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INDUSTRIAL SOLVENTS

HANDBOOK
Fifth Edition

Edited by

Ernest W. Flick

NOYES DATA CORPORATION


Westwood, New Jersey, U.S.A.
Copyright 8 1998 by Ernest W.Rick
No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying, recording or by any informa-
tion storage and retrieval system, without permission
in writing from the Publisher.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 98-5137
ISBN: 0-8155-1413-1
Printed in the United States

Published in the United States of America by


Noyes Data Carporation
Fairview Avenue, Westwood, New Jersey 07675

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Industrial solvents handbook / edited by Ernest W. Rick. -- 5th ed.


p. an.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8155-1413-1
1. Solvents--Handbook, manuals, etc 1. Rick, Ernest W.
TP247.5.153 1998
661'.807--dc21 98-5137
CIP
NOTICE
To the best of our knowledge the information in this publication is
accurate; however, the Publisher does not assume any
responsibility or liability for the accuracy or completeness of, or
consequences arising from, such information. This book does not
purport to contain detailed user instructions, and by its range and
scope could not possibly do so. Mention of trade names or
commercial products does not constitute endorsement or
recommendation for use by the Author or Publisher.

industrial solvents could be toxic, and therefore due caution


should always be exercised in the use of these potentially
hazardous materials. Final determination of the suitability of any
information or product for use contemplated by any user, and the
manner of that use, is the sole responsibility of the user. We
strongly recommend that users seek and adhere to a
manufacturer's or supplier's current instructions for handling each
material they use. The reader is cautioned to consult the supplier
in case of questions regarding current availability.

viii
Foreword

Completely revised, and vastly expanded, this well-established and successful reference volume is designed
principally for the chemical and other process industries, but will be found useful by anyone needing the latest
pertinent data on industrial solvents.

This Fifth Edition is uniquely helpful when it becomes necessary to select a new solvent on a competitive or
comparative basis: when the customary solvent, employed hitherto, might no longer be available, or can no longer
be used because of environmental reasons; or when prices have risen to such an extent that an existing process
must be redesigned to make it economically feasible again.

The over 1,200 tables in this book contain basic data on the physical properties of most solvents and on the
solubilities of a variety of materials in these solvents. Even phase diagrams for multicomponent systems are
included. Particularly valuable are the HPLC and UV data for various solvents provided in the last chapter.

The contents of the tables were selected by the editor mainly from manufacturers' literature at no cost to, nor
influence from, the manufacturers or distributors of these solvents. The source of each table is indicated by a
reference number following the title. A complete set of references is found at the end of the book, as well as a
trade name index.

The vast amount of information contained in the book is evidenced at once in the large table of contents, which
is organized by chemical groups and also serves as the index. An abbreviated summary of the contents is given
below, indicating the number of tables in each category.

Hydrocarbon Solvents ........................ 143


Halogenated Hydrocarbons .................... 64
Nitroparaffins .............................. 10
Organic Sulfur Compounds .................... 34
Mononhydric Alcohols ........................ 182
Polyhydric Alcohols .......................... 227
Phenols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Aldehydes ................................ 13
Ethers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Glycol Ethers .............................. 80
Ketones .................................. 50
Acids .................................... 21
Amines .................................. .193
Esters ................................... 84
HPLC and UV Data. ......................... 84

Advanced composition and production methods developed by Noyes Data Corporation


are employed to bring this durably bound book to you in a minimum of time. Special
techniques are used to close the gap between "manuscript" and "completed book." In
order to keep the price of the book to a reasonable level, it has been partially
reproduced by photo-offset directly from the original material and the cost saving
passed on to the reader. Due to this method of publishing, certain portions of the book
may be less legible than desired.

vii
Contents and Subject Index
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 1

HYDROCARBON SOLVENTS ........................................................................ 3


Paraffins .................................................................................... 3
2.1 Methane ......................................................................... 3
2.2 Ethane ........................................................................... 3
2.3 Propane .......................................................................... 4
2.4 lsobutane ......................................................................... 4
2.5 n-Butane ......................................................................... 5
2.6 2.2-Dimethylpropane ................................................................ 5
2.7 lsopentane ........................................................................ 6
2.8 n-Pentane ........................................................................ 7
2.9 2. 2-Dimethylbutane ................................................................. 7
2.10 2.3-Dimethylbutane ................................................................. 8
2.11 2-Methylpentane ................................................................... 8
2.12 3-Methylpentane ................................................................... 9
2.13 n-Hexane ....................................................................... 10
2.14 2.4-Dimethylpentane ............................................................... 11
2.15 2.3-Dimethylpentane ............................................................... 11
2.16 3-Methylhexane .................................................................. 12
2.17 n-Heptane ....................................................................... 12
2.18 2.2. 4-Trimethylpentane ............................................................. 12
2.19 2.3. 4-Trimethylpentane ............................................................. 13
2.20 Mixed Trimethylpentanes ............................................................ 13
2.21 Mixed Dimethylhexanes ............................................................. 13
2.22 n-Oxtane ........................................................................ 14
2.23 2.2. 5-Trimethylhexane .............................................................. 14
2.24 n-Nonane ....................................................................... 15
2.25 n-Decane ....................................................................... 15
2.26 n-Undecane ..................................................................... 16
2.27 n-Dodecane ..................................................................... 16
2.28 n-Tridecane ...................................................................... 17
2.29 n-Tetradecane .................................................................... 17
2.30 n-Pentadecane ................................................................... 17
2.31 n-Hexadecane ................................................................... 18
2.32 n-Heptadecane ................................................................... 18
2.33 n-Octadecane .................................................................... 18
2.34 n-Nonadecane ................................................................... 18
2.35 n-Elcosane ...................................................................... 19
Cycloparaffins ............................................................................... 19
2.36 Cyclopentane ..................................................................... 19
2.37 Methylcyclopentane ................................................................ 20
2.38 Cyclohexane ..................................................................... 20
2.39 1.1-Dimethylcyclopentane ........................................................... 21
2.40 1.2- and 1.3-Dimethylcyclopentane .................................................... 22
2.41 Methylcyclohexane ................................................................. 22
trans-I. &Dimethylcyclohexane .......................................................
2.42
2.43 .
cis-1 4-Dimethylcyclohexane .........................................................
Mixed 1.4-Dimethylcyclohexanes ......................................................
23
23

..
2.44 23
2.45 trans-1 2-Dimethylcyclohexane ....................................................... 24
2.46 cis-I 2-Dimethylcyclohexane ......................................................... 24
2.47 Mixed 1.2-Dimethylcyclohexane ....................................................... 25
2.48 Ethylcyclohexane .................................................................. 25
2.49 lsopropylcyclohexane ............................................................... 26
Olefins ..................................................................................... 27
2.50 Ethylene ........................................................................ 27
x Contents and Subject Index

2.51 Propylene ....................................................................... 27


2.52 Isobutylene ...................................................................... 27
2.53 Butene-1 ........................................................................ 28
2.54 trans-Butene-2 ................................................................... 28
2.55 cis-Butene-2 ..................................................................... 28
2.56 Mixed 2-Butenes .................................................................. 29
2.57 3-Methylbutene-1 ................................................................. 29
2.58 2-Methylbutene-1 ................................................................. 30
2.59 Methylbutene-2 ................................................................... 31
2.60 Pentene-1 ....................................................................... 31
2.61 cis-Pentene-2 .................................................................... 32
2.62 trans-Pentene-2 .................................................................. 32
2.63 Mixed 2-Pentenes ................................................................. 32
2.64 3.3-Dimethylbuten e-1 .............................................................. 33
2.65 Mixed 2.3-Dimethylbutenes .......................................................... 33
2.66 4-Methylpentene-1 ................................................................ 33
2.67 cis-4-Methylpentene-2 ............................................................. 34
2.68 trans-4-Methylpentene-2 ........................................................... 35
2.69 Mixed 4-Methyl-2-Pentenes ......................................................... 35
2.70 2-Methylpentene-1 ................................................................ 36
2.71 2-Methylpentene-2 ................................................................ 36
2.72 Hexene-1 ....................................................................... 37
2.73 cis-Hexene-2 .................................................................... 37
2.74 Mixed 2-Hexenes ................................................................. 37
2.75 Mixed 2- and 3-Hexenes ........................................................... 38
2.76 Heptene-1 ....................................................................... 38
2.77 cis-Heptene-2 .................................................................... 38
2.78 Mixed 2-Heptenes ................................................................. 39
2.79 Mixed 3-Heptenes ................................................................. 39
2.80 2.4.4-Trirnethylpentene-1 ........................................................... 39
2.81 2.4.4-Trirnethylpenten e-2 ........................................................... 40
2.82 Mixed Diisobutylenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.83 Octene-1 ........................................................................ 41
2.84 cis-Octene-2 ..................................................................... 41
2.85 Mixed 2-Octenes .................................................................. 41
2.86 Mixed Octenes .................................................................... 42
2.87 Nonene-1 ....................................................................... 42
2.88 Decene-1 ....................................................................... 42
2.89 Undecene-1 ..................................................................... 42
2.90 Dodecene-1 ..................................................................... 42
2.91 ......................................................................
Tridecene-1 43
2.92 ....................................................................
Tetradecene-1 43
2.93 ....................................................................
Butadiene-13 43
2.94 ........................................................................
Isoprene 44
2.95 .......................................................................
Piperylene 44
Cycloolefins ................................................................................. 44
2.96 Cyclopentene ..................................................................... 44
2.97 Cyclohexene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.98 4-Vinylcyclohexene-1 .............................................................. 46
2.99 Mixed Methylcyclohexenes ........................................................... 46
2.100 Cyclooctadiene-1. 5 ................................................................ 47
Aromatics .................................................................................. 47
2.101 Benzene ........................................................................ 47
2.102 Toluene ......................................................................... 48
2.103 Ethylbenzene ..................................................................... 48
2.104 p-Xylene ......................................................................... 49
2.105 rn-Xylene ....................................................................... 49
2.106 o-Xylene ........................................................................ 50
2.107 Curnene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.108 n-Propylbenzene .................................................................. 51
2.109 Pseudocurnene ................................................................... 51
2.110 n-Butylbenzene ................................................................... 51
2.111 lsobutylbenzene ................................................................... 52
2.112 Hydrocarbon Solvents ..............................................................
sec-Butylbenvene 53
2.113 tert-Butylbenzene ................................................................. 53
Contents and Subject Index xi

