2 They think the use of tenses in their own language can
The profile of J.K. Rowling on SB p55 provides the
be applied in English, especially with the unfinished
context for revising the uses of the Present Perfect
past use, where they often use a present tense.
(simple, continuous, and passive) and contrasting it
3 They forget that the idea of an activity continuing over
with the Past Simple and Past Continuous. The text
a period requires the continuous form, especially if they
gives biographical information, a short summary of her
don’t have continuous forms in their own language.
early life, and information about her books and how she
4 They may use adverbs and time expressions
writes. Students who are interested in the Harry Potter
incorrectly.
series will probably have read/heard information about
5 They may fail to recognize the need for a passive form.
J.K. Rowling that they will want to share. You could read
Common mistakes Corrections the profile before the class to provide yourself with some
*I have arrived last week. I arrived last week. background information on the author.
*How long do you work How long have you
  here?   worked here? Lead in to the topic by asking a few general questions:
*I live here since May. I’ve lived here since May.
*It’s rained for hours. It’s been raining for hours. Who is Harry Potter? (a boy wizard)
What’s the name of his school? (Hogwarts /hɒgwɔ:ts/)
*They’ve been married They’ve been married
When was the first book published? (1997)
  since 10 years.   for 10 years. And the last book? (2007).
*The post has just The post has just been
  delivered.  delivered. 1 Focus attention on the book titles. Ask students if the
books have been translated into their language, and if the
translated names of the books/films in their language are
Vocabulary  In this unit, vocabulary is included as part of similar to the original English, or completely different.
a Vocabulary and listening section. Students analyse and Ask for a show of hands of who has read any of the books
practise words and expressions for talking about things or seen any of the films. Find out who is the biggest Harry
people love and hate. Potter fan, and who isn’t keen on the series.
Everyday English  This covers how to respond in Then elicit any ideas students have about J.K. Rowling.
conversations to express agreement, sympathy, pleasure, and Tell them they will find out about her later in the lesson.
surprise. The Music of English feature is included here to help 2 This exercise revises the form and use of questions in the
students with intonation and voice range. Past Simple, the Past Continuous, and the Present Perfect
Simple and Continuous, both active and passive forms.
Notes on the unit The questions are divided to cover the Past Simple and
Continuous forms first (1–5), and then the Present Perfect
STARTER   (SB p54) forms (6–12). Students should be able to complete the
questions with the auxiliaries fairly easily, but you could
This activity gets students using the Present Perfect Simple point out the tense division to weaker classes before they
in a meaningful and fun way. Get pairs of students to read complete the exercise.
out the examples in the book. Check they produce the
correct stresses: Elicit the answer for question 1. Give students time to
complete the exercise, working individually. Students
I’ve never been to a foot ball match. check the answers in pairs. Ask if they disagree on any
Me neither. I hate foot ball. of the answers and deal with these as a whole class first.
Then check the rest of the answers.
I’ve never had body piercing or a tattoo.
I have. I’ve got a tattoo of a rose on my ankle. Answers
1 was 4 did 7 has 10 have
I’ve never read a Harry Potter book. 2 did; was 5 was 8 has 11 has
Really? I’ve read them all. 3 was 6 has 9 have 12 have
Give your own examples of things you have never done
and elicit responses from the class, e.g. 3 T 7.1   [CD 2: Track 30] Focus attention on the text on SB
I’ve never eaten sushi. I have. It’s delicious. p55. Play the recording and get students to follow the text
I’ve never been to India. Me neither. But I’d like to. in their books. Deal with any vocabulary queries and elicit
I’ve never run a marathon. Me neither. I’m not fit enough. what J.K. stands for (Joanne Kathleen). Ask why students
think she uses her initials, rather than full name, as a writer
Students write their three examples. With weaker
(it may be because she didn’t want to give her gender away).
students, you could briefly review the most common
irregular past participles first. Students then work in pairs Tapescript
to exchange their examples and react.
T 7.1   See SB p55.
If students make mistakes with past participles, note them
down and refer them to the list on SB p159.
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4 T 7.2   [CD 2: Track 31] Put students into pairs to ask 3 Students make the sentences passive and then check
and answer the questions, re-reading parts of the text if them against the text (paragraph 7).
necessary to find the answers. Play the recording and let
students check. Answers
Her books have been translated into 60 languages.
