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PRACTICES MANUAL

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7.3 LABORATORY PRACTICES

It is very important for the formation of the student, the calibration of the
sensors, hence is recommendable that the students see the Annex 1 to Annex 4.

7.3.1 Practice 1: Flow control loops (manual)

7.3.1.1 Objectives

The objective of this experiment is to control the flow that circulates


through a conduction of water by a manual procedure. We assume that the manual
control works as:

• Manual regulation of the adjustable valve placed under the area


flowmeter.

• Manual control of the elements used in the equipment as the


motorized valve, solenoid valves, etc.

7.3.1.2 Required material

To make this practice, the following elements are necessary:

• UCP-F

• Water

• SACED Software.

7.3.1.3 Experimental procedure

1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and execute the program
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SACED UCP-F.

2.- Inside the program, select the option Configuration and connect pump 1
(AB-1) (see Software Manual for a more detailed operation).

3.- In the manual regulation (no controller) the flow can be regulated by the
manual adjustable valve VR1, placed in the inferior part of the flowmeter. Vary its
position and observe the adjustment of the flow in function of its position.

4.- Select the option “Manual Control” of the software supplied with the
equipment.

5.- Connect pump 1 (AB-1) and vary the position of the motorized valve by
the Slip bar or the command associated to this action. Check a fixed position, the
flow is regulated.

6.- Vary the position of the valve and repeat the values to observe the
reproduction of the flow control.

7.- Use the controls prepared in the software for controlling the solenoid
valves AVS-1 and the on/off button of the pump. Observe how an on and off button
also produces a flow control of the liquid.
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7.3.2 Practice 2: Flow control loops (on/off)

7.3.2.1 Objectives

Control
On/off

Figure 3.6.1

The objective of this practice is to carry out a closed loop control by an


on/off controller. For it, the student will select the value wanted for the flow and the
controller will adjust this control by the closing and opening of the solenoid valve
AVS-1.
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7.3.2.2 Experimental procedure

1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and the control software.

2.- Select the control option on/off.

3.- By a double click on the on/off control, select the flow wanted. By
defect there is certain flow, a tolerance and a performance time. It allows the students
to play with these parameters and they can see the influences of each one of them.

4.- It calculates the inertia of the system before an on/off response and
determines the limit time for an exact control.
Results of the on/off
action.

Figure 3.6.2

7.3.2.3 Conclusions

From the results obtained by the on/off control on the flow variable we can
affirm that this controller is not the most appropriate due to the quick variation of this
magnitude before a small interference. Only with small values in the performance
times and the tolerances we can obtain a flow control next to the set value, but in any
case we will have a stable value of the flow.
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7.3.3 Practice 3: Flow control loops (proportional)

7.3.3.1 Objectives

This configuration allows studying the system dynamics and the response
to the control actions in closed loop. The object of the experiment is to regulate the
set point (flow) by the employment of controllers that operate automatically on the
final element of the loop (control valves).

You can control the flow in the tank by a sensor and a controller
configured for proportional outputs to the actuator without the typical oscillations of
the on/off control. The response of the control loop can be studied compared to the
interferences in the variables of the process (flow) or variations in the set point (the
flow is changed fixing different set points).

Modifying the set point in a remote way, the flow changes can be
observed, oscillating around the new value. We can have the case that the set point is
not reached if the range of the actuator (manipulated variable) is not enough as to
control the interferences or the changes in the set point, so it will be stabilized only
until the maximum that the available water allows. In our case, the manipulated
variable is the water flow that circulates through a motorized valve, managed
automatically from the controller (0-10V signal), by means of superimposed actions
of proportional, integral and derivative type.

7.3.3.2 Required material

To make the practice the following material is needed:

• UCP-F

• Control and Acquisition Software.


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• Water.

7.3.3.3 Experimental procedure

1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual M4)

2.- Select the Option “Control PID” on the capture screen.

Figure 3.7.1

3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual M4).
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4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral and derivative performance. In this
experiment we want to observe the effects of a proportional action.

Figure 3.7.2

6.- Activate the PID controller and start and go out and save the values.
The student will observe that the motorized valve begins to act.

7.- Connect pump 1 (AB-1).

8.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP (Proportional Valve)
to adjust the flow to the set value.