2.114 1-Phenylbutene-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.115 sec-Amylbenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.116 Mixed Amylbenzenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Terpenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.1 17 DIPENTENE No. 122 Terpene Solvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.1 18 SOLVENOL 2 Terpene Solvent ....................................................... 55
2.1 19 SOLVENOL 226 Terpene Solvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.120 HERCULES Steam-Distilled Wood Turpentine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.121 HERCULES alpha-Pinene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.122 Selected Properties of Some Common Terpene Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.123 Arizona Terpene Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
ComparativeData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.124 Amoco PANASOLSolvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.125 Ashland Aliphatic and Aromatic Solvents ................................................ 62
2.126 Chemcentral Solvents (Aliphatic and Aromatic) ............................................ 63
2.127 Crowley Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.128 Dynaloy Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.129 Eastman Solvents and Diluents ....................................................... 68
2.130 Exxon Hydrocarbon Solvefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.131 Fina Aromatic Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.132 Hoechst Celanese Methyl Isobutyl Ketone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.133 KendalVAmalie. Wlco Special Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.134 Mobil Oil Aliphatic and Aromatic Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
2.135 Penreco Hydrocarbon Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.136 Phillips 66 Hibh P u r i i Hydrocarbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.137 Shell Chemical Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2.138 Sunoco Chemicals Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
2.139 3M SCOTCH-GRIP Solvents No. 2 and No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
2.140 Total Petroleum Special Solvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
2.141 UCARSolvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
2.142 Unocal Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
2.143 VistaLPASolvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103


ChlorlnatedHydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.1 AllylChlorice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.2 n-Amyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.3 Mixed Amyl Chlorides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.4 Benzyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.5 n-Butyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.6 sec-Butyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.7 Butyryl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.8 Caprylyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.9 Carbon Tetrachloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
3.10 Chlorinated Butane Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
3.1 1 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
3.12 Chlorinated Organic Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
3.13 CHLOROWAX Liquid Chlorinated Paraffins. Waxes and Alpha Olefins ......................... 108
3.14 Chlorobenzenes-Vapor Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
3.16 Chloromethylene Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
3.17 0- and p-Chlorotoluenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
3.18 p-Chlorotoluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
3.19 HALSO99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
3.20 HALSOAG 125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
3.21 o-Dichlorobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
3.22 p-Dichlorobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
3.23 Dichlorodiisopropyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
3.24 Dichloroethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
3.25 Dichloroethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
3.26 Dichlorohydrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
3.27 Dichloromethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
3.28 Dichloropentanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
3.29 2.4-Dichlorotoluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
3.30 Epichlorohydrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
3.31 Ethyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
xii Contents and Subject Index

3.32 Ethylene Chlorohydrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123


3.33 Ethylene Dichloride ............................................................... 123
3.34 2-Ethylhexyl Chloride .............................................................. 124
3.35 Glycerol a-Monochlorohydrin ........................................................ 124
3.36 Hexachloroethane ................................................................ 125
3.37 n-Hexyl Chloride ................................................................. 126
3.38 Methylene Chloride ............................................................... 126
3.39 Isopropyl Chloride ................................................................ 127
3.40 Methyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
3.41 Monochlorohydrin ................................................................. 130
3.42 Pentachloroethane ................................................................ 130
3.43 Perchloroethylene ................................................................ 130
3.44 Propylene Chlorohydrin ............................................................ 132
3.45 Propylene Dichloride .............................................................. 132
3.46 1.1.2. 2-Tetrachloroethane .......................................................... 133
3.47 Tetrachloroethylene ............................................................... 134
3.48 Trichlorobenzenes ................................................................ 136
1.1. 1-Trichloroethane ..............................................................
3.49
3.50
3.51
..
1 1 2-Trichloroethane ..............................................................
Trichloroethylene .................................................................
136
142
142
3.52 Density of Chlorinated Solvents ...................................................... 145
3.53 Vapor Pressure of Chlorinated Solvents ................................................ 145
3.54 Trichloropropane ................................................................. 146
3.55 Triglycol Dichloride ................................................................ 146
3.56 Vinylchloride .................................................................... 147
3.57 Vinylidene Chloride ............................................................... 147
ComparativeData ........................................................................... 149
3.58 Alpha Cleaning Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
3.59 Ashland Chlorinated Solvents ........................................................ 150
3.60 Chemcentral Chlorinated Solvents .................................................... 150
3.61 Dow Chemical Chlorinated Solvents ................................................... 151
3.62 Vertrel Cleaning Agents ............................................................ 160
3.63 Occidental Chemical (OXSOL Solvents) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
3.64 3M Hydrofluorether............................................................... 195

NITROPARAFFINS .............................................................................. 211


4.1 Angus Nitroparaffins ............................................................... 211
4.2 Angus NitroAlcohols .............................................................. 212
4.3 Angus Primary Amino Alcohols ....................................................... 213
4.4 Angus DMAP-80 ................................................................. 214
4.5 Industrial Amines Ranked in Order of Decreasing Base Strength .............................. 215
4.6 Comparing Amines for Safety ........................................................ 215
4.7 NlPAR640 ...................................................................... 216
4.8 COMSOL 101-X ................................................................. 218
4.9 COMSOL280 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
4.10 COMSOL 820 ................................................................... 221

ORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS .................................................................. 222


5.1 Carbon Disulfide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
5.2 Typical DMSO Properties ........................................................... 223
5.3 Vapor Pressure vs Temperature for DMSO .............................................. 224
5.4 Specific Gravity of DMSO as a Function of Temperature .................................... 224
5.5 DMSO Viscosity as a Function of Temperature ........................................... 224
5.6 Comparative Hygroscopicities of DMSO at Various Relative Humidities at 22°C ................... 225
5.7 Initial Sorption Rates of DMSO at Various Relative Humidities at 22% ......................... 225
5.8 Freezing Temperatures for DMSO-Solvent Binary System .................................. 225
5.9 Freezing Point for DMSO-Water Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
5.10 Freezing Point Curves for DMSO-Water Solutions ....................................... 226
5.11 Heat of Mixing of DMSC-4-40 System at 22°C .......................................... 226
5.12 Specific Gravity of DMSO-Water Solutions ............................................. 227
5.13 Viscosity of DMSO-Water Solutions .................................................. 227
5.14 Results of Reflux of DMSO for 24 Hours with Various Compounds ............................ 227
5.15 Thermal Stabiliof DMSO .......................................................... 228
5.16 Refluxing of DMSO and Mixtures for Shorter Periods ...................................... 228
5.17 Effect of Heating DMSO with Concentrated Acids ......................................... 228
Contents and Subject Index xiii

5.18 Solubility of Organic Materials in DMSO ................................................ 229


5.19 Solubility of Resins and Polymers in DMSO ............................................. 230
5.20 Solubility of Inorganic Materials in DMSO ............................................... 232
5.21 Solubility of Gases in DMSO at Atmospheric Pressure and 20% .............................. 233
5.22 Solubility Parameters of Strong Solvents ................................................ 233
5.23 DMSO as a Solvent Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
5.24 Hansen Solubility Parameters of Polymer Envelopes ....................................... 234
5.25 Polymer Solvency of DMSO/Tetralin Mixtures ............................................ 234
5.26 Polymer Solvency of DMSO/MIKE Mixtures .............................................. 235
5.27 Solvent Viscosities ................................................................ 235
5.28 Solvent Evaporation Times .......................................................... 235
Sulfolane .................................................................................. 236
5.29 Properties ofSulfolane ............................................................. 236
5.30 Solubility of Sulfolane in Various Chemical Compounds .................................... 236
5.31 Solubility of Various Chemical Compounds in Sulfolane .................................... 236
5.32 Thermal Stability of Sulfolane ........................................................ 236
5.33 Comparative Freezing Point Depression ................................................ 237
5.34 Specific Gravity .................................................................. 237

MONOHYDRIC ALCOHOLS ........................................................................ 238


Methanol .................................................................................. 238
6.1 Physical Properties of Methanol ...................................................... 238
6.2 Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Methanol ............................................ 239
6.3 Freezing Points of Methanol-Water Solutions ............................................ 239
6.4 Density and Specific Gravity of Methanol-Water Solutions at 15'C ............................ 240
6.5 Density and Specific Gravity of ethanol-Water Solutions at 30'C ............................. 241
6.6 Resultant Volume When Methanol and Water are Mixed .................................... 242
6.7 Solubility of Methanol in Gasoline from 15' to 30% ........................................ 242
6.8 Liquid Density of Methanol .......................................................... 243
6.9 Liquid Heat Capacity of Methanol ..................................................... 243
6.10 Vapor Heat Capacity of Methanol ..................................................... 244
6.11 Heat of Vaporization of Methanol ..................................................... 244
6.12 SurfaceTension of Methanol ........................................................ 245
6.13 Liquid Thermal Conductivity of Methanol ................................................ 245
6.14 Vapor Thermal Conductivity of Methanol ................................................ 246
6.15 Vapor Pressure of Methanol ......................................................... 246
6.16 Vapor Viscoslty of Methanol ......................................................... 247
6.17 Liquid Viscosity of Methanol ......................................................... 247
6.18 Azeotropes of Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
EthylAlcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
6.19 Physical Properties of Anhydrous Ethyl Alcohol ........................................... 249
6.20 Physical Properties of 95% Ethanol .................................................... 249
6.21 Properties and Specifications of Ethyl Alcohol ............................................ 249
6.22 Conversion Tableweight and Volume Percent of Ethyl Alcohol in Ethyl Alcohol-Water
Mixtures ...................................................................... 250
6.23 Index of Refraction of Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures at W'F ................................. 250
6.24 Heat of Solution of Ethyl Alcohol in Water ............................................... 251
6.25 Resultant Volume When Ethyl Alcohol and Water are Mixed ................................. 251
6.26 Boiling Points of Ethyl Alcohol-Water Solutions ........................................... 251
6.27 Permanganate TimeTest ........................................................... 252
6.28 Freezing Points of Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixture .......................................... 252
6.29 Viscosity of Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures ............................................... 253
6.30 Flash Point of Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol Solutions 'C and 'F vs Vol % Ethanol ..................... 254
6.31 Specific Heat of Aqueous Solutions of Ethanol ........................................... 254
6.32 Surface Tension of Pure Ethanol at Various Temperatures .................................. 254
6.33 Latent Heat of Vaporization of Ethyl Alcohol ............................................. 255
6.34 Heat Capacity of Ethyl Alcohol at Various Temperatures .................................... 255
6.35 Volumetric Equivalents ............................................................. 256
6.36 Ethyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures ........................................................ 256
6.37 Specially Denatures Alcohols ........................................................ 262
6.38 Authorized Denaturants for SDA 388 .................................................. 277
6.39 Denaturants Authorized for Completely Denatured Alcohol (CDA) and Specially
Denatured Alcohol (SDA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
6.40 Uses of Specially Denatured Alcohol .................................................. 279
6.41 Filmex Special Industrial Solvent Formulations ........................................... 281
xiv Contents and Subject Index

