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Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

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The use of plants in the traditional management of diabetes in Nigeria:

Pharmacological and toxicological considerations
Udoamaka F. Ezuruike n, Jose M. Prieto 1
Center for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39
Brunswick Square, WC1N 1AX London, United Kingdom

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Ethnopharmacological relevance: The prevalence of diabetes is on a steady increase worldwide and it is
Received 15 November 2013 now identified as one of the main threats to human health in the 21st century. In Nigeria, the use of
Received in revised form herbal medicine alone or alongside prescription drugs for its management is quite common. We hereby
26 May 2014
carry out a review of medicinal plants traditionally used for diabetes management in Nigeria. Based on
Accepted 26 May 2014
the available evidence on the species' pharmacology and safety, we highlight ways in which their
Available online 12 June 2014
therapeutic potential can be properly harnessed for possible integration into the country's healthcare
Keywords: system.
Diabetes Materials and methods: Ethnobotanical information was obtained from a literature search of electronic
Nigeria databases such as Google Scholar, Pubmed and Scopus up to 2013 for publications on medicinal plants
used in diabetes management, in which the place of use and/or sample collection was identified as
Herb–drug interactions
Nigeria. ‘Diabetes’ and ‘Nigeria’ were used as keywords for the primary searches; and then ‘Plant name –
WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy
accepted or synonyms’, ‘Constituents’, ‘Drug interaction’ and/or ‘Toxicity’ for the secondary searches.
Results: The hypoglycemic effect of over a hundred out of the 115 plants reviewed in this paper is backed
by preclinical experimental evidence, either in vivo or in vitro. One-third of the plants have been studied
for their mechanism of action, while isolation of the bioactive constituent(s) has been accomplished for
twenty three plants.
Some plants showed specific organ toxicity, mostly nephrotoxic or hepatotoxic, with direct effects on the
levels of some liver function enzymes. Twenty eight plants have been identified as in vitro modulators
of P-glycoprotein and/or one or more of the cytochrome P450 enzymes, while eleven plants altered the levels
of phase 2 metabolic enzymes, chiefly glutathione, with the potential to alter the pharmacokinetics of
co-administered drugs.
Conclusion: This review, therefore, provides a useful resource to enable a thorough assessment of the profile
of plants used in diabetes management so as to ensure a more rational use. By anticipating potential toxicities
or possible herb–drug interactions, significant risks which would otherwise represent a burden on the
country's healthcare system can be avoided.
& 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license


1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858
1.1. Diabetes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858
1.2. Traditional herbal medicines in diabetes management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858
2. Ethno-pharmacological data collection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859
2.1. Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859

Abbreviations: AAN, aristolochic acid nephropathy; ADME, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion; CYT P450, cytochrome P450; DPP-IV, dipeptidyl peptidase
IV; GLP1, glucagon like peptide 1; GLUT4, glucose transporter 4; GSH, glutathione; GST, glutathione-S-transferase; IDDM, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; NIDDM, non-
insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; P-GP, P-glycoprotein; PPARγ, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; STZ, streptozotocin; WHO, World Health Organization
Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 44 2077535871.
E-mail addresses: (U.F. Ezuruike), (J.M. Prieto).
Tel.: þ44 2077535841.
0378-8741/& 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
858 U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

2.2. Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859

3. Pharmacological evidence and its clinical implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859
3.1. In vivo hypoglycemic activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859
3.2. In vitro pharmacological evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903
3.3. Bioactive compounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904
3.3.1. Nitrogen containing compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904
3.3.2. Terpenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907
3.3.3. Phenolic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907
3.3.4. Hydroxylated compounds including sugars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 908
3.4. Clinical studies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 908
4. Toxicological evidence and considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 908
5. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910
Appendix A. Supplementary information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910

1. Introduction 2009; Ogbera et al., 2007, 2009). In the presence of these, the
number of prescribed drugs increases to an average of four per day
1.1. Diabetes for each patient (Enwere et al., 2006). This need for the chronic
intake of a large number of drugs with their attendant side effects
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high in addition to their high costs which is often borne by the patients
blood glucose levels. This is either as a result of insufficient themselves is the identified reason for non-adherence to therapy
endogenous insulin production by the pancreatic beta cells (other- amongst diabetic patients. As a result, patients often have recourse
wise known as type-1 diabetes); or impaired insulin secretion to alternative forms of therapy such as herbal medicines (Yusuff
and/or action (type-2 diabetes). type-1 diabetes is an autoimmune et al., 2008).
disease characterized by T-cell mediated destruction of the pan-
creatic beta cells. In type-2 diabetes, there is a gradual develop- 1.2. Traditional herbal medicines in diabetes management
ment of insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction, strongly
associated with obesity and a sedentary lifestyle (Zimmet et al., A number of reviews on medicinal plants used in the manage-
2001). Due to a higher incidence of the risk factors, the prevalence ment of diabetes in different parts of the world (Bailey and Day,
of diabetes is increasing worldwide, but more evidently in devel- 1989; Marles and Farnsworth, 1995), as well as those used
oping countries. Current estimates indicate a 69% increase in the specifically in certain regions, such as in West Africa (Bever,
number of adults that would be affected by the disease between 1980), Central America (Andrade-Cetto and Heinrich, 2005) and
2010 and 2030, compared to 20% for developed countries (Shaw Asia (Grover et al., 2002) exist. These reviews have highlighted the
et al., 2010). dependence of a large percentage of the world population on
Administration of exogenous insulin is the treatment for all traditional medicine for diabetes management. This is also corro-
type-1 diabetic patients and for some type-2 patients who do not borated by the WHO fact sheet (No. 134), which estimates that
achieve adequate blood glucose control with oral hypoglycemic about 80% of the population in African and Asian countries rely on
drugs. Current drugs used in diabetes management can be cate- traditional medicine for their primary healthcare (WHO, 2008).
gorized into three groups. Drugs in the first group increase It also recognizes traditional medicine as ‘an accessible, affordable
endogenous insulin availability. These include the sulphonylureas and culturally acceptable form of healthcare trusted by large
such as glibenclamide, the glinides, insulin analogs, glucagon-like numbers of people, which stands out as a way of coping with
peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) the relentless rise of chronic non-communicable diseases in the
inhibitors. The first two members of this group act on the midst of soaring health-care costs and nearly universal austerity’
sulfonylurea receptor in the pancreas to promote insulin secretion. (WHO, 2013).
GLP-1 agonists and DPP-IV inhibitors on the other hand act on the Ethnobotanical surveys of plants traditionally used in diabetes
ileal cells of the small intestine. The second group of drugs management in different parts of Nigeria have been carried out
enhance the sensitivity of insulin. This includes the thiazolidine- (Abo et al., 2008; Etuk and Mohammed, 2009; Gbolade, 2009;
diones, which are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator- Soladoye et al., 2012). These medicinal plants are used either alone
activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and the biguanide metformin. as a primary therapeutic choice, or in conjunction with conven-
The third group comprises the α-glucosidase inhibitors such as tional medicines. On an average, approximately 50% of diabetic
acarbose, which reduce the digestion of polysaccharides and their patients visiting hospitals in urban cities like Lagos and Benin have
bioavailability (Chehade and Mooradian, 2000; Sheehan, 2003). used some forms of traditional medicine during the course of their
All the existing therapies however have limited efficacy, limited disease management (unpublished results of field work conducted
tolerability and/or significant mechanism based side effects by first author). Unfortunately, clinicians are either unaware of
(Moller 2001; Rotenstein et al., 2012). their patients' herb use or the identity of the herbal product being
Despite the existing pharmacotherapy, it is still difficult to taken. To complicate matters further, herbal practitioners are
attain adequate glycemic control amongst many diabetic patients usually unwilling to divulge the identity of the constituents of
due to the progressive decline in β-cell function (Wallace and their preparations to patients. Most patients are also not interested
Matthews, 2000). In Nigeria, polytherapy with two or more in finding this out as they consider herbal preparations to be
hypoglycemic agents to achieve better glucose control is common ‘safe’; thereby making it difficult to ascertain if the herb may have
practice (Yusuff et al., 2008). There is also a high incidence of a significant contributory role to the efficacy or failure of the
diabetic complications and hyperglycemic emergencies (Gill et al., treatment.
U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924 859

In a systematic review of herbs and supplements clinically used from primary research papers (as indicated in Table 1). These
for glycemic control, Allium sativum, Aloe vera and Momordica are tabulated according to their accepted Latin Name (based on
charantia were the only identified plants used in Nigeria. Synonyms are included for plants which
This inclusion was however based on clinical studies carried out were not identified with their accepted names in the primary
outside Nigeria (Yeh et al., 2003). This indicates the lack of research paper. For each of the identified plants, the family name,
information about the clinical use (or monitoring thereof) of common name(s), identified region of use in diabetes manage-
plants in diabetes management in Nigeria, despite widespread ment, experimental evidence of activity (where available), other
traditional use. medicinal uses, plant part(s) used, traditional method(s) of pre-
In line with the increasing importance of traditional medicine paration, identified active constituent(s), other relevant phyto-
in various healthcare systems around the world, the WHO Tradi- chemical constituents, as well as data on interaction and toxicity
tional Medicine Strategy has recently been updated. ‘The goals of studies are included [Table 1].
the strategy for the next decade (2014–2023) are to support Out of the 115 plants reviewed in this paper, only twelve of
Member States in (a) harnessing the potential contribution of them have no experimental evaluation of their blood sugar
traditional medicine to health, wellness and people-centered reducing effects, either in vivo or in vitro. In selecting studies to
health-care; and (b) promoting the safe and effective use of be included, priority was given to investigations carried out with
traditional medicine by regulating, researching and integrating samples collected in Nigeria. Certain publications were not
traditional medicine products, practitioners and practice into included if the study design of the experimental evidence
health systems where appropriate’ (WHO, 2013). was not appropriate enough for validating the effect of the plant,
Given that diabetes is now considered as one of the main such as the absence of a suitable control or the use of improper
threats to human health in the 21st century (Zimmet et al., 2001), doses. Two-thirds of the identified plants with experi-
there might be an even greater reliance by diabetic patients in mental evidence for their biological activity involved samples
Nigeria on herbal medicines used in its management. Unfortu- collected from Nigeria. For the remaining one-third, although the
nately, pharmacological and toxicological evidences validating the studies were not carried out with plant samples sourced from
safety and efficacy of these medicinal plants are not readily within Nigeria, these were still included, as the experimental
available. The objective of this paper is to collate as much as evidence could provide some information validating their use in
possible, available information about medicinal plants tradition- diabetes management, since they are widely used in Nigeria. The
ally used in diabetes management in Nigeria. In doing so, we aim ethnobotanical research carried out on Moringa oleifera provides a
to promote the rational use of these plants based on pharmaco- rationale for including information from studies carried out in
logical evidence for their therapeutic use and their toxic/interac- different countries, as some of these locally available plants could
tion profile. have been initially sourced from elsewhere (Popoola and Obembe,
In-vitro experimental studies as well as phytochemical studies
carried out on the plant species regardless of the source of
2. Ethno-pharmacological data collection the plant samples were also included. These together could
provide more insight into the biological activity(s) of the plant,
2.1. Method which would in turn help to promote a more rational use
of the plant in diabetes management, either in the presence or
Information about medicinal plants traditionally used in the absence of other co-morbidities. For completeness, reports
management of diabetes in Nigeria was obtained from published on the antioxidant properties of many of the identified plants
papers and texts on ethnobotanical studies, as well as those have been included as this has become a popular parameter
investigating the effect of plant(s) used in diabetes management, in assessing the beneficial effects of a plant in diabetes
in which the place of use and/or sample collection was identified management.
as Nigeria. A literature search of electronic databases such
as Google Scholar, Pubmed and Scopus up to 2013 was carried
out using ‘Diabetes’ and ‘Nigeria’ as keywords for the primary
searches; and then ‘Plant name – accepted or synonyms’, 3. Pharmacological evidence and its clinical implications
‘Constituents’, ‘Drug interaction’ and/or ‘Toxicity’ for the secondary
searches. 3.1. In vivo hypoglycemic activity
In order to highlight medicinal plants traditionally used in
diabetes management with the potential for integration into the Reducing blood sugar level is the classical clinical target in all
healthcare system, not all identified plants were included in this forms of diabetes. Thus, the in vivo sugar lowering effect of
paper. Only those with (1) more than one reference to its use in putative hypoglycemic plants is therefore a premise to infer their
diabetes management in Nigeria based on ethnobotanical studies potential clinical efficacy. In vivo validation also provides an
were retained; and/or (2) experimental evidence in one or more indication of the relative toxicity of the plant. Although most
diabetes experimental models validating its activity. This review is herbal medicines have a long history of traditional use, only their
therefore not exhaustive for all the plants used traditionally for experimental validation at known doses may give a clearer idea
diabetes management in Nigeria. about its safety and efficacy, in line with the objectives of the WHO
Traditional Medicine Strategy (WHO, 2013).
2.2. Results Ninety six out of the one hundred and fifteen plants here
reviewed have been evaluated in various in vivo animal models
Data for one hundred and fifteen plants traditionally used in of diabetes, mostly using alloxan and/or streptozotocin (STZ)-
diabetes management in Nigeria were obtained, either from previ- induced diabetic animals, which are the most frequently used
ously conducted ethnobotanical studies (Abo et al., 2008; Aiyeloja animal diabetes models worldwide (Fröde and Medeiros, 2008).
and Bello, 2006; Ajibesin et al., 2008; Etuk and Mohammed, 2009; These chemical agents are cytotoxic to the β-cells of the pancreatic
Gbolade, 2009; Igoli et al., 2005; Lawal et al., 2010; Ogbonnia and islets, generating a state of insulin deficiency (akin to type-1
Anyakora, 2009; Okoli et al., 2007; Olowokudejo et al., 2008); or diabetes) with subsequent hyperglycemia (Szkudelski, 2001). The
Table 1
Medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes in Nigeria.

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

1 Abelmoschus Malvaceae Okro/Okra; Ila (Y); SW, SS 100 and 200 mg/kg of the Infections, Immune- Fruit, Seed Decoction, β-1,3-D-glucans (Sheu and Water soluble fraction
esculentus (L.) Lady's fingers Okweje (I); seed and peel powder modulatory, Fevers, Maceration Lai, 2012); Hydroxy of the fruits decreased
Moench Kubewa (H) decreased blood glucose in Spasms, Gonorrhoea, food cinnamic derivatives, oral metformin
STZ induced diabetic rats Dysentry vegetable Oligomeric catechins, absorption in-vivo
(Sabitha et al., 2011)§; Isorhamnetin glycosides, (Khatun et al., 2011)
Antioxidant effects of the Quercetin, Myricetin and
aqueous extract of the leaves Kaempferol and their
(Tsumbu et al., 2011) glycosides (Arapitsas,
2008); Abelesculin (Kondo
and Yoshikawa, 2007);

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

(Deters et al., 2005), Oleic,
Stearic, Palmitic, Capric,
Caprylic, Lauric, Myristic,
Arachidic and Linoleic
acids, Gossypol (Al-
Wandawi, 1983)
2 Abrus precatorius Leguminosae Cat's eye, Ojuologbo SW Inhibited α-amylase and α- Anti-infective, Leaves, Decoction, Trigonelline Epicatechin, Syringic acid, Abrin-Toxic component
(L.) Jequirity beans (Y), Oto- glucosidase enzymes and Convulsion, Seeds, Root Maceration extracted from the Caffeic acid (Vadivel et al., (Kirsten et al., 2003)
berebere (I), antioxidant effects (Vadivel Rheumatism, seeds decreased 2011); Abruquinones (Kuo
Idonzakara et al., 2011); 100 and 200 mg/ Abortifacient, Cold/ blood glucose et al., 1995); Abrusosides
(H), kg aqueous extract of the Cough, Conjuctivitis, levels in alloxan (Choi et al., 1989);
Nneminua seeds produced a dose Contraceptive, induced diabetic Trigonelline, Hypaphorine,
(Ib) dependent decrease in STZ- Aphrodisiac, Ulcers, rats (Monago and Precatorine, Abrine
induced diabetic rats Anemia Nwodo, 2010) (Ghosal and Dutta, 1971)
(Nwanjo, 2008)
3 Acacia nilotica Leguminosae Gum arabic, Bagaruwa (H) NC 50 mg/kg of the ethyl acetate Anti-parasitic, Male Leaves, Pods, Maceration, Catechin and gallic acid Co-incubation of 0.01%
(L.) Delile Egyptian thorn fraction of the methanol sterility, Inflammation, Root, Bark, Infusion, derivatives (Malan, 1991); of the extract in Caco-2
extract of the leaves Anti-microbial, Seeds Decoction Androstene steroid cell monolayers
produced greater blood Hypertension, Anti- (Chaubal et al., 2003); D- decreased the integrity
glucose reducing effect spasms, Insomnia Pinitol (Chaubal et al., of the monolayer and
( 450%) in alloxan-induced 2005); Kaempferol (Singh the secretory transport
diabetic rats than the et al., 2008); of CsA indicating
n-butanol fraction (Tanko et Polygalloyltannin (Jigam possible inhibition of
al., 2013) et al., 2010); Lupenone, P-gp (Deferme et al.,
Acanilol A and B (Ahmadu 2003)
et al., 2010)
4 Adansonia Malvaceae African baobab Ose (Y), Kuka NE, SW 100 mg/kg of the methanol Anti-sickling, Stem bark, Oleic, Linoleic and Myristic
digitata L. tree (H), Bokki extract of the stem bark Galactagogue, Leaves, Fruit acids (Eteshola and
(Fulani) decreased blood glucose Inflammation, Anti- pulp, Seeds Oraedu, 1996);
levels by 51% in STZ-induced pyretic, Analgesic, Anti- Epicatechin, Epicatechin
diabetic rats (Tanko et al., parasitic, Constipation, procyanidins, Dihydroxy
2008) Skin lubricant, Asthma, and Trihydroxy flavan-4-
Nutritive value one glycosides, Quercetin
glycosides, α-amyrin, β-
amyrin palmitate, Ursolic
acid, Adansonin, β-
sitosterol, Stigmasterol
(Refaat et al., 2013)
5 Aframomum Zingiberaceae Alligator Atare (Y), SW Inhibitory effects on α- Stimulant, Seed, Fruits, Maceration, 6-Gingerol, 6-shogaol, Inhibition of Cyp 3A4,
melegueta K. pepper, Grains Ose-orji (I), amylase and α-glucosidase Inflammation, Leaves Tincture 6-paradol (Ilic et al., 2010); 3A5 and 3A7 enzyme
Schum. of paradise Citta (H) enzymes, Antioxidant Diarrhoea, Antifungal, Linalool, 1,8-cineole, Citral, activity (Agbonon et al.,
activity (Adefegha and Oboh, Insect repellent, Skin 2-heptyl acetate, 2010); Elevated levels of
2012) conditions, Malaria, 2-heptanol (Ukeh and liver function enzymes
200 & 400mg/kg aqueous Analgesic Umoetok, 2011) with chronic dosing (Ilic
seed extract decreased blood et al., 2010)
glucose in alloxan-induced
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

diabetic rats (Adesokan et al.,

6 Ageratum Compositae Goat weed Imi esu (Y), SW, NC 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of Wound ulcers, Whole plant, Fresh Juice Eugenol, α-pinene, 1,8-
conyzoides (L.) L. Urata njele the aqueous extract of the Antimicrobial, Skin Leaves extract, cineole, β-caryophyllene,
(I), Ebegho- leaves decreased blood infections, Analgesic, Infusion Ocimene, Limonene,
edore (Bi) glucose levels in both normal Anti-spasm, Insecticidal, Precocene I and II,
rats, STZ-induced diabetic Diarrhoea, Gonorrhoea, Encecalin derivatives,
rats and glucose-loaded rats Emetic Coumarin, Quercetin and
(Nyunai et al., 2009)§; 100, its glycosides, Kaempferol
200 and 400 mg/kg of the and its glycosides, β-
ethanol extract of the shoot sitosterol, Friedelin,
decreased blood glucose Stigmasterol, Echinatine,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

levels in normal and alloxan Lycopsamine,
induced diabetic rats Polymethoxylated and
(Egunyomi et al., 2011) Polyhydroxy flavones
(Okunade, 2002)
7 Alchornea Euphorbiaceae Christmas Ipa (Y), SE, SW, SS Antioxidant activity and Wound, Ulcers, Stem bark, Decoction Alchornoic acid (Kleiman
cordifolia bush Mbom (Ib), hepatoprotective effects Infections, Anti- Leaves, et al., 1977); Quercetin and
(Schumach and Upia (Ige), (Olaleye and Rocha, 2007, parasitic, Liver Seeds, Root its glycosides, Gallic acid,
Thonn.) Mull.Arg. Uwanwe (Es), 2008); Significant decrease in disorders, Rheumatism, Triisopentenyl guanidine,
Osokpo (I) blood glucose levels in STZ- Fevers, Diuretic, Protocatechuic acid
induced diabetic rats Purgative, Analgesic, (Lamikanra et al., 1990);
administered 200, 400 and Gonorrhea, Cough Ellagic acid (Banzouzi et
800 mg/kg of the n-butanol al., 2002); Daucosterol, β-
fraction of the aqueous sitosterol, Acetyl
extract of the leaves aleuritolic acid, Di(2-
(Mohammed et al., 2012a, ethylhexyl) phthalate
2012b) (Mavar-Manga et al.,
2008); Caryophyllene,
Eugenol, Nanocosaine,
Cadinol, Linalool, α-
bergamonene (Okoye et
al., 2011)
8 Allium cepa L. Amaryllidaceae Onion Alubosa (Y) SE 100 and 300 mg/kg aqueous Convulsion, Bulb Anti-diabetic Quercetin and its
extract of the bulb Rheumatism, effects of glycosides, Kaempferol,
administered for 30 days Vermifuge, S-methylcysteine Cepaenes,
decreased blood glucose Hypertension sulfoxide isolated S-methylcysteine
levels in alloxan-induced from onion in sulfoxide (SMCS), β-
diabetic rabbits and restored alloxan-induced chlorogenin (Corzo-
decreased levels of diabetic rats Martínez et al., 2007);
antioxidant enzymes (Sheela et al., 1995) Tropeosides,
(Ogunmodede et al., 2012) Ascalonicoside, Sitosterol,
Amyrin, Oleanolic acid,
Taxifolin, Diosgenin,
Gitogenin, Apigenin,
Luteolin, Myricetin
(Lanzotti, 2006)
9 Allium sativum L. Amaryllidaceae Garlic Aayu (Y), SS, SE 200–300 mg/kg aqueous Hypertension, High Cloves Anti-diabetic S-allylcysteine sulfoxide Components of aged
Ayo-ishi (I), extract of the cloves cholesterol, Stomach effects of (SACS), Allyl sulfides, garlic extract did not
Tafarunua (H) decreased blood glucose ache, General debility, S-allylcysteine Allicin and its breakdown produce significant
levels in alloxan-induced Hemorrhoids, Tumours, sulfoxide isolated products, Allixin, inhibition of
diabetis rats after one week Asthma, Anti-microbial from garlic in Eruboside B, Vitamin B6 Cytochrome P450
(Eyo et al., 2011); 250 and alloxan-induced and B12 (Corzo-Martínez enzymes in vitro
500 mg/kg ethanol extract of diabetic rats et al., 2007); Sativosides, (Greenblatt et al.,
the cloves administered for (Sheela et al., 1995) Proto-desgalactotigonin, 2006); and in humans
14 days produced a dose- Apigenin, Quercetin, (Markowitz et al., 2003)
dependent decrease in serum Myricetin, N-feruloyl
glucose, lipid levels and liver

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

function enzyme levels and tyrosine, N-feruloyl

increased serum insulin tyramine (Lanzotti, 2006)
levels in STZ-induced
diabetic rats (Eidi et al.,
10 Aloe vera (L.) Asparagaceae Barbados aloe Ahon erin (Y) SE 150 mg/kg of the dried pulp Skin diseases, Laxative, Leaves Juice extract Mannose-6-phosphate, Causes an opening of
Burm.f. extract/exudate administered Immune booster, Barbaloin, Emodin, Aloin, the tight junction
to STZ-induced diabetic rats Wound ulcers, Tumours, Aloe emodin, Aloesin, β- between adjascent
decreased fasting blood Guinea worm, sitosterol, Diethylhexyl epithelial cells thereby
glucose levels and improved Amenorrhoea phthalate (Choi and increasing paracellular
the levels of the antioxidant Chung, 2003); Aloetic acid, transport, with the
enzyme (Nwanjo, 2006); Veracylglucan A, B and C, potential to increase

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

1 mg/ml aloe vera whole gel Acemannan, Anthranol, oral drug absorption
extract prevented the onset Isobarbaloin, (Hamman, 2008)
of hyperglycaemia in alloxan- Arabinogalactan, Cinnamic
induced diabetic rabbits acid ester, Aloeride, Malic
(Akinmoladun and Akinloye, acid, Isorabaichromone,
2007); 350 mg/kg of a Neoaloesin A, Isoaloeresin
polyphenol-rich gel extract D, 8-C-glucosyl derivatives
administered to insulin of aloediol, aloesol,
resistant mice for 4 weeks noreugenin, Ascorbic acid,
improved insulin tolerance β-carotene, α-tocopherol
and fasting blood glucose (Hamman, 2008);
levels (Pérez et al., 2007)§ Myricetin, Kaempferol,
Quercetin (Sultana and
Anwar, 2008)
11 Alstonia boonei Apocynaceae Stoolwood, Ahun (Y), SWc In vitro antioxidant effects Malaria, Infertility, Stem bark Decoction, Β-amyrenone, β-amyrin
De Wild. Devil tree, Egbu (I) (Akinmoladun et al., 2010) Arthritis, Anti-infective Tincture, acetate, Lupeol, Sitosterol
Australian Maceration (Faparusi and Bassir,
fever bush 1972); Echitamine,
Echitamidine (Kucera et
al., 1972); Nα-formyl
echitamidine (Oguakwa,
1984); α-amyrin and its
esters, Lupeol and its
esters (Rajic et al., 2000);
echitamidine, Voacangine,
Akuammidine, Ursolic
acid, Loganin, Boonein
(Adotey et al., 2012)
12 Alstonia Apocynaceae Pattern wood Egbu ora (I), SW Administration of 1 g/kg of a Malaria, Diuretic, Stem bark, Decoction, Echitamine, Echitamidine, Possible nephrotoxic
congensis Engl. Alstonia Awogbo ahun 1:1 mixture of a Analgesic, Astringent, Root, Leaves Maceration Nor-echitamine, 17-O- effects; Decreased
(Y) hydroethanolic extract of Hypertension acetyl nor-echitamine, creatinine levels in
Alstonia congensis bark and Akuammicine and its 12- normal mice (Ogbonnia
Xylopia aethiopica fruits Methoxy derivative, et al., 2008a).
decreased blood glucose Tubotaiwine, 12-methoxy
levels in normal mice tubotaiwine and its 12-
(Ogbonnia et al., 2008a); methoxy derivative,
In vitro antioxidant effects Akuammidine,
(Awah et al., 2012) Angustilobine A and B,
Seco angustilobine A and
B, Anugustilobine-B-N-
oxide (Caron et al., 1989)
13 Anacardium Anacardiaceae Cashew Kasu (Y), SW, NC Stimulated glucose uptake in Cough, Malaria, Skin Stem bark, Decoction, 6-Alkyl salicylic acids
occidentale L. Sashu (I), C2C12 myoblasts and rat liver infections, Anti- Leaves, Seed, Maceration (Anacardic acids), 5-alkyl
Kanju (H) mitochondria (Tedong et al., parasitic, Fevers, Anti- Nuts resorcinols (Cardols),
2010)§; 200 mg/kg methanol helminthic 3-alkyl phenols
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

extract of the stem bark (Cardanols), 2-methyl-5-

administered to rats alkyl resorcinol (Toyomizu
alongside a high-fructose et al., 1993); Stigmast-4-
diet prevented the onset of en-3-ol and Stigmast-4-
hyperglycaemia (Olatunji et en-3-one (Alexander-
al., 2005); 100–800 mg/kg Lindo et al., 2004); Lutein,
aqueous and methanol β-carotene, Zeaxanthin, α-
extract of the stem bark tocopherol, γ-tocopherol,
decreased blood glucose Thiamin, Stearic acid, Oleic
levels in both fasted normal acid and Linoleic acid
and STZ-induced diabetic rats (Trox et al., 2010)
dose dependently (Ojewole,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

