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Design and Fabrication of Stair Climbing Trolley

P.Jey Praveen Raj1, P.M.Mohamed Fuge2, R.Paul Caleb3, G.Natarajan4


1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Easwari Engineering College, Chennai, INDIA
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Easwari Engineering College, Chennai, INDIA
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Easwari Engineering College, Chennai, INDIA
41
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Easwari Engineering College, Chennai, INDIA

Abstract

In the modern world though there are many developments in the field of engineering. Still there are
difficulties to carry heavy loads over stairs. Development of lift simplifies the effort of carrying heavy loads over
stairs, it is not possible to use lift in all places like schools, college’s constructional areas. This project aims at
developing a mechanism for easy transportation of heavy loads over stairs. The need for such arises from day to day
requirements in our society. Devices such as hand trolleys are used to relieve the stresses of lifting while on flat
ground. However these devices usually fail when it comes to carrying the load over short fleet of stairs .Our project
attempts to design a stair climbing trolley which can carry heavy objects up the stairs with less effort compared to
carrying them manually .The main objective of the project is to find an efficient and user friendly method of carrying
various objects through stairs using minimum effort from the user and to also provide a smooth movement while
climbing the stair. Under this project we have manufactured a stair climber with tri lobed wheel frames at both sides
of the climber and three wheels on each sides are used in the tri lobed frame. The wheel assembly is rotated by a
gear- motor mechanism where a DC gear motor is used to provide the necessary power for rotation and a pinion-
gear mesh is used for reducing the rotating speed of the wheel. The motor is connected to a lead acid battery of
similar ratings and they are in turn connected to DPDT switch.

Keywords: Stair Climber; Tri-Star Wheel; Trolley; Hand Truck; Motor Cycle

I. INTRODUCTION

In day today life we may have to carry so many goods and objects of various quantities through stairs
especially in offices, schools, colleges, hotels, industries, apartments etc. where the lifts may not be available,
may be crowded with people or may be under repair .It is highly tiresome to carry various objects through stairs
manually for higher floors for so many times. The various applications may be carrying bundles of answer
sheets in a school or a college, carrying furniture in different buildings, different apparatus in colleges, in
hospitals etc., carrying electronic items in houses and offices .So there should be a way to carry the objects
through the stairs in a more comfortable and tireless manner without forcing the user to apply more force. Here
comes the application of a stair climber.

Fig.1: Conventional Hand Trolley

II. LITERATURE SURVEY

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In order to get a proper grip to our project we have extensively referred various articles and websites
over the internet. We also referred to the project done by others under the similar projects.

A. Smart Trolley in Mega Mall

Every time customer has to pull the trolley from rack to rack for collecting items and at the same time
customer has to do calculation of those items and need to compare it with his budget in pocket. After this
procedure, customer has to wait in queue for billing. So, to avoid headache like pulling trolley, waiting in billing
queue, thinking about budget, New concept introduced that is “SMART TROLLEY IN MEGA MALL”. In
modern era, for automation of mall e a microcontroller based TROLLEY is designed which is totally automatic.
It follows the customer while purchasing items and it maintains safe distance between customer and itself. Only
customer has to hold the barcode side of the product wrapper in front of barcode scanner. Then corresponding
data regarding product will be displayed on display. By using this trolley, customer can buy large number of
product in very less time with less effort. At the billing counter, computer can be easily interfaced for
verification and bill print out.

B. Stair Climber Physically Challenged


A two wheel stair climber is used in this type of stair climber. A central lifting wheel is used to lift
the object through the stairs. The entire weight of the object controlled by motor–gear mechanism. This
mechanism is quite simple in nature. The main disadvantage is that the movement may not be smooth. Also the
single lifting wheel has to carry the entire weight which may not be desirable sometimes.