6.42 ........................................ 281


Completely Denatured Alcohol (CDA) Formulations
6.43 ..................................................... 281
Proprietary Solvent Formulations
6.44 ................................. 282
Punctilious Specially Denatured Alcohol (SDA) Formulations
6.45 ........................... 283
Composition and Typical End Uses of Specially Denatured Alcohols
6.46 ...................................... 284
Composition of Completely Denatured Alcohol (CDA)
6.47 Composition of Synasol Proprietary Solvents. Anhydrol Special Industrial Solvents.
.......................................................... 284
and lnksolvlnk Solvents
6.48 ..........................................................
Typical Physical Properties 285
6.49 ........................... 286
Densities of Pure Ethanol-Water Mixtures at Various Temperatures
6.50 ................................... 287
Vapor Pressure of Pure Ethanol at Various Temperatures
6.51 ........................................................... 287
Constant Boiling Mixtures
6.52 ............................................... 289
Proof Definitions and Conversion Factors
6.53 ...........................................................
Proof Conversion Tables 289
6.54 .............................................................
Azeotropes of Ethanol 291
n-PROPYLALCOHOL ........................................................................ 292
6.55 ................................................ 292
Physical Properties of n-Propyl Alcohol
6.56 ...................................................... 293
Azeotropes of n-Propyl Alcohol
6.57 n-Propanol-Water-Benzene ........................................................ 294
6.58 n-Propanol-Water-n-Butanol....................................................... 294
6.59 n-Propanol-Water-Heptane ........................................................ 294
6.60 n-Propanol-Water-Hexane ......................................................... 294
ISOPROPYLALCOHOL ....................................................................... 295
6.61 ....................................... 295
Physical Properties of Anhydrous Isopropyl Alcohol
6.62 ............................................
Physical Properties of 91% Isopropyl Alcohol 295
6.63 Specific Gravity of Isopropyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures ...................................... 296
6.64 . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Vapor-Liquid Compositions of Isopropyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures and Their Boiling Points
6.65 .................... 297
Refractive Index vs Composition of Isopropyl Alcohol-Water Mixtures at 25'C
6.66 .......................... 297
Isopropyl Alcohol-Water: Kinematic Viscosity vs Composition at 25°C
6.67 ...................................................... 298
Azeotropes of Isopropyl Alcohol
6.68 .............................. 299
The Effect of Isopropyl Alcohol on the Dilution Ratio of Solvents
6.69 .
Viscosity of RS H Sec Nitrocellulose in Mixtures of Toluene. Isopropyl Alcohol and
...........................................................
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone 299
6.70 ....................... 299
Methanol-Isopropyl Alcohol: Boiling Point vs Composition at 760 mm Hg
6.71 .................... 299
Methanol-Isopropyl Alcohol: tiquid-Vapor Equilibria at Atmospherii Pressure
6.72 Vapor Pressure of Isopropyl Alcohol (Anhydrous) and sec-Butyl Alcohol at Various
Temperatures.................................................................. 300
6.73 ............................................ 300
Specific Gravities of Alcohols vs Temperature
n-Butyl Alcohol ............................................................................. 301
6.74 ................................................. 301
Physical Properties of n-Butyl Alcohol
6.75 ................................... 302
Vapor Pressure of Butyl Alcohol at Various Temperatures
6.76 ................................. 302
Solubiliy of Water in Butyl Alcohol at Various Temperatures
6.77 ................................. 303
Solubiliy of Butyl Alcohol in Water at Various Temperatures
6.78 ....................................................... 303
Azeotropes of n-Butyl Alcohol
IrobutylAlcohol ............................................................................ 304
6.79 ................................................. 304
Physical Properties of Isobutyl Alcohol
6.80 ....................................................... 304
Azeotropes of Isobutyl Alcohol
6.81 ............................ 305
Relative Evaporation Rates of Various Butyl Alcohols and Acetates
rec-ButylAlcohol ........................................................................... 305
6.82 ................................................
Physical Properties of =-Butyl Alcohol 305
6.83 ...................................................... 305
Azeotropes of sec-Butyl Alcohol
tert-ButylAlcohol ........................................................................... 306
6.84 ................................................ 306
Physical Properties of tert-Butyl Alcohol
6.85 Azeotropes of tert-Butyl Alcohol ...................................................... 306
PrlmaryAmylAlcohol ........................................................................ 307
6.86 ............................................. 307
Physical Properties of Primary Amyl Alcohol
Prlmaryn-AmylAlcohol ...................................................................... 307
6.87 ........................................... 307
Physical Properties of Primary n-Amyl Alcohol
SSC-AmylAlCOhOl ........................................................................... 308
6.88 ................................................ 308
Physical Properties of sec-Amyl Alcohol
6.89 ...................................................... 308
Azeotropes of sec-Amyl Alcohol
rec-n-AmylAlcohol ......................................................................... 309
6.90 .............................................. 309
Physical Properties of sec-n-Amyl Alcohol
6.91 .................................................... 309
Azeotropes of sec-n-Amyl Alcohol
tert-Amyl Alcohol, Reflned.................................................................... 310
Contents and Subject Index xv

6.92 ..........................................
Physical Properties of Refined tert-Amyl Alcoho 310
6.93 Azeotropes of tert-Amyl Alcohol ...................................................... 310
IroamylAlcohol ............................................................................. 311
6.94 .................................................
Physical Properties of Isoamyl Alcohol 311
6.95 .......................................................
Azeotropes of Isoamyl Alcohol 311
ActhreAmylAlcohol ......................................................................... 312
6.96 ..............................................
Physical Properties of Active Amyl Alcohol 312
FuselOll. Rellned........................................................................... 312
6.97 ................................................
Physical Properties of Refined Fusel Oil 312
YethylamylAlcohol .......................................................................... 313
6.98 ..............................................
Physical Properties of Methylamyl Alcohols 313
2-EthylbutylAlcohol......................................................................... 313
6.99 ..............................................
Physical Properties of 2-Ethylbutyl Alcohol 313
n-HexylAlcohol ............................................................................ 314
6.100 .................................................
Physical Properties of n-Hexyl Alcohol 314
6.101 ..................................................
Solubility of Water in n-Hexyl Alcohol 314
6.102 ..........................................................
Azeotropes ofexyl Alcohol 314
CyclohexylAlcohol .......................................................................... 315
6.103 ...............................................
Physical Properties of Cyclohexyl Alcohol 315
6.104 .....................................................
Azeotropes of Cyclohexyl Alcohol 315
HeptylAlcohol .............................................................................. 316
6.105 ..................................................
Physical Properties of Heptyl Alcohol 316
6.106 ........................................................
Azeotropes of Heptyl Alcohol 316
2-HeptylAlcohol ............................................................................ 316
6.107 ................................................
Physical Properties of 2-Hem Alcohol 316
3-HeptylAlcohol ............................................................................ 317
6.108 ................................................
Physical Properties of 3-Heptyl Alcohol 317
2-EthylhexylAlcohol......................................................................... 317
6.109 .............................................
Physical Properties of 2-Ethylhexyl Alcohol 317
n-OctylAlcohol ............................................................................. 317
6.1 10 .................................................
Physical Properties of n-Octyl Alcohol 317
6.111 .......................................................
Azeotropes ofn-Octyl Alcohol 318
SW-OctylAlCOhOl ........................................................................... 318
6.1 12 ................................................
Physical Propetties of sec-Odyl Alcohol 318
6.113 .....................................................
Azeotropes of sec-Octyl Alcohol 318
.............................................................................
lsooctyl Alcohol 319
6.1 I4 .................................................
Physical Properties of lsooctyl Alcohol 319
Nonyl Alcohol .............................................................................. 319
6.115 Physical Properties of Nonyl Alxoholx319
3b..TrimethylhexylAlcohol ................................................................... 320
6.1 16 .......................................
Physical Properties of 3.5.5-Trimethylhexyl Alcohol 320
DecylAlcohol .............................................................................. 320
6.117 ...................................................
Physical Properties of Decyl Alcohol 320
IrodecylAlcohol ............................................................................ 321
6.1 18 .................................................
Physical Properties of lsodecyl Alcohol 321
TrldecylAlcohol ............................................................................ 321
6.1 19 .................................................
Physical Properties of Tridecyl Alcohol 321
OtherAlcoholsandAlcoholBlends ............................................................. 322
6.120 ALFOL Alcohol Low Range Blends C,-C,.............................................. 322
6.121 .................................................
ALFOL Alcohol Pure Homologs C,-C, 322
6.122 .............................................
ALFOL Alcohol High Range Blends C,o-&,
+ 323
6.123 ALFOLTypical properties ........................................................... 324
ComparatlveData ........................................................................... 325
6.124 .................................................................
Ashland Alcohols 325
6.125 ..............................................................
Chemcentral Alcohols 325
6.126 CPSChemicalAlcohol99% ......................................................... 326
6.127 ...........................................................
Eastman Latent Solvents 327
6.128 .........................................................
Hoechst Celanese Alcohols 329
6.129 ....................................................
Procter and Gamble Fatty Alcohols 330
6.130 ............................................................
Shell Chemical Alcohols 331
6.131 ............................................................
Union Carbide Alcohols 332
AllylAlcohol ............................................................................... 333
6.132 ....................................................
Physical Properties of Allyl Alcohol 333
6.133 .........................................................
Azeotropes ofAlkylAlcohol 333
mi Contents and Subject Index

Crotyl Alcohol .............................................................................. 334