2003); Inhibits α-glucosidase
and aldose reductase
enzymes (Toyomizu et al.,
14 Ananas comosus Bromeliaceae Pineapple Ogede oyinbo SW The ethanolic extract at a Inflammation, Anti- Leaves, Fruits Bromelain, Chlorogenic,
(L.) Merr. (I) dose of 400 mg/kg improved parasitic Caffeic, Coumaroylquinic,
insulin sensitivity in diabetic P-coumaric and Caffeic
dyslipidaemic rats; as well as acids, Caffeoylglycerols,
improved glucose uptake in Coumaroylglycerols,
insulin resistant HepG2 cells Ferulic acid glucuronide,
(Xie et al., 2006)§ Hydroferuloylglucose,
Ananaflavoside B and C,
Ananasate, Dicaffeoyl
glycerides, Tricin, Feruloyl
glycerols (Ma et al., 2007)
15 Anisopus mannii Apocynaceae Sakayau (H), NW, NE 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg Analgesic, Anti- Stem, Leaves, Decoction Anisopusine, Gingerdione,
N.E.Br. Kashe zaki aqueous leaf extract parasitic, Inflammation, Whole plant Lupen-3β-yl eicosanoate,
(H) decreased blood glucose Hypertension, Anti- Dehydro gingerdione,
levels in alloxan-induced microbial, Infertility Ferulic acid (Tsopmo et al.,
diabetic mice (Manosroi et 2009)
al., 2011); Antioxidant effect
(Aliyu et al., 2010); 100–
400 mg/kg of the aqueous
stem extract decreased blood
glucose in normal rats (Sani
et al., 2009)
16 Annona Annonaceae Soursop, Sapi sapi (Y) SW, SE 100 mg/kg aqueous leaf Hypertension, Sedative, Leaves, Fruit, Infusion, Reticuline, Coclaurine, Chronic intake of the
muricata L. Custard apple extract decreased blood Cancer, Emetic, Seeds, Bark, Decoction, Anomurine, Anomuricine, fruit and infusions of
glucose, increased serum Lactagogue, Anti- Root Fruit juice Coreximine (Lannuzel et the plant is thought to
insulin, decreased β-cell microbial, Anti- al., 2002); Scyllitol, Oleic, bring about
damage and possessed convulsant, Anti- Linoleic and P-coumaric neurodegeneration in
antioxidant effects in STZ parasitic, Rheumatism, acid, Procyanidins, the CNS; attributed to
induced diabetic rats Analgesic, Insecticide Stigmasterol (Leboeuf et coreximine and
(Adewole and Caxton- al., 1980); Annonaine, reticuline alkaloids
Martins, 2006); Methanol Asimilobine, present in the plant
extract of the leaves inhibits Nornuciferine (Hasrat et (Lannuzel et al., 2002),
α-amylase and α-glucosidase al., 1997); Acetogenins as well as the
enzymes, but less potent (Carmen Zafra-Polo et al., acetogenin annonacin
than acarbose (Kumar et al., 1998); Alkyl esters, (Champy et al., 2005)
2011)§ Linalool, β-caryophyllene,
Cadinene, Humulene,
Caryophyllene oxide,
Phellandrene, Cadinol
(Fournier et al., 1999);
Gallic acid, Epicatechin,
Quercetin and its

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

glycosides, Catechin,
Chlorogenic acid,
Argentinine, kaempferol
and its glycosides
(Nawwar et al., 2012)
17 Annona Annonaceae Wild custard Uburu ocha SS, NC, 100 mg/kg of the aqueous Anti-parasitic, Anti- Stem-bark, Decoction Acetogenins (Carmen Stem bark extract
senegalensis Pers. apple (I), Abo (Y), NW, SW extract of a herbal bacterial, Tumours, Root, Leaves Zafra-Polo et al., 1998); inhibited P-gp mediated
Gwander-daji preparation ADD-199 Erectile dysfunction, Roemerine, Isocorydine, Rh-123 efflux (Ezuruike
(H), Ogoganto containing the roots of Wound-healing, Snake 8,8-Bisdihydrosiringenin, et al., 2012); Roemerine
(Es), Annona senegalesis and three bites, Convulsions, Syringaresinol (You et al., interacts with P-gp and
Ndaweewu other plants decreased Hemorrhage 1995); Kaurane enhances vinblastine
(F) plasma glucose and increased diterpenes, Quercetin, cytotoxicity (You et al.,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

plasma insulin in STZ- Sitosterol, Oleic acid, 1995); ADD-199 did not
induced diabetic mice; as Linoleic acid, Sitosterol interact with Cyt P-450
well as increased glucose (Leboeuf et al., 1980); isozymes nor produce
uptake by isolated Rutin, Epicatechin, ay organ toxicity
diaphragm (Okine et al., Catechin, Isoquercetin (Nyarko et al., 2005)
2005)§; Antioxidant effects (Potchoo et al., 2008);
(Potchoo et al., 2008)§ Cadinol, α-phellandrene,
Z-ocimene, Limonene, α
and β-pinene, Linalool,
Myrcene, Caryophyllenol,
1,8-cineole (Fournier et al.,
18 Anogeissus Combretaceae Axle wood, Orin-odan or NC, NW, Antioxidant and Anti-parasitic, Stem-bark Decoction Castalagin, Ellagic acid, Dose-dependent
leiocarpus (DC.) Giant fern Ayin (Y), SW hepatoprotective effects Hemorrhoids, Asthma, Flavogallonic acid toxicity of the aqueous
Guill. and Perr. Atara (I), (Atawodi et al., 2011); Anti-microbial, Anti- (Shuaibu et al., 2008); leaf extract in rat lungs
Marke (H) 200 mg/kg aqueous extract sickling Leiocarpan A and B characterised by
decreased blood glucose (Aspinall et al., 1969); inflammation and
levels after 2 h in alloxan- Gallic acid, Chlorogenic lesions (Agaie et al.,
induced diabetic rats (Etuk acid, Protocatechuic acid 2007)
and Mohammed, 2009) P-comaric acid (Kone et
al., 2012)
19 Anthocleista Gentianaceae Cabbage tree Sapo (Y), SSc, SEb, r 111 mg/kg ethanolic root Anti-microbial, Stem-bark, Decoction Djalonenol, Djalonensone, Gastrointestinal upsets
djalonensis A. Akpakoro or SW extract decreased blood Inflammation, Wound- Roots, Leaves Sweroside, Ursolic acid, (Tchacondo et al., 2011)
Chev. Uvuru (I), glucose levels in alloxan- healing, Anti-parasitic, Sitosterone, Sitosterol,
Putaa (H) induced diabetic rats Fevers, Sexual disordes Stigmasterol, Bornesitol,
(Okokon et al., 2012); Alpha Lichexanthone (Onocha et
amylase inhibitory effects of al., 1995)
the hydro-alcoholic extract of
the leaves and stem bark as
well as hypoglycaemic effect
of 1 g/kg of the stem bark in
alloxan-induced diabetic rats
(Olubomehin et al., 2013)
20 Anthocleista Gentianaceae Cabbage tree Kwari (H), NC, SW Hypoglycaemic effect of 100– Purgative, Diuretic, Skin Root, Leaves, Decoction Sweroside, Vogeloside,
vogelii Planch. Opa oro (Y) 800 mg/kg aqueous extract in infections, Emmenagog, Stem-bark Fagaramide (Abuh et al.,
normal and alloxan-induced Anti-ulcer, Malaria 1990); Tetraoxygenated
rodents (Abuh et al., 1990); xanthones (Chapelle, 1974)
Hydro-alcoholic extract of
the leaves and stem bark
produced o 50% alpha
amylase inhibitory effects
(Olubomehin et al., 2013)
21 Aristolochia Aristolochiaceae Dutchmans Duuman SW, NE, Anti-parasitic, Anti- Leaves, Stem, Infusion, Columbin (Nok et al., Risk of AAN
albida Duch. pipe, Hill duutse (H), NW venom, Analgesic, Roots, Decoction 2005); Aristolic acid, (Aristolochic acid
gourd Paran funfun Inflammation, Skin Rhizome Aristolochic acid A, nephropathy) (Heinrich
(Y) infections, Anti- Aristolactam, 6-hydroxy et al., 2009)
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

spasmodic, Aphrodisiac, aristolochic acid A,

STDs Aristolone (Lajide et al.,
1993); Aristolochic acids I,
II, IV, C and C-beta-D-
glucoside, Aristolactam
Campesterol, Stigmasterol,
Sitosterol (Choudhury and
Haruna, 1994)
22 Aristolochia Aristolochiaceae Snake wort, Gadau kuka SS Skin infections, Anti- Leaves Roots, Decoction Aristolochic acid I and II, Risk of AAN (Heinrich et
bracteolata Lam. Birth wort (H) helminthic, Anti-venom, Seeds Aristolactam A (Kumar et al., 2009); Chronic
Analgesic Stimulant, al., 2003); Magnoflorine dosing of goats with the

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

Insecticide (El Tahir, 1991); N-acetyl aqueous leaf extract
nornuciferine, Aristo red, resulted in toxic effects
β-sitosterol (Chakravarty culminating in death
et al., 1988) (Barakati et al., 1983)
23 Aristolochia Aristolochiaceae Akoigun (Y) SW, SS Hemorrhoids, Stem bark Decoction Aristolochic acids I, II, IV, C Risk of AAN (Heinrich et
repens Mill. Rheumatism, and D, Aristolochic acid D- al., 2009)
Aphrodisiac beta-D-glucoside,
Aristolactam I-beta-D-
glucoside (Michl et al.,
24 Azadirachta Meliaceae Neem, Indian Dogonyaro SS, SW 25 mg/ml ethanolic leaf Anti-parasitic, Anti- Leaves, Seed, Infusion Quercetin, Myricetin and Various pharmaco-toxic
indica A.Juss. lilac (Y), Ogwu extract increased insulin pyretic, Anti-microbial, Bark, Root, Decoction Kaempferol glycosides effects were seen with
akom (I) release from the pancreas Anti-ulcer, Jaundice, Fruit, Gum (Chattopadhyay, 1999); Neem oil with an LD50
(Chattopadhyay, 1999)§; Ringworm, Liver Nimbidin, Azadirachtin, of 14 and 24 ml/kg in
400 mg/kg hydro-ethanolic problems, Hemorrhoids, Nimbin, Nimbolide, rats and rabbits
extract of the leaves Inflammation, Wound- Sodium nimbidinate, respectively; and more
decreased blood glucose in healing Gedunin, Mahmoodin, toxic than edible
alloxan-induced diabetic rats, Gallic acid, Epicatechin, mustard seed oil
and produced a synergistic Catechin, Gallocatechin, suggesting a narrow
effect with Vernonia Epigallocatechin, Cyclic margin of safety when
amygdalina (Ebong et al., trisulphide and used therapeutically.
2008); 500 mg/kg ethanol tetrasulphide, Margolone, (Gandhi et al., 1988)
extract of the leaves Margolonone,
decreased blood glucose Isomargolonone, GIa, GIIa,
levels and improved GIIIa, GIb (Biswas et al.,
pancreatic lesions in STZ- 2002)
induced diabetic rats
(Akinola et al., 2010)
25 Bauhinia Leguminosae Pink orchid, Abafe (Y) NW, SW Antioxidant effects (Argolo et Post-natal hemorrhage, Leaves, Maceration Rutin and Quercetin, Quercetin-3-O-
monandra Kurz Napoleon's al., 2004); 1 g/kg stem bark Anti-microbial, Laxative, Stem-bark, Quercetin rutinoside (Aderogba et
plume extract decreased blood Inflammation, Pesticidal Pods, Root identified as the al., 2006); 3,7-Di-O-α-
glucose levels in alloxan- bioactive rhamno pyranosyl
induced and glucose loaded constituents for the quercetin (Menezes et al.,
diabetic rats (Abo and Jimoh, anti- 2007); BmoRoL and
2004) hyperglycaemic BmoLL lectins (Souza et al.,
effect in alloxan- 2011)
induced diabetic
rats and insulin
stimulatory effect
in INS-1 cells
(Alade et al., 2011,
26 Bauhinia Leguminosae Camel's foot Kalgo (H), NC, NW, Antioxidant effects (Taofeek, Anti-parasitic, Anti- Leaves, Decoction D-3-O-methyl Epicatechin, (þ )-pinitol, Co-incubation of 0.01%
thonningii Abafe (Y) SE, SW 2011); 500 mg/kg aqueous microbial, Malaria, Roots, Stem- chiroinositol Esters of p-hydroxyphenyl of the extract in Caco-2
Schum. Syn: extract of the leaves Inflammation, Snake bark isolated from the ethanol and p-coumaryl cell monolayers
decreased blood glucose as bites, Purgative methanol extract of alcohol, Kaur-16-en-19-oic decreased the integrity

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

Piliostigma well as improved serum lipid the stem bark acid, Labd-13-en-8-0l-19- of the monolayer and
thonningii profile in alloxan-induced decreased blood oic acid (Baratta et al., the secretory transport
diabetic rats (Ojezele and glucose levels in 1999); Quercetin, of Cyclosporin A (CsA)
Abatan, 2011) alloxan-induced Quercitrin, C-methyl indicating possible
diabetic rats dose- quercetin ethers, C-methyl inhibition of P-gp
dependently kaempferol ethers, (Deferme et al., 2003)
(Asuzu and Piliostigmin (Ibewuike et
Nwaehujor, 2013) al., 1997); Kaurane
diterpenes (Martin et al.,
1997); Griffonilide,
Rhamnetin, Carotenoids
(Okwute et al., 1986)

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

27 Bauhinia Leguminosae Yellowbell Jinga (H), SW Antioxidant effects Anti-microbial, Diuretic, Roots, Quercetin-3-O-glucoside,
tomentosa L. orchid, Camel Abafe-pupa (Aderogba et al., 2008); Vermifuge, Aphrodisiac, Leaves, Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside,
foot tree (Y) 500 mg/kg ethanol root Anti-tumours Flower Kaempferol-7-O-
extract decreased blood rhamonoside, Kaempferol-
glucose in both normal 3-O-glucoside (Aderogba
glucose-loaded rats and et al., 2008); Quercetin,
alloxan induced diabetic rats Isoquercetin, Lectins,
(Kaur et al., 2011)§ Protocatechuic acid (Anju
et al., 2011)
28 Bauhinia Leguminosae Jirga (F), NW, NE Antioxidant effects (Aliyu et Anti-infective, Anti- Stem-bark, Maceration Hyperoside, Isoquercitrin,
rufescens Lam. Matsatsagi al., 2009; Compaoré et al., parasitic, Wound Root, Fruit Quercetin, Quercitrin,
(H) 2011); Dose dependent (200– healing, Fibrosis, P-coumaric acid, Ferulic
400 mg/kg) decrease in blood Inflammation acid, Rutin, Kaempferol
glucose levels by methanol (Compaoré et al., 2011);
extract of the leaves in Benzopyrandiol and triol
alloxan-induced diabetic rats derivatives (Maillard et al.,
(Aguh et al., 2013) 1991)
29 Bidens pilosa L. Compositae Spanish Abere-oloko SW Acetylenic glucosides Anti-cancer, Anti- Seeds, Decoction, Acetylenic Polyacetylenic
needle, Needle (Y) decreased blood gucose in pyretic, Anti-microbial, Leaves, Infusion glucosides: 3-β-D- compounds, Pyrocatechin,
grass, Black C57BL/Ks-db/db mice, a type Inflammation, Diuretic, Roots, Aerial glucopyranosyl-1- Vanillin,
jack 2 diabetes model (Ubillas et Anti-parasitic, Colic, parts hydroxy-6(E)- P-hydroxybenzoic acid,
al., 2000)§ Wound ulcers, tetradecene- Gallic acid, Salicylic acid,
Hemorrhoids, Malaria 8,10,12-triyne and Protocatechuic acid,
2-β-D- P-coumaric acid, Ferulic
glucopyranosyl-1- acid, Caffeic acid, Caffeoyl
hydroxy-6(E)- quinic acids, Eugenol,
tetradecene-7,9,11- Esculetin, Chlorogenic
triyne (Ubillas et acid, Sulfuretin, Chalcones,
al., 2000) Apigenin and its
glycosides, Luteolin and its
glycosides, Quercetin and
its glycosides, Kaempferol
glycoside, Caryophyllene,
Humulene, Lupeol, β-
sitosterol, Campestrol, β-
amyrin, Friedelin, α-
tocopherol, Centaureidin,
Centaurein (Lima Silva et
al., 2011)
30 Bixa orellana L. Bixaceae Lipstick tree, Osun-buke NE, SW, SE 80 mg/kg of the seed coat Anti-microbial, Anti- Leaves, Seeds Decoction Aldose reductase Apocarotenoids, Norbixin, The carotenoid Bixin,
Bixa plant, (Y), Aje (Y), extract decreased blood parasitic, Skin inhibitory effects of Bixin, Geranylgeranyl and isolated from the seed
Annatto, Uhie (I) glucose levels and increased infections, Anti-tumour, isoscutellarein its acetate, octadecanoate, coat extract has been
Achiote plasma insulin levels and Analgesic, Anti-pyretic, isolated from the and formiate, Farnesyl shown to induce Cyt
insulin binding to blood Jaundice, Gonorrhea, leaf extract acetone (Gutierrez et al., P450 enzymes in the
corpuscles in Purgative, Snake bites (Terashima et al., 2011); β-tocopherol, liver, kidney and lungs
normoglycaemic dogs 1991) Vitamin E (Ponnusamy et (Jewell and O'Brien,
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

(Russell et al., 2005)§; al., 2011); Stigmasterol, 1999); Bixin as well as

Methanol extract of the Polyprenol, Sitosterol, other constituents of
leaves (49 μg/ml) produced Ishwarane, Phytol (Raga et annato dye from the
inhibitory effects against al., 2011); Capric, Palmitic, seed extract play an
human pancreatic amylase Stearic, Oleic and Linoleic important role in the
enzyme (Ponnusamy et al., acids (Silva et al., 2008); induction of Cyp 1A and
2011)§ Gallic acid, Pyrogarrol, 2B enzymes in rats (De-
Isoscutellarein (Terashima Oliveira et al., 2003);
et al., 1991); β-carotene, Seed constituents have
Cryptoxanthin, Lutein, also been found to
Zeazanthin, Methyl bixin possess opposing

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

(Tirimanna, 1981) hyperglycaemic effects
(Fernandes et al., 2002;
Gutierrez et al., 2011)
31 Blighia sapida K. Sapindaceae Ackee apple, Okpu ulla (I), SW, NC Aqueous root bark extract Wound ulcers, Malaria, Root, Bark, Hypoglycaemic Hypoglycin A, Hypoglycin Hypoglycin A and B in
D.Koenig Breadfruit tree Ishin (Y), (100 and 200 mg/kg) Anti-parasitic, Migraine, Fruits, Leaves effect of hypoglycin B (Hassall et al., 1954); the unripe fruit,
Gwanja-kusa decreased blood glucose in Laxative, Diuretic, A and B from the Glycyl-L-alanine, γ-L- although responsible
(H), Ila (Nu) normoglycaemic rats (Saidu Epilepsy, Liver diseases, fruit was observed glutamyl-trans-α-L- for the hypoglycemic
et al., 2012) Anti-emetic, Snake bites in rabbits, (carboxy cyclopropyl) effect can lead to death
monkeys, rats and glycine, Glyclyglycine, due to severe fatty acid
mice but not cats, Diglycylglycine (Fowden degeneration and
dogs and pigeons and Smith, 1969); glycogenolysis (Hassall
with lethality at Blighinone, Stigmasterol et al., 1954; Sherratt,
doses 4 50 mg and and its fructoside, 1986)
150 mg/kg for Oleanolic acid,
hypoglycin A and B Hederagenin and its
respectively in mice glucosides (Garg and
(Chen et al., 1957) Mitra, 1967)
32 Bridelia Phyllanthaceae Ira or SW, SE 100 and 200 mg/kg aqueous Inflammation, Oral Leaves, Stem Infusion, Hypoglycaemic Myricetin-3-rhamnoside, Inhibited P-gp mediated
ferruginea Benth. Iralodan (Y), and methanol extracts of the thrush, Anti-parasitic, bark, Root Decoction effect of a mixture Quercetin-3-glucoside, Rh-123 efflux in Caco-2
Kirni or Kizni leaves decreased blood Anti-microbial, of quercetin-3- Quercitrin, Quercetin-3- cells (Ezuruike et al.,
(H), Ola (I) glucose levels in normal rats Hemorrhoids, Anti- neohesperidoside, neohesperidoside (Addae- 2012); No observed
and alloxan-induced rats tumour Quercitrin, Mensah and Achenbach, acute or chronic toxicity
when pre-treated; Also daily Quercetin-3- 1985); Kaempferol, in rats after 6 months
intake of 15 mg of the extract glucoside and Vitexin, Apigenin (Iwu, intake or high doses up
as an infusion lowered blood Myricetin-3- 1983); β-peltatin-5-O-β-D- to 5 g/kg. However
glucose levels of type-2 rhamnoside glucopyranoside and its aqueous extract of the
diabetic patients in a clinical isolated from the 5-demethoxy derivative leaves prolonged
study (Iwu, 1983); Radical hydro-alcoholic (Rashid et al., 2000); 3-O- pentobarbitone induced
scavenging effects (Cimanga extract of the leaves methyl quercetin, Rutisin, sleeping time, which
et al., 2001); Administration in fasted rabbits Myricetin, Ferrugin, Tetra- might indicate possible
of 250 mg/kg ethanol extract (Addae-Mensah O-methyl myricetin, interaction with Cyp
of the root for 4 weeks and Munenge, Gallocatechin-(4-O-7)- enzymes (Owiredu et
improved glucose tolerance 1989) epigallocatechin (Cimanga al., 2011)
in high-fructose fed Wistar et al., 2001)
rats (Bakoma et al., 2011)
33 Bridelia Phyllanthaceae Sweet berry, Iranje, SW, SE 250 mg/kg of the methanol Oral gargle, Anti- Leaves, Stem Decoction Delphinidin, Gallic acid,
micrantha Coastal golden Ogaofia (I), extract of the leaves microbial, Jaundice, bark Caffeic acid, Ellagic acid,
(Hochst.) Baill. leaf Ugoagu (I) decreased blood glucose in Dysentry Friedelin, Epifriedelinol
alloxan-induced diabetic rats Taraxerol, Taraxerone
and produced good (Pegel and Rogers, 1968);
antioxidant effects (Adika et Camphene, α-pinene, 1,8-
al., 2011) cineole, Camphor, Linalool,
1-α-terpineol, α-
caryophyllene oxide, 5-β-
pregnene, Quinoline
(Green et al., 2011)

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

34 Bryophyllum Crassulaceae Africa never Ewe abamoda SW 400 mg/kg of the aqueous Hypertension, Leaves, Juice extract Syringic acid, Caffeic acid, Risk of cardiac glycoside
pinnatum (Lam.) die, Life plant, (Y) extract of the fresh leaves Analgesic, Flower 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy poisoning due to the
Oken Resurrection produced hypoglycaemia in Inflammation, Wound cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxy bufadienolides
plant both normal and STZ- ulcers, Anti-parasitic, benzoic acid, Hydroxy Bryotoxin A, B, C
induced diabetic rats Insect bites, Anti-cancer, cinnamic acid, P-coumaric (McKenzie et al., 1987);
(Ojewole, 2005); Cough, Diarrhoea, acid, Protocatechuic acid, Significant decrease in
Hypoglycemic effect of Sedative, Diuretic, Anti- Phosphoenolpyruvate, serum ALT levels in rats
500 mg/kg aqueous extract of microbial, Convulsions Ferulic acid, Astragalin, after daily oral dosing of
the leaves in normal fasted Friedelin, Luteolin, 2 g/kg aqueous extract
glucose-loaded and STZ- Quercetin glycosides, of the leaves (Ozolua et
induced diabetic rats Epigallocatechin-3-O- al., 2010)

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

(Ogbonnia et al., 2008c); syringate, Kaempferol
In vitro antioxidant effects glycosides, Isorhamnetin
(Gupta and Banerjee, 2011)§ glycosides, Myricetin
glycosides, α- and β-
amyrin and their acetates,
Glutinol, Bryophollone,
Bryophynol, Bryophyllol,
Bryophyllin A and B,
Bryotoxin A, B and C;
Bryophollenone, Patuletin
and glycosides
Taraxasterol, Stigmasterol,
β-sitosterol, Stigmasta-
dienol (Afzal et al., 2012)
35 Calotropis Apocynaceae Sodom apple, Bomu-bomu SW, NW 400 mg/kg dried latex Inflammation, Leaves, Maceration, Calotroposide, Calotropin, Cardenolides present in
procera (Aiton) Giant (Y), Tumfafiya decreased blood glucose in Hypertension, Anti- Latex, Root, Poultice Calotoxin, Calotoxoside, the plant are capable of
Dryand. milkweed, (H) alloxan-induced diabetic rats, microbial, Anti- Stem bark, Calactin, Calotropain, causing death in
Swallow wort, increased hepatic glycogen parasitic, Purgative, Flower Calotropa H genin, mammals at high
Mudar content and produced Convulsions, Proceroside, Uscharin, concentration thus
antioxidant effects (Roy et al., Abortifacient, Anti- Uscharidin, Voruscharin, caution should be
2005)§; 250 mg/kg of cancer, Skin infections, Amyrin (Oliver-Bever, exerted when extracts
different solvent extracts of Hemorrhoids, Anti- 1986); Calotropterpenyl, of the plant are being
the root decreased blood pyretic, Asthma, Calotropursenyl acetate, ingested (Juncker et al.,
glucose levels in STZ-induced Leprosy Calotropfriedelenyl 2009)
diabetic rats (Bhaskar and acetate, 2-propenyl-20 -
Ajay, 2009)§; Antioxidant hydroxy ethyl carbonate,
effects (Olaleye and Rocha, Calotropin FI, FII, DI and
2007) DII, Uzarigenin,
Coroglaucigenin, Procerain
(Juncker et al., 2009);
Flavone-40 -O-β-glycoside,
Epoxy dihydroxy methoxy
cardenolide, β-
and its glycoside (Shaker
et al., 2010);
Calotropoceryl acetate A
and B, Calotroprocerone,
Calotroprocerol A, Pseudo-
taraxasterol acetate,
Taraxasterol, Stigmasterol,
(E)-octadec-7-enoic acid
(Ibrahim et al., 2012); CP-P
(Apolipoprotein A-1)
(Samy et al., 2012)
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