C. Automatic Stair Climber Using Chain Mechanism

Here also a two wheel stair climber is used but the difference is that a chain mechanism is used to
climb the stairs .Four small lifting forks are used, two on each side of the chain. The position of the lifting forks
should be adjusted in such a way that two of them should reach the next step at the same time so that the weight
of the part could be distributed among them. These lifting forks would be moving through the chains thus
providing a smooth movement of the climber. The movement will be controlled by motor –gear mechanism.
The weight of the tires and the other MS steel components could be reduced using other lightweight motels. If
the machining quality could have been a lot better than the climber would have been much stable. Finally
additional features like automatic movement controllers, brakes etc. could be added to make the climbing
motion smoother and comfortable.

III. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS

The CAD model of the product was designed to determine the external dimensions of the stair climber. The stair
climber consists of a two pair of Tri-Star clamp. This Tri-Star clamp is used to hold the wheels with the help of
nuts and bolts and make Tri-Star wheel setup and this Tri-Star wheel setup is connected at ends of the hollow
shaft to make Tri-Star wheel assembly. The Tri-Star wheel assembly is powered by a motor setup.

A. Determination of Basic Dimensions

The basic external dimensions were decided based upon the study of stair climbers. The external and
internal diameter of the hollow shaft is considered as 25mm and 18mm respectively. The length of the shaft is
700mm. Two pairs of Tri-Star clamp and six rubber wheels are used. The diameter of wheel is decided as
150mm for appropriate dimensions of the stair which is about depth of the tread is 300-350mm and height of the
riser is 140-150mm. The inter-lobe angle of Tri-Star clamp is taken as 120˚.Suitable motor and gears were
decided based on requirement.

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B. Parts

After the determination of basic dimensions of the Stair climber, the part design of the various parts of
the Stair climber was done. The part designs of various parts are described below in detail.

1) Frame:

The frame is designed as shown below. The frame is designed for a height of about 1000mm and is
made up of Mild Steel material. The handle is made perpendicular to the body of the trolley so that the trolley
can be inclined to any angle. The base of the trolley is welded and it is made up of Mild Steel material.

Fig.2: Design of Frame

2) Tri-Star Wheel Setup:

The Tri-Star clamp is used for connecting the wheels together. While climbing the stairs it is tedious to
climb with a single wheel. Here, the wheels are connected to each of the arms of the clamp and while climbing
the stairs Tri-Star setup rotates when it hits the edge of the stairs. The Tri-Star is fabricated using gas cutting
process. The wheels are placed between the two clamps and are held with the help of the nuts and bolts.

Fig.3: Design of Tri-Star Wheel setup

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3) Wheel and Shaft Assembly:

The wheel which is fixed to the Tri-Star clamp is then assembled to the hollow shaft as shown below.
The Tri-Star wheel setup is fixed at the either ends of the hollow shaft by welding. The sprocket is fixed on the
shaft before the welding process which connects the small sprocket and motor with the help of chain drive.

Fig.4: Design of Wheel and Shaft Assembly

4) Final Assembly of Trolley:

The final assembly of the trolley is done as shown below. The wheel setup and the
shaft assembly are assembled to the body of the trolley with the help of bearing. Here, ball bearing is used. Now
the sprockets are connected to the hollow shaft and motor shaft with the help of chain drive. As the motor
rotates, the shaft and Tri-Star assembly rotates with the help of the chain drive mechanism.

Fig.5: Assembled View of Trolley

C. Analysis

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The various components of the stair climber were analysed based on stress and moment reactions.

1) Static Structural Analysis of Clamp:

The design of the clamp was analysed using static structural analysis. The hub of the clamp was fixed
to the hollow shaft by welded joint. Based on the overall result of this analysis, we can conclude that the clamp
design is safe.

Fig.5: Static Analysis of Clamp (Von Mises Stress)

Fig.6: Static Analysis of Clamp (Max Principle Stress)

2) Static Structural Analysis of Hollow Shaft:

The hollow shaft is fixed to the body frame with the help of bearings. Two ball bearings are used to
connect shaft with frame and the load is acts through it to shaft. The ends of the hollow shaft are fixed to Tri-
Star wheels. The result of static analysis of hollow shaft is shown below.