Answers and tapescript 300 million copies of her books have been sold.
T 7.2 Six of the books have been made into films.
1 A Where and when was she born?
B She was born near Bristol, in England, in 1965. Refer students to Grammar Reference 7.1–7.6 on
2 A When did she write her first story? What was it about?
SB pp140–2.
B She wrote her first story when she was six. It was about a rabbit
with measles.
3 A What was she doing when she had the idea for Harry Potter? 5 T 7.3   [CD 2: Track 32] The interview gives further
B She was travelling by train between Manchester and London. contexts for the tenses covered in this lesson. Focus on
4 A Where did she teach English? the example, then give students time to read the questions
B In Portugal. through first. Play the recording and get students to
5 A When was the first Harry Potter book published? complete the questions. Allow students to compare their
B In 1997. answers in pairs, then check with the whole class.
6 A How long has she been writing the books?
B For nearly twenty years. Play the recording again and get students to note down
7 A How many has she written? Jack’s answers. Let them compare in pairs. Play relevant
B Seven. sections of the recording again if students disagree or have
8 A How many children has she had? missed any of the information.
B Three. Check the answers.
9 A How many books have been sold?
B Over 300 million copies. Answers and tapescript
10 A Which books have been made into films?
B The first six. Answers
11 A How much money has she made? 1 have you been; Since he was about five. His mum read them to him.
B She’s made over £600 million. 2 have you read; All of them except one, Harry Potter and the Half-
12 A How many authors have become billionaires? blood Prince.
B Only one – her. 3 did you; All of them except Harry Potter and the Half-blood Prince.
4 Have you seen; Did you; Yes, all of them and he liked all of them.
5 have been sold; Maybe 20 million (This is Jack’s guess, the real figure
GRAMMAR SPOT  (SB p55) is 300 million.)
6 do you know; It’s J.K. Rowling and she’s got two children. (This is
This Grammar spot reviews Present Simple, Past Simple, Jack’s guess, she actually has three children.)
and Present Perfect (unfinished past and experience 7 Have . . . read; Yes, all of them.
uses). It also contrasts Present Perfect Simple and 8 have you been playing; Since he could walk.
Continuous, and reviews the form of the Present Perfect 9 Play football.
passive. T 7.3
1 Students work in pairs to name the tenses and I = Interviewer  J = Jack
discuss their use. Monitor and check students’ ideas. Jack, aged 10, talks about Harry Potter
This will help you see how far students have grasped I So Jack, I know you love Harry Potter. How long have you been a
the basic tense system. Check the answers. fan of the books?
J I think since I was about five but I was so small I couldn’t read yet
Answers and my mum read them to me.
She lives in Scotland. (Present Simple used for a fact that is I How many of the books have you read?
true now.) J I’ve read them all – well, not all exactly.
She lived in Portugal for three years. (Past Simple used for a I What do you mean?
finished action in the past.) J Well I didn’t like Harry Potter and the Half-blood Prince so I didn’t
finish it.
She’s lived in Scotland since 1993. (Present Perfect used for an
I Which did you like best?
action that began in the past and still continues in the present.)
J I liked all the others but not that one. It was too ‘samey’ – it was
She’s lived in England, Portugal, and Scotland. (Present Perfect boring ’cos it was just like the one before.
used for an experience that happened at some time in the past.) I Have you seen any of the Harry Potter films?
J Yes, I have.
2 Students match the rules to the questions. I Which have you seen?
J I’ve seen them all, every one.
Answers I And did you like them all?
How long has she been writing Harry Potter Books? asks about J Yes, I did. I thought they were fantastic, but my brother didn’t,
the activity. he got scared. He didn’t like The Chamber of Secrets, the bit where
How many has she written? asks about the quantity. the Basilisk attacked . . .
I The what?

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J The Basilisk. It’s kind of a huge snake and it attacked Harry Potter. have you worked (Present Perfect Simple for experiences at some
I Oh, I bet a lot of children were frightened by it. time in your life. The Present Perfect Simple is used when saying how
J I wasn’t. many times, places, etc., and expresses completion.)