36 Capsicum annum Solanaceae Chilli, Bird Ata or Ata SW, SE Alpha glucosidase and α- Analgesic, Fruit Decoction Capsaicinoids
L., Syn: Capsicum pepper wewe (Y), amylase inhibitory activities Antimicrobial, (Schweiggert et al., 2006);
frutescens L. Ose (I), and antioxidant effects (Oboh Inflammation, Myricetin, Kaempferol,
Barkono (H), et al., 2011; Kwon et al., Hemorrhoids, Fevers, Apigenin, Luteolin,
Asin (Es) 2007); Incorporation of 2% of Dysentry, Malaria, Quercetin (Miean and
the fruit powder in a high fat Carminative, Stimulant Mohamed, 2001); CAY-1
diet given to STZ-induced (Stergiopoulou et al.,
diabetic rats increased serum 2008); Alpha tocopherol
insulin levels (Islam and (Ching and Mohamed,
Choi, 2008)§; 100 mg/l fruit 2001); Ortho hydroxyl
extracts possessed PPAR N-benzyl 16-Methyl 11,14-
alpha and gamma agonistic diene octadecamide, 9, 12-

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

activity (Rau et al., 2006)§ diene-octadecanoic acid
(Dastagir et al., 2012);
Capsianocide VIII, IX, L, III,
V, I and its methyl ester,
Oxylipin, Capsidiol,
Loliolide, Blumenol C
glucoside, 3-O-(9,12,15-
octadecatrienoyl) glyceryl-
β-D-galactopyranoside (De
Marino et al., 2006)
37 Carica papaya L. Caricaceae Pawpaw Ibepe (Y), NW, SS, 100–400 mg/kg of the Anti-microbial, Anti- Leaves, Fruit Infusion Caffeoyl and Aqueous extract of the
Okworo SW aqueous seed extract parasitic, Dyspepsia, pulp, Seed, Decoction, Protocatechuic acid leaves in alloxan-
bekee or decreased blood glucose and Hemorrhoids, Latex Vegetable, hexoside, Gallic acid induced diabetic rats
Okwere (I), improved serum lipid levels Hypertension, STDs, Juice extract deoxyhexoside, Caffeoyl delayed the
Gwanda (H) in normal rats (Adeneye and Purgative, Wound hexose-deoxyhexose, hypoglycaemic activity
Olagunju, 2009); 400 mg/kg healing, Antivenin, Ferulic and Caffeic acids, of glimepiride but
aqueous extract of the leaves Sickle cell anemia, Myricetin, Isoharmnetin, hastened that of
decreased blood glucose in Abortifacient, Anti- Quercetin, Kaempferol, metformin (Fakeye et
alloxan-induced diabetic rats fertility, Cancer, Mental Rutin, Lycophene, β- al., 2007);
(Maniyar and Bhixavatimath, disorder, Malaria, cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, Contraindicated in
2012)§; Administration of Convulsion (Rivera-Pastrana et al., patients taking warfarin
602 g of the fruit (equivalent 2010); Chlorogenic and as it increased the INR
to 50 g carbohydrate) to type P-coumaric acids, 5,7- of a patient (Shaw et al.,
2 diabetic patients produced dimethoxy coumarin 1997); Aqueous extract
an increase in serum insulin (Canini et al., 2007); of the leaves inhibited
levels in the patients (Fatema Papain, Chymopapain A, B P-gp efflux activity in
et al., 2003)§; Antioxidant and C, Peptidase A and B, Caco-2 cells (Oga et al.,
effects of different parts of Lysozyme, Carpasamine, 2012)
the unripe fruit (Oboh et al., Dehydrocarpaine I and II,
2013) Carpaine, Aryl glucosides,
Carposide, Caricin,
Choline, Tropaeaoline
(Krishna et al., 2008)
38 Cassia fistula L. Leguminosae Indian Aidantoro (Y) SW In vitro antioxidant effects Liver disorders, Anti- Seeds, Catechin isolated Fistucacidin, Kaempferol,
laburnum, (Luximon-Ramma et al., microbial, Purgative, Leaves, Pods, from the stem bark Rhein, Leucoperlagonidin
Golden 2002; Manonmani et al., Astringent, Stem-bark decreased plasma derivatives, Sennoside A
shower 2005); Hexane extract of the Hemorrhoids, gucose levels and and B, Epiafzelechin and
stem bark produced a dose Rheumatism, Ulcers, increased the its 3-O-β-D-
dependent decrease in Jaundice activity of glucose glucopyranoside,
alloxan-induced diabetic rats metabolizing Epicatechin, Catechin,
(Nirmala et al., 2008); enzymes in STZ- Procyanidin B2,
Ethanol and ethyl acetate induced diabetic Rhamnetin -3-O-
extract of the bark decreased raats (Daisy et al., gentibioside, Physcion,
blood glucose levels in 2010) Chrysophanol, Fistulin,
alloxan-induced diabetic rats Fistulic acid, 3-formyl-1-

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

(Malpani and Manjunath, hydroxy-8-methoxy

2012) anthraquinone, 3β-
hydroxy 17-norpimar -8
(9)-en-15-one (Bahorun et
al., 2005); 1,8-dihydroxy-
Tetrahydroxy dimethoxy
pyranoside, Trihydroxy
trimethoxy flavone-3-O-α-
L-rhamnosyl (1-2)-O-β-D-

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

glucopyranoside, β-
Sitosterol, Hexacosanol,
Lupeol (Kanth et al., 2012);
Aurantiamide acetate,
Betulinic acid, Xanthone
glycoside, Cyclopropenoid
fatty acids, Biochanin A,
Phytol, Lectins CSL-1.
2 and 3, Furfural
derivatives, Fatty acids,
Citreorosein, Scopoletin,
Chromones and Benzyl
derivatives (Danish et al.,
39 Cassia sieberiana Leguminosae African Ukosei (Es), NC, NW, In vitro antioxidant effects Veterinary, Root, Leaves, Decoction Epiafzelechin (Kpegba et Traditional use of the
DC. laburnum, Margaa (H), NE, SS, (Awah et al., 2012) Antimicrobial, Anti- Stem-bark al., 2011); Myricetin and plant is associated with
Drumstick tree Margaje (F), parasitic, Impotence, Quercetin 3-O- GIT side effects (Maiga
Aridan-tooro Convulsion, rhamnoside (Asase et al., et al., 2005); Liver and
(Y) Inflammation, 2008); Leucopelargonicol, kidney toxicities of
Analgesic, Malaria, Dys- Epicatechol, β-sitosterol, aqueous extracts of
menorrhea Stigmasterol (Tamboura et various parts of the
al., 2005) plant (Toma et al., 2009;
Obidah et al., 2009)
40 Cassytha Lauraceae Love vine, Rumfar-gada SE, NC Administration of 600 mg/kg Anti-parasitic, Whole plant Decoction, Cassythidine, Cassyfiline 250 mg/kg aqueous
filiformis L., Syn: Woevine (H), methanol extract of the stem Uterotonic, Dried parts (Cassythine) and O-methyl extract of the whole
Cassytha Sulunwahi bark to alloxan-induced Hypertension, Diuretic, are chewed cassyfiline, Cassamedine, plant increased
americana (F), diabetic mice decreased Aphrodisiac, before meals Neolitsine, Cassameridine, cholesterol levels in
Otetebilete blood glucose levels by 46.8% Hemorrhoids, Anti- Actinodaphnine and mice and decreased
(Id) (Ezeigbo and Asuzu, 2010) cancer, Anticoagulant, N-methyl actinodaphnine, plasma ALP levels
In vitro antioxidant effects Hemorrhage Cassythicine, Cassythidine, (Babayi et al., 2007)
(Mythili et al., 2011)§ Dicentrine, Bulbocapnine, Non-selective
Nornuciferine, Launobine cytotoxicity to both
(Cava et al., 1968); cancer and non-cancer
Cathafiline, Cathaformine, cell lines (Stévigny et al.,
Lysicamine, Cassyformine, 2002)
Predicentrine, Filiformine,
Isoboldine, Thalicminine,
Stepharine, Pronuciferine,
Ocoteine, Syringaresinol,
Yangambin, O-methyl
flavinatine, Isovanillin,
Vanillin, β-sitosterol and
Stigmasterol and their D-
glucosides (Chang et al.,
1998); Isorhamnetin,
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

Quercetin and Kaempferol

glycosides; Isorhamnetin,
Cassythic acid, O-methyl
cassythine, Isofiliformine,
Phenylalcohol glycoside,
Salutaridine, Nicotinic acid
(Tsai et al., 2008)
41 Catharanthus Apocynaceae Madagascar 250 mg/kg methanol extract Cancer, Malaria, Insect Whole plant, Decoction Hexamethyl-15-hydroxy Potent inhibitory effects
roseus (L.) G.Don periwinkle of the leaves decreased blood stings, Sore throat, Leaves, methylene-n- on Cyp 2D6 of human
glucose levels in alloxan- Antibiotic, Diuretic, Flower, Roots octacostriene-10,18-diol- liver microsomes of
induced diabetic rats and Expectorant, Wound 10-β-D-gluco pyranoside, ajmalicine and
increased the hypoglycaemic healing, Hemorrhage, 3-Epibetulinic acid, n- serpentine isolated

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

effect of metformin but not Hypertension pentadecanyl octa-dec-19- from the aerial parts
glibenclamide (Ohadoma and enoate, β-Sitosterol (Usia et al., 2005); The
Michael 2011); Juice extract (Chung et al., 2007); 3-O- vinca alkaloids are
of the fresh leaves of the glucosides and 3-O-(6-O- metabolized by Cyp3A4
plant gave a dose dependent p-coumaroyl) glucosides and 3A5 enzymes;
(0.5–1 ml/kg) decrease in of Hirsutin, Malvidin and while vincristine and
blood glucose levels in Petunidin (Piovan and vinblastine have been
normal and alloxan-induced Filippini, 2007); Benzoic identified as P-gp
diabetic rats (Nammi et al., acid derivatives, Vanillic, substrates in canine
2003)§; 500 mg/kg dichloro- Gallic, Cinnamic, o- and p- renal cells (Levêque and
methane methanol (1:1) Coumaric, Caffeic and Jehl, 2007)
extract of the aerial parts Ferulic acids; Hydroxy
showed a prophylactic action tyrosol, kaempferol,
against STZ-induced Quercetin, Syringetin
hyperglycaemia in rats and glycosides (Mustafa and
increased the activity of Verpoorte, 2007); Ursolic
some glucose metabolizing and Oleanolic acids (Usia
enzymes (Singh et al., 2001)§ et al., 2005); Ajmalicine,
Serpentine, Lochnerine,
Reserpine, Akuammine,
Vinblastine, Vindoline,
Perivine, Leurosine,
Leurosidine, Virosine,
Vindolinine, Lochnericine,
Pleurosine, Vincarodine,
Catharicine, Leurocristine
(Vincristine), Sitsirikine,
Carosine (Svoboda et al.,
42 Chrysophyllum Sapotaceae African star Agbalumo SE, SW 100 and 200 mg/kg hydro- Cancer, Miscarriage, Seeds, Stem- Decoction Eleagnine, Anacardic acid,
albidum G.Don apple, Cherry (Y), Udala (I) ethanol extract of the seed Hemorrhoids, Asthma, bark, Leaves, Ascorbic acid (Idowu et al.,
cotyledon given to alloxan- Analgesic, Fruit, Root 2006); Myricetin-3-
induced diabetic mice for Inflammation, Anti- rhamnoside (Adebayo et
7 days decreased serum microbial, Anti-parasitic al., 2011)
glucose levels (Olorunnisola
et al., 2008)
43 Citrus Rutaceae Lime Osan wewe SW In vitro antioxidant effects Worm expeller, Weight Fruit Juice extract α- and β-pinene, Bergamottin and other
aurantiifolia (Y), Oroma (Guimarães et al., 2010)§ loss, Anti-microbial, P-cymene, Limonene and furanocoumarins found
(Christm.) nkilishi (I), Anti-cancer, Anti- its oxide, Linalool and its in citrus fruits have
Swingle Igbopin- parasitic, Colds, Arthritis oxide, Citral, α- and β- been identified as
nigue (Es), terpineol, Myrtenol inducers and inhibitors
(Asnaashari et al., 2010); of Cyt P450 enzymes
Isoswertisin, 6-O-α- (Baumgart et al., 2005)

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

arabinopyranosides of
vitexin and isovitexin
(Veitch and Grayer, 2011);
Bergamottin, Limettin,
Bergapten, 5-geranyloxy-
Isopimpinellin, 3-methyl-
Corylone, Umbelliferone,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

Hexenone, Caryophyllene
oxide, Palmitic, Linoleic,
Oleic acids, Bergamotene
(Sandoval-Montemayor et
al., 2012); Imperatorin,
Kaempferol, Myricetin, β-
sitosterol, Rutin, 4,5,7-
flavones (Shalaby et al.,
44 Citrus aurantium Rutaceae Sour orange, Osan SS 875 mg of a mix of extracts of Weight loss, GIT Fruit, Leaves, Juice extract, Synephrine, Octopamine, Bergapten and 6,7-
L. Seville orange ganinganin the fruit and Rauvolfia probems, Malaria, Root, Stem- Decoction Limonene, Hesperidin, dihydroxybergamottin
or, Ijaganyin vomitoria foliage (RC tea) Fibroids, Cancer, Cough bark, Stem- Neohesperidin, Naringin, inhibit Cyt P450
(Y), Oloma decreased serum glucose twigs Tangaretin, Bergapten, 6,7- enzymes (Malhotra et
oyibo (I), levels in diabetes type dihydroxybergamottin al., 2001); Risk of
Babban lemu 2 model db/db mice and also (Fugh-Berman and Myers, cardio-toxicity due to
(H), Ntom decreased tissue lipid 2004); Linalool, Nerol, synephrine (Calapai et
(Ibibio) accumulation (Campbell et Limonin, Methyl al., 1999)
al., 2006); RC tea given daily antranilate, Rutoside,
for 4 months to type-2 Hesperidoside,
diabetic patients decreased Neohesperidoside,
fasting and post prandial Naringoside,
plasma glucose levels Sinensetoside, Meranzin,
especially in patients with Nobiletin, Narirutin,
HbA1c levels o 7.3% Rhoifolin, Citric, Ascorbic
(Campbell-Tofte et al., 2011) and Malic acids (Arias and
Ramón-Laca, 2005);
Didymin, Eriocitrin,
Neoeriocitrin, Poncirin
(Peterson et al., 2006)
45 Citrus sinensis (L.) Rutaceae Orange Osan mimu SWa Antioxidant effects Fruit, Seed Juice extract Psoralene, Xanthotoxin, Bergapten has been
Osbeck (Y), Oroma (Guimarães et al., 2010)§; Infusion Bergapten, Imperatorin, shown to induce Cyp
(I), Lemun Free and bound phenolics Mamesin, Umbelliferone, 3A4 (Malhotra et al.,
misra (F), extracted from the dried fruit Quercetin and its 2001)
Alimo (Es) peel exhibited potent dose- glycoside, 4,5,7-
dependent α-amylase and α- trihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy
glucosidase inhibitory effects flavone, Rutin, Hyperin,
(Oboh and Ademosun, 2011) Hesperidin, β-sitosterol,
Stigmasterol (Shalaby et
al., 2011)
46 Citrullus Cucurbitaceae Egusi melon, Baala, Egusi NW, SW Saponin fractions of aqueous Constipation, Purgative, Leaves Fruit, Infusion, Cucurbitacin E, I, J, K and L Extracts of the plant
colocynthis (L.) Desert gourd, extract of the rind decreased Anti-tumour, Rind, Seed, Decoction 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosides, have been shown to
Schrad. Bitter apple, plasma glucose at doses Abortafacient, Oedema, Pulp 3,40 -dihydroxy-30 - cause severe diarrhoea
Bitter r 50 mg/kg in fasted Infections, Rheumatism methoxy propiophenone, in animals with
cucumber normoglycaemic and 3,40 - mortality at doses
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

alloxan-induced diabetic dihydroxypropiophenone, Z 200 mg/kg (Shafaei et

rabbits (Abdel-Hassan et al., Colocynthosides A and B, al., 2012; Khoshvaghti
2000)§; Plasma glucose levels Khekadengoside E, and Hamidi, 2012);
and pancreatic β-cell mass Hexano cucurbitacin I Possible inhibition of
were restored to normal in 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, Cyp P450 enzymes
STZ-induced diabetic rats fed Helicid, Isovitexin, when ethanolic extracts
an 8% colocynth oil diet Isosaponarin, Isoorientin- of the fruit were co-
(Sebbagh et al., 2009)§; 30 -O-methyl ether, Benzyl incubated with rat liver
Antioxidant effects (Kumar et and 4-hydroxybenzyl β-D- microsomes (Barth et
al., 2008) glucopyranoside, 4-(β-D- al., 2002)
glucopyranosyloxy) benzyl
alcohol (Yoshikawa et al.,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

2007); Isoorientin, 8-O
and 6-O-p-
hydroxybenzoyl isovitexin
and its glucosdie (Maatooq
et al., 1997); Oleic,
Linoleic, Linolenic,
Arachidonic, Palmitate,
Stearic and Myristic acids
(Sebbagh et al., 2009); 2-
quinolone, 2-(nonan-8-
one) 4-methoxy-
quinoline, (2S)-3,4-
Hispidulin 7-(6-E-β-
glucopyranoside (Salama,
47 Citrullus lanatus Cucurbitaceae Water melon, Egusi bara 50 mg/kg globulin proteins Laxative, Wound ulcers, Leaves, Decoction Cucurbitacin E
(Thunb.) Mats. Kalahari (Y), Guna (H) extracted from the seeds Anti-bacterial, Tumours Seeds, Fruit (Abdelwahab et al., 2011);
and Nakai melon decreased blood glucose pulp Lycophene, Phytofluene,
levels when pre- Neurosporene, ζ- and β-
administered to normal high carotene, Lutein, Phytoene
glucose fed rats (Teugwa et (Perkins-Veazie et al.,
al., 2013a)§; Antioxidant 2006); Protocatechuic acid
effects (Tlili et al., 2011) glucosides, Phloroglucinol
glucuronide, Ferulic acid
hexosides, Isorhamnetin,
Citrulline, Salicylic acid-O-
hexoside, p-coumaric acid
glucoside, Vanillin
hexosides, Rutin, Salicin-
2-benzoate, Sinapic acid
glucoside, Feruloyl sugars,
Caffeoylshikimic acids,
Caffeoylhexose, Luteolin,
Naringenin, Chrysoeriol
Apigenin, Kaempferol,
Taxifolin, Saligenin and
Isolariciresinol glucosides;
Hydroquinone, Isovitexin,
Aviprins, Shikonine,
Icariside, Leachianol G,
Glehlinoside C, Ajugol,

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

Catalposide, Obtusoside,
Picrosides, Quercitrin,
Coumarin, Cimifugin,
(Abu-Reidah et al., 2013)
48 Cola acuminata Malvaceae Kolanut Obi agada (Y), SW Antioxidant effects (Atawodi Stimulant, Appetite Nuts, Stem- Decoction, Procyanidin B1 and B2,
(P.Beauv.) Schott Orji (I) et al., 2007) 500 mg/kg of the suppressants, bark, Leaves Juice extract Catechin, Epicatechin,
and Endl. methanol extract of the stem Aphrodisiac, Respiratory Caffeine (Atawodi et al.,
bark decreased blood glucose infections, 2007); Theobromine
levels in alloxan induced Hypertension, Anti- (Niemenak et al., 2008);
diabetic rats after 21 days parasitic Chlorogenic, Quinnic and
(Adediwura et al., 2011) Tannic acids (Odebode,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

49 Corchorus Malvaceae Long fruited Ewedu (Y), SW Methanol extract of the Purgative, Diuretic, Leaves, Seeds Decoction 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, Ethanol extract of the
olitorius L. jute, Jew's Ulogburu (I) leaves inhibited both α- Tumours, Analgesic, Quercetin-3-galactoside, aerial parts of the plant
mallow amylase and α-glucosidase Cystitis, Measles Quercetin-3-glucoside, inhibited Cyt P450 3A4
enzymes (Oboh et al., 2012a) Quercetin-3-(6-malonyl and 3A7 (Agbonon et
Antioxidant effects (Azuma et glucoside), Quercetin-3- al., 2010)
al., 1999) (6-malonyl galactoside),
Ascorbic acid, α-
tocopherol (Azuma et al.,
1999); Kaempferol
glycosides, Rutin,
Isoquercitrin (Sakakibara
et al., 2003); Dicaffeoyl
quininc acids, Caffeoyl and
Dicaffeoyl quinic
derivatives, Hyperoside,
Chlorogenic acid,
Isoquercitrin, Quercetin
derivative (Ola et al.,
2009); Corchorusides A
and B, Capsugenin-25,30-
(Phuwapraisirisan et al.,
2009); Caffeic acid and
Isorhamnetin (Oboh et al.,
50 Croton lobatus L. Euphorbiaceae Lobed croton, Eru Alamo (Y) SW Wound ulcers, Fruit, Stems, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic,
Cascarilla Purgative, Malaria, Leaves, Seed acid Tiliroside, Isovitexin,
Dysentry Vitexin, Chlorogenic acid
(Lagnika et al., 2009);
Geranylgeraniol, Betulinic
acid, Cholestan-3-one,
acid methyl ester, 3-(4-
methoxy phenyl)-2-
phenyl acrylic acid,
tetraentetracosanoic acid,
Octadecadienoic acid,
tetraenyl ester, Lobaceride,
Ergosterol, 3-hydroxy-
choles-5-en-7-one, N-(2-
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

benzamide (Chabert et al.,

51 Cucumeropsis Cucurbitaceae White melon, Egusi-itoo SW 50 mg/kg of globulin proteins Anti-microbial, Seed, Fruit Juice extract, Linoleic acid, Oleic acid,
mannii Naudin African melon (Y), Ogiri (I) extracted from the seed Indigestion, Infant colic Powdered Linolenic acid, Myristic
when pre-administered to seeds acid, Palmitoleic acid,
high glucose fed rats did not Palmitic acid, Aracchidic
cause a significant decrease acid, Stearic acid (Kapseu
in blood glucose levels et al., 1993)
(Teugwa et al., 2013a)§;
Antioxidant effects (Agbor et
al., 2005)
52 Curculigo pilosa Hypoxidaceae Golden eye Epakun SW Antioxidant effects (Sofidiya Anti-microbial, Epilepsy, Rhizome, Decoction Piloside A and B,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

(Schumach. and grass, et al., 2011) Infertility, Sickle cell, Fruit Curculigoside, Curculigine,
Thonn.) Engl. Donkey's ear Purgative, STDs Nyasicoside, Pilosidine
(Palazzino et al., 2000);
Β-amylase (Dicko et al.,
1999); Nyasicoside,
Pilosidine, Curculigine
(Cometa et al., 2001)
53 Curcuma longa L. Zingiberaceae Turmeric Atale pupa SW, NC Ethanol extract of the Peptic ulcer, Rhizome, Decoction Curcumin, Bisdemethoxy Methanol extracts of
rhizome incorporated in the Inflammation, Anti- Leaves, curcumin, Demethoxy the rhizome inhibits
diet of type 2 diabetic KK-Ay/ microbial, Cancer, Flower, Roots curcumin and Ar- CYP 3A4 activity in
Ta mice as 0.2–1 g/100 g Malaria, Pesticide, turmerone (Kuroda et al., Caco-2 cells (Hou et al.,
produced a hypoglycaemic Hypertension, Jaundice, 2005; Roth et al., 1998); 2007); Cuurcumin and
effect compared to control Depression Tetrahydrocurcumin (Pari its decomposition
and showed PPARγ binding and Murugan, 2007); α products inhibited CYP
activity (Kuroda et al., and β-Pinene, Myrcene, α, 1A2, 3A4, 2D6, 2C9 and
2005)§; Antioxidant effects β and sesqui-Phelandrene, 2B6 enzymes in
(Selvam et al., 1995)§; Plasma p-Cymene, 1,8-Cineole, α Escherichia coli
insulin levels of healthy and γ-Terpinene, Ocimene, transfected with human
subjects were significantly p-Methylacetophenone, α- plasmid cDNA (Appiah-
increased 2 h after ingestion Terpinoline, Terpineol, Opong et al., 2007);
of 6g turmeric powder Thymol, Linalool, ar- and Methanol extract of the
(Wickenberg et al., 2010)§ γ-Curcumene, Carvacrol, rhizome enhances P-gp
α-Zingiberene, efflux activity but
ar-Tumerone, curcumin inhibits it
Dehydrocurcumene, (Hou et al., 2008)
Bisaboline (Leela et al.,
2002); Vanillin, Vanillic
acid, Ferulic acid and
Ferulic aldehyde (Appiah-
Opong et al., 2007)
54 Cymbopogon Poaceae Lemon grass Koriko-oba SW, SE Aqueous extract of the leaves Oral thrush, Leaves Decoction, Geraniol, myrcene Isoorientin, Isoscoparin, Aqueous extract did not
citratus (DC.) (Y), Nche produced a dose dependent Inflammation, Athlete's Infusion, and citral were Swertiajaponin, inhibit P-gp efflux
Stapf awula (I), (125–500 mg/kg) decrease in foot, Fever, Cough, Juice extract identified as aldose Isoorientin 20 -O- activity in Caco-2 cells
Ihumibo (Es) fasting plasma gucose levels Malaria, Jaundice, reductase rhamnoside, Orientin, (Oga et al., 2012)
after oral administration to Cancer, Infections, inhibitors based on Chlorogenic acid, Caffeic
normal rats for 42days Diuretic, Hypertension, an in-silico acid (Cheel et al., 2005);
(Adeneye and Agbaje, 2007); Obesity, Sedative, approach (Vyshali p-Coumaric acid, Myrcene,
Antioxidant effects (Cheel et Insecticidal, Aroma- et al., 2011) Limonene, α-Ocimene, α-
al., 2005) therapy Pinene, α-Caryophyllene,
Phellandrene, Methyl
Oxobisabolene, Geraniol,
Citral, Anisaldehyde,
Citronelal, Valeric,

Salicyaldehyde, Luteolin
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

and its 6-C and 7-O-

glycosides, Quercetin,
Kaempferol, Apigenin,
Hydroquinone, Catechol,
Citronelol, 1,8-Cineole,
Myrcene, Tria and
Dotriacontanol, Octa and
Hexacosanol, Menthol,
Elemicin, Linalool, Fuco-
and sitosterol (Negrelle
and Gomes, 2007)

55 Daniellia oliveri Leguminosae African balsam Iya (Y), Maje SE, NE 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg Analgesic, Root, Leaves, Maceration Daniellic acid, Oliveric acid

