Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

The contents of this document are proprietary and confidential.

They are the


property of Ariel Corporation and may not be disclosed, reproduced, or used for
ENGINEERING REFERENCE manufacture in part or in whole without written permission from Ariel Corporation.

Packing and Distance Piece Vent Systems


Distance piece compartments must be vented to a safe location due to potential gas leakage. This sec-
tion identifies some methods to safely route this leaking gas to atmospheric vents, flare systems, or vent
gas recovery systems. Special notes:
• Remove distance piece covers to confirm internal tubing connection types and locations.
• Limit distance piece compartment pressure to 25 psig (1.7 barg).
• Do not plug vents to use drains for venting.
• Do not reduce the connection sizes provided by Ariel.
• Increase to minimum 3/8 inch tubing from the 1/4” NPT connection (see item 3, FIGURE 1) for pack-
ing vent/drain.
• For a remotely mounted crankcase breather, configure piping to prevent back pressure and piping
condensation drainage into the crankcase. Do not connect the crankcase breather to a packing and
distance piece vent system.

Vent and Drain Connections


Packing Purge (optional) - The packing case can be purged
with sweet natural gas or inert gas at a pressure exceeding the
packing vent back-pressure to prevent process gas from entering
the distance piece.
Distance Piece Vent – Gas may leak from this vent as the pack-
ing case wears and packing vent gas back-pressure builds.
Packing Vent/Drain – This connection vents gas leakage from
the packing assembly, preventing it from entering the distance
piece. The leakage includes oil; route the connection to a sep-
aration pot to remove oil before routing to a gas vent, flare, or
recovery system.
Distance Piece Drain(s) – Some distance pieces may have two
drains, as shown in FIGURE 1. Connect both drains to the drain
system. 1. Packing Purge 3. Packing
Vent/Drain
(Optional)
4. Distance
2. Distance Piece Drain
Piece Vent

FIGURE 1 Typical Vent/Drain


Connections

For the most recent edition of this document, visit www.arielcorp.com.


4 020079 1-29-15
3 019052 10-22-13
7 Figure 8, Single Vent and Double Vent, #2: added "(1/4 NPT to 1/4 tube fitting)". 2
1
018694
018450
1-25-13
9-21-12
7
6
201600239
201500027
6-16-16
10-12-15
0 -15759 5-25-12 5 019292 2-17-15
REV DESCRIPTION REV ECN DATE REV ECN DATE

Page 1 of 10 REV 7 ER-56.12


The contents of this document are proprietary and confidential. They are the
property of Ariel Corporation and may not be disclosed, reproduced, or used for
ENGINEERING REFERENCE manufacture in part or in whole without written permission from Ariel Corporation.

TABLE 1 Distance Piece Vent and Drain NPT Connection Sizes, Inches

 Frame Outboard Vent Connection Distance Piece Drain Connection


JG:A:M:P:N:Q:R:J 1/4 1/4
JGH:E:K:T (STD/S2C), JGC:D:F 3/4 1/2
JGH:E:K:T (L2C) 3/4 3/4
KBZ:U 1 1/2
KBB:V 1-1/2 1/2

Atmospheric Vent System


Route the packing vent/drain
to a separation pot to
remove lube oil from the vent
line before routing to the vent
destination.
Manifold distance piece
drains separately from the
packing vent/drain line to the
separation pot to ensure
packing vent gas does not
flow back through the dis-
tance piece drains,
preventing proper distance
1. Packing Vent/Drain
piece drainage. 2. Distance Piece Vent
The vent leaving the oil sep- 3. Distance Piece Drain
4. VVCP Gas Vent
aration tank must be large 5. Oil Separation Pot
enough to freely flow the
total of individual packing FIGURE 2 Venting to
vents in worn condition. Atmosphere

TABLE 2 Typ. Packing Vent/Drain Leakage Rates

New 0.1 - 0.2 cfm 6 - 12 cfh 0.15 - 0.3 m3/hr


Worn 2 - 4 cfm 120 - 240 cfh 2 - 7 m3/hr

Page 2 of 10 REV 7 ER-56.12


The contents of this document are proprietary and confidential. They are the
property of Ariel Corporation and may not be disclosed, reproduced, or used for
ENGINEERING REFERENCE manufacture in part or in whole without written permission from Ariel Corporation.