I Jack, have you any idea how many Harry Potter books have been 4 Have you ever met (Present Perfect used to ask about an experience
sold in the world? at any time in your life.)
J Er – I dunno. Er – millions, maybe 20 million. Did you meet (Past Simple used to ask about a finished time in the
I Er – not quite. It’s 300 million. past.)
J 300 million. Wow! That’s a lot of books. 5 I’ve already finished (Present Perfect positive + already to say that
I And what do you know about the author? something has happened earlier than expected.)
J I know it’s J.K. Rowling and she’s got two children. I wonder if they’ve I haven’t finished yet (Present Perfect negative + yet to say that
read their mum’s books. something has not happened although we expect it to happen.)
I She has three children, actually. Have a lot of your friends read 6 Who’s been eating (Present Perfect Continuous used for an action
the books? that began in the past and is still continuing = there are some
J Yes, every single one. chocolates left.)
I What all your friends? Who’s eaten (Present Perfect Simple to express completion = there
J Yeah, definitely – all of them. aren’t any chocolates left.)
I That’s amazing. Now, I know as well as Harry Potter, you have 7 was shot (Past Simple passive for a finished action in the past.)
another passion. ’s been shot (Present Perfect passive for an action in the recent past
J Yeah, football. I’m a big Blackburn Rovers fan. They’re brilliant! that has a present result.)
I Are they? And how long have you been playing football? 8 How long are you here for? (Present Simple of be to refer to the
J Since I could walk. I’d rather play football than do anything else in future.)
the world. How long have you been here for? (Present Perfect used for an
I So, If I asked you – what would you rather do this afternoon? action that began in the past and still continues in the present.)
Read a Harry Potter or play football?
J You know the answer. Note that the contrast in the sentences in 8 is practised again
in the Spoken English box at the end of SB p57.
6 Give students a few moments to think of their favourite 2 T 7.4   [CD 2: Track 33] This exercise gives further
books/films. Model the activity by giving an example of practice in the contrasts highlighted in exercise 1.
your own favourites and getting students to ask questions.
Put students into pairs to continue the activity. Monitor Elicit the correct verb form in sentence 1. Students
and check for accurate question formation and tense use. complete the task, working individually. Let students
Note any common errors and feed back on them at the check in pairs before playing the recording.
end of the activity or in a later lesson.
Answers and tapescript
Ask a student from some of the pairs to tell the class
about their partner’s favourite books/films. This allows for T 7.4
practice of the he/she forms. 1 His plane took off a few minutes ago.
2 The president has resigned and a new president has been elected.
3 I’ve been working in Dubai since last March. When did you arrive?
PRACTICE  (SB p56) 4 How many emails have you sent?
5 What have you been doing in the bathroom? You’ve been in there
Discussing grammar for ages.
1 This exercise consolidates the tense use with a series of 6 A huge snowstorm has hit New York. Over 40 cms of snow has
contrastive sentences. Elicit the names of the tenses and fallen in the past 12 hours. People have been advised to stay at
reasons for their use in the first pair of sentences. home.
Students work in pairs to complete the task. In a
monolingual class, you could let students use their own 3 This exercise practises word order with the adverbs
language, especially with weaker students. that are often used with Present Perfect Simple and
Continuous. Write the first sentence I’ve read that book
Go through the answers with the class. If there are areas on the board. Ask students where they can put the words
of confusion, refer students to the relevant sections of from the box in the sentence without changing the verb
Grammar Reference 7.3–7.6 on SB pp141–2. form. Ask what these words add to the meaning (see
Answers below).
Answers
1 I lived (Past Simple used for a finished action in the past.) Students work through the sentences individually and
I’ve lived (Present Perfect used for an action that began in the past then compare answers with a partner. When checking
and still continues in the present.) with the class, elicit what these words express (see
2 I work (Present Simple used for a fact that is true in the present.) Answers on TB p80). Remind students that we use yet
I’ve worked (Present Perfect used for an action that began in the only in negatives and questions. Remind them also that
past and still continues in the present.) we use never with a positive verb, and ever in questions.
3 have you been working (Present Perfect Continuous used for an
action that began in the past and is still continuing in the present.
The Present Perfect Simple would also be possible here.)

Unit 7  •  Passions and fashions 79

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