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

(Rolfe) Hutch. (H), Ozabwa aqueous leaf extract Inflammation, Anti- Stem bark (Haeuser et al., 1970);
and Dalziel (I) decreased blood glucose infective, Aphrodisiac, Gallic acid, Protocatechuic
levels in normal and alloxan- Hemorrhoids, Spasms, acid, Chlorogenic acid,
induced diabetic mice Fevers, Diarrhea, Caffeic acid, p-Coumaric
(Manosroi et al., 2011); Wound ulcers, Tumours, acid, Homo-orientin,
250 mg/kg aqueous extract of Sickle cell Orientin, Catechin, Rutin,
a mixture of the root with Quercitrin, Quercitrin
that of Sacrocephalus latifolius glucosyl, Quercitrin
for 21days decreased blood dehydrate, Coumarin,
glucose levels and increased Delphinidin, Ascorbic acid
the activity of various glucose (Muanda et al., 2011 );
metabolizing enzymes in Caryophyllene oxide,
alloxan-induced diabetic rats α-and β-Hunulene,
(Iwueke et al., 2010); Humulene oxide,
Antioxidant effects (Muanda Humulenol, β-Selinene,
et al., 2011) Cadinene, Germacrene
(Schwob et al., 2008);
Narcissin, Quercimeritrin,
Quercitrin (Ahmadu et al.,
56 Detarium Leguminosae Taura (H), NE, SE, NC 200 and 400 mg/kg aqueous Anti-microbial, Anti- Bark, Seeds, Decoction, 3,4-Epoxyclerodan-13E- Incorporation of
microcarpum Ogbogbo (Y), bark extract decreased blood parasitic, Molluscicidal, Fruit, Gum, Seed powder en-15-oic acid, 5α,8α(2- 100 mg/kg of the gum
Guill. and Perr. Ofo (I) glucose levels in normal and Hemorrhoids, Malaria, Roots oxokovalenic acid), 3,4- extract into metformin
alloxan-induced diabetic Impotence, Sickle cell, dihydroxyclerodan-13E- tablets enhanced drug
mice after 3hrs (Manosroi et Diarrhea en-15-oic acid, 3,4- release from the
al., 2011); 100 mg/kg of the dihydroxy clerodan-13Z- formulation (Adikwu et
gum administered alone or en-15-oic acid, al., 2004)
incorporated in a tablet 2-oxokolavenic acid,
containing 400 mg/kg Copalic acid (Cavin et al.,
metformin showed good 2006); Sitosterol, Lupeol,
blood glucose reducing Stigmasterol, Campestrol,
effects in STZ-induced γ-quinide, Bornesitol,
diabetic rats (Adikwu et al., Pinitol, Myoinisitol (Akah
2004) et al., 2012); Myristoleic,
Myristic and Linolenic
acids (Igwenyi and
Akubugwo, 2010);
1-naphthalene acetic-5-
carboxy 6octahydro
trimethyl acid,
1-naphthalene acetic-7-
oxo-octahydro tetramethyl
acid (Aquino et al., 1992)
57 Ficus exasperata Moraceae Fig tree, Forest Eepin or SWa 100 mg/kg aqueous extract of Analgesic, Arthritis, Leaves, Root, Decoction Glycerol-1,3-dilinolein, 3- High doses of the
Vahl sandpaper Opoto (Y), the leaves given for 30 days Hemorrhoids, Fruits, Latex O-glycerol acetate, ethanol leaf extract can
Ogbu (I) decreased blood glucose Hypertension, Pheophorbides-a, -b and lead to toxic injury in
levels in obese zucker rats Arrythmias, their derivatives,
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

and spontaneously Abortafacient, Child Pyropheophorbide, liver and kidneys

hypertensive STZ-treated rats birth, Insomnia, N-methyl pyrimidine (Ahmed et al., 2012)
(Adewole et al., 2011); and Infections, Eczema, (Bafor et al., 2013); α-
reversed nephrotoxic effects Cancer, Fevers, Diarrhea, Terpineol, α and β-Pinene,
of STZ (Adewole et al., 2012); Ulcer, STDs Sabinene, β-Patchoulene,
250 mg/kg aqueous extract of 1,8-cineole, α-thujopsene,
the leaves in fructose-fed rats β-ocimene, Limonene,
improved glycaemic control Linalool, β-caryophyllene,
(Taiwo et al., 2010); α- Isocaryophyllene, β-
glucosidase & α-amylase bisabolene, α-copaene,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

inhibitory effects (Kazeem et Globulol (Oladosu et al.,
al., 2013) Antioxidant effects 2009)
(Abotsi et al., 2010)
58 Ficus thonningii Moraceae Loin cloth or Cediya (H) SW 0.5 mg/ml of the acetone Malaria, Pain, Diarrhoea, Leaves, Decoction Benzaldehyde, α- and β- Possible testicular, lung
Blume Wild fig, extract of the leaves Purgative, Anti- Stem-bark pinene, β-caryophyllene, and hepatic toxicities at
Chinese produced about 30% microbial Zingiberene, α- and β- doses Z 500 mg/kg
banyan inhibitory effects against α- eudesmol, σ- and α- (Aniagu et al., 2008)
amylase and α-glucosidase xylene, Phytol,
enzymes (Olaokun et al., Caryophyllene and
2013); Dose dependent blood Isocaryophyllene oxide
glucose lowering effects of (Ogunwande et al., 2008)
the ethanol stembark extract
in STZ-induced and normal
diabetic rats (Musabayane et
al., 2007)§
59 Garcinia kola Clusiaceae Bitter kola Orogbo (Y), SW, SE 100 mg/kg kolaviron Cold symptoms, Anti- Fruit Root, Maceration Kolaviron-Mix of Garcinia biflavanone (GB) Pre-ingestion of the
Heckel- Agbi-ilu (I), decreased blood sugar levels microbial, Diarrhea, Stem-bark, GB1, GB2 and 1, GB2, kolaflavanone seeds by ten healthy
Namiji-goro in normal and alloxan Dysentry, Liver Seed kolaflavanone (Iwu (Cotterill et al., 1978); volunteers 30 min prior
(H) induced diabetic mice; as disorders, Aphrodisiac, et al., 1990a) Apigenin-5,7,40 -trimethyl to the administration of
well as inhibited aldose Poison antidote, Sickle ether, Apigenin 40 -methyl ofloxacin altered the
reductase enzyme activity cell ether, Amentoflavone, serum
(Iwu et al., 1990a); Fisetin (Iwu and Igboko, pharmacokinetics of the
Hypoglycaemic effect of 1982); Conrauanalactone, antibiotic (Esimone et
kolaviron is due to GB1 and Kolanone, Cycloartenol, al., 2007);
GB2 in normal and STZ- 24-methylene Pharmacokinetics of
induced diabetic rats cycloartenol, ciprofloxacin in rabbits
(Adaramoye and Adeyemi, Manniflavanone, Garcini- was altered when co-
2006); Alpha glucosidase flavanone (Iwu et al., administered with the
inhibitory effect of GB1 1990b); Lavender lactone, seed extract (Esimone
(Antia et al., 2010) Linalol and its oxides, et al., 2002)
Methyl heptenone,
β-Myrcene, α-Terpineol,
p-Cymen-9-ol, Geraniol,
Geranial, β-Caryophyllene,
Methyl phenylacetate,
β-Farnesene, Manoyl oxide
(Onayade et al., 1998);
Garcinoic acid (Mazzini
et al., 2009)
60 Gongronema Apocynaceae Bush buck Utazi (I), SE, SW, SS Ethanol extract of the leaves Anti-microbial, Anti- Leaves, Stem, Infusion The anti- β-Caryophyllene, α- and
latifolium Benth. Madumaro or decreased blood glucose parasitic, Hypertension, Root Maceration, hyperglycaemic β-Pinene, Camphene, 1,8-
Arokeke (Y), levels in STZ-induced Inflammation, Hepato- Food effects of fractions Cineole, Linalol, α-
Utasi (Ef) diabetic rats and increased protective, GIT vegetable of the methanol Terpineol, Benzaldehyde,

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

activity of glucose problems, Chewing extract of the stem Aromadendrene and its
metabolizing enzymes stick, Laxative, Ulcer, and leaves in hydrate, α-Humulene,
(Ugochukwu and Babady, Analgesic, Fevers glucose loaded rats δ-Cadinene, Germacrene,
2003) as well as the α- and γ-Eudesmol, (E)-
Hypoglycaemic effect of In vitro glucose Phytol, Methyl palmitate
100 mg/kg of the methanol stimulating effects (Edet et al., 2005); 3-O-[6-
extract in alloxan-induced in INS-1 cells led to deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-
diabetic mice (Ogundipe et the isolation of α- allopyranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-
al., 2003) and β-amyrin canaropyranosyl-17β-
Antioxidant effects (Fasakin cinnamate, lupenyl mardenin and 3-O-[6-
et al., 2011; Ugochukwu and cinnamate and deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-
Babady, 2002) lupenyl acetate as allopyranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

150 ml of a (1:1:1) decoction bioactive oleoandropyranosyl-17β-
mix of the leaves of Vernonia constituents mardenin, 11-O-acetyl-
amygdalina, Ocimum (Adebajo et al., and 12-O-acetyl-3-O-[6-
gratissimum and Gongronema 2013) deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-
latifolium decreased baseline allopyranosyl-(1-4)-β-
blood glucose levels when canaropyranosyl]-17β-
preadministered to normal marsdenin (Schneider
subjects 45 min before an et al., 1993)
OGTT (Ejike et al., 2013) Lupenyl acetate, Lupenyl
cinnamate, β-Sitosterol,
Lupeol (Ekundayo, 1980)
α- and β-amyrin
cinnamate (Adebajo et al.,
61 Gossypium Malvaceae Cotton Auduga (H); NW Aqueous extract of the leaves Gonorrhea, Dysnetry, Leaves, Root Decoction, Gossypol, Condensed
hirsutum L. Ela-owu (Y); produced a non-significant Sore throat, Malaria, Maceration tannin (Chan et al., 1978);
Eto-ofo blood glucose lowering effect Uterine fibroids Quercetin glucosides,
(Ibibio); Owu of only 17% in alloxan- Gossypetin glucosides,
(Ige); Ebe-oru induced diabetic rats (Etuk Cyanidin-3-β-glucoside
(Bi) and Mohammed, 2009) (Chrysanthemin) (Hanny,
1980); Myrcene, α- and β-
pinene, Limonene, β-
caryophyllene and its
oxide, γ-bisabolene,
Spathulenol, Gossonorol β-
bisabolol (Elzen et al.,
62 Gymnema Apocynaceae Cow plant SE GS4, a low MW component Obesity, Anti-sweetner, Leaves, Roots Infusion Gymnemic acids I-XVIII,
sylvestre (Retz.) of the aqueous extract of the Ulcer, Diuretics, Gymnemagenin or Genin L
R. Br. Ex Sm. leaves decreased blood Laxatives, Skin and its acetate (β-amyrin
glucose levels and increased infectionsAsthma, derivative), Genins G and J,
insulin release in rats, Type Hepato-protective, Genin K acetate,
1 and 2 diabetic patients Inflammation, Snake Gymnemasaponins I–V,
(Shanmugasundaram et al., bites, Anti-microbial, Gymnemasins A–D,
1990a, 1990b; Baskaran et al., Anti-plasmodial Gymnemanol,
1990)§; The action of GS4 on Gypenosides XXVIII,
insulin release is by increased XXXVII, LV, LXII and LXIII,
membrane permeability Gymnemasides I–VII,
(Persaud et al., 1999)§; A high Oleanane-type saponins,
MW extract of the leaves Gurmarin, Gymnamine,
OSAs increased plasma Gymnemosides A–E
insulin levels in-vitro and in (Porchezhian and
humans through a direct Dobriyal, 2003);
stimulatory effect (Al- Gymnemic acids A–D
Romaiyan et al., 2010)§; (Sinsheimer et al., 1970);
Choline, Betaine, Adenine,
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

Antioxidant effects (Kang et Leucine, Valine, Amino

al., 2012)§ butyric acid,
Trimethylamine oxide,
Isoleucine (Sinsheimer
and McIlhenny, 1967);
Nonacosane, Condruitol A,
Tritricontane (Manni and
Sinsheimer, 1965)
63 Hunteria Apocynaceae Mkpokiri (I), Aqueous extract of the seed Labour induction, Anti- Seeds, Fruit Maceration, Ikirydinium A, Ursolic
umbellata (K. Erin or produced a dose-dependent pyretic, Analgesic, Pulp, Bark, Decoction, acid, Serpentine, Pseudo-
Schum.) Hallier f. Abeere (Y), (50–200 mg/kg) Obesity, Gastric ulcer, Roots Infusion akuammigine,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

Osu (Bi) hypoglycaemic effect in Dys-menorrhea, Anti- Huntrabrine
3 diabetic models (alloxan, microbial, Anti- methochloride,
fructose and dexamethasone- parasitic, Immune Strictosidinic acid (Ajala et
induced) (Adeneye and booster, Anti- al., 2011); Corymine,
Adeyemi, 2009); Antioxidant helminthic, STDs, Isocorymine,
effects (Adejuwon et al., Hypertension Acetylcorymine, Dehydro-
2011); An alkaloidal fraction isocorymine,
of the butanol extract Umbellamine, Eripine,
decreased the post- Erinin, Erinincin,
absorptive glucose Abereamines 1-4
concentration in alloxan- (delactonized 14-isopropyl
induced rats (Adeneye et al., hydroxy isocorymines)
2012) (Adejuwon et al., 2012);
Segunoside (Ajala and
Coker, 2012)
64 Hymenocardia Phyllanthaceae Heart fruit Janyaro (H), SE, NC, Methanol extract of the Anti-microbial, Anti- Bark, Fruit, Decoction, Di-(2-ethylhexyl)
acida Tul. Enache (Id) NW leaves decreased blood parasitic, Sickle cell, Leaves Maceration, phthalate, Homoorientin
(in vivo) glucose levels in alloxan- Ulcers, Diarrhea, Infusion (Sofidiya et al., 2010);
induced diabetic rats at doses Dysentry, Analgesic, Friedelan-3-one, Betulinic
between 250 and 1000 mg/ Malaria, Tumours, acid, Lupeol, β-Sitosterol,
kg (Ezeigbo and Asuzu, Arthritis, Anti-fertility, Stigmasterol, Oleic acid
2010); Antioxidant effects Insecticidal (Igoli and Alexander,
(Sofidiya et al., 2009) 2008); Hymenocardine
(Pais et al., 1968)
65 Ipomoea batatas Convolvulaceae Sweet potato Ji-oyibo or SW Aqueous extract of fresh Anti-proliferative, Anti- Whole plant, Juice extract, Aldose reductase Non-, Mono- and 4-Ipomeanol produces
(L.) Poir. Ekimako (I), whole plants produced a microbial, Purgative, Leaves, Bark Infusion inhibitory effects of Diacylated structures of 3- an irreversible
Odunkun (Y), dose-dependent (100– Wound ulcers, ellagic acid and 3,5- O-(2-O-β-D- imhibition of Cyt 3A4
Dankali (H) 400 mg/kg) decrease in blood Analgesic, Hemorrhoids dicaffeoyl quinic glucopyranosyl-β-D- (Alvarez-Diez and
glucose in normal and STZ- acid isolated from glucopyranoside)-5-O-β-D- Zheng, 2004)
induced diabetic rats (Olowu extract of the leaves glucosides of Cyanidin and
et al., 2011); Daily ingestion (Terashima et al., Penoidin (Montilla et al.,
of 4 g by type 2 diabetic 1991); Alpha 2011); Gallic, Gentisic,
patients for 3 mths resulted glucosidase Caffeic, Chlorogenic, p-
in improved FBG and HbA1c inhibitory effect of Coumaric, Sinapic,
levels (Ludvik et al., 2004)§; an isolated Benzoic, Anisic and
Improved glucose tolerance anthocyanin Cinnamic acids; Catechin,
and decreased Peonidin-3-O-[2-O- Epicatechin, Kaempferol,
hyperinsulinemia in obese (6-O-E-feruloyl-β- Myricetin, Quercetin
zucker fatty rats D-glucopyranosyl)- (Carvalho et al., 2010); 4,5-
administered 100 mg/kg/day 6-O-E-caffeoyl-β-D- di-O-caffeoyldaucic acid,
aqueous extract of the cortex glucopyranoside 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid
(Shuichi and Abe, 2000)§ from the root (Chlorogenic acid), 3,5-di-
(Matsui et al., 2002) O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-
di- O-caffeoylquinic acid,
acid, Caffeic acid (Islam et

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

al., 2002); Ellagic acid,

Caffeic acid, Scopoletin
and 3,5-dicaffeoyl quinic
acid (Terashima et al.,
66 Irvingia Irvingiaceae Dikanut, Ogbono (I) SE, SS, SW Daily intake of a dikanut Dysentry, Wound ulcers, Seeds, Fruit, Decoction 3-Friedelanone, Betulinic
gabonensis African supplemented diet (4g/day) Liver disorders, Leaves, acid, Oleanolic acid,
(Aubry-Lecomte mango, Bush by type 2 diabetic patients Hemorrhage, Anti- Stem-bark, Methyl gallate, Trimethyl
ex O’Rorke) Baill. mango for 1 month resulted in microbial, Analgesic Root ellagic acid, Hardwickiic
improved lipid profile and acid, 3-β-acetoxyursolic
decreased blood glucose acid (Donfack et al., 2010);
levels (Adamson et al., 1990)

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

2 g/kg administered 2 ce Ellagic acid, Mono, Di and
daily to STZ-induced diabetic Tri-methyl ellagic acid and
rats decreased blood glucose, their glycosides, Galloyl
and lactate dehydrogenase ellagic acids, Ellagitannins,
and pyruvate kinase enzymes Kaempferol glucoside,
(Ozolua et al., 2006) Quercetin rhamnoside,
Diosmetin (Sun and
Chen, 2012)
Overweight volunteers given
the seed extract in a
randomized double-blinded
study had decreased blood
glucose, adiponectin, leptin
and C-reactive protein levels
and improved plasma lipid
profile compared to placebo
(Ngondi et al., 2009)§
Antioxidant effects (Donfack
et al., 2010; Awah et al., 2012)
67 Jatropha curcas L. Euphorbiaceae Pignut plant, Botuje or SW Antioxidant effects (Igbinosa Purgative, Cancer, Seeds, Curcacycline A (van den Ingestion of the seeds
Physic nut, Lapalapa (Y), et al., 2011) 250 and 500 mg/ Abortifacient, Diuretic, Leaves, Root Berg et al., 1995); caused severe vomiting
Purging nut, Binida zugu kg of the hydro-ethanolic Hemostatic, Anti- Latex, Stem- Esterases, Lipase and dehydration in
Barbados nut (H), Owulo extract of the leaves pyretic, Inflammation, bark (Staubmann et al., 1999); children; and
idu decreased blood glucose Convulsions, Wound Curcin, Curcain (Osoniyi hemorrhage of the liver,
levels in alloxan-induced healing, Anti-microbial, and Onajobi, 2003); lungs and stomach
diabetic rats (Mishra et al., Insecticidal, Jaundice, Scopaletin, Coumaroyl resulting in death at
2010)§ 100 mg/l ethanol STDs, Anti-parasitic, oleanolic acid, high doses in mice
extract of the stipe showed Skin diseases, Methoxyanthraquinone, (Abdu-Aguye et al.,
PPARα, γ and δ activities (Rau Molluscicidal, Chewing Heudelotinone, Tetradecyl 1986)
et al., 2006)§ 250 and stick, Irregular menses, ferulate, Podocarpatriene
450 mg/kg of the aqueous Sciatica, Paralysis and Podocarpatrienone
extract of the roots decreased (Ravindranath et al.,
fasting blood glucose levels 2004);
in alloxan induced diabetic
Phospholipase D (Liu et al., Administration of 10 mg
rats (Aladodo et al., 2013)
2010); Eicosadienoic, of the methanol extract
Oleic, Linoleic, Palmitic, of the seeds daily to rats
Stearic and Eicosenoic resulted in changes in
acids; 12-deoxy-16- their hematological
hydroxy phorbol, indices (Oluwole and
Riolozatrione, Jatrophol, Bolarinwa, 1997)
Jatropholones A and B, Ethanol extract of the
Acetoxyjatropholone, root bark of the plant
Jatropherol 1, 2 and 3; inhibited Cyt P450 3A4
Curcosones A-E, and 3A7 enzymes
Palmarumycin, Caniojane, (Agbonon et al., 2010)
Heudolotione, Nobiletin,
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

Spirocurcasone, Ellagic
acid, Jatrophalactam,
derivatives, β-amyrin,
Jatrophalactone, Caffeoyl
aldehyde, Syringaldehyde,
Jatrophadiketone, Uracil,
β-sitosterol, Jatrophalone,
Taraxasterol, Stigmasterol,
Daucasterol, Pyrrolidine,
Curcamide, Tomentin,
Coumarin compounds

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

(Abdelgadir and Van
Staden, 2013)
68 Khaya ivorensis Meliaceae African, Lagos Oganwo (Y), SW, SS, NC Arthritis, Fevers, Anti- Stem bark, Maceration, 1-O-deacetyl-6deoxy A herbal tonic
A.Chev. or Red Ono (I) parasitic, Jaundice, SC Leaves Decoction, khayanolide E, 1-O- containing a mix of
mahogany anemia, Anti-tumour, Infusion deacetyl-2α-hydroxy extracts of the stem
Wound healing khayanolide E, 3-acetyl- barks of Khaya ivorensis,
khayalactone, 11α- Mitragyna stipulosa and
acetoxy-2α-hydroxy-6- Kigela africana
deoxy- modulated the activity
destigloylswietenine of fat liver Cyt P450
acetate, Swiemahogin, enzymes (Martey et al.,
Khayalactol, Seneganolide, 2009) Aqueous extract
Khayanolide A and B, of the stem bark
Khayanoside (Zhang et al., modulates P-gp
2009a); Methyl mediated efflux of
angolensate, and its Rhodamine-123
6-hydroxy derivative, (Ezuruike et al., 2012)
3-deacetylkhivorin, 3,7-
dideacetylkhivorin, 1,3,7-
oxogedunin, Swietenine,
acetylswietenine, 3-O-
(Abdelgaleil et al., 2001);
Proceranolide and its
n-butyric derivative
(Vanucci et al., 1992);
Khivorin, Sitosterol,
3-deacetyl khivorin,
7-deacetyl khivorin,
Swietenolide acetate,
Fissinolide, Methyl
ivorensate, Esters of
(Adesogan and Taylor,
69 Khaya Meliaceae Dry-zone or Oganwo (Y), SW, SS, An extract of the bark in Fevers, Sickle Cell, Anti- Stem bark, Infusion, Rutin, Catechin, Quercetin
senegalensis African Ono (I), NC, NW buffer solution produced parasitic, Anti- Leaves, Seeds Maceration, rhamnoside, Procyanidins
(Desv.) A.Juss. mahogany Madachi (H), moderate inhibition of α- microbial, Anti-tumour, Decoction (Atawodi et al., 2009);
Okpen (Es), amylase activity in-vitro Hypertension, 3α,7α-dideacetylkhivorin,
Ago (Ig) (Funke and Melzig, 2006) Insecticidal 1-O-acetylkhayanolide B

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

200 mg/kg aqueous extract of (Zhang et al., 2007);

the bark produced only a 4% Khayanolides D and E,
decrease in blood glucose Khayanoside (Nakatani et
levels after 2 h (Etuk and al., 2002); Khayanolides A,
Mohammed, 2009); while B and C, Seneganolide,
the oil extract of the seeds Methyl angolensate and its
decreased blood glucose 6-hydroxy and 6-acetoxy
levels by 20% after 2 h, which derivatives (Abdelgaleil et
increased to 60% after 8hrs al., 2001); Fissinolide, 2,6-
(Momoh and Muhammed, dihydroxy fissinolide,
2011), both in alloxan- Methyl-3β-acetoxy-6-
induced diabetic rats. hydroxy-1-oxomeliac-14-

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

Antioxidant effects (Atawodi enoate (Khalid et al.,
et al., 2009) 1998); 2-hydroxy
mexicanolide, 6-deoxy
destigloyl swietenine, 2,3-
Mexicanolide, 3β-hydroxy-
3-deoxymexicanolide, 3β-
3-acetyl-7-keto khivorin,
3-deacetyl khivorin
(Govindachari and Kumari,
1998); Methyl 1α-acetoxy
tri hydroxyl-2α-methoxy-
2β, 14β-epoxy
Methyl 1α-acetoxy tetra
Scopoletin, β-quercitrin
(Olmo et al., 1997)

70 Lawsonia Lythraceae Henna plant, Laali (Y), Lelle SW Alpha glucosidase inhibitory Wound infection, Anti- Leaves Decoction Lawsone and gallic β-Sitosterol glucoside, Administration of
inermis L. Mehndi, (H) effects of the ethanol extract microbial, Anti- acid isolated from Gallic acid, Coumarins, henna leaf extract to
Egyptian's of the leaves (Prashanth et parasitic, Jaundice, the ethanol extract Xanthones, Lawsoniaside, mice for 21days
priest al., 2001)§ Increased activity Nervous disorder, of the aerial parts Lalioside, Luteolin resulted in increased
of in-vivo antioxidant Arthritis, Analgesic, inhibited the glucosides, 1,2-dihydroxy- activity of cytochrome
enzymes (Dasgupta et al., Ulcers, Diarrhea, Anti- formation of 4-glucosyloxy b5 reductase enzyme
2003)§ Daily administration pyretic, Hepato- glycated protein naphthalene (Takeda and and the phase
of graded doses (100– protective, Leucorrhoea, In vitro (Sultana et Fatope, 1988); Vomifoliol, 2 enzymes GST and DDT
800 mg/kg) of the ethanol Excessive ejaculation, al., 2009) Lawsonicin, Lawsonadeem (Dasgupta et al., 2003)
extract of the leaves for Emmenagog, Skin (Siddiqui et al., 2003); Topical application to
2 weeks decreased blood diseases, STDs, Isoplumbagin, Hexenol, skin lesions in G6PD
sugar levels in alloxan- Abortifacient, Sickle cell, Linalool, β-Ionone, α- and deficient patients
induced diabetic rats Tumours, Tuberculosis, γ-Terpineol, Terpinolene, resulted in hemolytic
(Inawati and Winarno, Splenomegaly, δ-3-Carene, Benzaldehyde, anemia (Kök et al.,
2008)§ In vitro antioxidant Menorrhagia Isocaryophyllene, Methyl 2004)
effects of isolated salicylate, Naphthalene,
constituents of the plant Eugenol, Germacrene D,
(Hsouna et al., 2011)§ Farnesene, Bisabolene, β-
Elemene, Isophytol, δ-
Cadinene, Cadalene,
Geranyl isobutyrate,
Methyl cinnamate
(Oyedeji et al., 2005);
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

Mannitol, Hennatannic
acid, Lawsone (2-hydroxy
Behenic, Oleic, Linolenic,
Arachidic, Palmitic and
Stearic acids, Laxanthone I,
II and III, Apigenin
glycosides, Stigmasterol,
Acacetin, Cosmosiin, p-
Coumaric acid, Fraxetin,
Hennadiol, Scopoletin,
Esculetin, Apiin, Lupeol,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