Flare Vent
System
Route the packing
vent/drain to a separation pot
to remove lube oil from the
vent line before routing to the
vent destination.
Manifold distance piece
drains separately from the
packing vent/drain line to the
separation pot to ensure 1. Packing Vent/Drain
2. Distance Piece Vent
packing vent gas does not 3. Distance Piece Drain
flow back through the dis- 4. VVCP Gas Vent
tance piece drains, 5. Oil Separation Pot
preventing proper distance 6. Low Cracking
Pressure Check Valve
piece drainage.
The vent leaving the oil sep- FIGURE 3 Venting to
aration tank must be large Flare
enough to freely flow the total
of individual packing vents in worn condition.
If the VVCP has one vent connection, do not connect the VVCP gas vent to the flare vent system. The
flare vent system back-pressure will flow gas back through the VVCP vent and across the stem threads.
If the VVCP has two vent connections, connect the vent closest to the cylinder to the distance piece vent
line. Leave the second vent connection open to the atmosphere. See FIGURE 8.

Purge and Vent Systems


Purge systems are used in applications that require bet-
ter gas leakage containment for safety or environmental
reasons. Units compressing gas containing more than
100 ppm hydrogen sulfide gas or hydrogen rich gas are
common applications for purge gas systems.
Common purge gases include sweet natural gas or nitro-
gen. Do not purge with air. Small amounts of purge gas
can leak into the atmosphere through the frame, so use
a purge gas that can be permitted to leak in small quant-
ities.
Introduce purge gas pressure at the distance piece
purge connection to the pressure packing case down-
stream of the packing vent/drain. Maintain purge gas FIGURE 4 Typical Purge & Vent Packing
pressure 10 to 15 psi (0.7 to 1 bar) higher than packing
vent back-pressure. The higher pressure creates a barrier to ensure packing gas leakage routes
through the packing vent/drain connection. Expected purge rates are 5 cfh (0.14 m3/hr) per purge point.
An eductor or vacuum pump can be used to lower the vent system pressure, or to route vent gas to
higher disposal pressures. Set vacuum pressure to a light vacuum (up to several inches of water
column) to avoid drawing air into the system.

Page 3 of 10 REV 7 ER-56.12


The contents of this document are proprietary and confidential. They are the
property of Ariel Corporation and may not be disclosed, reproduced, or used for
ENGINEERING REFERENCE manufacture in part or in whole without written permission from Ariel Corporation.

Purged Vent System for Long Two-Compartment Distance Piece


Three separate vents
route from the throw: the
packing vent/drain, and
outboard and inboard dis-
tance piece vents and
drains. Keep these vents
separate from each other.
1. Packing
Install a partition in the sep- Vent/Drain
aration pot to allow liquid 2. Distance Piece
to accumulate on one side. Vent - Outboard
This acts as a liquid check 3. Distance Piece
Drain - Outboard
valve between the three 4. Distance Piece
vent lines. Fill the sep- Vent - Inboard
aration pot before initial 5. Distance Piece
Drain - Inboard
start up.
6. Purge
Though the partition in the 7. Oil Separation Pot
separation pot is pre- 8. Low Cracking
Pressure Check
ferred, mechanical check Valve
valves can separate the
three vent lines. Do not FIGURE 5 Long
install a check valve on Two-Compartment
packing vent drain line. Vent and Purge
In a long two-com-
partment guide, the
pressure packing case, intermediate (partition) packing case, and wiper seal case can be purged.

Page 4 of 10 REV 7 ER-56.12


The contents of this document are proprietary and confidential. They are the
property of Ariel Corporation and may not be disclosed, reproduced, or used for
ENGINEERING REFERENCE manufacture in part or in whole without written permission from Ariel Corporation.

Purged Vent System for Short Two-Compartment Distance Piece


Three separate vents route from the throw:
the packing vent/drain, and the outboard and FIGURE 6 Short
inboard distance piece vents and drains. Two-Compartment
Keep these vents separate from each other. Vent and Purge
Install a partition in the separation pot to
allow liquid to accumulate on one side. This 1. Packing
acts as a liquid check valve between the Vent/Drain
three vent lines. Fill the separation pot before 2. Distance Piece
Vent - Inboard
initial start up. 3. Distance Piece
Though the partition in the separation pot is Drain - Inboard
4. Distance Piece
preferred, mechanical check valves can sep- Vent - Outboard
arate the three vent lines. Do not install a 5. Distance Piece
check valve on the packing vent drain line. Drain -Outboard
6. Purge
In a short two-compartment guide, the pres- 7. Oil Separation Pot
sure packing case can be purged. 8. Low Cracking
Pressure Check
The vent and drain closest to the cylinder Valve
leak gas only if there is a seal leakage at
installation. This compartment vents gas
from the crank end head seal, packing case
nose gasket, cup-to-cup seal faces, or loose
packing bolts.

Page 5 of 10 REV 7 ER-56.12


The contents of this document are proprietary and confidential. They are the
property of Ariel Corporation and may not be disclosed, reproduced, or used for
ENGINEERING REFERENCE manufacture in part or in whole without written permission from Ariel Corporation.