7.3.4 Practice 4: Flow control loops (Proportional + Integral)

7.3.4.1 Objectives

This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that an integral performance superimposed to a proportional action, in an
actuator, has.
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7.3.4.2 Required material

The following material is necessary for the practice development:

• UCP-F

• Control and Acquisition Software.

• Water.

7.3.4.3 Experimental procedure

1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)

2.- Select the Option “Control PID” on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software manual M4).

3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant and an
integral value. The value for the integral constant should be big so that the error
accumulation is carried out smoothly and it doesn’t generate an on/off performance
in the actuator.

5.- Indicate a value of 0 for the derivative performance. In this experiment,


we want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus an integral action.

6.- Activate the PID controller, go out, and save the values. The student
will observe that the motorized valve begins to work.

7.- Connect pump 1 (AB-1).

8.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Proportional
Valve) to adjust the flow to the set value.
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7.3.5 Practice 5: Flow control loops (Proportional + Derivative)

7.3.5.1 Objectives

This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that a derivative performance superimposed to a proportional action, in an
actuator, has.

7.3.5.2 Required material

It is required for the realization of the practice:

• UCP-F

• Control and Acquisition Software.

• Water.

7.3.5.3 Experimental procedure

1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the software control, see the Software Manual M4)

2.- Select the option “Control PID” on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual, M4).

3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional and derivative
constant. The value for the derivative constant should be small so that the
performance is small and it does not generate an on/off performance in the actuator.

4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral performance. In this experiment,


we want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus a derivative action.
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5.- Activate the PID controller, go out, and save the values. The student
will observe that the motorized valve begins to act.

6.- Connect pump 1 (AB-1).

7.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Proportional
Valve) to adjust the flow to the set value.
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7.3.6 Practice 6: Flow control loops (Proportional + Derivative + Integral)

7.3.6.1 Objectives

This practice supplements to the previous one. The objective is to observe


the effect that has a derivative performance superimposed to an integral performance
and a proportional action in an actuator.

7.3.6.2 Required material

The following material is required for the realization of the practice:

• UCP-F

• Control and Acquisition Software.

• Water.

7.3.6.3 Experimental procedure

1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual M4)

2.- Select the option “Control PID” on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual, M4).

3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant, derivative
and integral. The value for the derivative constant should be small and the integral
constant should be big so that the performance is small and it does not generate an
on/off performance in the actuator.

4.- Activate the PID controller, go about, and save the values. The student
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will observe that the motorized valve begins to work.

5.- Connect pump 1 (AB-1).

6.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Proportional
Valve) to adjust the flow to the set value.
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7.3.7 Practice 7: Adjustment of the flow controller constants (Ziegler-Nichols)

7.3.7.1 Objectives

To follow the optimization process of a controller of three terms (PID), for


a given process.

When you optimize the PID control values you will have to take into
account several initial considerations:

1.-The process has slow or quick response.

2.-The process reaction goes very retarded of the action.

3.-The sensors and controllers response is immediate or they need a


time out to reach the balance.

The objective of this practice is to get familiarized with the most usual
methods of optimizing the variables of a PID controller starting from the
characterization of the process.

For such a purpose the following methods will be used:

- Ziegler-Nichols (or closed loop).

- Reaction curve (or open loop).

7.3.7.2 Experimental procedure

The data to be analyzed will be obtained configuring the controller only


with the Proportional Band or the proportional action. The Integral and Derivative
Actions should be at zero.
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The objective of the experiment is to maintain the conduction of the system


with a flow of 1 l/m using a P controller for the control of the motorized valve.

With the motorized valve at the 50% of its complete way, regulate the
needle valve manually VR-1, until the flow of the system is at 1 l/min.

7.3.7.2.1Method of the minimum period (Ziegler-Nichols)

Pass now to an automatic control and observe how the flow stays constant
at the 50% of the process variable. Change the process variables for a partial opening
of the needle valve, VR-1. As the process will become stable, increase the value of the
proportional constant and close the needle valve partially, VR-1, observing the
behavior of the process.

Continue increasing the value of the proportional constant and applying


every time a step interference (closing or opening VR-1), until the variable of the
process oscillates continually. Write down the value of the proportional constant
(Limit Proportional Band, L.P.B.) when this happens, to measure the oscillation time
of the process (O.T.).

The optimum values, depending on the control type that we are going to
make on our process are:

Type of Control B.P. I.T. D.T.