Betulin, Betulinic acid,
naphthaquinone, 24β-
ethyl cholest-4-enol,
Esters of Lawnermis acid
(Chaudhary et al., 2010)
Trihydroxy acetophenone
and naphthalene gluco-
pyranosides (Hsouna et al.,
71 Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae Mango Mangoro SS, SE 1 g/kg of the aqueous extract Malaria, Analgesic, Leaves Stem- Decoction Tannic acid, Gallic acid, Stem bark extract of the
L. of the leaves decreased blood Inflammation, Anti- bark, Kernel, Epicatechin, Ellagic acid, plant, mangiferin and
glucose levels in normal and microbial, Anti- Fruits Gallocatechin, n-butyl its metabolite
glucose loaded mice, but not helminthic, Diarrhoea, cyanidin (Arogba, 2000); norathyriol as well as
in STZ-induced diabetic mice Menorrhagia, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic quercetin, constituents
(Aderibigbe et al., 2001) Hypertension, Insomnia, acid, Benzoic acid, Methyl of the plant showed
Alpha glucosidase inhibitory Asthma, Scabies, STDs, gallate, Propyl gallate, dose-dependent
effects of the ethanol extract Anemia, Malaria Mangiferin, Catechin, modulation of P-gp
of the bark (Prashanth et al., Benzoic acid propyl ester activity in HK-2 and
2001)§ 200 mg/kg aqueous (Núñez Sellés et al., 2002) Caco-2 cell lines (Chieli
extract of the leaves Violaxanthin dibutyrate, β- et al., 2009) The stem
decreased blood glucose Carotene, 9-cis- and trans- bark extract also
levels in alloxan-induced violaxanthin, showed inhibitory
diabetic rats (Etuk and Luteoxanthin, effects for Cyp1A, 2D
Mohammed, 2009) Mutatoxanthin, and 3A4 enzymes of
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV Neochrom, Xanthophyll human liver
inhibitory activity of the palmitic and myristic acid microsomes (Rodeiro et
methanol extract of the esters (Pott et al., 2003); al., 2009)
leaves (Yogisha and Isomangiferin, Quercetin
Raveesha, 2010)§ and its glycosides,
Antiooxidant effects (Badmus Kaempferol-3-O-
et al., 2011) glucoside, Rhamnetin-3-
O-glycoside, Mangiferin
and Isomangiferin gallate
(Schieber et al., 2003;
Berardini et al., 2005)
72 Manihot Euphorbiaceae Cassava, Gbaguda or SE, SW Increased intake of cassava Arthritis, Gonorrhea, LeavesTubers Decoction β-Sitosterol glucoside, Although intake of a
esculenta Crantz, Tapioca Ege (Y), Akpu leaves in diet decreases the Burns, Ulcer Stigmast-4-en-3-one, cassava tuber rich diet
Syn: Manihot or Abacha (I), risk of metabolic syndrome Galactosyl diacylglyceride, has been implicated in
utilissima Pohl Rogo (H) in Type-2 diabetic patients Galactocerebroside, the aetiology of
(Mvitu Muaka et al., 2010)§ Scopoletin, Isoscopoletin, pancreatitic diabetes
Antioxidant effects of the Scoparone, Esculetin, (Kamalu, 1991);
aqueous extract of the leaves Ayapin, Umbelliferone, experiments have
(Tsumbu et al., 2011)§ Scopolin, Esculin, β- shown that it only
Carotene (Bayoumi et al., aggravates diabetes in

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

2010); Cyanidin and low-protein diets

Delphinidin 3-O-(6″-O-α- (Yessoufou et al., 2006;
rhamno pyranosyl-β- Manwa et al., 2010) Risk
glucopyranoside) of toxic effects on
(Byamukama et al., 2009); organs due to high
Rutin, Kaempferol-3-O- cyanide content (Soto-
and 40 -O-rutinoside, Blanco and Górniak,
Ferulic acid, 2010)
Amentoflavone (Ola et al.,
2009); Caproic, Caprylic,
Capric, Lauric, Myristic,
Palmitic, Oleic, Linoleic,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

Arachidic, Behenic and
Lignoceric acids (Raja and
Ramakrishna, 1990);
Linamarin, Lotaustralin
(Ogunsua, 1980)
73 Momordica Cucurbitaceae African Ejirin (Y), Ebe SW, SS, Daily administration of Anti-fertility, Malaria, Fruit, Leaves, Decoction, Esters, Alcohols and Aqueous extract of the
charantia L. cucumber, isiugwu (Bi), NW 10 ml/kg of the fruit juice Anti-helminthic, Anti- Root, Seeds Juice extract Sugars of Cucurbitane leaves inhibited GST
Bitter melon, Urakhanye extract to STZ-induced microbial, Insecticidal, triterpenoids, Kuguacins, enzyme in both rat and
Bitter guord, (Es), Daddagu diabetic rats for 10wks Weight loss, Charantosides, human liver cytosols
Bitter squash, (H) decreased blood glucose Abortifacient, Skin Trinorcucurbitacin, Penta- and recombinant GSTs;
Karela levels and increased plasma infections, norcucurbitacins, Octa- as well as the activity of
insulin levels and the Inflammation, norcucurbitacin (Lee et al., Cyp 2C9 supersomes
number of insulin positive Purgative, Dysentry, 2009); Momorcharins, but not Cyp 1A2, 2D6
islet cells. There was Fevers, Burns, Colic Momordin, Momordolol, and 3A4 (Appiah-Opong
decreased glucose uptake by Charantins, Momordenol, et al., 2008) A
the brush border vessicles of Momordicilin, Charine, potentiated
the jejunum in extract Momordicosides, hypoglycaemic effect
treated rats compared to Momordicines, Diosgenin, has been observed
control. In vitro, 5 μg/ml of Cryptoxanthin, Vicine, when extracts of the
the extract increased glucose Cucurbitins, Cucurbitacins, plant are co-
transport into L6 myotubes Cucurbitanes, Erythrodiol, administered with
(Ahmed et al., 2004) Several Cycloartenols, Gentisic, known anti-diabetic
clinical studies in type-2 Elaeostearic, Galacturonic drugs (Nivitabishekam
diabetic patients given and Pipecolic acids; MAP et al., 2009)
extracts of the plant 30, Goyaglycosides,
produced hypoglycaemic Goyasaponins, P-insulin
effects (Leung et al., 2009)§ polypeptide, Ascorbigen,
Multiflorinols, Luteolin,
Lauric, Myristic, Palmitic,
Stearic, Palmitoleic, Oleic,
Linoleic and Linolenic
acids (Paul and
Raychaudhuri, 2010)
Bitter melon Ebe isiugwu SS Malaria Root Juice extract
74 Momordica Cucurbitaceae Ejinrin-wewe SS 500 mg/kg aqueous leaf Malaria, Ulcer, GIT Fruit, Leaves, Maceration, 1 mg/kg foetidin 5,25-stigmastadiene-ol-
foetida (Y) extract decreased blood disorders, Anti- Stem, Flower, Decoction isolated from the glucoside, Foetidin, β-
Schumach. glucose levels in normal, high microbial, Anti- Whole plant plant decreased sitosterol glucoside
glucose fed and alloxan- helminthic, blood glucose (Marquis et al., 1977); β-
induced diabetic rats Hypertension, levels of normal Hydroxyfriedel-6(7)-ene-
(Osinubi et al., 2008) Abortifacient fasted, but not 3-one, Octadecanoic acid,
Antioxidant effects alloxan-induced Stigmasterol-β-D-
(Acquaviva et al., 2013) rats (Marquis et al., glucoside, Choline
1977) chloride (Olaniyi, 1980);
Cucurbitacins (Chen et al.,
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

2005); 3β,7β-dihydroxyl-
19-al, Kaempferol-3-O-β-
(Odeleye et al., 2009)
75 Mondia whiteii Apocynaceae White ginger, Isirigun SW Aqueous extract of the roots Infertility, Erectile Stem, Root Infusion, Isovanillin, 2-hydroxy-4-
(Hook.f.) Skeels African ginger orAghuma did not show any inhibition dysfunction, Malaria, Decoction methoxy benzaldehyde
orGbolo- against pancreatic alpha Gonorrhea, Anti- and its -2-O-β-D-
gbolo (Y) amylase and lipase enzymes parasitic, Anti- glucopyranose-(1-6)-O-
(Etoundi et al., 2010)§ depressant, Anti- β-D-xylopyranoside
spasmodic, (Koorbanally et al., 2000);
Hemorrhoids, Propacin, 5-methoxy
Inflammation, Memory propacin,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

loss, Cancer 5-chloropropacin,
Squalene, β-sitosterol,
coumarin (Patnam et al.,
2005); Loliolide
(Neergaard et al., 2010);
9-Hexacosene (Githinji et
al., 2011); α and β-amyrin
acetate (Watcho et al.,
76 Morinda Rubiaceae Indian SW 300 mg/kg of a mixture of Malaria, Wound healing, Fruits, Roots, Decoction, Hypoglycemic 6-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)- Risk of liver injury/
citrifolia L. mulberry, the aqueous fruit extract Anti-microbial, Anti- Stems, Bark, Maceration effects of the 1-O-octanoyl-β-D-gluco hepatitis (Millonig et al.,
Noni alongside that of Coccinia helminthic, Flower, anthraquinones, pyranose and 1-O- 2005; Yüce et al., 2006;
indica decreased blood Inflammation, Immune Leaves damnacanthol-3-O- hexanoyl-β-D- Mrzljak et al., 2013)
glucose levels in alloxan- booster, Colds and Flu, β-D-primeveroside glucopyranose, Noni juice extract
induced diabetic rats (Kumar Ulcers, Tumours, and lucidin 3-O-β- 3-methylbut-3-enyl 6-O- increased the activity of
and Verma, 2011)§ Analgesic, Arthritis, D-primeveroside β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D- amino-pyrine
Administration of 2 ml/kg of Hypertension, from the butanol glucopyranoside (Wang et N-demethylase (APND)
the fruit juice extract twice a Tuberculosis fraction of the al., 2000); Citrofolinin A and glutathione-S-
day to STZ-induced diabetic methanol extract at and B, Kaempferol and transferase (GST)
rats for twenty days resulted 100 mg/kg in STZ- Quercetin glycosides, enzymes and decreased
in a significant decrease in induced diabetic Physcion, Ricinoleic, the activity of uridine
fasting blood glucose levels mice. (Kamiya et al., Octanoic, Hexanoic acids diphosphoglucuronosyl
by the 5th day post 2008) (Sang et al., 2001); transferase (UGT)
administration (Nayak et al., Scopoletin, L-asperuloside, enzyme of rat liver
2011)§ Antioxidant effects for Alizarin, Asperulosidic, hepatocytes both
the methanol extract of roots Caproic, Caprylic and In vitro and ex vivo
and ethyl acetate extract of Ursolic acids, Acubin, (Mahfoudh et al., 2009)
plant (Zin et al., 2002)§ Rubiadin and its 1-methyl Co-incubation of noni
Administration of 1ml/ ether, Nordamnacanthal, juice and digoxin in
150mg body weight of Morindone, Rutin, Caco-2 monolayers did
Tahitian noni juices for 1-methoxy-2-formyl-3- not change the net
4 weeks resulted in a hydroxy anthraquinone, digoxin flux indicating
prophylactic action against Citrifolinoside, no modulation of P-gp
alloxan-induced diabetes in Proxeronine (Wang et al., by noni juice (Engdal
rats (Horsfal et al., 2008). 2002 ); Morenone-1 and 2, and Nilsen, 2008)
anthraquinones 1-O-β-
rhamnopyranosyl(1-4) β-
D-glucopyranoside, 6α-

hydroxyadoxoside, 6β,7β-
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

Borreriagenin, Deacetyl
asperuloside, Dehydro
5,15-dimethyl morindol,
Alizarin-1-methyl ether,
ether, Anthragallol-2-
methyl ether, 6-hydroxy-
ether, Morindone-5-
methyl ether,
Asuperlosidic acid,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

acid, Morindacin (Kamiya
et al., 2005);
77 Morinda lucida Rubiaceae Brimstone tree Oruwo (Y), NC, SW Administration of the Malaria, Anti-microbial, Leaves, Decoction Ursolic acid, Oleanolic acidAqueous extract dose
Benth. Eze ogwu (I) methanol extract of the Anti-parasitic, Anti- Roots, Stem- (Cimanga et al., 2006) 1- dependently (1-20mg/
leaves produced a dose helminthic, Analgesic, bark Methylether alizarin, ml) inhibited the P-gp
dependent (50-400mg/kg) Laxative, Hypertension, Soranjidiol, mediated transport of
decrease in plasma glucose Jaundice, Oligo- Damnacanthal, digoxin across
levels in both normal and menorrhea, Insomnia, Nordamnacanthal, Lucidin, monolayers of Caco-2
STZ-induced diabetic rats Wound ulcers, Diuretic Rubiadin, Morindin, cells (Oga et al., 2012)
(Olajide et al., 1999) Munjistin, Aqueous extract and
Purpuroxanthin, ethanol extract of the
Digitolutein, Oruwalol, leaves moderately
Oruwal (Lawal et al., 2012) inhibited Cyp3A4 and
3A7 enzymes
respectively (Agbonon et
al., 2010) 0.5 mg/ml
aqueous extract of the
leaves inhibited the
activity of the
recombinant GST M1-1
enzyme by 470%, but
not those of rat and
human liver cytosols
(Appiah-Opong et al.,
78 Moringa oleifera Moringaceae Drumstick Zogale (H), SE, SW, Aqueous extract of the leaves Antimicrobial, Anti- Leaves, Pods Infusion, Isolated benzyl Quercetin and Kaempferol Aqueous and methanol
Lam. orHorseradish Okwe-oyibo NW, NC decreased blood glucose parasitic, Anti-cancer, Dried leaves derivatives from glycosides, Chlorogenic extracts of the leaves
tree, Moringa or Okochi levels in normal, high glucose Inflammation, Diuretic, the methanol acid, Rutin (Ndong et al., inhibited Cyp3A4
egbu (I), fed and STZ-induced diabetic Anemia, Hypertension, extract of the fruits 2007); Isoquercitrin, hydroxylation of
Gergedi rats at doses between 100 Aphrodisiac, Anti- stimulated insulin Rhamnetin, Vanillin, β- testosterone in human
(Igala), Ewe- and 300 mg/kg (Jaiswal et al., pyretic, Purgative, GIT release from the sitosterol, β-sitostenone, liver microsomes
igbale or 2009)§ 200 mg/kg of the leaf disorders, Immune pancreatic β-cell Zeatin, 4-hydroxymellin, (Monera et al., 2008)
Gbogbo-nise powder improved glucose stimulant, Anti- line INS-1 (Francis Niazirin, Niazicin A, Hydroalcoholic extract
(Y), tolerance in both normal spasmodic et al., 2004) Methyl 2,4-(α-L- of the drumsticks
Konamarade wistar and spontaneously rhamnopyranosyl) phenyl increased the activities
(F) type-2 diabetic GK rats acetate, N-[4-(β-D- of hepatic Cyt P450 and
(Ndong et al., 2007)§ glucopyranosyl)benzyl]-1- Cyt b5 enzymes as well
Antioxidant effects O-α-D-glucopyranosyl as the antioxidant
(Siddhuraju and Becker, thiocarboxamide, 4-[(β-D- enzymes GST, GPx and
2003)§ glucopyranosyl)-(1-3)- GR (Bharali et al., 2003)
phenylacetonitrile, 1-O-
pyranoside, Methyl N-(4
[(40 -O-acetyl-α-L-
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

carbamate, Methyl N-4-
benzy] carbamate, O-[20 -
hydroxy-30 -2″-heptenyl
oxy)]-propyl undecanoate,
methyl p-
Moringine, Moringinine
(Anwar et al., 2007)
79 Morus alba L. Moraceae White Alpha glucosidase inhibitory Anti-helminthic, Leaves, Fruit, Infusion, Morusin, Isomorusin, A sodium chloride
mulberry effects of the aqueous extract Laxative, Emollient, Bark Decoction, Compound A (Taro et al., extract of the leaves

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

of the leaves in Caco-2 cells Molluscicidal, Anti- Maceration 1978); Kuwanons K and L showed an insignificant
(Hansawasdi and Kawabata, microbial (Nomura et al., 1983); β- dose dependent (2–
2006)§ The leaf extract carotene, α-tocopherol 6 mg/ml) inhibition of
showed inhibitory effects (Yen et al., 1996); Cyp 3A4 enzyme
against rat and human Isoquercitrin, Astragalin, activity in human liver
dissacharidase enzymes of Scopolin, Skimmin, microsomes (Pao et al.,
the intestinal mucousa as Roseoside II, Benzyl D- 2012)
well as decreased post- glucopyranoside (Doi et
prandial glucose levels in al., 2001);
sucrose fed rats (Oku et al., 1-Deoxynojirimycin or
2006)§ 400 and 600 mg/kg Moranoline and its
ethanol extract of the leaves derivatives, Fagomine,
decreased blood glucose Calystegin B1 and B2,
levels in STZ-induced (2R,3R,4R)-2-hydroxy
diabetic rats and increased methyl-3,4-dihydroxy
the number of β-cells in the pyrolidine-N-
islets of the pancreas propionamide, 4-O-α-D-
(Mohammadi and Naik, galactopyranosyl-
2008)§ Ingestion of the leaf calystegine B2, 3β,6β-
extract by KK-Ay mice as part dihydroxynortropane
of the diet decreased blood (Asano et al., 2001);
glucose levels, improved Moralbanone, Kuwanon S,
glucose tolerance and Mulberroside C, α-acetyl
increased plasma insulin amyrin, Cyclomorusin,
levels (Tanabe et al., 2011)§ Eudraflavone-B
Antioxidant effects (Yen et hydroperoxide, Oxy
al., 1996)§ dihydromorusin,
Lechianone G (Du et al.,
2003); Steppogenin-40 -O-
Mulberroside A, Moracin
M (Zhang et al., 2009b)
80 Murraya koenigii Rutaceae Curry tree, NW, SW Methanol extract of the stem Dysentry, Diarrhoea, Leaves, Seed, Powdered Administration of Indicolactone, 2″,3″-epoxy Methanol extract of the
(L.) Spreng. Sweet neem and leaves did not Stimulant, Anti-venom, Stem leaves as mahanimbine indicolactone, leaves as well as
significantly decrease blood Hypertension, Anti- spice, isolated from the Anisolactone (Adebajo et isolated constituents of
glucose levels in normal and microbial, Decoction petroleum ether al., 1997); Xanthotoxin, the plant inhibited Cyt
alloxan-induced diabetic Inflammation, Anti- fraction of the Phellopterin, Isogosferol, P450 enzymes in rat
rats; while chloroform parasitic leaves decreased Byakangelicol, Gosferol, liver microsomes. They
extract of the stems and blood glucose Isobyakangelicol, also showed dose-
isolated constituents levels in STZ- Neobyakangelicol, dependent inhibitory
decreased glucose mediated induced diabetic Byakangelicin (Adebajo effects against Cyp 1A2,
insulin release from INS cells rats and had a and Reisch, 2000); 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4
(Adebajo et al., 2005) dose-dependent Bismurrayafoline, enzymes (Pandit et al.,
Hypoglycaemic effect of alpha amylase and Euchrestine B, Mahanine, 2012)
defatted ethanol extract of alpha glucosidase Mahaninebicine, O-methyl
the leaves in STZ-induced inhibitory effect mahanine, Isomahanine,

diabetic rats and Antioxidant (Dineshkumar et Bismahane, 8,10-
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

effects (Arulselvan and al., 2010) At a tetrahydro dihydro

Subramanian, 2007)§ concentration of tetramethyl bis(4-methyl-
1 mM, mangniferin 3-pentenyl)-bipyrano
showed 2-fold carbazole, Bispyrayafoline
increase in glucose (Tachibana et al., 2003);
utilization in 3T3- Mahanimbilol,
L1 cells compared Grinimbine, Girinimbilol,
with untreated Murrayanine,
control (Dinesh Isomahanimbine,
Kumar et al., 2013) Koenimbine, Murrayacine,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

Mahanimbine (Adebajo et
al., 2005); Mahanimbilyl
and Grinimbilyl acetate,
(Adebajo et al., 2006); PI,
PII, PIII (Ningappa and
Srinivas, 2008)
81 Musa paradisiaca Musaceae Plantain Ogede (Y), SW 250 mg/kg aqueous and Anemia, Hypertension, Fruit As a meal, 14α-methyl cyclo-5α- Polyvalent cations
L., Syn: Musa Banana Abrika (I), methanol extract of the root Ulcers Juice extract ergost-24(28)-en-3β-ol present in the plant has
sapientum L. Ayaba (H) decreased blood glucose (Knapp et al., 1972); α- been shown to form
levels in alloxan (Adewoye et glucan phosphorylase non-absorbable
al., 2009) and STZ-induced (Singh and Sanwal, 1975); complexes with
diabetic rats singly and in Cycloeucalenol, 24-methyl quinolone antibiotics,
combination with the leaves cycloartanol, 31-nor cyclo thus affecting their
of Coccinia indica (Mallick et laudenone, Trimethyl-5α- pharmacokinetics if co-
al., 2007)§; as well as in vivo cholesta-dien-3β-ol (Dutta administered (Nwafor
antioxidant effects. Dose et al., 1983); Sitoindoside I, et al., 2003)
dependent hypoglycaemic II, III and IV, Sitosterol
effect of the methanol extract gentiobioside, Myo-
of the mature fruits in inosityl-β-D-glucoside,
normal and STZ-induced Sitosterol, Campesterol,
diabetic mice (Ojewole and Cycloartenol,
Adewunmi, 2003) Citrostadienol, Palmitic,
Lauric, Myristic, Linoleic,
Linolenic and Oleic acids;
24-ethyllophenol (Ghosal,
1985); Irenolone,
Emenolone (Luis et al.,
1993); Leucocyanidin,
(Lewis et al., 1999);
Polyphenol oxidase (Yang
et al., 2000); Rel-
3-(4-hydroxy phenyl)-9-
methoxy tetra hydro
naphtopyran, 1,2-dihydro-
phenyl) phenalene,
Hydroxy anogorufone, 2-
naphthalic anhydride, 1,7-
bis(4-hydroxy phenyl)
one (Jang et al., 2002)
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

82 Ocimum Lamiaceae Scent leaf, Nchonwu (I), SE, SS, 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Diarrhoea, Malaria, Leaves Infusion, Oleanolic acid (Njoku et Aqueous and ethanol
gratissimum L. African basil, Efirin (Y), SWa, NW the leaves improved glucose Anti-microbial, Anti- Food al., 1997); Xanthomicrol, extract of the leaves
Mint Daidoya (H) tolerance in normal and parasitic, Anxiolytic, vegetable Cirsimaritin, Rutin, caused dose-dependent
neonatal STZ-induced Analgesic, Kaempferol 3-O- (400–3200 mg/kg)
diabetic rats (Oguanobi et al., Inflammation, Wound rutinoside, Luteolin 5-O- increase in AST and ALT
2012) In vitro antioxidant healing, Cold symptoms, and 7-O-glucosides, enzyme levels, markers
effects (Akinmoladun et al., Hemorrhoids, Insect Vicenin-2, Isothymusin, of hepatotoxicity
2010) (Awah and Verla 2010) repellent, Anti- Apigenin 7-O-glucoside, (Ajibade et al., 2012;
400 mg/kg methanol extract helminthic, Infant colic Vitexin, Isovitexin, Onaolapo and
of the leaves decreased blood Quercetin 3-O-glucoside Onaolapo, 2012)
glucose levels in normal and (Grayer et al., 2000);
alloxan-induced diabetic rats Thymol, Eugenol, Luteolin,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

(Aguiyi et al., 2000) 150 ml of Cirsiliol, α-Camphene, p-
a (1:1:1) decoction mix of the Cymene, 1,8-Cineole,
leaves of Vernonia Geraniol, γ-Caryophyllene,
amygdalina, Ocimum γ-terpinene, γ-terpineol,
gratissimum and Gongronema Terpinolene, α-Copaene,
latifolium decreased baseline Methylchavicol, Anisole, γ-
blood glucose levels in Selinene, γ-Murolene,
normal subjects when Spathulenol (Vieira et al.,
preadministered to normal 2001); Caffeic acid,
subjects 45 min before an Cichoric acid, Rosmarinic
OGTT (Ejike et al., 2013) acid, Caffeoyl derivatives,
Nevadensin (Ola et al.,
83 Parinari Chrysobalanaceae Mobola plum Ebere (Y) Significant blood glucose Malaria, Dysentry, Seeds, Root- 15-Oxozoapatlin and its
curatellifolia lowering effects of 250 mg/ Epilepsy, Toothache, bark 13-methoxy and 13-
Planch, ex Benth. kg of the aqueous ethanolic STDs, Anti-cancer hydroxy derivatives (Lee
extract of the seeds in et al., 1996); Quercetin-3-
alloxan-induced diabetic rats O-arabinoside, Quercetin-
(Ogbonnia et al., 2008b) 3-O-glucosyl galactoside,
rhamnoside, Kaempferol-
3,4-di-O-glucoside and
glycoside, Kaempferol-3-
O-glucoside, Quercetin-3-
O-rutinoside, Kaempferol-
3-O-rutinoside, Myricetin-
(Coradin et al., 1985)
84 Parkia biglobosa Leguminosae African locust Iru (Y), Ugba SW Diet supplementation with Hypertension, Leaves, Root, Infusion Epicatechin,
(Jacq.) G.Don beanSoumbala (I), the aqueous and methanolic Analgesic, Bark Gallocatechin-O-
Dawadawa extract of the seeds (6 g/kg) Inflammation, Anti- glucuronide, Catechin-O-
(H) resulted in 460% decrease in microbial, Snake venom, gallate-O-glucuronide and
fasting blood glucose levels Fevers, Diarrhoea, Anti- other catechin derivatives
in alloxan-induced diabetic plasmodial, Anti- (Tala et al., 2013);
rats (Odetola et al., 2006) helminthic Homogalacturonan,
Rhamnogalactans and
Xylogalactans (El-Zoubair,
2010); Pyrazine
derivatives, Dimethyl
disulfide and trisulfide,
Limonene, 2-Pentyl furan,
Trimethyl oxazole, Indole,
Methyl isothiazole, 4,4-

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

thiazole, Trimethyl
pyrazole, (Ouoba et al.,
2005); Ferulic acid,
Isoferuloyl alkanoyl
glycerol, Feruloyl
lignoceryl glycerol, Lupeol,
gallate, 4-O-methyl-epi-
Epigallocatechin (Tringali
et al., 2000)