6.134 Physical Properties of Crotyl Alcohol .................................................... 334
MethylbutynylAlcohol........................................................................ 334
6.135 Physical Properties of Methylbutynyl Alcohol ............................................. 334
M~hylpentynylAlcohol....................................................................... 335
6.136 Physical Properties of Methylpentynyl Alcohol ............................................ 335
Higher UnraturatedAlcoholr .................................................................. 335
6.137 Unsaturated Aliphatic Alcohols ....................................................... 335
DIa~toneAlcohol........................................................................... 335
6.138 Physical Properties of Diacetone Alcohol ............................................... 335
2-Merc~ptoethylAlcohol...................................................................... 336
6.139 Physical Properties of 2-Mercaptoethyl Alcohol .......................................... 336
2-EthylsulfonylethylAlcohol ................................................................... 336
6.140 Physical Properties of 2-Ethylsulfonylethyl Alcohol ........................................ 336
l,l,I-TrHluoroethylAlcohol .................................................................... 336
6.141 Trifluoroethanol Physical Properties ................................................... 336
6.142 Polymer Solubilities in Trifluoroethanol ................................................. 337
6.143 Salt Solubility (wt %) in Trifluoroethanol at 25% .......................................... 337
6.144 Solubility of Gases in Trifluoroethanol at 27°C ............................................ 337
6.145 Vapor Pressure vs Temperature ...................................................... 337
6.146 Freezing Point: Trifluoroethanol-Water .. 338
6.147 Infrared Spectrum ................................................................ 338
1H,IH$H-Tetrafluoro- I-Propyl Alcohol .......................................................... 338
6.148 Physical Properties of lH.lH.3H-Tetrafluoro- I-Propyl Alcohol ............................... 338
lH,1H,5H-Octafluoro- I-Pentyl Alcohol ........................................................... 339
6.149 Physical Properties of 1H.lH.JH-Octafluoro- 1-Pentyl Alcohol ............................... 339
BenzylAlcohol ............................................................................. 339
6.150 Physical Properties of Benzyl Alcohol .................................................. 339
6.151 VELSICOL Benzyl Alcohol .......................................................... 339
Furfuryl Alcohol ............................................................................ 340
6.152 Physical Properties of Furfuryl Alcohol ................................................. 340
6.153 Vapor Pressure of Furfuryl Alcohol .................................................... 341
6.154 Pounds per Gallon of Furfuryl Alcohol at Various Temperatures .............................. 341
6.155 Density of Furfuryl Alcohol-Water Solutions as a Function of Composition (at 25'C. 77OF) . . . . . . . . . . . 342
6.156 Vapor Pressure of Furfuryl Alcohol as a Function of Temperature ............................. 342
6.157 Solubility of tiquid Organic Compounds in Furfuryl Alcohol (at 25%. 77OF) ...................... 343
6.158 Solubility of Solid Organic Compounds in Furfuryl Alcohol (at 25 "C. 77'F) ...................... 343
6.159 Solubility of Thermoplastic Resins in Furfuryl Alcohol (at Room Temperature) .................... 344
6.160 Effect of Time at Elevated Temperature on Certain Characteristics of Furfuryl Alcohol
(Under Neutral Conditions) ........................................................ 344
6.161 Stabiliation of Furfuryl Alcohol With an Amine (at 150'C in Glass) ............................ 345
6.162 Antoxidation of Furfuryl Alcohol ....................................................... 345
TetrahydrofurfurylAlcohol .................................................................... 346
6.163 Physical Properties of Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol .......................................... 346
6.164 Solubility of Various Substances in Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol ................................ 346
6.165 Vapor-tiquid Equilibria in the Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol-Water System ........................ 347
6.166 Specific Gravity and Pounds per Gallon of Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . 347
6.167 Vapor Pressure of Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol ............................................ 347
6.168 Vapor-tiquid Equilibria Curve of the THFA-Water System at the Boiling Point ................... 348
6.169 The System THFA-Water Composition Curve ............................................ 348
6.170 Specific Gravity and Pounds per Gallon ................................................ 349
6.171 Vapor Pressure (Boiling Point Method) ................................................. 349
6.172 HERCO and YARMOR Pine Oil ...................................................... 349
6.173 Hercules TERPINEOL ............................................................. 352
Other Data ................................................................................. 354
6.174 Solubility Data for Alcohols .......................................................... 354
6.1 75 Melting Points of Saturated Monohydric Alcohols ......................................... 355
6.176 Rate of Evaporation of Various Solvents at Room Temperature ............................... 355
6.177 Comparative Evaporation Rates of Alcohols ............................................. 355
6.178 Vapor Pressure of Alcohols at Various Temperatures ...................................... 356
6.179 Freezing Points (Initial Crystallization) of Aqueous Solution of Alcohols ......................... 356
6.180 Specific Gravity of Aqueous Solution of Alcohols at 20'C ................................... 357
6.181 Viscosity of Ethyl Cellulose in Alcohol-Hydrocarbon Mixtures ................................ 357
6.1 82 Evaporation Data for Various Solvents ................................................. 358
Contents and Subject Index xvii

POLYHYDRICALCOHOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
EthyleneGlycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
7.1 Physical Properties and Specifications of Ethylene Glycol ................................... 359
7.2 Boiling Points of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ....................................... 363
7.3 Density of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
7.4 Specific Gravity at 60°F of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solution vs Composition .................... 361
7.5 Freezing Points of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
7.6 Specific Heat of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ....................................... 362
7.7 Vapor-tiquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ....................... 362
7.8 Vapor Pressure of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ..................................... 363
7.9 Viscosity of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
7.10 Relative Humectant Values of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
7.1 1 Water Vapor Dew Points Over Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ............................ 364
7.12 Key Hygroscopictty Curve for Ethylene Glycol ............................................ 365
7.13 Moisture Absorption of Ethylene Glycol at Various Relative Humidities .......................... 365
7.14 Moisture Absorption of Ethylene Glycol at Various Absolute Humidities ......................... 365
7.15 Kinematic Viscosity of Anhydrous Ethylene Glycol and Trimethylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
7.16 Freezing Points of Anhydrous Ethylene Glycol and Trimethylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
7.17 Azeotropes of Ethylene Glycol ....................................................... 366
PropyleneGlycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
7.18 Physical Properties of Propylene Glycol ................................................ 367
7.19 Propylene Glycol Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
7.20 Boiling Points of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions ...................................... 368
7.21 Conversion Chart for Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
7.22 Density of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions (Percent by Weight) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
7.23 Effect of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions on Dew Points at Various Contact Temperatures . . . . . . . 370
7.24 Freezing Points of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
7.25 Heat of Vaporization of Propylene Glycol at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
7.26 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Propanediol Solutions at 20". 30".and 40°C ...................... 371
7.27 Relative Humectant Values of Propylene Glycol. N.F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
7.28 Specific Gravity of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .372
7.29 Specific Heat of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions ...................................... 373
7.30 Thermal Conductivity of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
7.31 Total Pressure over Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions Versus Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
7.32 Vapor-Liquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions ...................... 373
7.33 Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions ................................... 374
7.34 Viscosities of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
7.35 Azeotropes of Propylene Glycol ...................................................... 374
If-Propanedlol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
7.36 Physical Properties of 1.3-Propanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
7.37 Freezing Points of Aqueous Solutions of 1.3-Propanediol ................................... 375
7.38 Specific Gravity of Aqueous Solutions of 1.3-Propanediol at 20' and 40% ...................... 376
1,2-Butanedlol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
7.39 Physical Properties of 1.2-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
7.40 Specific Gravity of Aqueous 1.2-Butanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C ......................... 377
7.41 Absolute Viscostty of Aqueous 1.2-Butanediol Solutions at 20' and 40°C ....................... 377
1,3-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
7.42 Physical Properties of lb-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
7.43 Freezing Point of Aqueous Solutions of 1.3-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
7.44 Refractive Index and Freezing Point of Aqueous Solutions of 1.3-Butanediol .................... 378
7.45 Specific Gravity of Aqueous 1.3-Butanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C ......................... 378
7.46 Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of 1.3-Butanediol ......................................... 378
7.47 Absolute Viscosity of Aqueous 1.3-Butanediol Solutions at 20" and 40% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
1,4-Butanediol .............................................................................. 379
7.48 Physical Properties of 1.4-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
7.49 Absolute Viscosity of Aqueous 1.4-Butanediol Solutions at 20' and 40% ....................... 379
7.50 Specific Gravity of Aqueous 1.4-Butanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C ......................... 379
Pf-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
7.51 Physical Properties of 2.3-Butanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
7.52 Boiling Points of Aqueous levo-2. 3-Butanediol Solutions at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
7.53 Boiling Points of Aqueous levo-2.3-Butanedio I-Ethanol Solutions ............................ 381
7.54 Boiling Points of Aqueous levo-2.3-Butanedio l-hiethanol Solutions ........................... 381
7.55 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2. 3-Butanediol Solutions .................................. 381
7.56 Freezing Points of Aqueous meso-dextro-2. 3-Butanediol Solutions ........................... 382
xviii Contents and Subject Index

7.57 Effect of meso.2. 3.Butanediol on the Freezing Point of Aqueous levo-2. 3.Butanediol Solutions ..... 382
7.58 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Ethanol Solutions ........................... 383
7.59 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio LEthylene Glycol Solutions ..................... 383
7.60 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Methano1 Solutions .......................... 383
7.61 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
7.62 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2. 3.Butanediol Solutions. Expressed Logarithmically. as a
Function of Concentration and Temperature ........................................... 384
7.63 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo.2. 3.Butanediol Solutions in Relation to Concentration
and Temperature ............................................................... 384
7.64 Kinematic Viscosity of 60% levo-2.3.Butanediol. Glycerol and Ethylene Glycol Solutions at Low
Temperatures .................................................................. 384
7.65 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Ethanol Solutions at 20°C. Expressed in
Centistokes .................................................................... 384
7.66 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Methanol Solutions at 20°C. Expressed in
Centistokes .................................................................... 385
7.67 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo.2.3.Butanedio l.Ethylene Glycol Solutions in 20'C
Expressed incentistokes ......................................................... 385
7.68 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol Solutions at
20'C. Expressed in Centistokes .................................................... 385
7.69 Absolute Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol. levo.2.3.Butanediol. meso-dextro-
2.3.Butanediol and Glycerol at 20°C ................................................. 385
7.70 Optical Rotatory Power of Aqueous levo.2. 3.Butanediol Solutions at 20°C ...................... 386
7.71 Effects of Concentration and Temperature on the Specific Rotatory Power of Aqueous levo-23-
Butanediol Solutions ............................................................. 386
7.72 Refractive Indices of Aqueous levo.2. 3.Butanediol Solutions at Different Temperatures ............ 386
7.73 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Solutions of meso- and levo.2. 3.Butanediol at 25'C ............... 386
7.74 Specific Gravity of Aqueous levo-2. 3.Butanediol Solutions at 20'. 30'. and 40% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
7.75 Specific Gravity of Aqueous meso.2. 3.Butanedol Solutions at 20'. 30'. and 4O'C ................ 387
7.76 Surface Tension of Aqueous Solutions of levo-2. 3.Butanediol and Ethylene Glycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Butanediois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
7.77 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Butanediol Solutions at 20". 30'. and 40°C ....................... 388
7.78 ..............
Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous Butanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C. in Centistokes 388
2.Butene.1, 4.dioi ........................................................................... 388
7.79 Physical Properties of 2.Butene-1. 4.diol ............................................... 388
2.Butyne.1, Cdioi ........................................................................... 389
7.80 Physical Properties of 2.Butyne.l. ...............................................
4.diol 389
IC-Pentanedlol ............................................................................. 389
7.81 .................................................
Physical Properties of 1.5.Pentanediol 389
7.82 ......................
Absolute Viscosity of Aqueous 1.5.Pentanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C 390
7.83 ........................
Specific Gravity of Aqueous 1.5-Pentanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C 390
2,CPen.nediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
7.84 Physical Properties of 2.4.Pentanediol ................................................. 390
NeopentylGlycol ............................................................................ 390
7.85 ................................................
Physical Properties of Neopentyl Glycol 390
Pentanediols ............................................................................... 391
7.86 .............
Kinematic Viscostly of Aqueous Pentanediol Solutions at 20" and 40%. in Centistokes 391
7.87 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Pentanediol Solutions at 20' and 4Q°C .......................... 391
IS-Hexanediol ............................................................................. 392
7.88 .................................................
Physical Properties of 1.6.Hexanediol 392
2,5.Hexanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
7.89 Physical Properties of 1.5.Hexanediol ................................................. 392
HexyleneGiycol ............................................................................. 392
7.90 ..................................
Physical Properties and Specifications of Hexylene Glycol 392
7.91 .......................................
Freezing Points of Hexylene Glycol-Water Mixtures 393
7.92 ........................
Specific Gravity and Freezing Point of Hexylene Glycol-Water Mixtures 393
Pinacol ................................................................................... 394
7.93 ........................................................
Physical Properties of Pinacol 394
22-Diethyl-I f-Propanedloi ................................................................... 394
7.94 Physical Properties of 2.2.Diethyl.l. .......................................
3.Propanediol 394
2.Ethyl.1, 3.Hexanedlol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
7.95 Physical Properties of 2.Ethyl.l. ...........................................
3.Hexanediol 394
2,5.Dimethyl.3.Hexyne.2,5 .diol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
7.96 Physical Properties of 2.5.Dimethyl.3.Hexyne-2. 5.diol .................................... 395
1,4.Cyclohexanedimethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Contents and Subject Index xiu