P 2 (L.P.B.) -- --
P+I 2.2 (L.P.B.) O.T. / 1.2 --
P+I+D 1.7 (L.P.B.) O.T. / 2.0 O.T. / 8.0

Table 3.11.1

A variant of the gain limit method is the method of the minimum overflow
of the set point. Once the self-maintained oscillation of Oscillation Time O.T. for a
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Limit Proportional Band L.P.B. is obtained, the control action values are the
following ones:

B.P (%) = 1.25 L.P.B.

I.T. (MIN/REP) = 0.6 O.T.

D.T. (MIN) = 0.19 O.T.

7.3.8 Practice 8: Adjustment of the flow controller constants (Reaction Curves)

In this method of open loop, the general procedure consists on opening the
regulation closed loop before the valve, that is to say, the valve must be operated
directly with the manual controller and to create a small and quick change in step in
the input process. From the registration of the signal and from their graphic
representation the control values of the PID will be obtained. The graphic
representation of the controlled variable versus the time is a sigmoid. In the inflection
point of the sigmoid a tangent straight line is traced and the values of R and L can be
measured. R is the slope of the tangent in the inflection point of the curve and L is the
retard time of the process. That is, the time (in minutes) between the instant of the
change in the step and the point in which the tangent straight cuts the sigmoid in the
inflexion point crosses with the initial value of the controlled variable. DP is the
percentage (%) of position variation of the control valve that introduces the step in
the process, see figure 3.12.1.
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Figure 3.12.1 representation of the reaction curve.


From this representation we can obtain the slope of the sigmoid, R, and the time of retard, L.

The optimum values, depending on the control type that we will make on
our process, are
Type of Control B.P. I.T. D.T.
P P -- --
P+I 110RL/DP L/0.3 --
P+I+D 83RL/DP L/0.5 0.5L
Table 3.12.1.
Optimum values that are going to be used in function of the type of control used. L: Time of retard, R.: Slope
of the sigmoid in the inflection point. D: Derivative, P: Proportional.

Compare the values obtained by the two methods.

7.3.8.1 Other experiments to carry out

7.3.8.1.1Evaluation of the PID controller calibration

Once the PID values are entered to the controller, adjust in manual way,
with the motorized valve positioned at 50% of their way, the needle valve VR-1, until
the flow of the system is at the 50% of the maximum flow provided by the pump. Go
to automatic control of the process and apply an interference, as the solenoid valve
AVS-1. Observe the temporary behavior of the process. Repeat the process for the
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PID control values obtained by the other method.

7.3.8.2 Conclusions

- There are techniques to obtain the different values of the variables of a


PID controller and they should be determined for any particular process.

- The values obtained by any of the different methods differ and they
should be treated as start values for the good regulation of the process; they should be
slightly modified by the operator, carrying out, this way, their fine adjustment until
you obtain the good values.

- There are methods of automatic adjustment, in which the instrument has


an algorithm of self adjustment of the control actions that allows it to tune in with a
wide range of industrial processes. The application of a test signal to the process and
the analysis of the obtained response and its mathematical modeling leads to the
controller analytic design (Nishikawa, Sannomiya, Ohta and Tanaka, 1984). Or you
can use an iterative process to the method of the gain limit (Chindambara, 1970, and
Kraus and Myron, 1984):

The error signal obtained is analyzed, in the case of changes in the set point
or in the load of the process, and iterating the new PID values can be determined.

Controller P: B.P.N+1 = B.P.N / (0.5 + 2.27 R)

Controller PI: same B.P.n+1 and I.T. = P / (1.2 *sqr(1+R2)) min/rep

Controller PID: same B.P.and I.T. = P / (2 *sqr(1+R2))

D.T. = P / (8 *SQR(1+R2)).

being R = 1/(2*3.14) * Ln(a/b) and P the period of the oscillation muffled, in


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minutes. Where a and b are the widths of the first two oscillations introduced the
after the interference.

If, when applying these methods, the process enters into oscillation, the
interference can invalidate the application, in case the process does not allow it.

7.3.9 Practice 9: Level control loops (manual)

7.3.9.1 Objectives

The objective of this experiment is to control the level in a tank of water by


a manual procedure. We understand that the manual control works as:

• Manual regulation of the adjustable valve placed under the area


flowmeter.

• Manual control of the elements prepared in the equipment;


motorized valve, solenoid valves, etc.