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

85 Persea americana Lauraceae Avocado pear, Ube bekee or SE, SS Administration of 10 mg/kg Anemia, Analgesic, Anti- Seeds, Epi-dihydrophaseic acid β- Ethanol extract of the
Mill. Alligator pear Ube oyibo (I), aqueous extract of the leaves microbial, Leaves, Root, D-glucoside, Hydroxy leaves inhibited the
Igba or Apoka for 8weeks decreased plasma Hypertension, High Bark, Fruit abscisic acid β-D-glucoside, activity of Cyp3A4, 3A5
or Ipia (Y), glucose levels of rats fed a cholesterol, (del Refugio Ramos et al., and 3A7 enzyme
Eben high-cholesterol diet (Brai et Inflammation, 2004); 1,2,4-trihydroxy supersomes (Agbonon
mbakara (Ef), al., 2007) Hypoglycaemic Convulsions, Wound nonadecane derivatives, et al., 2010)
Piya (H) effect of the aqueous extract healing, Gastric ulcer, 1,2,4-trihydroxy heptadec-
of the seeds in normal and Arthritis, Cough, 16-ene and heptadec-16-
alloxan-induced diabetic rats Insecticidal yne derivatives (Abe et al.,
and protective effect on 2005); Persin ((Z,Z)-1-
pancreatic islet cells (Edem et (acetyloxy)-2-hydroxy-
al., 2009) 12,15-heneicosadien-4-
one) (Oelrichs et al., 1995)
α- and β-pinene, Sabinene,
α- and β-cubebene, β-
caryophyllene, Valencene,
α-humulene, Germacrene
D, cis-γ- and δ-cadinene,
Caryophyllene oxide,
Spathulenol (Ogunbinu et
al., 2007)
86 Phyllanthus Phyllanthaceae Pick-a-back, Eyin olobe (Y) SW Antioxidant effects of Fevers, Ringworm, Whole plant Decoction Geraniin, Amariin, Aqueous and Ethanol
amarus Stone breaker, constituents (Londhe et al., Gonorrhoea, Cancer, Amarulone, Corilagin, 1,6- extracts of the aerial
Carry me seed, 2008) α-amylase inhibitory Anti-viral, Diuretic, digalloylglucopyranose, parts of the plant
Black catnip effects (Ali et al., 2006) Hypertension, Anti- Quercetin-3-O- inhibited the activity of
Aqueous extract of the seeds microbial, Diarrhoea, glucopyranoside, Gallic Cyp3A4, 3A5 and 3A7
and leaves showed a dose- Inflammation, acid, Rutin, Gallocatechin, enzyme supersomes
dependent (150-600mg/kg) Analgesic, Dropsy, (Foo, 1993); Amariinic (Agbonon et al., 2010)
decrease in fasting blood Jaundice, Hepato- acid, 1-O-galloyl-2,4- Aqueous extract of the
glucose levels of normal rats protective, Gastric dehydro hexahydroxy whole plant inhibited
(Adeneye et al., 2006) Dose ulcers, Kidney disorders diphenoyl glucopyranose the activity of Cyp 1A2,
dependent (200–1000 mg/ elaeocarpusin, Geraniinic 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4
kg) decrease in blood sugar acid B, Repandusinic acid plasmids as well as GST
levels by methanol extract in A, Phyllanthusiin D (Yeap enzyme in rat and
alloxan-indued diabetic rats Foo, 1995); Astragalin, human liver cytosols
(Raphael et al., 2002)§ No Phyllanthin, Hypo- (Appiah-Opong et al.,
evidence of a hypoglycaemic phyllanthin. Quercetin 2008) The inhibitory
effect was observed with (Rajeshkumar et al., 2002); effect on Cyt P450
NIDDM patients taking 25 g Ursolic acid, Oleanolic enzymes was also
of the powdered extract daily acid, Dotriacntanyl observed with the
for 1 week as a substitute to docosanoate, Triacontanol methanol extract and
their oral hypoglycaemic (Ali et al., 2006) confirmed in vivo (Hari
drugs (Moshi et al., 2001)§ Kumar and Kuttan,
87 Apocynaceae Akuamma Abere (Y), Hypoglycaemic effect of the Hypertension, Infusion Akuammicine Pseudo-akuammidine, 400 mg/kg of the
plant Osu-igwe, glycosidic fraction (250mg/ Anesthesia, Malaria, isolated from the Akuammiline, stembark extract
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

Picralima nitida Mkpokiri or SW, SE, kg) of the methanol extract of Jaundice, Pneumonia, Stem-bark, chloroform extract Melinosime, Akuammine, produced hepato-toxic
(Stapf) T.Durand Otosu (I) NW, NC, the leaves in normal and AsthmaTrypanosomiasis Seeds, Root, of the seeds Picracine, Akuammidine, effects characterized by
and H.Durand SS alloxan-induced diabetic rats Fruit rind stimulated glucose Picra-phylline, necrotic damage
(Okonta and Aguwa, 2007) uptake in 3T3-L1 Akuammigine, congestion of hepatic
300 mg/kg hydro-ethanol adipocytes (Shittu Akuammicine (Oliver- blood vessels (Fakeye et
extract of the leaves et al., 2010) Bever, 1986); Alstonine, al., 2004) Methanol
decreased blood glucose Picranitidine, Picratidine, extract of the fruit rind
levels in STZ-induced Picraline, ψ-akuammigine administered daily for
diabetic mice and In vitro (Okunji et al., 2005); 10- 6 weeks elevated AST,
antioxidant effects (Teugwa deoxyakuammine, ALT and GSH levels in
et al., 2013b)§ Burnamine (Shittu et al., rats (Kouitcheu Mabeku
2010); Coumesan et al., 2008)

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

glycoside (Jacques et al.,
88 Rauvolfia Apocynaceae African or Asofeyeje (Y), SW, SS 875 mg of a mix of extracts of Mental disorders, Root, Stem, Decoction, In silico prediction Lupeol, Ursolic acid, β-
vomitoria Afzel. Indian Akanta (I), the fruit and Rauvolfia Sedative, Hypertension, Stem-bark, Maceration, of isosandwichine stigmasterol, Betulinic
snakeroot Wadda (H) vomitoria foliage (RC tea) Snake bites, Skin Leaves Powdered and ajmaline as acid, Sitosterol, Palmitic
decreased serum glucose infections, Anti- root potential DPP-IV acid, 3β-hexadecanoyloxy-
levels in diabetes type parasitic, Oral inhibitors (Guasch lupeol (Fannang et al.,
2 model db/db mice and also infections, Rheumatism, et al., 2012) 2011); Reserpine,
decreased tissue lipid Aphrodisiac, Purgative Yohimbine, Ajmaline,
accumulation (Campbell et Ajmalicine, Alstonine,
al., 2006) Serpentine
In a pilot clinical study in Apigenin rhamnoside,
type-2 diabetic patients, RC Naringin (Campbell-Tofte
tea given daily for 4 months et al., 2011)
decreased post prandial and
fasting plasma glucose levels
with greater effects seen in
patients with HbA1c levels
o 7.3% (Campbell-Tofte et al.,
89 Sarcocephalus Rubiaceae African peach Ubulu inu (I) SE, NW 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Malaria, Anti-parasitic, Root, Bark, Maceration Strictosamide, 21-O- Strictosamide binds to
latifolius (Sm.) E. the leaves decreased blood Anti-infective, Leaves methyl strictosamide human serum albumin,
A.Bruce, Syn: glucose levels in alloxan- Hypertension, Jaundice, aglycone, 21-O-ethyl which could in turn
Nauclea latifolia induced diabetic rats but not Infertility strictosamide aglycone, affect the bio-
normal rats (Gidado et al., Angustine, Nauclefine, availability of highly
2005) Anti-hyperglycaemic Angustidine, Angustoline, protein bound drugs if
effect of 200 mg/kg ethanol 19-O-ethyl angustoline, co-administered (Pu et
extract of the leaves Naucleidinal, 19-epi- al., 2013)
preadministered to rats prior naucleidinal, Quinovic
to the oral or intraperitoneal acid-3β-O-α-L-rhamno
administration of 2 g/kg pyranoside, Quinovic acid-
glucose and alpha 3β-O-β-D-fucopyranoside,
glucosidase inhibitory effects Scopoletin, β-Sitosterol
(Gidado et al., 2012) (Abreu and Pereira, 2001);
Hypoglycaemic effect in Penta-O-benzoyl-α-D-
alloxan-induced diabetic rats fructo furanose, Penta-O-
and icreased activity of benzoyl-β-D-fructo
glucose metabolising furanose, Penta-O-
enzymes (Iwueke and benzoyl-β-D-fructo
Nwodo, 2008) In vitro pyranose, Tetra-O-
antioxidant effects (Awah et benzoyl-β-D-fructo
al., 2012) pyranose, α- and β-D-
pyranose forms of glucose,
xylose and arabinose
perbenzoates, Glycerol
and D-Erythriol

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

perbenzoates, Tetra-O-
benzoy-fructo furanoside
(Abreu et al., 2001);
Betulinic acid (Yinusa et
al., 2012)
90 Scoparia dulcis L. Plantaginaceae Sweet Roma-fada NC Administration of the Anti-infective, HIV, Leaves, Infusion, Scoparol (30 -O-methyl
broomweed (H), Aiya (I), aqueous extract of the leaves Abortifacient, Sickle cell, Whole plant Decoction luteolin), Scoparoside
Mesen- for 45 days produced a dose InflammationAnalgesic, (glycosyl scopanol),
mesen gogoro dependent (150–450 mg/kg) Anti-tumour, Bronchitis, Amellin (Oliver-Bever,
(Y)Ndiyang decrease in glucose levels Hypertension, Gastric 1986); Scoparic acid A, B
(Ef) after an OGTT; as well as a disorders, Sedative and C, Scopadulcic acid A
Bibimbelemo hypoglycaemic effect in and B (Hayashi et al., 1988)

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

(Ij) alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
(Pari and Venkateswaran,
200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Scopadulin (Hayashi et al.,
the whole plant also 1990); Scoparinol,
produced a hypoglycaemic Dulcinol,
effect in STZ-induced diabetic Benzoxazolinone,
rats, increased plasma insulin Betulinic acid, scutellarin,
levels and protected against Sorbifolin (Ahmed and
diabetes induced oxidative Jakupovic, 1990);
stress (Latha and Pari, 2004; Scopadulciol, Glutinol,
Latha et al., 2004)§ A Acacetin, 6-methoxy
flavonoid rich fraction of the benzoxazoline (Hayashi et
aqueous extract of the aerial al., 1991); Adrenaline,
plant increased glucose Noradrenaline (Freire et
uptake in cells possibly by al., 1996); Iso-dulcinol,
increasing expression and Dulcidiol, 4-epi-
translocation of the GLUT4 scopadulcic acid B,
receptor (Beh et al., 2010)§ Scopanolal, Scopadiol
(Ahsan et al., 2003); β-
sitosterol-β-D-gluc; side,
Hispidulin (4,5,7-
flavone) (Osei-Safo et al.,
2009); Luteolin,
P-coumarin, Apigenin,
Quercetin (Beh et al.,
2010); Dulcinodal,
Dulcinodiol, Scopadiol
decanoate, (Ahsan et al.,
91 Securidaca Polygalaceae Violet tree, Ipeta (Y), SW, NE, SE An extract of the root in Erectile dysfunction, Root, Stem- Decoction, Benzyl salicylate, Methyl Nephrotoxic and
longipedunculata Rhodesian Sanya or buffer solution produced Arthritis, Tumours, bark Leaves, Tinctures, paraben, Methyl vanillate, hepatotoxic effects in
Fresen violet Uwar slight inhibition of α-amylase Cough, Inflammation, Seeds Infusions, Methyl 2,6-dihydroxy rats administered 2 mg/
magunguna activity in-vitro (Funke and Anti-pyretic, Analgesic, Powders benzoate, Lumiflavin kg aqueous extract
(H), Ezeogwu Melzig, 2006) Dose- Pesticide, Anti- (Costa et al., 1992); Methyl intra-peritoneally for 14
(I) dependent (50–800 mg/kg) microbial, Convulsions salicylate (Methyl-2- days (Dapar et al., 2007)
hypoglycaemic effect of the hydroxy benzoate), Elevated levels of serum
aqueous root bark extract in Methyl-2-hydroxy-6- alkaline and acid
normal and STZ-induced methoxybenzoate, Benzyl- phosphatase levels as
diabetic rats (Ojewole, 2008) 2-hydroxy-6-methoxy well as decreased levels
benzoate (Jayasekara et al., of antioxidant enzymes
2002); Securidaca such as GSH and SOD in
xanthone (1,5-dihydroxy- the liver and kidney
2,3,6,7,8-penta (Ajiboye et al., 2010)
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

xanthone, 1,6-dihydroxy
xanthone, 6-methoxy
salicylic acid and its
methyl ester, β-D-(6-
glucopyranoside, β-D-(3-
pyranoside (Meli Lannang

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

et al., 2006); Methyl
salicylate, α- and β-pinene,
1,8-cineole, α-cadinol,
p-cymene, ethyl salicylate
(Adebayo et al., 2007); 1,4-
xanthone, Senegenic acid,
Senegenin, Elymoclavine,
Dehydroelymoclavine, 4,5-
di-O-caffeic acid, 3,4,5-tri-
O-caffeoyl quinic acid,
Sinapic acid (Meyer et al.,
2008); Securidacaside A
and B (Stevenson et al.,
2009); Gallic acid,
Chlorogenic acid, Caffeic
acid, Epicatechin,
P-coumaric acid, Rutin,
Quercetin, Cinnamic acid,
Apigenin (Muanda et al.,
92 Secamone afzelii Apocynaceae Secamone, Ailu (Y) SW In vitro antioxidant effects Hemorrhoids, Anti- Leaves, Pods, Maceration Alpha tocopherol (Mensah
(Roem. and Ringworm (Mensah et al., 2004) microbial, Purgative, Stems, et al., 2004); Caffeic,
Schult.) K.Schum. plant Dysentery, Colic, Wound Whole plant Gentysic, Ferulic,
healing, Aphrodisiac, Chlorogenic, α-resorcylic,
Measles, STDs Syryngic, Protocatechuic,
Synapic, Vanillic,
and Salicylic acids (Nowak
and Kawka, 1998)
93 Senna alata (L.) Leguminosae Ringworm Asunwon SW De-fatted methanol extract of Purgative, Ringworm, Leaves, Decoction, Alpha glucosidase Linalool, α-terpineol, 0.5 mg/ml aqueous
Roxb., Syn. Cassia plant, Candle oyibo (Y) the leaves gave a slight dose- Eczema, Pruritus, Snake Flower, Root, Juice extract inhibitory effects of Borneol, Pentadecanal, β- extract of the leaves
alata (L.) bush dependent (100–400 mg/kg) bites, Analgesic, Stem, Bark the flavonoids sitosterol, Stigmasterol, showed 470%
decrease in blood glucose Constipation, kaempferol and its Daucosterol, Alarone, 2,6- inhibition of GST
levels in STZ-induced Hypertension, Anti- 3-O-gentiobioside dimethoxy bezoquinone, enzymes in human and
diabetic rats but not in infective, Inflammation isolated from the Dalbergin, 2,3,7 tri-O- rat liver cytosols and
normal rats (Palanichamy et methanol extract of methyl ellagic acid, recombinant GSTs; as
al., 1988)§ the leaves Torachrysone, Alatonal, p- well as inhibited Cyp
(Varghese et al., hydroxybenzoic acid, 1A2, 2D6 and 3A4
2013) Adenine, Cassiaxanthone, supersomes but not 2C9
Sennosides, Kaempferol, (Appiah-Opong et al.,
its 3-O-gentiobioside and 2008).

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

Luteolin, Chrysoeriol-7-O-
and Rhamnetin-3-O- (2″-
O-β-D-manno pyranosyl)-
β-D-allopyranoside, Aloe-
emodin and its 8-O-β-
glucoside, Chrysophanol,
Rhein, Physcion and its 1-
O-glucoside, Alquinone,
Isochrysophanol, Adenine,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

(Hennebelle et al., 2009);
Naringin, Apigenin
(Okpuzor et al., 2009)
In vitro antioxidant effects
(Akinmoladun et al., 2010)
94 Senna Leguminosae Coffee senna Sanga-sanga NW, SW Incorporation of the dry Inflammation, Anti- Leaves, Pods, Decoction Achrosin, Aloe-emodin, Ingestion of the seeds
occidentalis (L.) or Rai dore leaves 6.25% by weight into pyretic, Analgesic, Seeds Emodin, Apigenin, Chryso- (beans) has been shown
Synonym, (Cassia (H), Rere (Y), the diet of STZ-induced Purgative, Malaria, Anti- obtusin, Aurantiobtusin, to cause acute hepato-
occidentalis) Akede-agbara diabetic mice did not tumour, Anti-microbial, Campesterol, Cassiolin, myoencephalopathy in
(I) produce any hypoglycaemic Hepato-protective, Chrysarobin, Chrysophanic children and is also
effect after 9 days of Insecticidal, GIT acid, Chrysophanol, known to be toxic to
treatment (Swanston-Flatt et ailments Chrysoeriol, Funiculosin, animals (Vashishtha et
al., 1989)§ Hypoglycaemic Galactopyranosyl, Oleic, al., 2009) Possible risk
effect of 200 mg/kg aqueous Linoleic, Linolenic and of renal impairment
extract of the leaves was Lignoceric acids; Physcion, with chronic
observed in both normal and Islandicine, administration of
alloxan-induced diabetic rats, Helminthosporine, Rhein, anthraquinones
as well as partial restoration Kaempferol, Matteucinol, glycosides from senna
of the islet cells of the Obtusifolin, Quercetin, (Vanderperren et al.,
diabetic rats (Verma et al., Rhamnosides, 2005)
2010)§ Rubrofusarin, Xanthorine,
3,2-dihydroxy-7,8,40 -tri
allopyranoside, 1,8-
anthraquinones, Pinseline,
Occidentalols, Questin,
Singueanol, Vitexin,
N-methyl morpholine, 1,1-
bi-4,40 ,5,50 -tetrahydroxy-
2,20 -dimethyl
Occidentalins, β-sitosterol
(Yadav et al., 2010)
95 Senna singueana Leguminosae Golden Runfu (H) 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Inflammation, Root, Leaves Decoction Torosachrysone, 7-methyl
(Delile) Lock, shower the leaves decreased blood Analgesic, Malaria, physcion, Germichrysone,
Syn: Cassia glucose levels by 53% in Gonorrhea, Heartburn, Cassiamin A, Singueanol-I
goratensis alloxan-induced diabetic rats Convulsions, and II, Chrysophanol,
(Etuk and Mohammed, 2009) Constipation, Wound Cassiamin A, Lupeol,
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

ulcers, Snake bites, Skin Campesterol, β-sitosterol,

cancer Stigmasterol, Leuco-
(Gebrelibanos, 2012)
96 Solanum Solanaceae Garden egg Osun (Y), SE, SW The root and fruit extracts Convulsions, Colic, Leaves, Fruit, Infusion, Diosgenin, Yamogenin
aethiopicum L., Anara (I) (200 mg/kg) decreased blood Flatulence, Syphillis, Roots Juice extract (Gbile and Adesina, 1988)
misnamed glucose levels in both normal Hypertension, Anti- Solasodine, Solamargine,
Solanum and STZ-induced diabetic fungal, STDs, Hepatitis Solasonine, Ursolic acid,
incanum L. rats. In addition, the fruit Carpesterol, β-sitosterol,
extract decreased weekly Incanumine, Stigmasterol-
food consumption β-D-glucoside, Khasianine
(Musabayane et al., 2006) (Lin et al., 1990)

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

Administration of 50 g of the Chlorogenic acid, Trans-p-
leaves to normal volunteers coumaric acid, Astragalin,
prior to an oral glucose Kaempferol, Quercetin,
tolerance test produced a Isoquercitrin, Adenosine,
decrease in blood glucose Caffeic and Protocatechuic
levels (Okolie et al., 2009) acids, Luteolin-7-O-β-D-
glucopyranoside, Benzyl
Kaempferol glucosides,
Isorhamnetin glucosides,
Quercetin glucosides (Lin
et al., 2000b)
Solavetivone, Lubiminoic
acid, Lubimin, Lubiminol,
Aethione (Nagaoka et al.,
Aethiosides A–C (Tagawa
et al., 2003)
97 Solanum Solanaceae African Igbagba or SW, SS in vivo antioxidant effects Cholesterol, Anti-viral, Leaves, Fruit Soup Polyphenol oxidase (Fujita Possible inhibitory
melongena L. Eggplant, Igba ijesu (Y), (Sudheesh et al., 1999) Low Sedative, Analgesic, condiment, and Tono, 1988); effect of steroidal
Aubergine Mafowo- α-amylase but high α- Fevers, Rheumatism, Juice extract Solanidine (Keeler et al., alkaloids like solanidine
bomonu (I) glucosidase inhibitory effects Skin diseases, Digestive 1990); Delphinidin on drug transport due
and In vitro antioxidant tonic (Nagase et al., 1998); α- to interaction with
effects (Nwanna et al., 2013) solasoline, α-solamargine multi-drug resistant
(Sánchez-Mata et al., protein such as P-gp
2010) (Lavie et al., 2001)
98 Sorghum bicolor Poaceae Sorghum Okababa or SW In vitro protein glycation Malaria, Fevers, Anemia, Leaves, Shaft Maceration, Procyanidin B1, Sinapic
(L.) Moench, Poroporo (Y), inhibitory effects (Farrar et Anti-microbial Infusion acid, Epicatechin gallate,
(Sorghum Sorgum (I), al., 2008) Alpha amylase and Peonidin, Prodelphinidin,
caudatum) Jero (H) α-glucosidase inhibitors Luteolinidin, Fisetinidin,
(Kim et al., 2011)§ 250 mg/kg Pelagornidin, Cyanidin and
sorghum extract decreased Apigeninidin derivatives,
serum glucose and increased Gallic, Caffeic, Gentisic,
serum insulin levels in Chlorogenic, Syringic, p-
diabetic but not normal rats hydroxy benzoic, Ferulic
(Chung et al., 2011)§ In vitro acids, Luteoforol, Apiforol,
antioxidant effects (Afify et Luteolin, Naringenin,
al., 2012) Improved insulin Eriodictoyl, Taxifolin,
sensitivity due to increased Sitosterol, Stigmasterol,
expression of PPARγ Campesterol, Cholesterol
receptors in rats fed a high (Awika and Rooney,
fat diet followed by 0.5% and 2004); Benzoic, p- o- and
1% sorghum meal (Park et al., m-coumaric, β-resorcylic,
2012)§ Protocatechuic, Veratric,
Vanillic, Homogentisic and

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

t-cinnamic acids, Vanillin,

Pyrogallol, Resveratrol,
Hesperidin, Rutin,
Myricetin, Hesperetin,
Formononetin, Quercetin,
Biochanin A, Naringin
(Chung et al., 2011); β-
carotene, α-tocopherol,
Apigenin, Kaempferol,
Hypersoid, Catechin,
Christin (Afify et al., 2012)
99 Sphenocentrum Menispermaceae Akerejupon SW, SE In vitro (Nia et al., 2004) and Hypertension, Cough, Root, Seed, Palmatine, Columbamine Extract of the leaves

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

jollyanum Pierre (Y) in vivo antioxidant effects Wounds, Fevers, Stem-bark, (Raji et al., 2006); decreased the elevated
(Olorunnisola and Afolayan, Jaundice, Malaria, Fruit, Leaves Columbin, Isocolumbin, levels of liver AST, ALT
2013) Ethanol extract of the Emetic, Purgative, Fibleucine (Moody et al., and ASP enzymes as
root decreased blood glucose Aphrodisiac, Swollen 2006); Isocaryophyllene, well as increased GSH
levels in normal high glucose breasts, Inflammation, α-Pinene, α-Eudesmol, 1,8- levels in rats infected
fed and alloxan-induced Depression, Sickle cell, cineole (Aboaba and with plasmodium
diabetic rabbits (Mbaka et al., Anti-microbial, Ekundayo, 2010) (Olorunnisola and
2009) Pre-administration of Analgesic, Anti-cancer, Afolayan, 2013)
the aqueous extract of the Anti-helminthic,
roots for 7 days before Aphrodisiac,
induction of diabetes with Constipation
alloxan had a protective
effect against elevated sugar
level and β-cell degeneration
(Mbaka and Adeyemi, 2011)
100 Spondias Anacardiaceae Hog plum Iyeye or SW Hypoglycaemic effect of the Infertility, Child birth, Leaves, Fruit Decoction Geraniin, Galloyl geranin,
mombin L. Olosan (Y), methanol extract (1g/kg) of Abortifacient, Chlorogenic acid, 2-O-
Tsada (H), the leaves and its chloroform Inflammation, GIT caffeoylhydroxycitric acid
Ngulungwu fraction was observed in disorders, Psychosis, (Corthout et al., 1992);
or Isikara (I) glucose loaded (2 g/kg) and Laxative, Anti-infective, Pelandjuaic acid, 6-(80 Z,
alloxan-induced diabetic rats Diuretic, Lactation, 110 Z-heptadecadienyl)-
(Fred-Jaiyesimi et al., 2009b) Anxiety salicylic acid, 6-(100 Z-
In vitro antioxidant effects heptadecenyl)-salicylic
(Akinmoladun et al., 2010) acid, 6-(120 Z-nona
decenyl)-salicylic acid, 6-
(150 Z-heneicosenyl)-
salicylic acid (Corthout et
al., 1994); Anacardic acid
derivative (Coates et al.,
1994); 3β-olean-12-en-3-
yl (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoate,
α-sitosterol (Fred-
Jaiyesimi et al., 2009a)
101 Stachytarpheta Verbenaceae Ncha aji (I), SE, SW, 750 mg/kg aqueous extract Immune modulatory, Leaves Maceration Ipolamide (Poser et al.,
angustifolia Wutsiya bera NW decreased blood glucose Anti-microbial, 1997); Stachytarphine, β-
(Mill.) Vahl (H), Iru levels in normal and alloxan- Diarrhoea, (30 ,40 )-dihydroxyphenyl)-
alangba (Y) induced diabetic rats (Isah et Abortifacient, Skin ethyl-O-α-L-
al., 2007) 250 mg/kg of a ulcers, Rheumatism, rhamnopyranosyl-(1,3)-β-
herbal mixture (Okudiabets) Cataract, Ear sores, D-(4-O-caffeoyl)
made up of bark of Alstonia Gonorrhea glucopyranoside
congensis, aerial parts of (Mohammed et al., 2012a,
Stachytarpheta angustifolia 2012b)
and fruits of Xylopia
aethiopica administered for
30 days produced a
hypoglycaemic effect in
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

alloxan-induced diabetic rats

(Ogbonnia et al., 2010) In-
vitro antioxidant effects
(Awah et al., 2010)
102 Strophanthus Apocynaceae Poison arrow Sagere (Y), SW, SE, Administration of 2 mg and Cardio-stimulant, Snake Stem, Root, Decoction Strophanthidin, Cymarin,
hispidus DC. vine, Brown/ Aguru-ala or NW, NC 5 mg of various extracts of bites, Insecticidal, STDs, Leaves Cymarol, Strophanthidol,
hairy Osisi nke the plant produced a dose Inflammation, Periplogenin, Emicymarin,
strophathus aguru (I), dependent decrease in blood Constipation (Heftmann et al., 1954);
Kwan-kwani glucose levels in normal 9-hydroxyoctadec-12-
(H) rabbits (Ojiako and Igwe, enoic acid, Triglycerides,
2009) 2-mono glyceride
(Gunstone and Qureshi,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