7.97 Properties of 1.4-Cyclohexanedimethanol .............................................. 395


p-XylyieneGlycol ........................................................................... 397
7.98 Physical Properties of p-Xylylene Glycol ................................................ 397
2-Ethyl-2-Butyl-1, 3-Propanedlol ............................................................... 397
7.99 Physical Properties of 2-Ethyl-2-Butyl-1. 3-Propanediol ................................... 397
3,6-Mmethyl4Octyne-3,6-dlol ................................................................ 397
7.1 00 Physical Properties of 3.6-Dimethyl4Octyne-3. 6-diol .................................... 397
Thiodiglycol ................................................................................ 398
7.1 01 Physical Properties of Thiodiglycol .................................................... 398
7.102 Vapor Pressure of Thiodiglycol at Various Temperatures .................................... 398
MiscellaneousGlycolr ........................................................................ 399
7.1 03 Hydrates of Aliphatic Glycols ........................................................ 399
7.104 Hydrates of Cyclic Glycols .......................................................... 400
7.105 Freezing Points of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol Solutions ..................... 401
7.1 06 Freezing Points of Various Aqueous Glycol Solutions. "C ................................... 402
7.107 Freezing Points of Various Aqueous Alcohols. Glycols and Glycerol ........................... 402
7.1 08 Compatibility of Coupling Solvents with Carbon Tetrachloride and Water ........................ 402
7.1 09 Key Hygroscopicity Curve ........................................................... 403
7.1 10 Surface Tension of Glycol-Water Systems .............................................. 403
7.1 11 Vapor Pressure of Glycols .......................................................... 403
7.112 Viscosityof Glycols ............................................................... 404
7.113 Water Absorption by Glycols as a Function of Time ....................................... 404
7.1 14 Water Absorption by Glycols as a Function of Relative Humidity .............................. 404
7.1 15 Refractive Index. Specific Gravity. and Boiling Point Measurements of Various Glycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
7.1 16 Relative Solvent Properties of Glycols .................................................. 405
7.117 Effect of Various Glycols on Synthetic Rubber Samples-Results Reported as % Volume and
% Weight Increase .............................................................. 405
7.1 18 Solubility of Cellulose Deriiatiies in Glycols ............................................. 406
7.1 19 Compatibility of Film Cast from 80/20 Toluene/Alcohol ...................................... 406
7.1 20 Relative Humectant Values .......................................................... 406
7.121 Water Vapor Dew Points Over Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ............................ 407
7.122 Water Vapor Dew Points Over Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions ........................... 407
7.123 Water Vapor Dew Points Over Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutions .......................... 407
7.124 Water Vapor Dew Points Over Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions ........................... 407
7.125 Water Vapor Dew Points Over Aqueous Dipropylene Glycol Solutions .......................... 408
7.126 Boiling Points of Glycols at 50 mm Hg ................................................. 408
7.127 Total Pressure Over Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions M Temperature ....................... 408
7.128 Total Pressure Over Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions M Temperature ...................... 408
7.129 Total Pressure Over Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutions vs Temperature ...................... 409
7.130 Total Pressure Over Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions vs Temperature ...................... 409
7.131 Total Pressure Over Aqueous Dipropylene Glycol Solutions vs Temperature ..................... 409
7.132 Vapor-Liquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ....................... 410
7.133 Vapor-tiquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions ..................... 410
7.134 Vapor-Liquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutions ..................... 411
7.135 Vapor-Liquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions ...................... 411
7.136 Vapor-tiquid Composition Curves for Aqueous Dipropylene Glycol Solutions .................... 412
7.137 Pour Points of Glycols ............................................................. 412
7.138 Viscosities of Anhydrous Glycols ..................................................... 412
7.139 Viscosities of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions ......................................... 413
7.140 Viscosities of Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions ........................................ 413
7.141 Viscosities of Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutions ....................................... 414
7.142 Viscosities of Aqueous Tetraethylene Glycol Solutions ..................................... 414
7.143 Viscosities of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions ........................................ 414
7.144 Viscosities of Aqueous Dipropylene Glycol Solutions ....................................... 414
7.145 Viscosities of Aqueous Tripropylene Glycol Solutions ...................................... 415
7.146 Freezing Points of Aqueous Glycol Solutions ............................................ 415
7.147 Specific Heat of Anhydrous Glycols ................................................... 415
7.148 Specific Heats of Aqueous Glycol Solutions (BtuAbPF) ..................................... 416
7.149 Densities of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) .................................. 416
7.1 50 Densities of Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) ................................. 417
7.151 Densities of Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) ................................ 417
7.152 Densities of Aqueous Tetraethylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) .............................. 418
7.153 Densities of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) ................................. 418
7.154 Densities of Aqueous Dipropylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) ................................ 419
7.155 Densities of Aqueous Tripropylene Glycol Solutions (% by wt) ............................... 419
xx Contents and Subject Index

7.1 56 .................................. 419


Surface Tensions of Aqueous Solutions of Glycols at 7 p F
7.157 ............................................................. 420
Flammability of Glycols
7.158 ............................... 420
Refractive Indices of Aqueous Glycol Solutions at 7 p F (25%)
7.159 ................................... 420
Conversion Chart for Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions
7.160 .................................. 420
Conversion Chart for Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions
. 7.161 .................................. 421
Conversion Chart for Aqueous Triethylene Glycol Solutions
7.162 ................................ 421
Conversion Chart for Aqueous Tetraethylene Glycol Solutions
7.163 .................................. 421
Conversion Chart for Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions
7.164 ................................. 421
Conversion Chart for Aqueous Dipropylene Glycol Solutions
7.1 65 ................................ 422
Conversion Chart for Aqueous Tripropylene Glycol Solutions
7.166 ...................................... 422
Freeze Points and Burst Points of Aqueous Solutions
7.167 .............................................. 423
Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycols
7.168 ....................................................... 424
viscosity of Anhydrous Glycols
7.169 ................................................... 424
Specific Heat of Anhydrous Glycols
7.1 70 ............................................... 425
Technical Data: Ethylene Glycol Products
7.171 ........................................................ 425
Ethylene Glycol Compatibility
7.172 ............................................. 426
Weight per Gallon at Various Temperatures
7.173 . .................... 426
Weight Percent vs Volume Percent Aq Monoethylene Glycol Solutions. 20'C
7.174 .............. 426
Specific Gravity vs Composition @ Various Temperatures of Aqueous MEG Solutions
7.175 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Specific Gravity vs Composition @ Various Temperatures of Aqueous DEG Solutions
7.176 .............. 427
Specific Gravity vs Composition @ Various Temperatures of Aqueous TEG Solutions
7.177 ....................... 428
Boiling Point @ 760 mm Hg vs Composition of Aqueous Glycol Solutions
7.178 ................................. 428
Freezing Point vs Cornposition of Aqueous Glycol Solutions
7.179 ........................................... 429
Vapor Pressure vs Temperature of the Glycols
7.180 ................................................ 429
Viscosity vs Temperature of the Glycols
7.181 ............................................................ 430
Fire Hazard Information
7.182 AcuteOralToxicity ................................................................ 430
7.183 ........................................... 430
Environmental Considerations. Biodegradation
7.1 84 ..................................... 431
Ethylene Glycols: Products. Grades and Specifications
7.185 Ashland Glycols.................................................................. 431
7.186 Chemcentral Polyols .............................................................. 432
7.187 Hoechst Celanese 1.3-Butylene Glycol ................................................ 433
7.188 .......................................................... 433
Occidental Ethylene Glycol
Giycerol(Giyc8rine) .......................................................................... 434
7.189 ......................................... 434
Physical Properties and Specifications of Glycerol
7.190 ........................... 434
Boiling Points and Specific Gravities of Aqueous Glycerol Solutions
7.191 ................................... 434
Conversion Chart for Aqueous Glycerol Solutions (25%)
7.192 ..........................................................
Density of Glycerol-Water 435
7.193 ............................................. 436
Freezing Points of Glycerol-Water Solutions
7.194 ............................................. 437
Freezing Points of Glycerol-Water Solutions
7.195 ...................................... 437
Viscosity of Aqueous Glycerol Solutions. Centipoises
7.196 ................................. 438
Hygroscopicity Curves for Glycerol and 1.3-Butylene Glycol
7.197 ................................. 438
Hygroscopicity Curves for Glycerol and 2.3-Butyiene Glycol
7.198 ........................... 438
Relative Humidities Over Aqueous Glycerol Solutions. 20' to 100'C
7.199 ................... 439
Solubility of Sucrose and Dextrose in Aqueous Glycerol at 15'. 24'. and 35%
7.200 ............................................. 439
Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerol
7.201 .................................................. 440
Specific Gravity and Percent Glycerol
7.202 ......................................... 441
Specific Gravities of Glycerol and Glycol Mixtures
7.203 ........................................................... 441
Specific Heat of Glycerol
7.204 .......................................................... 441
Vapor Pressure of Glycerol
7.205 ............................................. 441
Vapor Pressure of Glycerol-Water Solutions
7.206 ............................................ 442
Viscosity of Glycerol Solutions in Centipoises
ComprrativeDatr ........................................................................... 443
7.207 Emery CP/USP Glycerines .......................................................... 443
7.208 ......................................................... 443
Procter & Gamble Glycerine
7.209 ............................................................ 444
Witco Refined Glycerine
13.4-Butanetrioi ............................................................................ 444
7.210 ................................................ 444
Physical Properties of 1.2.4-Butanetriol
lP.6-Hexrnetrloi ............................................................................ 445
7.21 1 ................................................ 445
Physical Properties of 1.2.6-Hexanetriol
7.212 ...................................... 445
Freezing Points of 1.2.6-Hexanetrio I-Water Mixtures
7.213 .................................................. 445
Vapor Pressure of 1.2.6-Hexanetriol
7.214 ........................................ 446
Solubility of 1.2. 6-Hexanetriol in Organic Solvents
7.21 5 ..................................................... 446
Compatibility of 1.2. 6-Hexanetriol
7.216 ....................................... 446
viscosities and Freezing Points of 1.2. 6-Hexanetriol
Contents and Subject Index lnri

Trlmethyolpropane .......................................................................... 447