7.3.9.2 Required material

The following elements are required for the realization of this practice:

• UCP-L

• Water

• SACED Software.

7.3.9.3 Experimental procedure

1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and execute the program
SACED UCP-L.
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2.- Inside the program, select the option Manual.

3.- In the manual regulation (no controller) the flow can be regulated by the
manual adjustable valve VR1, placed in the inferior part of the flowmeter. This
regulation, together with the opening of the tank manual valves, to notice a level of
water. Change its position and observe the adjustment of the level in function of their
position.

4.- Select the option “Manual Control” of the software supplied with the
equipment.

5.- Connect pump 1 and vary the position of the motorized valve in the slip
bar or the command associated to this action. Open AVS-1 or AVS-2 and check how,
for a given position, the level of water in the tank fixes.

6.- Change the position of the valve and repeat the values to observe the
reproducibility of the level control.

7.- Use the controls prepared in the software for the control of the solenoid
valves AVS-1, AVS-2 and AVS-3 and the switch on/off button of the pump. Observe
how an on/off of it also produces a level control of the liquid.
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7.3.10 Practice 10: Level control loops (on/off)

7.3.10.1 Objectives

On/Off
controller

Figure 3.14.1

The objective of this practice is to carry out a closed loop control by an


on/off controller. For it, the student will select a value wanted for the level and the
controller will adjust this control by the closing and opening of the solenoid valve
AVS-1, AVS-2, AVS-3 and the activation of pump 2.

7.3.10.2 Experimental procedure

1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and the control software.

2.- Select the control on/off option.


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3.- Make a double click on the on/off control, select the wanted flow. By
defect, there is a certain flow, tolerance and performance time. It allows the students
to play with these parameters and see the influences of each one.

4.- The level control can be carried out by the activation of a single
actuator, or of several ones, to which different tolerances are allowed. These
controllers work as security system measures when the controlled variable exceeds in
a tolerance the set value. To activate or to disable each one of these controllers you
have to make a double click on each one of them and press the button “PAUSE”.

5.-Calculate the inertia of the system before an on/off response and


determine the limit time for an exact control.

7.3.10.3 Conclusions

From the results obtained by the on/off control on the variable level, we
can affirm that this controller has an acceptable behavior due to the fact that the
variation of this magnitude under a small interference is slow. If we also take small
values in the performance times and in the tolerances, we can obtain a level control
next to the set value.

7.3.11 Practice 11: Level control loops (proportional)

7.3.11.1 Objectives

This configuration allows studying the dynamics of the system and the
response to the control actions in closed loop. The object of the experiments is to
regulate the set point (LEVEL) by the use of the controllers that automatically
operate on the final element of the loop (control valves).

You can control the level in the tank by a sensor and a controller
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configured for proportional output to the actuator without the typical oscillations of
the on/off control. The response of the control loop can be studied faced to
interferences in the variables of the process (flow) or variations in the set point (the
flow is changed fixing different set points).

Modifying the set point in a remote way, the level changes can be observed
oscillating around the new value. It can happened that the set point is not reached if
the range of the actuator (manipulated variable) it is not enough to control the
interferences or the changes in the set point, so it will be stabilized only until the
maximum that allows the available water. In our case, the manipulated variable is the
water level of the tank that, at the same time, comes determined by the flow that
passes through a motorized valve, manipulated automatically from the controller (0-
10V signal), by means of superimposed actions of proportional, integral and
derivative type.

7.3.11.2 Required material

The following material is required for the realization of the practice:

• UCP-L

• Control and Acquisition Software.

• Water.

7.3.11.3 Experimental procedure

1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual M4)

2.- Select the Option “Control PID” on the capture screen. (For more
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information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual M4).

3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant.

4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral and derivative performance. In this
experiment, we want to observe the effects of a proportional action.

5.- Activate the PID controller, go out and save the values. The student will
observe that the motorized valve begins to work.

6.- Connect pump 1 (AB-1).

7.- Activate the solenoid valve AVS-2.

8.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Proportional
Valve) to adjust the flow that controls the level from the water tank to the set value.
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7.3.12 Practice 12: Level control loops (Proportional + Integral)

7.3.12.1 Objectives

This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that an integral performance superimposed to a proportional action in an
actuator has.

7.3.12.2 Required material

The following material is required for the realization of the practice:

• UCP-L

• Control and Acquisition Software.

