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Introduction of C Programming
What is Programming Language?

A vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. The term programming language usually
refers to high-level languages, such as BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Ada, and Pascal. Each language has a unique set of keywords
(words that it understands) and a special syntax for organizing program instructions.
High-level programming languages, while simple compared to human languages, are more complex than the languages the computer
actually understands, called machine languages. Each different type of CPU has its own unique machine language.
Lying between machine languages and high-level languages are languages called assembly languages. Assembly languages are similar to
machine languages, but they are much easier to program in because they allow a programmer to substitute namesfor numbers. Machine
languages consist of numbers only.
Lying above high-level languages are languages called fourth-generation languages (usually abbreviated 4GL). 4GLs are far removed from
machine languages and represent the class of computer languages closest to human languages.
Regardless of what language you use, you eventually need to convertyour program into machine language so that the computer can
understand it. There are two ways to do this:
1) Compile the program
2) Interpret the program
Recommended Reading: See compile and interpreter for more information about these two methods.
The question of which language is best is one that consumes a lot of time and energy among computer professionals. Every language has its
strengths and weaknesses. For example, FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data, but it does not lend itself
very well to organizing large programs. Pascal is very good for writing well-structured and readable programs, but it is not as flexible as the
C programming language. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features, but it is complex and difficult to learn.
The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer the program is to run on, what sort of program it is, and the expertise
of the programmer.
Content of C Programming

1.Fundamental of C Language
2.Decision Control Statement
4 Arrays
7.Dynamic Memory Allocation
8.C Programming Structure
9.C Preprocessor
10.Header Files
11.File Handling
Real-World Applications of C

1. Operating Systems:
Scripting of UNIX operating system was the primary purpose behind creation of C. Additionally, as programs scripted in C get executed with
speeds equivalent to assembly language, C language has been an integral part of the development of multiple operating systems. Unix-Kernel,
Microsoft Windows utilities and operating system applications, and a large segment of the Android operating system have all been scripted in C.
2. Development of New Languages:
Efficiency of code execution and simplicity have resulted in C directly or indirectly influencing development of many languages including C++
which is C with classes, C#, D, Java, Limbo, JavaScript, Perl, UNIX’s C Shell, PHP and Python, and Verilog. These languages use C in variable
capacity: for instance, in Python, C is used for building standard libraries, while others like C++, Perl and PHP have syntax and control structures
based upon C

3. Computation Platforms:
C implements algorithms and data structures swiftly, facilitating faster computations in programs. This has enabled the use of C in applications
requiring higher degrees of calculations like MATLAB and Mathematica.

4. Embedded Systems:
Various features of C including direct access to machine level hardware APIs, presence of C compilers, deterministic resource use and dynamic
memory allocation make C language an optimum choice for scripting applications and drivers of embedded systems.

5. Graphics and Games:

C language has been used in the development of a variety of graphics and gaming applications, such as chess, bouncing ball, archery etc.
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