Purged Vent System for Single Distance Piece with Sweep Purge
A long single compartment
distance piece can be con-
figured to reduce gas leakage
to the atmosphere with a
packing case purge and a dis-
tance piece sweep purge.
Supply the packing case
1. Packing
purge at a pressure of 10-15
Vent/Drain
psi (0.7 to 1 bar) above the
2. Distance
packing vent back pressure. Piece Vent
Supply the distance piece 3. Distance
sweep purge at a regulated Piece Drain
flow rate of 5 scfh (0.14 4. Packing
Pressure
m3/hr). The distance piece Purge
compartment is both purged 5. Distance
and vented, allowing the Piece Flow
(sweep) Purge
purge gas to “sweep” the com- 6. Oil Separation
partment. Pot
7. Low Cracking
Single compartment distance Pressure
piece configuration can be Check Valve
used with a pressure packing
purge to control emissions. A FIGURE 7 Single
distance piece flow or sweep Compartment
purge can be added for Sweep Purge
greater reliability.

Piping Manifold Size Considerations


Worn or damaged pressure packing rings can result in high vent flow rates and increased back pressure
on the vent line. Size venting lines sufficiently to avoid back pressure exceeding 25 psi (1.7 bar) on the
distance piece compartments.
When routed to a flare system, review flare upset conditions. Other equipment can provide a large flare
pressure that causes back pressure to the distance piece compartments.
To avoid back pressure from a short term flare pressure (seconds), install a check valve on the main
vent between the compressor system and the flare (downstream of the drain pots).
Whenever two lines are manifolded together, the combined line size should equal the added areas of
the incoming two lines. For example, if two 3/4 inch lines meet, a 1 inch line is appropriate after the con-
nection. This includes packing vent/drain as well as distance piece vents and drains. Larger sizes may
be necessary to allow proper draining for lines that can contain oil.
Size drain lines generously to allow proper draining when adequate slopes are not possible.

Monitoring a Purge and Vent System


Maintenance of the system and wearing parts is crucial to success. As the packing wears, leakage rate
increases can overcome the application of the purge gas.
System monitoring methods include the following (see ER-56.07Section 1 - Instrumentation for addi-
tional information):

Page 6 of 10 REV 7 ER-56.12


The contents of this document are proprietary and confidential. They are the
property of Ariel Corporation and may not be disclosed, reproduced, or used for
ENGINEERING REFERENCE manufacture in part or in whole without written permission from Ariel Corporation.

• Packing vent gas temperature out of the packing case. Monitor packing vent line temperature
immediately outside the distance piece. Higher leakage flow rates have higher tubing temperatures. If
immersing a temperature device in the vent line for vent gas temperatures, route the installation to pre-
vent the hot oil in the line from contacting the probe as this spikes the temperature.
• Packing case temperature. Install a temperature element in the packing case in lieu of monitoring
packing vent/drain tubing temperature manually.
• Purge gas to vent gas differential pressure. A differential pressure gauge across the purge gas
and packing vent/drain line provides a positive indication the vent line flow is not creating more back
pressure than the purge gas pressure.
• Packing vent flow. Packing flow measurements must consider the oil in the packing vent/drain lines.
Either remove the oil from the line prior to measurement, or install an appropriate flow meter into a lar-
ger pipe section where oil in the line is not a concern. An RTD style mass flow meter may be used in
larger line sizes.

Capacity Control Device Vents


Variable Volume Clearance Pocket
Vents
In a single-vent VVCP, the gas vent is not sealed
from the atmosphere at the operator end of the
stem. Route this gas vent to an atmospheric vent.
Do not connect it to a vent that can have back-pres-
sure. In a double-vent VVCP, the vent closest to the
cylinder can be connected to the frame end distance
piece piping. Leave the second vent open to the Single-Vent VVCP
atmosphere. 1. Step-Cut joint Piston Ring 3. Grease Fitting
2. Open to Atmosphere 4. Unloader Stem Seal
(1/4 NPT to 1/4 tube fitting)

Double-Vent VVCP
1. Step-Cut joint Piston Ring 3. Open to Atmosphere
2. Gas Vent 4. Grease Fitting
(1/4 NPT to 1/4 tube fitting) 5. Unloader Stem Seal

FIGURE 8 Typical VVCP

Page 7 of 10 REV 7 ER-56.12


The contents of this document are proprietary and confidential. They are the
property of Ariel Corporation and may not be disclosed, reproduced, or used for
ENGINEERING REFERENCE manufacture in part or in whole without written permission from Ariel Corporation.