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Fig.7: Static Analysis of Hollow Shaft

IV. DESIGN CALCULATION

A. Design of Shaft

Outer Diameter, D= 25 mm

Inner Diameter, d =18 mm

Length of the shaft = 700 mm

Shaft Subjected To Simple Torsional Moment:

Shear strength Ʈ = P/A

Assume, load p= 100kg

=100*9.81=981N

Area = (π/4)*(D2-d2)

Area =236.2 mm2

Shear strength

Ʈ = 981/236.2 = 4.153N/mm2

Shaft Subjected To Simple Bending Moment

σ = 32*M*D/ (π*(D4-d4))

M = π/16 * Ʈ * ((D4-d4)/D)

= 9312.457 N mm

σ = (32*9312.457*25)/(π*(254-184)

σ = 8.305 N/mm2

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Material selected is mild steel

For mild steel σ =580N/mm2

Allowable bending moment < permissible bending moment

8.305 N/mm2< 580N/mm2

Design is safe and satisfactory

B. Selection of Motor

Voltage V = 13.5v

Current I = 8A

T = (P*60)/ (2*π*N)

= (60*60)/ (2* π*30)

= 19.10N-m

C. Design of Chain Drive

1. Selection of transmission ratio

From PSG Design data book pg. 7.74

i = (z2/z1) = (n1/n2)

= 50/30

= 1.5

2. Selection of number of teeth on driver sprocket

From PSG Design data book pg.no: 7.74

Select z1 = 12

3. Determination of number of teeth on driven sprocket

i = (z2/z1)

z2 = (i*z1)

= 12*1.5

= 18

4. Selection of standard pitch (P)

Optimum centre distance

a= (30 to 50) P

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Say a = 30P

a = 381mm

P = (a/30) = 12.7mm

5. Selection of chain

From PSG data book pg. 7.71

Considering simplex chain ISO 08B-1 R1278 is selected for pitch 12.7mm

6. Calculation of total load on driving side of chain

Total load

(PT) =Pt. + Pc + PS

From PSG Design data book pg. 7.78

Pt. = (1020*n/v)

Pc = mv²

Ps = k*w*a

v = (z2*p*N)/ (60*1000)

= (18*12.7*50)/ (60000)

= 0.19 m/s

Pt. = (1020*0.72)/0.19

Pt. = 385.6N

Centrifugal tension

Pc = (w*v²)/g

Pc = (490.5*(0.19)²)/9.81

Pc = 1.085N

From PSG Design data book pg. 7.78

Ps = k*w*a

= 1*490.5*0.381

Ps = 186.88N

PT = 186.88 + 385.6 + 1.085

PT = 573.5N

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7. Calculation of service factor

Ks = K1*K2*K3*K4*K5*K6

K1 = 1 (for constant loads)

K2 = 1.1(Drive using idle sprockets)

K3 = 1 (a = (30 to 50) P)

K4 = 1 (Up to 60º)

K5 = 1 (Drop lubrication)

K6 = 1 (Single shift of 8 hours a day)

Ks = 1.1

8. Calculation of design load

Design load

= Ks*PT

= 1.1*573.5

= 630.85N

9. Calculation of factor of safety:

FOS = Breaking load/ (PT * Ks)

= 981/ (1.1*573.5)

FOS = 1.55

10. Actual length of chain

L P= 2a + ((z1+z2)/2) + ((z2-z1)/ (2*π)) ²/aP

aP = ae/p

= 381/12.7 30

LP = (2*30) + 15 + 0.03

LP = 75.05; LP = 75

Actual length of chain = 75*12.7 = 0.95m

11. Exact centre distance

a = ((e + (e²-8M) 0.5)/4)*P

M = ((z2 – z1)/ (2*π)) ²

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M = 0.911

e = LP – ((z1+z2)/2)

e = 60

a = 379.56mm

12. Pitch diameter of sprocket

From PSG design data book pg.7.78

PCD for small sprocket,

d1 = P/sin (180/z1)

d1 = 12.7/sin (180/12)

d1 = 49.06mm

Sprocket outside (small) diameter:

d01 = d1+0.8dr

dr = 7.75mm

d01 = 56.81mm

PCD for larger sprocket

d2 = P/sin (180/z2)

d2 = 12.7/sin (180/18)

d2 = 73.136mm

Sprocket outside (large) diameter:

d02 = d2+0.8dr

d02 = 80.886mm

V. FABRICATION

The fabrication of stair climbing trolley is begins with the fabrication of Tri-Star setup. The Tri-Star is
made up of mild steel plates with 5mm thickness. The various links are joined together using welded and bolted
joints.