103 Syzygium Myrtaceae Snake bean Malmo (H), SW, NW The hypoglycaemic effect of Hypertension Cardio- Seed, Stem, Decoction Arjunolic acid, Ursolic
guineense treeWater Adere (Y), Ori the butanol fraction of the protective, Anti- Leaves acid, Asciatic acid,
(Willd.) DC. berryWater (I), Mho (Ti), aqueous extract of the leaves microbial, Diarrhoea, Terminolic acid, Betulinic
pear Asurahi (F) decreased blood glucose Inflammation, Immune- acid, Oleanolic acid,
levels in normal and alloxan- modulatory, venom, 2-hydroxy oleanolic acid,
induced diabetic rats (Worku, Anti-cancer 2-hydroxy ursolic acid,
2009)§ 6-hydroxy asiatic acid,
Arjunolic acid 28-β-gluco
pyranosyl ester, Asiatic
acid 28-β-glucopyranosyl
ester (Djoukeng et al.,
Caryophyllene oxide,
Benzyl benzoate, α-
terpineol, Linalool, α and β
caryophyllene, α-cadinol,
(Noudogbessi et al., 2008)
pectic polysaccharides
(Ghildyal et al., 2010)
104 Tamarindus Leguminosae Tamarind, Tsamiya (H), NW In vitro (Siddhuraju, 2007) Nutritional, Stem-bark, Decoction, Methyl 3,4-dihydroxy 100 and 200 mg/kg
indica L. Indian date Icheku oyibo and in vivo antioxidant Inflammation, Anti- Fruits, Seed Maceration, benzoate, Epicatechin, 3,4- ethanol extract of the
(I), Ajagbon effects (Bhutkar and Bhise, microbial, Anti- Powder dihydroxy phenylacetate, bark administered for
(Y), Tamsugu 2011) parasitic, Fevers, 2-hydroxy-30 ,40 -dihydroxy 45 days increased
(Nu) 800 mg/kg of the aqueous Laxative, Alcohol detox, acetophenone (Tsuda et previously depleted
extract of the seed Anti-cancer, Anti- al., 1994); Methyl GSH levels in alloxan-
administered for 14 days obesity, Hepato- salicylate, Eugenol, induced diabetic rats
decreased blood glucose protective Vanillin; Lauric, Benzoic, (Bhutkar and Bhise,
levels and increased serum Acetic, Myristic, Oleic, 2011) Bioavailability of
insulin levels in STZ-induced Linoleic, Linolenic and aspirin increased in
diabetic rats, resulting in Palmitoleic acids (Wong et healthy adults co-
increased glucose al., 1998); Apigenin, administered a porridge
metabolism (Maiti et al., Eriodictyol, Narigenin, meal containing the
2005)§ Procyanidin B2, Taxifolin, fruit extract of tamarind
An extract of the leaves in Procyanidin trimer, (Mustapha et al., 1996)
buffer solution produced 90% tetramer, pentamer and
inhibition of α-amylase hexamer; Luteolin
activity in-vitro (Funke and (Sudjaroen et al., 2005);
Melzig, 2006) Apigenin, Vitexin, β-
sitosterol, ( þ)-Pinitol, 21-
oxobehenic and Eicosanoic
acid, Octocasoanyl
ferulate, n-hexacosane
(Jain et al., 2007); Lupeol,

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

Lupanone (Imam et al.,

105 Tapinanthus Loranthaceae African SW, SE An infusion of the leaves Anti-hypertensive, Anti- Leaves Infusion, Catechin-3-O-rhamnoside,
bangwensis mistletoe parasitic on citrus limon and microbial, Immuno- Decoction Catechin-7-O-rhamnoside,
(Engl. and K. Psidium guajava at a dose of modulatory, Anti-cancer 4-methoxy-catechin-7-O-
Krause) Danser, 1.32mg//kg decreased blood rhamnoside (Ogechukwu
Syn Loranthus glucose levels in normal and et al., 2012); 7β, 15α-
bangwensis Engl. STZ-induced diabetic rats, dihydroxyl-lup-20(29)-
and K.Krause, but not that parasitic on ene-3β-palmitate, 7β, 15α-
often misnamed Jatropha curcas (Obatomi et dihydroxyl-lup-20(29)-
Loranthus al., 1994) The blood glucose ene-3β-stearate, 7β, 15α-

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

micranthus lowering effects of the dihydroxyl-lup-20(29)-
Hook.f. methanol extract of the ene-3β-deca decanoate
leaves was observed in (Ogechukwu et al., 2011);
alloxan-induced diabetic Stigmast-7,20(21)diene-
rats; an effect dependent on 3β-hdroxy-6-one, 3β-
host plant and time of hdroxy-stigmast-23-ene,
collection (Osadebe et al., 7β, 15α-dihydroxyl-lup-20
2004, 2010) In vitro (29)-ene-3β eicosanoate
antioxidant effects (Omeje et al., 2011);
(Ogechukwu et al., 2012) Linamarin gallate,
Walsuraside, Catechin,
Rutin, Epicatechin, Gallate
derivatives of epicatechin,
pyranoside, Peltatoside
(Agbo et al., 2013)
106 Telfairia Cucurbitaceae Fluted Ugwu/Ugu (I), 250 mg/kg ethanol extract of Convulsion, GIT Leaves, Fruit, Globulins, Carotenoids, γ- Co-administration of
occidentalis pumpkin Iroko or the leaves decreased blood disorders, Anemia, Seeds amino butyric acid, 13- the leaves prior to or
Hook.f. Apiroko (Y), glucose levels in normal and Hypertension, Anti- hydroxy-9Z, 11E- alongside chloroquine
Ubong (Ef), alloxan-induced diabetic tumour, Immune octadecatrienoic acid, α- tablets altered its
Umee rats; while 100 mg/kg modulating, Anti- and β-moschins, Pectin, pharnacokinetics
(Urhobo), ethanol extract of the seed parasitic, Analgesia, MAP 2, MAP 4, MAP 11, (Eseyin et al., 2007b)
Umeke (Bi) decreased glucose levels in Inflammation, High MAP 28 (Caili et al., 2006)
alloxan-induced but not in cholesterol, Anxiety
normal or glucose-loaded
rats (Eseyin et al., 2005,
Alpha glucosidase and α-
amylase inhibitory effects of
the hydro-ethanolic extract
of the leaves as well as
Antioxidant effects (Oboh et
al., 2012b)
50 mg/kg globulin proteins
extracted from the seeds
decreased blood glucose
levels when pre-
administered to normal high
glucose fed rats (Teugwa et
al., 2013a)§
107 Terminalia Combretaceae Tropical Belebo SE, SS, SW Methanol extract of the Aphrodisiac, Hepato- Leaves, Stem Maceration Terminolic acid, β- Potential hepatic
catappa L. almond, orIgifuruntu leaves decreased blood protective, Analgesic, bark, Fruit, sitosterol, β-sitosteryl toxicity with high doses
Umbrella tree (Y), Ibulu (I) glucose levels in alloxan Inflammation, Anti- Seeds palmitate (Idemudia, due to Punicalagin and
induced diabetic mice by 59% microbial, Insomnia, 1970); Terflavin A and B, punicalin (Lin et al.,
(Ezeigbo and Asuzu, 2010) Anti-cancer, Anti-viral Tercatain, Tergallagin, 2001)
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

Varying doses (40–78 mg/kg) Punicalagin, Punicalin,

of the aqueous, methanol and Chebulagic acid, Geranin,
petroleum ether extracts of Granatin B, Corilagin,
the fruits administered for 1-desgalloyl eugenin
3 weeks also produced a (Tanaka et al., 1986);
hypoglycaemic effect in Isovitexin, Rutin, Vitexin,
alloxan induced diabetic rats Isoorientin, Apigenin
as well as regenerated the galloyl glucopyranosides
pancreas (Nagappa et al., (Lin et al., 2000a);
2003)§ Cyanidin-3-glucoside,
Gallic acid, Ellagic acid,
Brevifolin carboxylic acid,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

Euginic acid (Nagappa et
al., 2003); Ursolic acid,
Asiatic acid (Gao et al.,
108 Tetrapleura Leguminosae Aridan (Y), SW, SE, SS, 800 mg/kg aqueous extract of Hemorrhoids, Insect Pod, Bark Decoction, Aridanin, Glycosides of Ethanol extract of the
tetraptera Kpokrikpo or NC the fruit produced a repellent, Convulsions, Infusion Olean-12-ene-28-oic acid, leaves given to rabbits
(Schum. and Mkpuruma hypoglycaemic effect in Asthma, Cough, Echinocystic acid-3-O- for 10 days (50–150 mg/
Thonn.) Taub. oshosho (I) normal and STZ-induced Insomnia, Poison sodium sulphate kg) increased serum ALT
diabetic rats (Ojewole and antidote, Gonorrhoea, (Ngassapa et al., 1993); levels (Odesanmi et al.,
Adewunmi, 2004) Aqueous Rheumatism, Infertility, Butanoic acid derivatives, 2009)
extract of the fruit showed Bilharzia, Sickle cell, Myrcene, p-Cymene, 1,8-
good antioxidant effects, Lactation Cineol, Limonene, 2,4-
moderate lipase inhibitory dihydro-3,4-
effects and little or no α- dimethylfuran, γ-
amylase inhibitory effects Terpinene, α-Terpinolene
(Etoundi et al., 2010)§ (Ngassoum et al., 2001)
109 Treculia africana Moraceae Breadfruit Ukwa (I), SW Fractions of the hydro aceton Anti-microbial, Anti- α- and β-Pinene,
Decne, ex Trécu Afon (Y) extract of the bark decreased helminth, Laxative, Skin Camphene, Myrcene,
blood glucose levels at a dose diseases, Dental Phellandrene, α- and γ-
of 10 mg/kg in alloxan- allergies, Depression Terpinene, p-Cymene,
induced diabetic rats but not Limonene, Linalool oxide,
normal rats (Oyelola et al., Thujanol, Geranylacetone,
2007) Hypoglycemic effect of β-Caryophyllene, Terpineol
500 mg/kg aqueous extract of (Aboaba et al., 2007) ;
the leaves in normal fasted Phyllocoumarin, 6,9-
glucose-loaded and STZ- dihydroxy megastigmane-
induced diabetic rats 3-one, Catechin (Kuete et
(Ogbonnia et al., 2008c) al., 2008); 3-Prenyl-20 ,4,40 -
trihydroxy chalcone,
4-hydroxy benzoic acid,
Bergapten, Morin,
Epiphyllocoumarin, β-
carotene, Riboflavin
(Mueno et al., 2008)
110 Urena lobata L. Malvaceae Caesar's weed Ilasa-omode SW Fasting blood glucose Anti-microbial, Colic, Root, Flower Tiliroside, Dihydro
or Ilasa- lowering effects of 200 mg/ Skin diseases, Dysentry, kaempferol 40 -O-β-gluco
agborin (Y), kg of the aqueous root Expectorant, Emollient, pyranoside, Kaempferol
Odoazezo (I), extracts in normal rabbits Malaria, Rheumatism, and Quercetin 3-O-β-
Rama rama (Omonkhua and Onoagbe, Wound healing, glucoside and 3-O-β-
(H) 2011) in vivo antioxidant Analgesic, Inflammation rutinoside, Luteolin-40 -O-
effects (Omonkhua and β-gluco pyranoside,
Onoagbe, 2012) Kaempferol-7-O-
glucoside, Kaempferol,
Quercetin (Matlawska and
Sikorska, 1999); β-
Sitosterol, stigmasterol,

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

Imperatorin, Mangiferin,
Quercetin, Palmitic and
Linoleic acid triglycerides
(Morelli et al., 2006);
Syringic acid, Gluco-
syringic acid, Salicylic acid,
Protocatechuic acid and its
methyl ester, Caffeic acid,
Hexatriacontanoic acid,
Pentadecanoic acid,
Hexadecanoic acid, Maleic
acid, Heptadecanoic acid,

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

Diisobutyl phthalate (Lu et
al., 2009); Ceplignan-4-O-
β-D-glucoside, Urenoside A
(Jia et al., 2010)
111 Vernonia Compositae Bitter leaf Ewuro (Y), NW, NC, 80 mg/kg aqueous extract of Hemorrhoids, Measles, Leaves, Roots Decoction, Vernodalin, Vernolide, Aqueous extract of the
amygdalina Shuwaka (H), SE, SS, SW the leaves produced a dose Ringworm, Analgesic, Juice extract Vernomygdin, Vernolepin leaves inhibited P-gp
Delile Olugbu (I), dependent decrease in blood Malaria, Pneumonia, (Kupchan et al., 1969); efflux activity in Caco-2
Etidot (Ib) glucose levels in normal and Anti-microbial, Anti- Vernodalol, 11,13- cells (Oga et al., 2012)
alloxan-induced diabetic cancer, Anti-feedant dihydrovernodalin
rabbits (Akah and Okafor, (Ganjian et al., 1983);
1992); Antioxidant effects Vernonioside A1, A2, A3,
(Igile et al., 1994; Fasakin et A4 and its aglycone, B1, B2
al., 2011); Chronic intake of and B3 (Jisaka et al., 1993);
400 mg/kg ethanolic extract Luteolin, Luteolin 7-O-
of the fresh leaves glucoside and 7-O-
significantly decreased glucuronide (Igile et al.,
fasting blood glucose levels, 1994); Vernonioside D and
increased serum and E (Igile et al., 1995);
pancreatic insulin levels, Luteolin 7-O- and 40 -O-
increased the activity of liver rutinoside, Caffeoyl quinic
antioxidant enzymes as well acid, Chlorogenic acid,
as increased the expression Rutin, 1,5-Dicaffeoyl quinic
and distribution of Glut acid, Apigenin
4 receptors in STZ-induced glucuronide, Luteolin (Ola
diabetic rats (Ong et al., et al., 2009)
2011)§; 150 ml of a (1:1:1)
decoction mix of the leaves of
Vernonia amygdalina,
Ocimum gratissimum and
Gongronema latifolium
decreased baseline blood
glucose levels in normal
subjects when
preadministered to normal
subjects 45 min before an
OGTT (Ejike et al., 2013)
112 Ximenia Olacaceae Sour plum, Tsaada (H), NW Graded doses (200, 400 and Anti-parasitic, Anti- Fruits, Stem, Decoction Mandelonitrile lyase Aqueous extract of the
americana L. Hog plum, Igo (Y) 600 mg/kg) of the extract microbial, Stem-bark, (Kuroki and Conn, 1989); stem bark and the root
Yellow plum, produced significant blood Inflammation, Leaves Xymenynic acid, Tariric increased levels of
Sea lemon, glucose reduction to control Pesticidal, Analgesic, acid (Fatope et al., 2000); hepatic enzymes ALT,
False sandal levels 6 h after Anti-pyretic, Anti- Ximonicaine, Stigmastane AST and ALK-P
wood administration in alloxan- cancer, Hepato- (de Araújo et al., (2009)); significantly (James et
induced hyperglycaemic rats protective, Ulcers, Skin Benzaldehyde, Hydroxy al., 2008; Wurochekke
(Siddaiah et al., 2011)§ infections, Purgative benzyl cyanide, Geraniol, et al., 2008); Inhibited
Isophorone, Linalool, P-gp mediated Rh-123
Caryophyllene oxide,
Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

Methyl benzoate (Mevy et efflux in Caco-2 cells

al., 2006); Hydrocyanic, (Ezuruike et al., 2012)
Linolenic, Arachidonic,
Erucic, Eicosatrienoic and
Nervonic acids; Methyl-
hydroxy hepta triacont-
27,35-dienoate, Dimethyl-
triendioate (Saeed and
Bashier, 2010); Riproximin

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

(Bayer et al., 2012);
Sambunigrin, Gallic acid,
Quercetin, β-glucogalline,
glucopyranose, Quercetin-
pyranoside, Quercitrin,
Avicularin, Quercetin-3-O-
β-xylo pyranoside,
Kaempferol-3-O-(60 0 -
(Le et al., 2012)
113 Xylopia Annonaceae Ethiopian or Erunje or Administration of 1 g/kg of a Purgative, Neuralgia, Fruit, Seeds Xylopic acid (15β-
aethiopica Negro pepper, Eeru (Y), Uda 1:1 mixture of a Amenorrhea, Anti- acetoxy kaur-16-en-19-
(Dunal) A.Rich. Long nose (I), Kimba (H) hydroethanolic extract of convulsant, Bronchitis, oic acid) (Ekong and
pepper Alstonia congensis bark and Stomach ache, Cough, Ogan, 1968); Kauran-
Xylopia aethiopica fruits Hemorrhoids, Asthma, 16α-ol, Kauran-16α, 19-
decreased blood glucose Insect antifeedant, Anti- diol, Kaur-16-en-19-oic
levels in normal mice microbial, Diuretic acid (Leboeuf et al.,
(Ogbonnia et al., 2008a); 1980); α- and β-pinene,
250 mg/kg of a herbal 1,8-cineole, Cuminic
mixture Okudiabets) made aldehyde, α-terpineol,
up of bark of Alstonia β-caryophyllene,
congensis, aerial parts of Limonene, Linalool,
Stachytarpheta angustifolia Ocimene, α- and β-
and fruits of Xylopia Phellandrene, Sabinene,
aethiopica administered for α-murolene (Lamaty et
30 days had a marked al., 1987); Kaur-15-en-
hypoglycaemic effect in 17-al-19-oic acid, 15-
alloxan-induced diabetic rats oxo-trachyloban-19-oic
(Ogbonnia et al., 2010); acid, 15-hydroxy-
Potent inhibitory effects (-)-trachyloban-19-oic
against pancreatic lipase, α- acid, 15β-hydroxy-
amylase and α-glucosidase (-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic
enzymes; Antioxidant effects acid, 15-oxo-(-)-kaur-
(Etoundi et al., 2010; 16-en-oic acid,
Adefegha and Oboh, 2012) Sitosterol glucoside
(Harrigan et al., 1994a);
Oxoglaucine, O-methyl
Lysicamine (Harrigan et
al., 1994b); 7β-acetoxy
acid, E-3-(4-hydroxy-3-

Table 1 (continued )

S/ Plant name Family Common Local Region of Experimental evidence for Other medicinal uses Plant part Traditional Identified active Other relevant Interaction/toxicity
no. name Nigerian use for its use in diabetes (s) used preparation constituent(s) phytoconstituents studies
name(s)* diabetes# management method identified in the plant

methoxy phenyl)-N-2-
propenamide, E-3-
Cannabisin B and D
(Lajide et al., 1995); 7α-
hydroxy trachyloban-

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

19β-oic acid (Ngouela et
al., 1998)
114 Zea mays L. Poaceae Corn Maize Agbado (Y), SW 0.2 g/d aqueous extract of Hypertension, Seed silk Decoction Chrysoeriol 6-C-β-boivino Glucose yield and
Oka (I), corn silk improved kidney Analgesic, pyranosyl-7-O-β-gluco glycaemic index of
Masara (H) parameters in STZ-induced Inflammation, pyranoside, Alternanthin maize starch has been
diabetic rats but no Contraceptive, Nose (Suzuki et al., 2003) shown to be high,
significant hypoglycaemic bleeds which may pose a
effect (Suzuki et al., 2005); problem for diabetic
100 mg/L ethanol extract of patients (Izuagie et al.,
the corn silk showed PPARα 2007; Omoregie and
and γ agonist activities (Rau Osagie, 2008)
et al., 2006)§; Inhibitory
effects of the aqueous and
ethanol extract of the maize
kernels on α-glucosidase
enzymes and antioxidant
effects (Lee et al., 2010)§
115 Zingiber officinale Zingiberaceae Ginger Atale (Y), SW Ethanol extracts of the Typhoid, Nausea, Cold Rhizome Maceration 6-, 8- and 10- 2-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy Insufficient evidence for
Roscoe Jinga (I), Chita rhizome reduced blood symptoms, Asthma, Gingerols increased phenyl) ethanol, 2-(4- a possible interaction
(H) glucose levels dose Stimulant, Rheumatism, glucose uptake in hydroxy-3-methoxy with warfarin or CYPs
dependently (50–800 mg/kg) Hemorrhoids, Liver L6 muscle cells phenyl) ethanoic acid, 2- (Vaes and Chyka, 2000);
in normal and STZ-induced disorders, Obesity, Git primarily by an (3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) 6-gingerol increased the
diabetic rats (Ojewole, 2006); disorders increased GLUT4 ethanooic acid, 4-(4- accumulation of
Alpha amylase and Alpha expression (Li et al., hydroxy-3-methoxy daunorubicin and
glucosidase inhibitory effects 2012); Aldose phenyl)-2-butanone, (4- rhodamine and
and In vitro antioxidant reductase hydroxy-3-methoxy decreased efflux of
effects (Oboh et al., 2010); inhibitory effects of phenyl) methanol (Kato et daunorubicine
in vivo antioxidant effects methoxy phenyl al., 2006); Zingerone, indicating possible P-gp
(Morakinyo et al., 2011) derivatives (Kato et Geraniol (Chen et al., modulatory effect
al., 2006) 2007); Gingerols and its (Nabekura et al., 2005)
derivatives, Gingesulfonic
acids, Shogasulfonic acids,
Gingerdiols, Zingerone,
Shogaols, Paradols and its
derivatives, Zingiberene,
Curcumene, β-bisabolene,
Citral, Camphene, Neral, β-
and Sesqui-phellandrene,
Diarylheptanoids, Cineole,
Gingerdiones, Geranial,
Terpineol (Ali et al., 2008;
Kubra and Rao, 2011)

Bi-Bini, Ef-Efik, Es-Esan, F-Fulani, H-Hausa, I-Ibo, Ib-Ibibio, Id-Idoma, Ig-Igala, Ige-Igede, Ij-Ijaw, Nu-Nupe, Ti-Tiv, and Y-Yoruba.
NC ¼North central, NE¼ North east, NW ¼North west, SE ¼South east, SS ¼ South south, and SW ¼ South west.
Experimental evidence involving plant samples not collected from within Nigeria.
U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924 903

other in vivo models used include spontaneous diabetic animal 3.2. In vitro pharmacological evidence
models obtained as a result of one or more genetic mutations such
as obese zucker fatty rats, db/db mice and KK-Ay mice; as well as It is recommended that in vitro experiments are carried out to
the use of high glucose or fructose-fed animals. This latter group ascertain the mechanism of action for the plant. Certain plants
simulate the development of diabetes from insulin resistance produce their hypoglycemic effects as a side effect of their in vivo
better as is more commonly found in patients with type-2 diabetes toxicity (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995). There is also the risk that
(Srinivasan and Ramarao, 2007). the hypoglycemic effect is being mediated – at least in part –
Although most plants were only evaluated experimentally in a through an unwanted physical mechanism, rather than a physio-
type-1 diabetes model, some of these have been shown to be logical one, such as was observed with Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.)
effective hypoglycemic agents in type-2 diabetes patients, such as R. Br. Ex Sm (Persaud et al., 1999). This immediately eliminates the
extracts of Bridelia ferruginea Benth. Daily administration of 15 mg potential use of such a plant as a therapeutic hypoglycemic
of the leaves as an infusion to type-2 diabetic patients previously agent. In addition, due to the ethical considerations surrounding
on insulin injections for eight weeks resulted in a significant animal use (Festing and Wilkinson, 2007), it is advised that
decrease in their blood sugar levels (Iwu, 1983). validation experiments are ‘replaced’ with non-animal models
Only two out of the 96 plant species were ineffective in the where possible.
in vivo experimental model of study, namely Zea mays L. (Suzuki Over one-third of the plants in our review have been studied
et al., 2005) and Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin (Teugwa et al.). for in vitro in models that could possibly explain some or all of
Despite its identified in in vitro PPARα and γ agonist activities their mechanism of action. Twenty-nine plants have inhibitory
and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects (Lee et al., 2010), extracts of effects against either α-amylase or α-glucosidase enzymes; five
Zea mays failed to produce a significant hypoglycemic effect plants have agonist activity on the PPARγ receptor, whose activa-
in vivo (Rau et al., 2006). This could possibly be as a result of the tion enhances glucose metabolism; four plants increase insulin
absence of the bioactive constituent(s) responsible for the release from pancreatic cells; five plants increase glucose uptake
hypoglycemic effect in the sample used for the in vivo study. in muscles or liver; while two plants increased the expression of
The absence of an in-vivo hypoglycemic effect would however the glucose transporter GLUT4, which in turn increases glucose
not ‘eliminate’ its use in the clinical management of diabetes, uptake into muscles and adipose tissues. Two plants were identi-
which also takes into account co-morbid conditions. In this fied as potential DPP-IV inhibitors, while six plants were identified
regard, Zea mays could also provide protection against diabetic as aldose reductase inhibitors (Fig. 1).
nephropathy, as it has been shown to improve kidney para- In vitro experiments are often designed to ‘reflect’ the mechanism
meters in vivo (Suzuki et al., 2005). of existing drugs used in diabetes management. Plants that possess
In the case of Cucumeropsis mannii, its traditional use involves alpha amylase or alpha glucosidase inhibitory effects reflect the
the ingestion of its ashes or its juice (Gbolade, 2009). This may action of acarbose, PPARγ agonist activity reflect the thiazolidine-
indicate that its use is based on its oligo-elements and/or vitamins. diones, while aldose reductase inhibitors are potential agents for
In fact the supplementation of elements such as chromium, preventing diabetic complications like the drug epalrestat. Thus with
magnesium and vanadium is actively explored in the treatment this identified mechanisms, researchers and healthcare professional
of diabetes (Anderson et al., 1997; Halberstam et al., 1996; alike can immediately identify the potential therapeutic benefit of
Rodríguez-Morán and Guerrero-Romero, 2003); some of which the plant. This information could contribute to a more rational
have been identified in the seeds of Cucumeropsis mannii (Badifu therapeutic regimen for diabetes patients, possibly benefitting from
and Ogunsua, 1991). a synergistic effect with herbal remedies.