Pneumatic Capacity Control Devices


Fixed Volume Clearance Pockets
Fixed volume clearance pockets include control and vent connections:
• GV1: Gas + actuation gas vent. Vent to safe atmosphere
(no back-pressure). Vents any leakage past the primary
gas seal. The second seal prevents gas leakage into the cyl-
inder side of the actuator piston. Due to this two seal
configuration, this vent can be connected to the vent sys-
tem at low pressure.
• CM: Actuation gas inlet for control media. Typical control
pressures range from 70 to 125 psig (4.8 - 8.6 barg). Note:
Consult Ariel unit specific parts manual or contact
Ariel for actual control media pressure requirements.
A check valve is required upstream of the solenoid.
• Apply control pressure to CM to close pocket and load cyl-
inder end.
• GV2: Vent to safe atmosphere (no back-pressure). Vents
any leakage of actuation media past the primary gas seal. FIGURE 9 Typical Pneumatic
The second seal prevents gas leakage into the atmo- Fixed Volume Clearance Pocket
sphere. GV2 need not be tubed away if air is the actuation
medium.
• AV1: Vent to safe atmosphere (no back-pressure). Vents cylinder side of actuator piston.
• GVD: Normally plugged. Use to drain or vent pocket, if needed.

Suction Valve Unloaders


Suction valve unloaders include control and vent connections:
• CM: Actuation gas inlet for control media. Use to apply control
pressure: 60-100 psig (4.1 - 6.9 barg). Note: Consult Ariel
unit specific parts manual or contact Ariel for actual con-
trol media pressure requirements. A check valve is
required upstream of the solenoid.
• Apply control pressure to CM to deactivate valve and unload
cylinder end.
• GV1: Gas + actuation gas vent. Vent to safe atmosphere (no
back-pressure). Vents any process gas leakage past the stem
seal. Since this is a single seal configuration, this vent can be con-
nected only to a low pressure vent system or safe atmosphere.
• AV1: Vent to safe atmosphere (no back-pressure). Vents cyl-
inder side of actuator piston.

FIGURE 10 Typical Suction


Valve Unloader

Page 8 of 10 REV 7 ER-56.12


The contents of this document are proprietary and confidential. They are the
property of Ariel Corporation and may not be disclosed, reproduced, or used for
ENGINEERING REFERENCE manufacture in part or in whole without written permission from Ariel Corporation.

1. Control Pressure Source


2. System Accumulator or
Storage Vessel
3. Pressure Relief Valve
4. Filter/Separator
5. Supply Line
6. Regulator (if required)
7. Local Accumulator (if
required)
8. Full-Port Check Valve
9. 3-Way Full-Port Control
Valve
10. Fixed Volume Clearance
Pocket
11. Suction Valve Unloader

FIGURE 11 Typical
Control Schematic

Page 9 of 10 REV 7 ER-56.12


The contents of this document are proprietary and confidential. They are the
property of Ariel Corporation and may not be disclosed, reproduced, or used for
ENGINEERING REFERENCE manufacture in part or in whole without written permission from Ariel Corporation.

Installation Notes

CAUTION: Install backflow protection between the supply source and the solenoids to
prevent over-pressure of plant air compressors or other supply sources in the event of
actuator seal failure.

1. Ariel recommends clean air or inert gas to activate the actuator.


2. Do not exceed maximum control pressure as listed on the device. Maximum pressure varies on fixed
volume clearance pockets. Maximum pressure on suction valve unloader actuators is 150 psig
(10.34 barg).
3. Use minimum 3/8 inch (9.53 mm) O.D. tubing throughout.
4. An electrically activated solenoid operating a 3-port, 2-position control valve regulates control pres-
sure. Place control valve to minimize tubing length between the control valve and actuators:
• Below 800 RPM, tube length between the control valve and the actuators must be less than 15
feet (4.57 m).
• Above 800 RPM, tube length must be less than 10 feet (3.05 m).
Apply or release control pressure quickly to ensure proper device activation/deactivation:
• For suction valve unloaders, less than or equal to three revolutions of the compressor.
• For fixed volume clearance pockets, less than or equal to two seconds.
5. The control valve flow coefficient (Cv) must be no less than 1.6. Attach no devices or tubing to the
exhaust port that would reduce vent flow.
6. The unloader assembly drawing or part list specifies control pressure required to operate the actu-
ators. Ariel recommends monitoring and alarming operating gas pressure to prevent operation
below this value.
7. Always leave actuator vents open to ensure safe and effective unloader operation. Do not allow
paint to block vents.
When process gas is toxic, flammable, or in any other way objectionable in the compressor building,
pipe the lower vent to carry any leakage away. Use vent tubing no less than 3/8 inch (9.53 mm) O.D.,
and if combined with any other vent system, allow no back pressure or vacuum in this piping.

Page 10 of 10 REV 7 ER-56.12