A. Fabrication of Tri-Star Setup

The fabrication of Tri-Star is setup done by the processes that are involved in are:

 Gas cutting
 Grinding

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 Drilling
 Boring

The Tri-Star clamp is used for connecting the wheels together. While climbing the stairs it is tedious to
climb with a single wheel. Here, the wheels are connected to each of the arms of the clamp and while climbing
the stairs Tri-Star setup rotates when it hits the edge of the stairs. The Tri-Star is fabricated using gas cutting
process. The wheels are placed between the two clamps and are held with the help of the nuts and bolts.

Fig.8: Fabrication of Tri-Star

B. Fabrication of Wheel and Shaft Assembly

The fabrication of wheel and shaft assembly is carried out as follows. The axle shaft is fabricated from
hollow rod. The length of the axle shaft is about 700mm. Then the pair of Tri-Star wheel setups is fixed at the
ends of the shaft. The machining processes

Fig.9: Fabrication of Axle Shaft

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Fig.10: Fabrication of Wheel and Shaft Assembly

C. Assembling the Stair Climber

The front view of the fabricated trolley is shown in the fig.10.The front view gives the clear idea about
how the motor is held with the trolley. The motor is held to the body with the help of three M6 bolts.

Fig.11: Assembly of Trolley (Front View and Side View)


The side view of the final assembled trolley is shown in the fig.10. In this view, we can infer that the
chain drive connects the smaller sprocket (fixed to the motor shaft) and the larger sprocket (fixed to the hollow
shaft). A plate is welded to the body of the trolley and a card board is placed over it. Then the battery is
placed over the card board and drives the motor. A DPDT switch is connected to the motor and battery and is
placed on the handle so that the motor can be operated easily.

VI. CONCLUSION

A. Results:
Thus the stair climbing trolley was fabricated in such way that it could carry the heavy loads over stairs
and also used for carrying loads on flat surface from one place to other place with less human effort. This
decreases the human effort to carry heavy loads over stairs and also on flat surfaces and proves to be more
advantages in all places like industries, schools, college etc.

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B. Future Work and Improvement:
The future improvements that are possible in the stair climber are:
Firstly, the material of the stair climber parts can be changed because now we are used mild steel as
material as it will increase the weight of the stair climber. Instead of using steel as material we can use
composite materials to reduce weight.

Secondly, the mechanism of transmission system could be changed to get efficient output. Instead of
using chain drive we can use gear drive.

Thirdly, the power range produced to carry loads could be modified as per loading conditions by
changing motor and battery.

Finally, the size of the Tri-Star plate could be made as adjustable one to climb all sort of stairs by using
bolt and nuts or another adjusting mechanisms.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satisfaction that accompanies the successful completion of a task would be incomplete without a
mention of all people who have helped make it a reality

First and foremost, we’d like to thank our Principal Dr.M.Sekar M.E., Ph.D. and our Dean
Dr.K.Kathiravan M.Tech., Ph.D. for providing us with all necessary facilities for the completion of our
project.

We would like to thank Dr.V.Elango M.E., Ph.D, Head of the Department for Mechanical
Engineering, and all the other staff members of the Mechanical Department, especially our project
coordinators Mr.D.Balajee,ME., (Ph.D), Mr.V.H.Mahendra Babu ME., Mr.K.G Ashok ME.,

We are deeply indebted to Mr.P.Sivaniranjan M.E, our project guide for his valuable insight and
unwavering support over the course of our project. Our sincere and heartfelt thanks to him for helping us
develop our idea into a working model.

Most importantly, we’d like to remember our parents for standing by us through thick and thin, and for
providing the monetary and emotional support that was necessary for the completion of our project.

REFERENCES

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