• Water.

7.3.12.3 Experimental procedure

1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)

2.- Select the option “Control PID” on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameters, see the Software Manual, M4).

3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant and an
integral value. The value for the integral constant should be big so that the error
accumulation is carried out smoothly and it doesn’t generate an on/off performance
in the actuator.

4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the derivative performance. In this experiment


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we want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus an integral action.

5.- Activate the PID controller, go out, and save the values. The student
will observe that the motorized valve begins to act.

6.- Connect pump 1.

7.- Open the solenoid valve AVS-1.

8.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Proportional
Valve) to adjust the flow that controls the set value.

7.3.13 Practice 13: Level control loops (proportional + derivative)

7.3.13.1 Objectives

This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that has a derivative performance superimposed to a proportional action in an
actuator.

7.3.13.2 Required material

The following material is required for the realization of the practice:

• UCP-L

• Control and Acquisition Software.

• Water.

7.3.13.3 Experimental procedure

1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
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details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)

2.- Select the option “Control PID” on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual, M4).

3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant and
derivative. The value for the derivative constant should be small so that the
performance is small and it doesn’t generate an on/off performance in the actuator.

4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral performance. In this experiment we


want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus a derivative action.

5.- The activated PID controller and start and save the values. The student
will observe that the motorized valve begins to work.

6.- Connect pump 1.

7.- Open valve AVS-2.

8.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Porportional
Valve) to vary the flow to adjust the level to the set value.

7.3.14 Practice 14: Level control loops (Proportional + Derivative + Integral)

7.3.14.1 Objectives

This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that a derivative performance superimposed to an integral performance and a
proportional action in an actuator has.

7.3.14.2 Required material

The following material is required for the realization of the practice:


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• UCP-L

• Control and Acquisition Software.

• Water.

7.3.14.3 Experimental procedure

1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)

2.- Select the option “Control PID” on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual, M4).

3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant, derivative
and integral. The value for the derivative constant should be small and the integral
constant should be big so that the performance is small and doesn’t generate an
on/off performance in the actuator.

4.- Activate the PID controller, go out and save the values. The student will
observe that the motorized valve begins to act.

5.- Connect pump 1.

6.- Open the solenoid valve AVS-2.

7.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Proportional
Valve) to vary the flow to adjust the level to the set value.
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7.3.15 Practice 15: Adjustment of the constants of a flow controller (Ziegler-


Nichols)

7.3.15.1 Objective of the experiment

To follow the optimization process of a controller of three terms (PID), for


a given process.

When the PID control values of a process are optimized, you will have to
take into account several initial considerations:

1.-The process is of slow or quick response.

2.-The reaction of the process goes very retarded of the action.

3.-The response of the sensors and controllers is immediate or they


need a time out to reach the balance.

The objective of this practice is to get familiarized with the most usual
methods of optimizing the variables of a PID controller starting from the
characterization of the process.

For such a purpose the following methods will be used:

- Ziegler-Nichols (or closed loop).

- Reaction Curves (or open loop).

7.3.15.2 Experimental procedure

The data to be analyzed will be obtained configuring only the controller


with the Proportional Band or the proportional action. The integral and derivative
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actions should be at zero.

The objective of the experience is to maintain the system with a constant


level using a controller P for the control of the motorized valve.

With the motorized valve at the 50% of its way, regulate the needle valve
manually VR-1, until getting that the level of the tank is constant.

7.3.15.3 Method of the minimum period (Ziegler-Nichols)

Pass now to an automatic control and observe how the level stays constant
at the 50% of the process variable. Change the variables of the process for partial
opening of the needle valve, VR-1. As the process will become stable, increase the
value of the proportional constant and close the needle valve, VR-1, partially
observing the behavior of the process.

Continue increasing the value of the proportional constant, applying each


time an interference in step (closing or opening VR-1 ), until the variable of the process
oscillates continually. Note down the value of the proportional constant (Limit
Proportional Band, L.P.B.) when this happens, measure the oscillation time of the
process (O.T.).

The optimum values, depending on the control type we will make on our
process are:

Type of Control B.P. I.T. D.T.


