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# Design of basement wall

Introduction

Basement wall is constructed to retain the earth and to prevent moisture from seeping
into the building. Since the basement wall is supported by the mat foundation, the stability is
ensured and the design of the basement wall is limited to the safe design of vertical stem.
Basement walls are exterior walls of underground structures (tunnels and other earth
sheltered buildings), or retaining walls must resist lateral earth pressure as well as additional
pressure due to other type of loading. Basement walls carry lateral earth pressure generally as
vertical slabs supported by floor framing at the basement level and upper floor level. The axial
forces in the floor structures are , in turn, either resisted by shear walls or balanced by the
lateral earth pressure coming from the opposite side of the building.
Although basement walls act as vertical slabs supported by the horizontal floor framing
, keep in mind that during the early construction stage when the upper floor has not yet been
built the wall may have to be designed as a cantilever.

## Design of vertical stem

The basement wall is designed as the cantilever wall with the fixity provided by the
mat foundation.

Soil
Pressure
Due to Surcharge
Basement Wall

Mat Footing

3.33 KN/m2
23.4099KN/m2

## Fig: Basement Wall

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Design of basement wall
Ref. Step Calculation Output
1 Design Constants
Clear height between the floor (h) =6.2 m
unit weight of soil, γ = 19 KN/m3
Angle of internal friction of the soil, ө = 300
surcharge produced due to vehicular movement is
Ws = 10 KN/m2
Safe bearing capacity of soil , qs = 150 KN/m2

2 Moment calculation
1  sin  1  sin 30
Ka    0.333
1  sin  1  sin 30
Lateral load due to soil pressure, Pa = Ka x γ x h2/2
Pa = 42.91KN/m
= 0.333x19x3.72/2
= 42.91 KN/m
Lateral Load due to surcharge load, Ps = Ka x Ws x h
Ps = 12.21KN/m
= 0.333x10x3.7
= 12.21 KN/m

## Characteristic Bending moment at the base of wall,

Since weight of wall gives insignificant moment ,so this
can be neglected in the design.
Mc = Pa x h/3 + Ps x h/2
M=113.26-m
= 42.91*3.7/3+ 12.21*3.7/2
= 75.51KNm
Design moment, M = 1.5Mc = 1.5x75.51=113.26 KN-m
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Approximate design of section
Let effective depth of wall = d
BM = 0.138 ƒckbd2
113.26x106 = 0.138x25x1000xd2
d = 181.187 mm
Let Clear cover is 30mm & bar is 20mm-Ф
IS456:2000, D = 240 mm
Overall depth of wall , D = 200+30+10 = 240 mm
Cl.32. 3.4 d = 200 mm
Take D = 240 mm
So , d = 240 – 30- 10 = 200 mm
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Calculation of Main Steel Reinforcement
bdf ck  
Ast= 1  1  4.6M 
2xf y  f ck bd 2 

IS456:2000, Ast=
Cl.32.5.a 1000 x 200 x 25  4.6 x113 .26 x10 6 

1 1
2 x 415  25 x1000 x 200 2 
IS456:2000,   Ast = 1854.81 mm2
26.5.2.2 Ast = 1854.81 mm2

## Min. Ast = 0.0012xbxD = 0.0012x1000x240

= 288 mm2 < Ast
Max. Dia. of bar = D/8 = 240/8 = 30 mm
Providing 20mm-Ф bar , spacing of bar is

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x 20 2 x1000 S = 160 mm
S= =169 mm/m
4 x1854.81 Pt = 0.98%
Provide 20mm-Ф bar @160 mm c/c
So, Provided Ast = 314.16x1000/160 = 1963.50 mm2
IS456:2000, Pt = 1963.5x100/(1000x200) = 0.98 %
Cl.32.5.b
Max. Spacing = 3d = 3x200 = 600 mm
5 Provide nominal vertical reinforcement 8mmФ@300mm
c/c at the inner face.

## Check for Shear

The critical section for shear strength is taken at a distance of
‘d ’ from the face of support .Thus , critical
section is at d = 0.20 m from the top of mat foundation.
i.e. at (3.7- 0.2) = 3.5m below the top edge of wall. Vu = 75.611 KN
Shear force at critical section is,
Vu = 1.5x(Ka x Ws x Z + Ka x γ x Z2/2)
IS456:2000, = 1.5x(0.333x10x3.5 + 0.333x19x3.52/2)
Cl.31.6.2.1 = 75.611KN
Vu τu = 0.378 N/mm2
Nominal shear stress ,  u  
IS456:2000, bd
Table-19 = 75.611x1000/(1000x200) τc = 0.634 N/mm2
= 0.378 N/mm2
Permissible shear stress , τc = 0.634 N/mm2
6 τc > τu , Hence safe.
IS456:2000, Check for Deflection
Cl.23.2.a Leff = 6.2+d = 6.2+.2 = 6.4 m
Allowable deflection = leff/250 = 6400/250 = 25.6 mm
p s l 4 eff p a l 4 eff
Actual Deflection = 
8EI 30EI
3900 4 x12  12.21 42.91 
=    = 23.74
7 1000 x 240 x5000 25  8
3
30 
mm
Which is less than allowable deflection, hence safe.

## Calculation of Horizontal Reinforcement steel bar

Area of Hz. Reinforcement = 0.002Dh
= 0.002x240*6200 = 2976 mm2
As the temperature change occurs at front face of basement
wall, 2/3 of horizontal reinforcement is provided at front face
and 1/3 of horizontal reinforcement is provided in inner face.
Front face Horizontal Reinforcement steel,
= 2/3*2976= 1984 mm2
Providing 12mm-Ф bar
No. of bar required, N = 1984/113 = 18 nos.
Spacing = (h-clear cover at both sides- Ф)/(N-1)
= (6200-30-12)/(18-1) = 362 mm
Provide 12mm-Ф bar @ 350 mm c/c

## Inner face Horizontal Reinforcement steel,

IS456:2000, = 1/3x2976= 992 mm2
Cl.32.5.d

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Providing 8mm-Ф bar
No. of bar required, N = 992/50.265 = 20 nos.
Spacing = (h-clear cover at both sides- Ф)/(N-1)
8 = (6200-30-8)/(20-1) = 224 mm
Provide 8mm-Ф bar @ 220 mm c/c
Max. spacing = 3d = 3x200 = 600 mm or 450 mm
Hence, spacing provided for Hz. Steel is OK.

Curtailment of Reinforcement
No bars can be curtailed in less than Ld distance from
the bottom of stem ,
s  0.87 x 415 x8
Ld = = = 322.366
1.6 x 4 x bd 1.6 x 4 x1.4
mm
The curtailment of bars can be done in two layers 1/3
and 2/3 heights of the stem above the base.
Let us curtail bars at 1/3 distance i.e. 1230 mm from base
Lateral load due to soil pressure , Pa = Ka x γ x h2/2
= 0.333x19x2.472/2
= 19.3 KN/m
Lateral load due to surcharge load , Ps = Ka x Ws x h
= 0.333x10x2.47
= 8.2251 KN/m
Characteristic Bending moment at the base of wall is,
Mc = Pa x h/3 + Ps x h/2
= 19.3x2.47/3 + 8.2251x2.47/2
= 26.048 KN-m
Design Moment , M = 1.5Mc = 1.5x26.048 =39.072 KN-m
Since this moment is less than half of the moment at base
of stem, spacing of vertical reinforcement are doubled from
1230mm from the base of the wall.

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