7.217 Physical Properties of Trimethylolpropane ............................................... 447
Pentaerythritol.............................................................................. 447
7.218 Physical Properties of Pentaerythritol .................................................. 447
Sorbitol ................................................................................... 448
7.219 Physical Properties ofSorbiito1 ....................................................... 448
7.220 Boiling Point of Sorbitol Solutions ..................................................... 448
7.221 Hydrogenolysis of Sorbitol and Glycerol at a Hydrogen Pressure of 2.000 psi .................... 449
7.222 Hydrogenolysis of Sorbitol at 215% and a Hydrogen Pressure of 2.000 psi ...................... 449
7.223 Phase Diagram of Sorbitol Solubility in Hydroalcoholic Liquids at 35% ......................... 450
7.224 ...................................... 450
Solubility of Sorbitol in Hydroalcoholic Liquids at 25°C
7.225 . Viscosity Curve for Pure d-Sorbitol Solutions of Various Concentrations ........................ 450
SugarAlcoholr ............................................................................. 451
7.226 Physical Properties of the Sugar Alcohols ............................................... 451
Mircellan~urPolyhydrlcAlcoholr .............................................................. 452
7.227 Hydrates of Polyhydric Alcohols ...................................................... 452
PHENOLS ..................................................................................... 454
8.1 Phenol ......................................................................... 454

ALDEHYDES ................................................................................... 455


Furfural ................................................................................... 455
9.1 Properties of PureFurfural .......................................................... 455
9.2 Typical Properties and Specifiiations of Furfural .......................................... 456
9.3 Solubility of Various Substances in Furfural .............................................. 457
9.4 Solubility of Selected Thermoplastic Resins in Furfural ..................................... 457
9.5 Specific Gravity and Pounds per Gallon of Furfural ........................................ 458
9.6 CornpositiodDensity of Furfural-Water Solutions ......................................... 458
9.7 Vapor Pressure of Furfural .......................................................... 459
9.8 Solution Temperature of Furfural-Water System .......................................... 459
9.9 Temperature-Composition Diagram of Furfural-Water System ............................... 460
9.10 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium In the Furfural-Water System .................................... 460
9.11 Vapor-Liquid Composition of Furfural-Water System ...................................... 461
OtherAldehydsr ............................................................................ 461
9.12 Vapor Pressures of Various Aldehydes ................................................. 461
9.13 Physical Properties of Various Aldehydes ............................................... 462

ETHERS ...................................................................................... 463


10.1 Dimethyl Ether ................................................................... 463
10.2 Chlorodimethyl Ether .............................................................. 464
10.3 Chloromethyl Ethyl Ether ........................................................... 465
10.4 Ethyl Ether ...................................................................... 465
10.5 Flammability of Ethyl Ether-Oxygen-Helium Mixture ....................................... 466
10.6 Dichloroethyl Ether ................................................................ 466
IsopropylEther ............................................................................. 467
10.7 Properties of Pure Isopropyl Ether .................................................... 467
10.8 Vapor Pressure of Isopropyl Ether .................................................... 467
10.9 Isopropyl Ether-Water Solubility ...................................................... 467
10.10 Mutual Solubility for the System: Isopropyl Ether-Isopropyl Alcohol-Water at 25'C. % wt . . . . . . . . . . . 468
10.11 Conjugate Solutions in the System: Isopropyl Ether-Isopropyl Alcohol-Water at 25'C. % wt . . . . . . . . . 469
10.12 Miscibility of Isopropyl Ether-Isopropyl Alcohol-Water at 25% ............................... 469
10.13 Azeotropic Information-Isopropyl Ether ................................................. 470
10.14 Vapor Pressure of Isopropyl Ether at Various Temperatures ................................. 471
10.15 Specific Gravity of sopropyl Ether vs Temperature ........................................ 471
10.16 Mutual Solubility and Specific Gravity of Isopropyl Ether. Water and Isopropyl Alcohol at 25'C . . . . . . . . 471
10.17 n-Butyl Ether .................................................................... 472
10.18 Diamyl Ether .................................................................... 473
10.19 n-Hexyl Ether ................................................................... 473
10.20 Solubility Data for Various Ethers ..................................................... 474
10.21 Comparative Evaporation Rates of Various Ethers ........................................ 474
10.22 Specific Gravities of Various Ethers ................................................... 475
10.23 Vapor Pressure of Various Ethers ..................................................... 476
10.24 Ethylene Oxide .................................................................. 478
10.25 Enthalpy and Entropy of Ethylene Oxide ................................................ 478
xxii Contents and Subject Index

10.26 Propylene Oxide................................................................. 479


10.27 ..........................
Freezing Points of Solutions of Ethylene Oxide and Propylene Oxide 479
10.28 ...............................................................
1.2.Butylene Oxide 480
10.29 CARDOUTENC-513 .............................................................. 480
10.30 I.4-Dioxane .................................................................... 481
10.31 Trioxane ....................................................................... 481
10.32 ................................................................
VinylMethyl Ether 482
10.33 ..................................................................
VinylEthylEther 482
10.34 ...........................................................
Vinyl 2-Chloroethyl Ether 482
10.35 ..................................................................
Vinyl Butyl Ether 482
10.36 ...............................................................
Vinyllsobutyl Ether 483
10.37 Vinyl 2-Ethylhexyl Ether ............................................................ 483
10.38 ..................................................
Typical Properties of the vinyl Ethers 483
10.39 ...............................................................
Phenyl Methyl Ether 484
10.40 ...................................................................
Dibenzyl Ether 485
10.41 ..................................................................
Diphenyl "Oxide 485
10.42 ......................................................
Miscellaneous Alkyl Aryl Ethers 486
10.43 Furan .......................................................................... 486
10.44 2-Methylfuran ................................................................... 486
10.45 Tetrahydrofuran .................................................................. 487
10.46 2.3-Dihydropyran................................................................. 493
10.47 Tetrahydropyran.................................................................. 493
10.48 Tetrahydropyran-2-Methanol ........................................................ 494
10.49 Terpinyl Methyl Ether .............................................................. 494

GLYCOLETHERS ............................................................................... 496


.
11 1 ARCOSOLV Ethylene and Propylene Glycol Ethers ....................................... 496
11.2 Ashland Glycol Ethers ............................................................. 498
11.3 Chemcentral Glycol Ethers.......................................................... 499
11.4 DOWANOL Glycol Ethers and Acetates ................................................ 500
11.5 Eastman Chemicals Glycol Ethers .................................................... 503
11.6 ..............................................
Grant Chemical Glycol Diethers (GLYMES) 504
11.7 ................................
Occidental Ethylene Glycol Ethers and Glycol Ether Acetates 506
11.8 Olin Chemicals Poly-Sob Propylene Glycol Ethers ........................................ 512
11.9 .........................................................
Union Carbide Glycol Ethers 513
Methylal ................................................................................... 514
11.10 Physical Properties of Methylal ....................................................... 514
EthyleneGlycols ............................................................................ 514
11.11 Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether..................................................... 514
11.12 Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether ..................................................... 515
.
11 13 Ethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether ....................................................... 515
.
11 I 4 Ethylene Glycol Diethyl Ether ........................................................ 516
11.15 Ethylene Glycol Monopropyl Ether .................................................... 516
.
11 16 Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether ..................................................... 516
11.17 .........................................
Water Solubiliy of Ethylene Glycol n-Butyl Ether 517
11.18 Ethylene Glycol Monoisobutyl Ether ................................................... 517
11.19 Ethylene Glycol Dibutyl Ether ........................................................ 518
11.20 Ethylene Glycol Monophenyl Ether .................................................... 519
11.21 Ethylene Glycol Monobenql Ether .................................................... 520
11.22 Terpinyl Ethylene Glycol Ether ....................................................... 520
11.23 Ethylene Glycol Butylphenyl Ethers .................................................... 521
11.24 Ethylene Glycol Monohexyl Ether ..................................................... 521
11.25 Ethylene Glycol Ethyl Hexyl Ether ..................................................... 521
11.26 Diethylene Glycol ................................................................. 522
11.27 Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether ................................................... 523
11.28 Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether .................................................... 523
11.29 Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl EthedEthylene Glycol ........................................ 523
11-30 Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether .................................................... 524
11.31 Diethylene Glycol Monopropyl Ether ................................................... 524
11.32 Diethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether ..................................................... 524
11.33 ........................................
Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (Special Grade) 525
11.34 Diethylene Glycol Monohexyl Ether .................................................... 525
113 5 Diethylene Glycol Divinyl Ether........................................................ 525
11.36 Diethylene Glycol Monoisobutyl Ether.................................................. 526
11.37 Triethylene Glycol ................................................................ 526
Contents and Subject Index miii

11.38 Triethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527


11.39 Triethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
11.40 Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
11.41 Triethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether/Highers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
11.42 Triethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether/Highers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
11.43 Tetraethylene Glycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
11.44 Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
PropyleneGlycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
11.45 Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
11.46 Propylene Glycol Monophenyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
11.47 Propylene Glycol Monopropyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
11.48 Propylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
11.49 Propylene Glycol tert-Butyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
11.50 Propylene Glycol Monobutoxyethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
11.51 Propylene Glycol Isobutyl Ether and Higher Homologs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
11.52 Propylene Based Glycol Ether Blends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
11.53 Propylene Based Glycol Ether Blend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
11.54 Dipropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
11.55 Dipropylene Glycol Monopropyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
11.56 Dipropylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
11.57 Dipropylene Glycol Tertiary Butyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
11.58 Tripropylene Glycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
11.59 Tripropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
11.60 Aromatic Based Glycol Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
Triglycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
11.61 Methoxytriglycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
11.62 Ethoxytriglycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
11.63 Butoxytriglycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
MiscellaneousGlycolData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
11.64 ARCOSOLV Evaporation Characteristics. Resin Compatibility and Other Data .................... 537
11.65 DOWANOL Miscibility. Solubility. Evaporation Rates. Vapor Pressure. Density. Surface Tension and
Other Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
11.66 GLYME Azeotropic Vapor Pressure and Solubility Data ..................................... 574
11.67 Union Carbide Glycol Ethers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
PolyethyleneGlycols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
11.68 Ashland Polyethylene Glycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
11.69 BASF Pluracol E Polyethylene Glycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
11.70 CARBOWAX Polyethylene Glycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
11.71 Dow Polyglycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
PolypropyleneGlycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611
11.72 Ashland Polypropylene Glycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611
11-73 Dow Polypropylene Glycols and Polyglycol Copolymers ..................................... 612
Polyols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622
11.74 Properties of PLURONIC and TETRONIC Block Copolymer Surfactants ........................ 622
GlycerineEthers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623
11.75 Glyceryl a-Monomethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623
11.76 Glyceryl a.y-Dimethyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623
11.77 Glyceryl a-Mono-n-Butyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623
11.78 Glyceryl a-Monoisoamyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623
11.79 Glyceryl a.y-Diisoamyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624
11.80 Miscellaneous Glycerine Ethers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624

KETONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
Acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
12.1 Physical Properties of Acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
12.2 Low Temperature Characteristics of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone ............................ 625
12.3 Solubility of Various Materials in Acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626
12.4 Specific Gravity of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone at Different Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626
12.5 Surface Tension of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone at 25°C .................................. 627
12.6 Viscosity of Aqueous Acetone Solutions at 25% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
12.7 Refractive Index of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone at 25°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
12.8 Liquid-Vapor Equilibria for Aqueous Solutions of Acetone at Different Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
12.9 Freezing Point of Aqueous Solutions of Acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
MethylEthylKetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
xxiv Contents and Subject Index

12.10 Physical Properties of Methyl Ethyl Ketone .............................................. 629


12.1 1 Methyl Ethyl Ketone and Water ...................................................... 630
Methyln-propylKetone ...................................................................... 630
12.12 Properties of Methyl n-Propyl Ketone .................................................. 630
Methyln-ButylKetone ....................................................................... 631
12.13 properties of Methyl n-Butyl Ketone ................................................... 631
12.14 Solubility of Dry Half-Second R.S. Nitrocellulose in a System of Methyl Butyl Ketone-sec-
Butanol-Toluene ................................................................ 632
MethyllsobutylKetone ....................................................................... 632
12.15 Properties of Methyl Isobutyl Ketone ................................................... 632
12.16 Solubility of Miscellaneous Materials in Methyl Isobutyl Ketone at 20" to 25°C .................... 633
Methyln-AmylKetone ....................................................................... 634
12.17 Properties of Methyl n-Amyl Ketone ................................................... 634
MethylIsoamylKetone ....................................................................... 634
12.18 Properties of Methyl Isoamyl Ketone ................................................... 634
12.19 Properties of Methyl Isoamyl Ketone vs Other Solvents ..................................... 635
12.20 Butyrate-Acrylic Wood Lacquer-ubstituting Isoamyl Ketone for 2-Ethoxyethyl Acetate . . . . . . . . . . . 635
Methyl HexylKetone ......................................................................... 636
12.21 Properties of Methyl Hexyl Ketone .................................................... 636
MethylHeptyl Ketone ........................................................................ 636
12.22 Properties of Methyl Heptyl Ketone .................................................... 636
EthylbutylKetone ........................................................................... 637
12.23 Properties of Ethylbutyl Ketone ....................................................... 637
Ethyl Amyl Ketone ........................................................................... 637
12.24 Properties of Ethyl Amyl Ketone ...................................................... 637
Dl-n-PropylKetone ......................................................................... 638
12.25 Properties of Di-n-Propyl Ketone ..................................................... 638
DllsobutylKetone ........................................................................... 638
12.26 Properties of Diisobutyl Ketone ....................................................... 638
Cyclohexanone ............................................................................. 639
12.27 Properties of Cyclohexanone ........................................................ 639
12.28 Resin Solubility in Cyclohexanone .................................................... 640
MethylCyclohexanone ....................................................................... 641
12.29 Properties of Methyl Cyclohexanone ................................................... 641
MethylAcetone ............................................................................. 641
DlacetoneAlcohol ........................................................................... 642
12.30 Physical Properties of Acetone-Free Diacetone Alcohol .................................... 642
AcetonylAcetone ........................................................................... 642
12.31 Properties of Acetonyl Acetone ....................................................... 643
MesltylOxlde ............................................................................... 643
12.32 Properties of Mesityl Oxide .......................................................... 643
lsophorone ................................................................................ 644
12.33 Properties oflsophorone ........................................................... 644
Fenchone .................................................................................. 644
12.34 Properties of Fenchone ............................................................ 644
Beta-Proplolactone .......................................................................... 645
12.35 Physical Properties of Beta-Propiolactone .............................................. 645
Gamma-Butyrolactone ....................................................................... 645
12.36 Properties of Gamma-Butyrolactone ................................................... 645
ComparatlveData ........................................................................... 648
12.37 Ashland Ketones ................................................................. 648
12.38 Chemcentral Ketones and Miscellaneous Active Solvents ................................... 649
12.39 Eastman Chemical Ketones ......................................................... 650
12.40 Exxon Ketones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650
12.41 Hoechst-Celanese Ketones ......................................................... 651
12.42 Shell Chemical Ketones ............................................................ 651
12.43 Union Carbide Ketones ............................................................ 652
12.44 Vapor Pressure of Various Ketones at Different Temperatures ............................... 657
12.45 Specific Gravities of etones ......................................................... 658
12.46 Solubility of Ketones in Water ........................................................ 659
12.47 Solubility of Water in Ketones ........................................................ 659
12.48 Relative Evaporation of Ketones-Fast to Intermediate Evaporating Liquids ..................... 660
12.49 Relative Evaporation of Ketones-lntermediate to Slow Evaporating Liquids ..................... 660
12.50 Viscosity vs Concentration of Chlorinated Rubber (Hercules PARLON S-20) in MEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661
Contents and Subject Index m

ACIDS . . . . . . . . ................................................................................ 662


13.1 Acetic Acid ...................................................................... 662
13.2 Viscosity of Acetic Acid and Acetic Anhydride Mixtures at 15' and 76.5"C ....................... 662
13.3 Butyric Acid ..................................................................... 663
13.4 Viscosity of Aqueous Butyric Acid Solution at 25'C ........................................ 663
13.5 ButyricAnhydride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...............................................
i 663
13.6 .................................
Solubility of Water in Caproic Acid at Various Temperatures 664
13.7 2-Ethylbutyric Acid................................................................. 664
13.8 2-Ethylhexoic Acid ................................................................ 664
13.9 Solubility of Water in Ethylhexoic Acid. Ethylbutyraldehyde and Ethylpropylacrolein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664
13.10 Lactic Acid ...................................................................... 665
13.1 1 ................................................................
Triftuoroacetic Acid 666
13.12 Vapor Pressure of Organic Acids and Anhydrides at Various Temperatures ..................... 668
13.13 ..........................................
Fatty Acid Composition of Various Fats and Oils 669
13.14 ..........................................
Arizona Chemical ACTINOL Tall Oil Fatty Acids 670
13.15 Eastman Chemicals Acids and Anhydrides.............................................. 671
13.16 Halocarbon Products BIOGRADE Triiuoroacetic Acid ...................................... 671
13.17 EMERY Fatty and Dibasic Acids ...................................................... 672
13.18 INDUSTRENE and HYSTRENE Fatty and Dibasic Acids .................................... 676
13.19 NEO-FATFattyAcids ............................................................. 681
13.20 Procter 81Gamble Fatty Acids ........................................................ 683
13.21 Union Carbide Acids .............................................................. 684

AMINES ....................................................................................... 686


AlkylAmines ............................................................................... 686
14.1 Monomethylamine ................................................................ 686
14.2 Dimethylamine ................................................................... 686
14.3 Trimethylamine ................................................................... 687
14.4 Freezing Points of Aqueous Methylamine Solutions ....................................... 688
14.5 Binary Azeotropes of Methylamines ................................................... 688
14.6 Solubility Data for Methylamines ...................................................... 689
14.7 Monoethylamine .................................................................. 690
14.8 Diethylamine .................................................................... 690
14.9 Triethylamine .................................................................... 691
14.10 n-Propylamine ................................................................... 691
14.11 Di-n-Propylamine ................................................................ 691
14.12 Mutual Solubility of Di-n-Propylamine and Water at Various Temperatures ...................... 692
14.13 Solubility Curve at 25" for the System Di-n-Propylamine-Water-Ethanol ....................... 692
14.14 Isopropylamine ................................................................... 692
14.15 Di-lsopropylamine ................................................................ 693
14.16 n-Butylamine .................................................................... 693
14.17 n-Dibutylamine .................................................................. 693
14.18 n-Tributylamine .................................................................. 694
14.19 lsobutylamine .................................................................... 694
14.20 Diisobutylamine .................................................................. 694
14.21 sec-Butylamine .................................................................. 695
14.22 Mono-n-Butyl Diamylamine ......................................................... 695
14.23 n-Amylamine .................................................................... 695
14.24 sec-Amylamine .................................................................. 696
14.25 Diamylamine (Mixed Isomers) ........................................................ 696
14.26 Triamylamine (Mixed Isomers) ....................................................... 696
14.27 sec-Hexylamine .................................................................. 697
14.28 2-Ethylbutylamine ................................................................ 697
14.29 n-Heptylarnine ................................................................... 697
14.30 2-Ethylhexylamine ................................................................ 697
14.31 Di-2-Ethylhexylamine ............................................................. 697
14.32 Cyclohexylamine ................................................................. 698
14.33 Dicyclohexylamine ................................................................ 698
14.34 AUQUAT Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chloride .......................................... 699
14.35 KEMAMINE Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides ....................................... 699
14.36 High Molecular Weight Aliphatic Amines ................................................ 700
14.37 Solubilities of Pure Dodecyl- and Octadecyl-Trimethylammonium Chlorides in Grams per 100 grams
ofsolvent ..................................................................... 700
14.38 Solubilities of Organic Compounds in Aliphatic Amines at 25' f 5'C........................... 701
14.39 Vapor Pressure of Various Amines .................................................... 705
m
i Contents and Subject Index

14.40 Vapor Pressure of Sharples Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705


AlkyleneDlamlnes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706
14.41 Ethylene Diamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706
14.42 Boiling Point Composition Curves for Aqueous Ethylenediamine Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706
14.43 Diethylenetriamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706
14.44 Boiling Point Composition Curves for Aqueous Diethylenetriarnine Solutions ..................... 707
14.45 Tetraethylenepentamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707
14.46 Propylenediamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707
14.47 Solvent Properties of Alkylene Diamines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708
14.48 Vapor Pressures of Alkylene Diamines and Other Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708
14.49 Density of Ethylenediamine Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709
14.50 Density of Higher Ethylene Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709
14.51 Viscosity of Ethylenediamine Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710
14.52 Viscosity of Higher Ethylene Amines ................................................... 710
ComparativeData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711
14.53 Akzo ARMEEN, DUOMEEN, TRIAMEEN, ETHOMEEN, Ethoxylated Diamines, Propoxylated Amines . . . 711
14.54 ANGUSAmines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718
14.55 Ashland Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718
14.56 Chemcentral Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719
14.57 Dow Commercial Alkanolamines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719
14.58 Humko Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735
14.59 Procter & Gamble Tertiary Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 736
14.60 Occidental Ethanolamines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737
14.61 Union Carbide Ethyleneamines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747
14.62 Union Carbide Ethanolamines ....................................................... 753
AlkanolAmines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760
14.63 Monoethanolamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760
14.64 Boiling Point Composition Curves for Aqueous Monoethanolamine Solutions ..................... 760
14.65 Viscosity of Monoethanolamine at Various Temperatures ................................... 760
14.66 Diethanolamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761
14.67 Viscosity of Diethanolamine at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761
14.68 Triethanolamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761
14.69 Viscosity of Triethanolamine at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762
14.70 Specific Heats of Aqueous Triethanolamine Solutions at 21% ................................ 762
14.71 Surface Tension of Aqueous Ethanolamine Solutions at 20°C ................................ 762
14.72 Viscosity of Aqueous Ethanolamine Solutions at 20°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762
14.73 lsopropanolamines Mixed ........................................................... 763
14.74 Triisopropanolamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763
14.75 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1 -Propanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763
14.76 2-Amino-2-Methyl-l ,2-Propanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764
14.77 2-Amino-2-Ethyl-1, 3-Propanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764
14.78 2-Amino-1-Butanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764
14.79 Tris(Hydroxymethyl)Aminomethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764
14.80 2-Aminoethylethanolamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764
14.81 1-Diethylamino-2, 3-Propanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764
14.82 Aminohydroxy Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765
14.83 2-Diethylamino-2-Methyl-1 -Propanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765
AikylalkanolAmines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766
14.84 Properties of Various Alkylalkanol Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766
Glycol EtherAmlnes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768
14.85 Properties of Various Glycol Ether Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768
~IAmines ................................................................................ 769
14.86 Aniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769
14.87 Dimethylaniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769
14.88 Diethylaniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769
14.89 N-Mono-n-Butyl Aniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770
14.90 N,N-Di- n-Butyl Aniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770
14.91 n-Monoamyl Aniline (Mixed Isomers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770
14.92 p-tert-Amyl Aniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770
14.93 Di-tert-Amyl Aniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771
14.94 N,N-Diamyl Aniline (Mixed Isomers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771
14.95 Diethylbenzylamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771
14.96 N-(n-Butyl)-+Naphthylamine ....................................................... 771
imines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772
Contents and Subject Index mii

