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Plastic film

Film strip
6 mil Polyethylene plastic sheet as vapor barrier in
construction

Confectionery packaging made of PLA-blend bio-flex


bioplastic
Shrink wrapped OH-58 Kiowa helicopters to be
shipped.

Plastic film is a thin continuous polymeric


material. Thicker plastic material is often
called a “sheet”. These thin plastic
membranes are used to separate areas or
volumes, to hold items, to act as barriers,
or as printable surfaces.

Plastic films are used in a wide variety of


applications. These include: packaging,
plastic bags, labels, building construction,
landscaping, electrical fabrication,
photographic film, film stock for movies,
video tape, etc.

Materials
Almost all plastics can be formed into a
thin film. Some of the primary ones are:

Polyethylene – The most common


plastic film is made of one of the
varieties of polyethylene; Low-density
polyethylene, Medium-density
polyethylene, High-density polyethylene,
and Linear low-density polyethylene.
Polypropylene – Polypropylene can be
made a cast film, biaxially oriented film
(BOPP), or as a uniaxially oriented film.
Polyester – BoPET is a biaxially oriented
polyester film
Nylon
Polyvinyl chloride – film can be with or
without a Plasticizer
A variety of bioplastics and
biodegradable plastics are available.
Semiembossed film – Semiembossed
film can be used as a liner to the
calendered rubber to retain the
properties of rubber and also to prevent
dust and other foreign matters from
sticking to the rubber while calendering
and during storage
Processes

A tube of extruded film being blown to expand

Plastic films are usually thermoplastics


and are formed by melting for forming the
film.[1]

Cast – Plastics extrusion can cast film


which is cooled or quenched then
wound up on a roll.
Extruded film can be stretched, thinned,
or oriented in one or two directions.
Blown or tubular process forces air into
an extruded ring to expand the film. Flat
tenter frames stretch the extruded film
before annealing.[2]
Calender rolls can be used to form film
from hot polymers
Solution deposition is another film
forming process.
Skiving is used to scrape off a film from
a solid core (sometimes used to make
PTFE thread seal tape)
Coextrusion involves extruding two or
more layers of dissimilar polymers into
a single film
Lamination combines two or more films
(or other materials) into a sandwich
Extrusion coating is used to form a film
onto another film or substrate

Further processing
Plastic films are typically formed into rolls
by roll slitting. Often additional coating or
printing operations are also used. Films
can be modified by physical vapor
deposition to make metallised films. Films
can be subjected to corona treatment or
Plasma processing; films can have release
agents applied as needed.

See also
Converters (industry)
Die cutting (web)
Film base
Overwrap
Shrink wrap
Heat sealer
Plastic welding
Plastic wrap
Stretch wrap
Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting
References
1. White, James Lindsay (July 20, 1990).
Principles of Polymer Engineering
Rheology . Wiley-Interscience. p. 49.
Retrieved 2014-12-25.
2. US 5072493 A , Hommes, "Apparatus for
drawing plastic film in a tenter frame",
published 1991

Standards by ASTM
International

D882 – Standard Test Method for


Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic
Sheeting
D1004 – Standard Test Method for Tear
Resistance (Graves Tear) of Plastic Film
and Sheeting
D1204 – Standard Test Method for
Linear Dimensional Changes of Nonrigid
Thermoplastic Sheeting or Film at
Elevated Temperature
D1593 – Standard Specification for
Nonrigid Vinyl Chloride Plastic Film and
Sheeting
D1709 – Standard Test Methods for
Impact Resistance of Plastic Film by the
Free Falling Dart Method
D1894 – Standard Test Method for
Static and Kinetic Coefficients of
Friction of Plastic Film and Sheeting
D1922 – Standard Test Method for
Propagation Tear Resistance of Plastic
Film and Thin Sheeting by Pendulum
Method
D1938 – Standard Test Method for Tear
Propagation Resistance of Plastic Film
and Thin Sheeting by a Single Tear
Method
D2103 – Standard Specification for
Polyethylene Film and Sheeting
D2582 – Standard Test Method for
Puncture Propagation Tear Resistance
of Plastic Film and Thin Sheeting
D2673 – Standard Specification for
Oriented Polypropylene Film
D2732 – Standard Test Method for
Unrestrained Linear Thermal Shrinkage
of Plastic Film and Sheeting
D2838 -Standard Test Method for Shrink
Tension and Orientation Release Stress
of Plastic Film and Thin Sheeting
D2923 – Standard Test Method for
Rigidity of Polyolefin Film and Sheeting
D3420 – Standard Test Method for
Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastic
Film
D3595 – Standard Specification for
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
Extruded Plastic Sheet and Film
D3664 – Standard Specification for
Biaxially Oriented Polymeric Resin Film
for Capacitors in Electrical Equipment
D3985 – Standard Test Method for
Oxygen Gas Transmission Rate Through
Plastic Film and Sheeting Using a
Coulometric Sensor
D4321 – Standard Test Method for
Package Yield of Plastic Film
D5047 – Standard Specification for
Polyethylene Terephthalate Film and
Sheeting
D6287 – Standard Practice for Cutting
Film and Sheeting Test Specimens
D6988 – Standard Guide for
Determination of Thickness of Plastic
Film Test Specimens
E1870 – Standard Test Method for Odor
and Taste Transfer from Polymeric
Packaging Film
F2029- Standard Practices for Making
Heatseals for Determination of
Heatsealability of Flexible Webs as
Measured by Seal Strength
F2622 – Standard Test Method for
Oxygen Gas Transmission Rate Through
Plastic Film and Sheeting Using Various
Sensors

Books and general references

Hawkins, William E, The Plastic Film and


Foil Web Handling Guide CRC Press
2003
Jenkins, W. A., and Osborn, K. R. Plastic
Films: Technology and Packaging
Applications, CRC Press 1992
Yam, K. L., "Encyclopedia of Packaging
Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009,
ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6

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Last edited 3 months ago by Pkgx

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