P 2 (L.P.B.) -- --
P+I 2.2 (L.P.B.) T.O/1.2 --
P+I+D 1.7 (B.P.L) O.T. / 2.0 T.O/8.0
Table 3.19.1
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A variant of the gain limit method is the method of the minimum overflow
of the set point. Once the self-maintained oscillation of the Time of Oscillation O.T.
is obtained for a Limit Proportional Band L.P.B., the values of the control actions are
the following ones:

B.P (%) = 1.25 L.P.B.

I.T. (MIN/REP) = 0.6 O.T.

D.T. (MIN) = 0.19 O.T.

7.3.16 Practice 16: Adjustment of the constant of a flow controller (Reaction


Curves)

In this open loop method, the general procedure consists on opening the
closed loop of regulation before the valve, that is to say, the valve must be directly
operating with the controller manually and to create a small one and quick change in
the step in the input process. From the signal registration and from their graphic
representation the PID control values can be obtained. The graphic representation of
the controlled variable versus the time is a sigmoid. In the inflection point of the
sigmoid a tangent straight line is traced and the values R and L are measured. R is the
slope of the tangent in the inflection point of the curve and L is the retard time of the
process. That is, time (in minutes) that takes place between the instant of the change
in step and the point in which the straight line, tangent to the sigmoid, cuts the initial
value of the controlled variable. DP is the percentage (%) of the position variation of
the control valve that introduces the step in the process, see figure 3.20.1
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Figure 3.20.1:

Representation of the reaction curve.


From this representation we can obtain the slope of the sigmoid R and the time of retard L.

The optimum values, depending on the control type that we will be made
on our process are:
Type of Control B.P. I.T. D.T.
P P -- --
P+I 110RL/DP L/0.3 --
P+I+D 83RL/DP L/0.5 0.5L
Table 3.20.1:
Optimum values necessary to use in function of the type of control used.
L: Time of retard, R.: Slope of the sigmoid in the inflection point. D. Derivative, P.: Proportional.

Compare the values obtained by the two methods.

7.3.16.1 Other experiments to carry out

7.3.16.1.1 - Evaluation of the calibration of the PID controller

Once the PID values are introduced in the controller in a manual way, with
the motorized valve positioned at the 50% of their way, regulate the needle valve
manually VR-1, until obtaining that the flow of the system is at the 50% of the
maximum flow provided by the pump. Go to the automatic control of the process and
apply an interference, as the solenoid valve AVS-1. Observe the temporary behavior
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of the process. Repeat the process for the PID control values obtained by the other
method.

7.3.16.2 Conclusions

- There are techniques to obtain the different values of the variables of a


PID controller and they should be determined for any particular process.

- The values obtained by any of the different methods differ, and they
should be treated as starting values for the good regulation of the process, which
should be slightly modified by the operator, carrying out this way their fine
adjustment until obtaining the optimum values.

- There are methods of automatic adjustment, in which the instrument has


an algorithm of self-adjustment of the control actions that allows him to tune in with
a wide range of industrial processes. The application of a test signal to the process
and the analysis of the obtained response and its mathematical modeling leads to the
controller analytic design (Nishikawa, Sannomiya, Ohta and Tanaka, 1984). Or you
can use an iterative process to the method of the gain limit (Chindambara, 1970 and
Kraus and Myron, 1984):

The obtained error signal is analyzed in the case of changes in the set point
or in the load of the process, and by iteration the new values PID can be determined.

Controller P: B.P.N+1 = B.P.N / (0.5 + 2.27 R)

Controller PI: same B.P.n+1 and I.T. = P / (1.2 *sqr(1+R2)) min/rep

Controller PID: same B.P.and I.T. = P / (2 *sqr(1+R2))

D.T. = P / (8 *SQR(1+R2)).
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Being R = 1/(2*3.14) * Ln(a/b) and P the period of the oscillation muffled in


minutes. Where a and b are the widths of the first two oscillations introduced after
the interference.

If, when applying these methods, the process enters into oscillation, the
interference can invalidate the application, in case the process does not allow it.

7.3.17 Practice 17: Temperature control loops (manual)

7.3.17.1 Objectives

The objective of this experiment is the temperature control in a tank of


water by a manual procedure. We understand that the manual control works as:

• Manual regulation of the adjustable valve placed under the area


flowmeter.

• Manual control of the equipment elements: motorized valve, solenoid


valves, relay of activation / deactivation of the resistor, etc.

7.3.17.2 Required material

The following material is required for the realization of this practice:

• UCP-T

• Water.

• SACED Software.