Plants which are DPP-IV Plants that promote insulin release-

Plants that are α-
amylase or α- Inhibitors- Azadirachta indica
glucosidase inhibitors- Mangifera indica Bauhinia monandra
Abrus precatorius Rauvolfia vomitoria Mardenia sylvestris
Aframomum melegueta Moringa oleifera
Anacardium occidentale Carbohydrates
Annona muricata DPP-IV PPAR γ
Anthocleista djalonensis
Anthocleista vogelii
GLP-1 Insulin release
Bixa orellana
Capsicum annum
Corchorus olitorius Glucose
Ficus exasperata
Ficus thonningii
Garcinia kola Glucose metabolism
Ipomoea batatas
Khaya senegalensis Decreased blood glucose levels Plants which are
Lawsonia inermis PPARγ agonists-
Mangifera indica Capsicum annum
Morus alba Curcuma longa
Murraya koenigii Jatrophas curca
Phyllanthus amarus Sorghum bicolor
Sarcocephalus latifolius Zea mays
Senna alata Plants that enhance GLUT4
Solanum melongena glucose uptake-
Sorghum bicolor Plants which increase
Anacardium occidentale
Tamarindus indica GLUT4 receptor
Ananas comosus
Telfairia occidentalis expression-
Momordica charantia
Xylopia aethiopicum Scoparia dulcis
Zea mays
Picralima nitida
Vernonia amygdalina
Zingiber officinale Scoparia dulcis
Zingiber officinale

Fig. 1. Proposed molecular mechanisms of hypoglycemic effects for species studied so far.
904 U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

The disadvantage of the molecular approach for experimental fractionation or in silico studies as the bioactive constituents
validation of plant activity is that the biological assays only explore responsible for some or all of the plants' beneficial effects in
known targets and do not take into account extracts that might be diabetes. Some of these constituents are species-specific such as
acting on unknown targets, possibly through innovative mechan- the alkaloid mahanimbine from Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng
isms. In addition, herbal medicines are often complex mixtures (Dineshkumar et al., 2010), while others are known to be present
of various phytochemicals which work synergistically to achieve a in many plants like the alkaloid trigonelline, which is responsible
desired therapeutic outcome (Campbell-Tofte et al., 2012). In such for the hypoglycemic effect of Abrus precatorius L. (Monago and
cases, a single end-point in vitro biological assay will not be Nwodo, 2010) and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek), a
sufficient in evaluating the clinical effect of the plant. For plant whose use in diabetes management is popular across India
instance, the methanol extract of the root and stem of Gongronema and Europe (Bailey and Day, 1989). We hereby classify these
latifolium Benth. produced a greater anti-hyperglycemic effect in compounds according to similar chemical features (which may
glucose loaded rats than each of its fractions, indicating a syner- not necessarily refer to similar biosynthetic pathways) as follows:
gistic effect of its constituents possibly acting through different compounds containing nitrogen (1–9) (Fig. 2), terpenes (10–16)
molecular mechanisms (Adebajo et al., 2013). (Fig. 3), phenolic compounds (17–33) (Figs. 4 and 5), and com-
There is also a holistic approach in the herbal management of pounds containing hydroxyl groups including sugars (34–40)
diabetes such that plants which are not hypoglycemic themselves (Fig. 6).
may be included in multi-component preparations because of
their benefits in co-morbid conditions. Thus, in vitro studies might
not immediately indicate the beneficial effect of the plant. A good 3.3.1. Nitrogen containing compounds
example is the use of the aphrodisiac plant Mondia whiteii (Hook. A number of alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal active principles
f.) Skeels (Quasie et al., 2010). Despite not showing in vitro from plants used in diabetes management have been reported.
hypoglycemic effect (Etoundi et al., 2010), it is commonly included Some of these were isolated from samples not collected from
in multi-component preparations for diabetes management in Nigeria such as hypoglycin A (1) and B (2) – from the fruit of
men since erectile dysfunction is a common complication of the Blighia sapida K.D.Koenig. (Chen et al., 1957). Murraya koenigii
illness (personal communication during field work). This however leaves are also used traditionally in Indian Ayurvedic system to
does not preclude any in vivo activity which is yet to be evaluated. treat diabetes. Mahanimbine (5) isolated from the Indian plant
samples decreased blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic
rats and also produced a dose-dependent α-amylase and
3.3. Bioactive compounds α-glucosidase inhibitory effect (Dineshkumar et al., 2010). Its
cellular mechanism of action is also thought to be mediated by
Over forty compounds from twenty three of the reviewed an increase in glucose utilization (Dinesh Kumar et al., 2013).
plants have been identified, either through an activity guided Paradoxically, this and other related carbazole alkaloids isolated

Picralima nitida
Hypoglycin A (1) & Hypoglycin B (2)
Blighia sapida

Trigonelline (4)
Abrus precatorius
Mahanimbine (5) Ajmaline (6)
Murraya koenigii
& Isosandwichine (7)

S-allylcysteine sulfoxide (8)

S-allylcysteine sulfoxide (9)
Allium sativum

Fig. 2. Nitrogen containing compounds with beneficial effects in diabetes.

U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924 905

tetradecene-8,10,12-triyne (10)
& 2-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1-hydroxy-6(E)-
tetradecene-7,9,11-triyne (11)
Bidens pilosa

Myrcene (12)

Lupenyl cinnamate (15) &

Citral (13) α-amyrin cinnamate (16)
Gongronema latifolium

Geraniol (14)

Cymbopogon citrallatus

Fig. 3. Terpenes with beneficial effects in diabetes.

Kolaviron (17) –
Mixture of GB1 (R1=H, R2=H),
GB2 (R1=OH, R2=H)
Damnacanthol -3 -O- β-D-primeveroside ( 18) (R=OCH )
& kolaflavanone (R1=OH, R2=Me)
Lucidin-3-O-β-D-primeveroside(19) (R=OH ).
Garcinia kola
Morinda citrifolia

Lawsone (20)
Lawsonia inermis

Methoxy phenyl derivatives

Gallic acid (21) R1=CH 2OH, R2 =OCH 3, R3=OH (22);
Lawsonia inermis R1=(CH2 )2OH, R2 =OCH3, R3=OH (23)
R1=CH2COOH, R2 =OCH3, R3 =OH (24)
R1=(CH2 ) 2COCH3 , R2 =OCH3, R 3=OH (25)
Zingiber officinale

Ellagic acid (26)

3,5-dicaffeoyl quinic acid (27)
Ipomoea batatas
Ipomoea batatas

Fig. 4. Phenolic compounds with beneficial effects in diabetes.

906 U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

Rutin (29) &

Quercetin (30)
Bauhinia monandra

Isoscutellarein (28)
Bixa orellana

Kaempferol gentiobioside (31) Catechin (33)

& Kaempferol (32) Cassia fistula
Senna alata

Fig. 5. Phenolic compounds (flavonoids) with beneficial effects in diabetes.

6-Gingerol (34); [R= (CH2)4CH3 ]

8-Gingerol (35) ; [R= (CH 2) 6CH3] D-3-O-methyl Chiroinositol(37)
10-Gingerol (36);[R= (CH2)8CH3 ] Bauhinia thonningii
Zingiber officinale 1-O-phenyl α-L-rhamnopyranoside (38); (R=H, R1=H)
MethylN-{4-[(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)benzyl]}carbamate (39);
(R=H, R1 =CH2-H-CO-Ome)
Methyl N-{4-[(4’-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)benzyl]}carbamate (40);
Moringa oleifera

Fig. 6. Other hydroxylated compounds with beneficial effects in diabetes.

from plant samples from Nigeria decreased the glucose-mediated would most likely be contributing to their blood glucose lowering
insulin release from INS-1 cells when compared to control, even activity. Ajmaline (6) and isosandwichine (7) from Rauvolfia
though the amount of glucose released was dose dependent. vomitoria Afzel. were identified as DPP-IV inhibitors using an in
This effect may however be explained by their known in vitro silico approach (Guasch et al., 2012).
cytotoxicity (Adebajo et al., 2005). Garlic and onions are commonly used as part of the diet in
The alkaloid trigonelline (4) isolated from the seeds of Abrus many Nigerian households and the hypoglycemic effect of
precatorius (L.) collected from the eastern part of Nigeria decreased plant samples collected from Nigeria has also been studied
blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats as well (Eyo et al., 2011). This hypoglycemic effect is possibly due to the
as reduced the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and glycogen presence of S-methylcysteine sulfoxide (8) (SMCS) in onions
phosphorylase, two enzymes important for glucose production and S-allylcysteine sulfoxide (9) (SACS) in garlic, which have
(Monago and Nwodo, 2010). Akuammicine (3) isolated from the been isolated from Indian plant samples and have been shown
chloroform extract of the seeds of Picralima nitida (Stapf) T.Durand to improve glucose tolerance in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
and H.Durand stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (Sheela et al., 1995). Clinical studies in humans have shown that
(Shittu et al., 2010). It is also present in plants of the genus Alstonia the supplementation of garlic to diabetic patients in combination
such as Alstonia boonei De Wild. and Alstonia Congensis Engl. and with hypoglycemic drugs improves glycemic control in addition to
U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924 907

the reduction of cardiovascular risk (Sobenin et al., 2008). showed potent maltase inhibitory effects in vivo (Matsui et al.,
Although they both contain nitrogen, SMCS and SACS are primarily 2002), while ellagic acid (26) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (27)
classed as sulfur containing compounds. isolated from the hot water extract of the leaves showed potent
aldose reductase inhibitory effects (Terashima et al., 1991). Law-
sone (20) (a naphtoquinone) and gallic acid (21) isolated from the
3.3.2. Terpenes
ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Lawsonia inermis L. inhibited
A number of terpenes have been isolated as bioactive consti-
the formation of advanced glycated end products in vitro (Sultana
tuents in plants used for diabetes management (Fig. 3). The leaves
et al., 2009). Some methoxy phenyl derivatives (22–25) isolated
of Gongronema latifolium, otherwise known as ‘utazi’ or ‘madu-
from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe have been identi-
maro’ in Ibo and Yoruba respectively is commonly used as a food
fied as aldose reductase inhibitors both in vitro and in vivo,
vegetable and is widely recognized for its traditional use in
suppressing sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes as well
diabetes management. Lupenyl cinnamate (15), lupenyl acetate
as lens galactitol accumulation in 30% galactose-fed rats (Kato
and α- and β-amyrin cinnamates (16) isolated from the combined
et al., 2006).
root and stems of locally obtained samples have recently been
Several isolated flavonoids have also been identified as bioac-
identified as the bioactive compounds, possessing both anti-
tive constituents. Isoscutellarein (8-hydroxy apigenin) (28) is a
hyperglycemic effects in glucose-fasted rats as well as insulin
flavonoid isolated from the hot water extract of the leaves of Bixa
stimulating effects in INS-1 cells (Adebajo et al., 2013).
orellana L., which was identified as an aldose reductase inhibitor
Foetidin from the whole plant and the unripe fruits of Momor-
(Terashima et al., 1991). Rutin (29) and quercetin (30) were
dica foetida collected in Nigeria also decreased blood glucose levels
isolated from the leaves of Bauhinia monandra Kurz as the anti-
of normal fasted, but not alloxan-induced rats at only 1 mg/kg
hyperglycemic constituents in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Alade
(Marquis et al., 1977). Acetylenic glucosides (10) and (11) from
et al., 2011, 2012). A bioassay guided fractionation of the stem bark
Bidens pilosa decreased blood glucose in the murine type 2 diabetes
of Cassia fistula L. led to the identification of catechin (33) as the
model C57BL/Ks-db/db mice (Ubillas et al., 2000), and inhibited the
bioactive agent. It decreased plasma glucose levels in STZ-induced
spontaneous development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic
diabetic rats, with direct effects on glucose metabolizing enzymes
(NOD) mice by modulating the differentiation of T-helper cells
and expression of the glucose transporter GLUT4 (Daisy et al.,
(Chang et al., 2004).
2010). Fractionation of the methanol extract of the leaves of Senna
The monoterpenes myrcene (12), citral (13) and geraniol (14)
alata (L.) Roxb. (syn- Cassia alata), which showed potent α-
found in Cymbopogon citratus were identified as aldose reductase
glucosidase inhibitory effects, identified kaempferol gentiobioside
inhibitors using in-silico docking methods (Vyshali et al., 2011).
(31) and kaempferol (32) as the bioactive compounds (Varghese et
They are also components of the essential oil of many medicinal
al., 2013). Increased translocation of GLUT4 receptors to the
plants used in Nigeria as shown in Table 1. This preliminary
plasma membrane of L6 myotubes was also observed with a
information warrants further in vitro and in vivo studies involving
flavonoid-rich fraction of Scoparia dulcis L. (Beh et al., 2010),
plant samples from Nigeria previously shown to contain these
although the bioactive constituent(s) was not identified.
compounds, given that the beneficial effect of the essential oil of
The presence of aromatic hydroxyl groups in the benzo-γ-
Cymbopogon citratus containing high amounts of these monoter-
pyran structure of flavonoids is associated with its antioxidant
penes has now been validated in vivo in experimentally induced
properties, particularly its free radical scavenging effects. These
type-2 diabetic rats (Bharti et al., 2013).
properties have been shown to protect pancreatic islet cells from
oxidative stress as well as help in the regeneration of β-cells as
3.3.3. Phenolic compounds shown with epicatechin found in green tea (Sabu et al., 2002) and
A wide range of phenolic compounds have been identified quercetin (Coskun et al., 2005). More importantly, they can
as active principle(s) in some of the plants here reviewed. prevent the formation of advanced glycated end products (AGEs)
Anthraquinone glycosides from Morinda citrifolia L, namely dam- and other diabetic complications associated with high oxidative
nacanthol-3-O-β-D-primeveroside (18) and lucidin 3-O-β-D-prime- stress conditions such as artherosclerosis, nephropathy, neuropa-
veroside (19), decreased blood glucose levels in STZ-induced thy, retinopathy and erectile dysfunction (Rahimi et al., 2005).
diabetic mice at 100 mg/kg (Kamiya et al., 2008). Incidentally, this Thus, the presence of quercetin and epicatechin as well as other
plant is not native to Nigeria and is not known to grow in Nigeria. potent antioxidant flavonoids in a wide range of plants such as
However, the use of a registered herbal product of the juice Irvingia gabonensis, Khaya senegalensis, Mangifera indica, Securi-
extract, Tahitian noni juices (TNJ) is quite popular in Nigeria for daca longipedunculata and Ocimum gratissimum, will contribute to
various ailments including diabetes. Administration of 1 ml/ – and in some cases may be the basis for – their use in the holistic
150 mg body weight of the rats twice daily for four weeks prior management of diabetes which includes the prevention of diabetic
to and after the induction of diabetes with alloxan resulted in complications.
significant decrease in blood sugar levels, indicating a prophylactic Other flavonoids have also been shown to directly affect
effect of the extract against alloxan-induced diabetes (Horsfal et specific therapeutic targets in diabetes. For instance, supplemen-
al., 2008). The presence of these phenolic compounds in the tation of mice diet with naringin or hesperidin modulated the
marketed product has however not been confirmed. activity of glucose metabolizing enzymes, with an increase in
Kolaviron (17) is a mixture of flavanones isolated from the hepatic glucokinase activity and decrease in hepatic glucose-6-
acetone extract of the edible nuts of Garcinia kola Heckel (bitter phosphatase activity in diabetic db/db mice (Jung et al., 2004) and
kola), which is valued in most parts of West Africa. It decreased GK type-2 diabetic rats (Akiyama et al., 2009). These two flavo-
blood sugar levels in normal and alloxan induced diabetic mice at noids are constituents of all citrus fruits and have also been
a dose of 100 mg/kg, as well as inhibited rat lens aldose reductase identified in Senna alata (Hennebelle et al., 2009) and Rauvolfia
(RLAR) activity (Iwu et al., 1990a). vomitoria (Campbell-Tofte et al., 2011) and as such may account for
Other phenolic compounds have been identified as bioactive some of their effects. Myricetin is another flavonoid that has
constituents but not from plant samples collected in Nigeria. shown direct beneficial effects in diabetes through enhanced
A diacylated anthocyanin peonidin 3-O-[2-O-(6-O-E-feruloyl-β- glycogen metabolism (Ong and Khoo, 2000) and improved insulin
D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-E-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-β-D- sensitivity (Liu et al., 2007). It has been identified in some of the
glucopyranoside isolated from the root of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Poir. plants either in its aglycone form or as a glycoside. These are the
908 U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

Allium species, Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Citrus species, Carica appropriate conclusions that will act as guidelines for their clinical
papaya, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Cassia sieberiana, Chrysophyllum use cannot be drawn.
albidum, Ipomoea batatas and Bridelia ferruginea. A good knowledge of the traditional use of these plants based
on ethnobotanical studies is very important in the design of a good
clinical study. This is especially important for plants which are
3.3.4. Hydroxylated compounds including sugars used as mixtures, as the individual components may be working
Some other non-phenolic hydroxylated cyclic compounds have synergistically to produce the overall desired effect. An example is
been isolated and identified as bioactive agents. These include the the synergistic effect produced by a decoction mix of the leaves
gingerols (34–36) from Zingiber officinale, which were shown to of Gongronema latifolium, Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia
enhance glucose uptake into muscles as a result of a direct amygdalina in modulating baseline blood glucose levels, which
increase in the expression of the GLUT4 receptor (Li et al., 2012). was not observed with the individual plants (Ejike et al., 2013).
An inositol derivative, D-3-O-methyl chiroinositol (37) isolated Given that many of these herbal remedies are currently being
from the methanol extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia thonningii taken by diabetic patients alongside their prescription medicines,
Schum. produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose a concerted effort between clinicians and researchers would be an
levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Asuzu and Nwaehujor, ideal way to recruit patients to such studies.
2013). To ensure the reliability of conclusions drawn from any clinical
Finally, a number of benzyl derivatives including carbamates study, they should always involve proper planning with appro-
and thiocarbamates have been isolated from fractions of the priate controls and ought to be conducted within a reasonable
methanol extract of the fruits of Moringa oleifera Lam. These time frame, in line with the guidelines of the Declaration of
compounds have been shown to possess insulin secretory effects, Helsinki. In addition, the recommendations for reporting rando-
stimulating Z 15 ng insulin/mg protein in pancreatic INS-1 cells at mized clinical trials, as defined in the ‘Consolidated Standards
100 ppm. Some of these compounds were identified as 1-O-phenyl of Reporting Randomized Clinical Trials (CONSORT) statement’
α-L-rhamnopyranoside (38), methyl N-{4-[(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl) (Schulz et al., 2010) should also be followed. Nonetheless,
benzyl]}carbamate (39), and methyl N-{4-[(40 -O-acetyl-α-L-rham- this relatively high ‘success’ rate amongst the various studies
nopyranosyl)benzyl]}carbamate (40). conducted highlights the potential of harnessing ethnobotanical
Many plant secondary metabolites have been associated with information in enhancing patient therapy.
specific beneficial effects in diabetes, which might account for the
therapeutic effect of the herbal drug (Qi et al., 2010; Singh et al.,
2013). Thus, apart from a bioguided fractionation, the biologically
active agent of a plant can also be inferred by evaluating the 4. Toxicological evidence and considerations
phytochemical constituents that have previously been isolated.
These can thereafter be confirmed in specific pharmacologic The administration of whole plant extracts or fractions con-
experiments. sisting of a myriad of compounds, can elicit different biological
effects in the body, some of which may be harmful toxic effects.
Sometimes, these toxic effects are only associated with certain
3.4. Clinical studies parts of the plant. For example, the leaves of Senna occidentalis
have hepatoprotective effects and are used traditionally for the
The validation of biologically active plants in randomized, treatment of liver disorders (Jafri et al., 1999). However, ingestion
placebo-controlled clinical trials involving human subjects is a of toxins found in the seeds (beans) is thought to be the probable
necessary step towards the possible integration of traditional cause of acute hepato-myoencephalopathy (HMP) in children
herbal products into health systems. For these purposes, isolation (Vashishtha et al., 2009). This risk of toxicity associated with the
of the active constituent may not be necessary. The European use of herbal products is one of the main reasons for the hesitance
Directive of Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products is an example of amongst healthcare practitioners towards promoting their inte-
how reports of traditional use and a sound safety profile are gration into healthcare systems.
enough to regulate herbal medicines (Cox and Roche, 2004). Adequate knowledge about the traditional use of such plants is
However, knowing the identity of the active principle would be very necessary as this often helps to forestall the ingestion of such
ideal in order to ensure a better quality control and perhaps a toxic plants or plant parts. Sometimes the toxic component may
more defined dosage. have been identified such as abrin, a toxic protein found in the
Fourteen of the plants reviewed in this paper have been seeds of Abrus pecatorius, with an estimated human fatal dose of
clinically evaluated in human subjects, either singly or in combi- 0.1–1 mg/kg (Kirsten et al., 2003). In rare cases, the hypoglycemic
nation. These are Bridelia ferruginea, Citrus aurantium, Gongronema agent in the plant could also be the toxic agent, such as with
latifolium, Ocimum gratissimum, Rauvolfia vomitoria, Vernonia hypoglycin from Blighia sapida (Sherratt, 1986). Thus, the thera-
amygdalina, Carica papaya, Curcuma longa, Ipomoea batatas, Irvin- peutic use of such a plants as whole extracts is therefore not
gia gabonensis, Gymnema sylvestre, Phyllanthus amarus and Sola- recommended.
num aethiopicum (Table 1), of which the first six involved plant Various plants in Table 1 have been associated with specific
samples collected from Nigeria. Only Phyllanthus amarus did not organ toxicity. Examples include the nephrotoxic effects of Alstonia
produce the desired clinical effect (Moshi et al., 2001). congensis, Aristolochia spp., Cassia sieberiana, Ficus exasperata,
Most of the clinical studies were not randomized, controlled Securidaca longipedunculata and the hepatotoxic effects of Cassia
trials but preliminary studies evaluating the therapeutic effect sieberiana, Ficus exasperata, Morinda citrifolia, Picralima nitida and
of the plant in human subjects. Exceptions to these were those Senna occidentalis. The hepatotoxic effects of some extracts such as
carried out on Rauvolfia vomitoria and Citrus aurantium (Campbell- Ocimum gratissimum and Sphenocentrum jollyanum are directly
Tofte et al., 2011), Irvingia gabonensis (Ngondi et al., 2009) and linked to their effect on the liver function enzymes. The cardio-
Ipomoea batatas (Ludvik et al., 2004). Similarly, a meta-analysis by toxic and neurotoxic effects of some other extracts have also been
Leung et al. (2009) of all clinical studies carried out on Momordica identified. Sometimes, these toxic effects are only seen at high
charantia identified flaws in their study design, despite the extract doses, which would therefore not preclude their continued use
consistently producing a hypoglycemic effect. As a result, as medicinal plants so long as there is appropriate information
U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924 909

about the safe dose ranges. The use of other more toxic plants A synergistic effect should however not be assumed. It is
would however need to be completely discontinued. sometimes advisable for patients not to take drugs alongside their
A thorough analysis of the plant's extracts as well as identified herbal products due to negative drug interactions that may occur.
phytochemical constituents with respect to their safety/toxicity For instance, the water soluble fraction of okra fruits has been
profile particularly in humans can ensure a critical assessment of shown to decrease the absorption of metformin (Khatun et al.,
its therapeutic potential. Previously, coumarins which are a 2011). Although both would otherwise be beneficial in diabetes
component of a wide range of plants were identified as hepato- management, taken together would result in a decrease in the
toxic based on various studies carried out in rodents. However, therapeutic concentration of metformin, which in turn may not
further studies have showed that certain animal species are bring about the desired hypoglycemic effect in the patient.
resistant to coumarin-induced toxicity. The 7-hydroxylation meta- Constituents of medicinal plants also undergo the four main
bolic pathway is the most favored in humans leading to the pharmacokinetic processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism
formation of non-toxic metabolites, whereas in rats the most and elimination (ADME). There is therefore the possibility of an
favored pathway is a 3,4-epoxidation leading to the formation of interaction with one of the different ADME parameters by the
toxic metabolites. Knowledge of this and a quantitative health risk herb, which could invariably affect the fate/bioavailability of a co-
assessment have now confirmed its safety in humans (Felter et al., administered drug and possibly, the resulting therapeutic benefit
2006; Lake, 1999). (s). This is known as a ‘pharmacokinetic interaction’.
Evaluation of medicinal plants for potential herb–drug interac- Out of the one hundred and fifteen plants reviewed in this
tions is equally as important as its evaluation for efficacy paper, over thirty of them have shown in vitro and/or in vivo
and safety. Two types of herb–drug interactions exist: pharmaco- modulation of the activity of one or more of these ADME para-
dynamic interactions and pharmacokinetic interactions. If a herbal meters (Fig. 7). Some of these interactions were on absorption,
plant alters the expected pharmacological effect of a drug as a either by modulating the effect of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an
result of its biochemical or physiological effect on intestinal efflux transporter, or by direct effects on the intestinal
the body, this is known as a ‘pharmacodynamic interaction’. tight junctions. Other pharmacokinetic interactions were on
If the herb and the drug are both expected to produce the same metabolism, by interacting with one or more cytochrome P450
pharmacological effect, there may be an increased therapeutic enzymes responsible for phase 1 metabolism or either of the
effect produced with their co-administration. This knowledge can phase 2 metabolic enzymes (Table 1).
be harnessed towards producing a synergistic effect between the The role of P-gp in the intestinal epithelium is the extrusion
two, which would possibly require a dose adjustment. Otherwise, of certain xenobiotics from the blood to the intestinal lumen
the resulting effect could be detrimental if appropriate monitor- as well as to minimize the entry of drugs in the lumen into the
ing and evaluation is not done. A good example is the severe bloodstream, ultimately resulting in decreased absorption and
hypoglycemic that was observed in a female diabetic patient decreased oral bioavailability (Sharom, 2007). For drugs that are
taking chlorpropamide and a meal containing Momordica char- P-gp substrates such as glibenclamide, this effect of the efflux
antia and Allium sativum (Izzo and Ernst, 2001). transporter is one of the determinant factors in the recommended

Acacia nilotica
Annona senegalensis
Bauhinia thonningii
Carica papaya
Moringa oleifera
Solanum melongena
Vernonia amygdalina
Ximenia americana
Zingiber officinale
P-gp P-gp
Bridelia ferruginea
Catharanthus roseus
Curcuma longa
Khaya ivorensis
Mangifera indica
Morinda lucida
Aframomum melegueta
Bixa orellana
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus aurantium
Citrullus colocynthis
Corchorus olitorius
Ipomoea batatas
Lawsonia inermis
Jatropha curcas
Momordica charantia
Lawsonia inermis
Morinda citrifolia
Momordica charantia
Morinda lucida
Morus alba
Moringa oleifera
Murraya koenigii
Phyllanthus amarus
Persea americana
Securidaca longipedunculata
Phyllanthus amarus
Senna alata
Senna alata

Fig. 7. In vitro pharmacokinetic herb–drug interactions identified based on the literature reviewed.
910 U.F. Ezuruike, J.M. Prieto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014) 857–924

dose of the drug to ensure that an adequate therapeutic concen- of these plants as herbal preparations (such as pharmacopoeial
tration is achieved in the bloodstream. Co-administration of the monographs) would be required to ensure the reproducibility of
drug with a herb with inhibitory effects on P-gp such as Acacia their therapeutic effects. Finally, as a means of giving credence to
nilotica, Annona senegalensis, Bauhinia thonningii, Bridelia ferrugi- the pre-clinical experimental evidence, intervention or clinical
nea, Carica papaya and Morinda lucida might result in increased studies with the standardised materials should be carried out in
plasma concentration of the drug. order to validate their usefulness in diabetes management. We
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) family of enzymes are respon- hope that in this manner the therapeutic potential of these
sible for phase 1 oxidative, peroxidative and reductive metabolic medicinal plants can be best harnessed, towards a possible
transformations of drugs, environmental chemicals and natural integration into the healthcare system.
compounds into less toxic, more water-soluble products, in order
to facilitate their excretion from the body. They are most abundant
in the liver, which is the primary site for metabolism. The activity Acknowledgments
of CYP enzymes can be modified either by induction or inhibition
as seen with the extracts of Bixa orellana and Jatropha curcas U.F. Ezuruike is grateful to the Commonwealth Scholarship
respectively. The biological activity of the xenobiotics metabolized Commission in the UK for the award of a DFID (Department for
by these enzymes can be greatly altered as a result (Rendic and International Development) sponsored Ph.D. scholarship.
Carlo, 1997). St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a very good
example of a herbal product that has produced clinically signifi-
cant effects as a result of its interactions with P-gp and CYP
Appendix A. Supplementary information
enzymes (Henderson et al., 2002).
In vitro interactions have also been identified with the phase
Supplementary data associated with this article can be found in
2 metabolizing enzymes, particularly with the glutathione trans-
the online version at
ferases (GSTs). As with P-gp and CYPs, such interactions can alter
the plasma concentration and the resulting therapeutic effect of
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