14.97 Ethylene Imine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772


14.98 Propylene Imine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772
Amides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773
14.99 Formamide ..................................................................... 773
14.100 Dimethylformamide ................................................................ 773
14.101 Surface Tension and Density of DMF-Water Mixtures ...................................... 774
14.102 Semi-Quantitative Solubilities of Inorganic Materials in DMF at 25% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775
14.103 Dimethylacetamide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776
14.104 Viscosities of Resins in DMAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777
14.105 I-Formylpiperdine ................................................................ 778
.
Nitriles., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780
14.106 n-Butyronitrile ................................................................... 780
Heterocyclic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780
14.107 Pyrrole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780
14.108 2-Pyrrolidone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781
14.109 Phase Diagram for 2-Pyrrolidone-Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781
14.110 N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone ........................................................... 782
14.1 11 AcuteOralToxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783
14.1 12 Acute Dermal Toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783
14.1 I 3 Injection Toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783
14.1 14 Toxicity to Aqueous Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783
14.1I 5 Infrared Absorption Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784
14.1I 6 Specific Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784
14.1I 7 Thermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784
14.1 I 8 Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785
14.1 19 Comparison of Vapor Pressures of M-Pyrol and Other Aprotic Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785
14.120 SurfaceTension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785
14.121 Freezing Point Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786
14.122 Viscosity of Anhydrous M-Pyrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786
14.123 Viscosity of Aqueous M-Pyrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787
14.124 Vapor/Liquid Equilibrium Data for M-Pyrol-Water System at Atmospheric and 400 mg Pressures . . . . . 787
14.125 Vapor/Liquid Equilibrium of M-Pyrol-Water Systems ....................................... 787
14.126 Hydrolytic Stability of M-Pyrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788
14.127 Comparison of Hydrolysis of M-Pyrol and DMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789
14.128 Hydrolysis of M-Pyrol in Alkaline Salt Solutions .......................................... 789
14.129 Hygroscopicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789
14.130 Hygroscopicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789
14.131 Hygroscopicity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790
14.132 Effect of Temperature on Hygroscopicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790
14.133 Correlation of M-Pyrol and Water Vapor Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790
14.134 Vapodtiquid Equilibrium of M-Pyrol Containing 1% Water .................................. 791
14.135 Solubility of Acetylene in Various Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791
14.136 Solubility of Sulfur Compounds and Carbon Dioxide in M-Pyrol Solvent ........................ 792
14.137 Solubility of Paraffin Hydrocarbons in M-Pyrol Solvent ..................................... 792
14.138 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Sulfur Compounds and Carbon Dioxide in
M-Pyrol Solvent ................................................................ 793
14.139 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Paraffin Hydrocarbons in M-Pyrol Solvent . . . . . . 793
14.140 Correlation of Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Ethane and Heavier Paraffin Hydrocarbons
in M-Pyrol Solvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794
14.141 Classification of Equilibria in M-Pyrol Showing Relationship Between Equilibrium Distribution
Coefficients (K)and Solute Vapor Pressures ........................................... 794
14.142 Solubilities of Carbon Monoxide and Olefins in Anhydrous M-Pyrol Solvent ...................... 795
14.143 Solubilities of Diolefins in Anhydrous M-Pyrol Solvent ...................................... 795
14.144 Solubilities of Acetylenes in Anhydrous M-Pyrol Solvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796
14.145 Vapor-tiquid Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Olefins and Carbon Monoxide in M-Pyrol
Solvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796
14.146 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Diolefins in Anhydrous M-Pyrol Solvent . . . . . . . . 797
14.147 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Acetylenes in Anhydrous M-Pyrol Solvent . . . . . . 797
14.148 Effect of Water (5 wt %) in M-Pyrol Solvent on Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Olefins . . . . . . . 798
14.149 Effect of Water (5 wt %) in M-Pyrol Solvent on Equilibrium Distribution Coefficients for Olefins . . . . . . . 798
14.150 Effect of Water (5 wt %) in M-Pyrol Solvent on Equilibrium Distribution Coefficient for Methylacetylene . 799
14.151 Effect of Water (5 wt %) in M-Pyrol Solvent on Equilibrium Distribution Coefficient for Acetylene . . . . . . 799
14.152 Classification and Correlation of Equilibria of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons in Anhydrous M-Pyrol
Solvent 92-10 atm. 25'-150"C range) ............................................... 800
14.153 Effect of Water and Elevated Pressure on Solubility of Hydrogen Sulfide in M-Pyrol Solvent . . . . . . . . . 800
xviii Contents and Subject Index

7.57 Effect of meso.2. 3.Butanediol on the Freezing Point of Aqueous levo-2. 3.Butanediol Solutions ..... 382
7.58 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Ethanol Solutions ........................... 383
7.59 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio LEthylene Glycol Solutions ..................... 383
7.60 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Methano1 Solutions .......................... 383
7.61 Freezing Points of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
7.62 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2. 3.Butanediol Solutions. Expressed Logarithmically. as a
Function of Concentration and Temperature ........................................... 384
7.63 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo.2. 3.Butanediol Solutions in Relation to Concentration
and Temperature ............................................................... 384
7.64 Kinematic Viscosity of 60% levo-2.3.Butanediol. Glycerol and Ethylene Glycol Solutions at Low
Temperatures .................................................................. 384
7.65 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Ethanol Solutions at 20°C. Expressed in
Centistokes .................................................................... 384
7.66 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Methanol Solutions at 20°C. Expressed in
Centistokes .................................................................... 385
7.67 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo.2.3.Butanedio l.Ethylene Glycol Solutions in 20'C
Expressed incentistokes ......................................................... 385
7.68 Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous levo-2.3.Butanedio l.Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol Solutions at
20'C. Expressed in Centistokes .................................................... 385
7.69 Absolute Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol. levo.2.3.Butanediol. meso-dextro-
2.3.Butanediol and Glycerol at 20°C ................................................. 385
7.70 Optical Rotatory Power of Aqueous levo.2. 3.Butanediol Solutions at 20°C ...................... 386
7.71 Effects of Concentration and Temperature on the Specific Rotatory Power of Aqueous levo-23-
Butanediol Solutions ............................................................. 386
7.72 Refractive Indices of Aqueous levo.2. 3.Butanediol Solutions at Different Temperatures ............ 386
7.73 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Solutions of meso- and levo.2. 3.Butanediol at 25'C ............... 386
7.74 Specific Gravity of Aqueous levo-2. 3.Butanediol Solutions at 20'. 30'. and 40% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
7.75 Specific Gravity of Aqueous meso.2. 3.Butanedol Solutions at 20'. 30'. and 4O'C ................ 387
7.76 Surface Tension of Aqueous Solutions of levo-2. 3.Butanediol and Ethylene Glycol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Butanediois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
7.77 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Butanediol Solutions at 20". 30'. and 40°C ....................... 388
7.78 ..............
Kinematic Viscosity of Aqueous Butanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C. in Centistokes 388
2.Butene.1, 4.dioi ........................................................................... 388
7.79 Physical Properties of 2.Butene-1. 4.diol ............................................... 388
2.Butyne.1, Cdioi ........................................................................... 389
7.80 Physical Properties of 2.Butyne.l. ...............................................
4.diol 389
IC-Pentanedlol ............................................................................. 389
7.81 .................................................
Physical Properties of 1.5.Pentanediol 389
7.82 ......................
Absolute Viscosity of Aqueous 1.5.Pentanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C 390
7.83 ........................
Specific Gravity of Aqueous 1.5-Pentanediol Solutions at 20" and 40°C 390
2,CPen.nediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
7.84 Physical Properties of 2.4.Pentanediol ................................................. 390
NeopentylGlycol ............................................................................ 390
7.85 ................................................
Physical Properties of Neopentyl Glycol 390
Pentanediols ............................................................................... 391
7.86 .............
Kinematic Viscostly of Aqueous Pentanediol Solutions at 20" and 40%. in Centistokes 391
7.87 Refractive Indices of Aqueous Pentanediol Solutions at 20' and 4Q°C .......................... 391
IS-Hexanediol ............................................................................. 392
7.88 .................................................
Physical Properties of 1.6.Hexanediol 392
2,5.Hexanediol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
7.89 Physical Properties of 1.5.Hexanediol ................................................. 392
HexyleneGiycol ............................................................................. 392
7.90 ..................................
Physical Properties and Specifications of Hexylene Glycol 392
7.91 .......................................
Freezing Points of Hexylene Glycol-Water Mixtures 393
7.92 ........................
Specific Gravity and Freezing Point of Hexylene Glycol-Water Mixtures 393
Pinacol ................................................................................... 394
7.93 ........................................................
Physical Properties of Pinacol 394
22-Diethyl-I f-Propanedloi ................................................................... 394
7.94 Physical Properties of 2.2.Diethyl.l. .......................................
3.Propanediol 394
2.Ethyl.1, 3.Hexanedlol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
7.95 Physical Properties of 2.Ethyl.l. ...........................................
3.Hexanediol 394
2,5.Dimethyl.3.Hexyne.2,5 .diol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
7.96 Physical Properties of 2.5.Dimethyl.3.Hexyne-2. 5.diol .................................... 395
1,4.Cyclohexanedimethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Contents and Subject Index mix

15.20 Ethylene Glycol Monoacetate ........................................................ 826


15.21 Ethylene Glycol Diacetate ........................................................... 826
15.22 Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate .............................................. 827
15.23 Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate ............................................... 827
15.24 Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate ............................................... 828
15.25 Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 829
15.26 Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate .............................................. 829
15.27 Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate ............................................. 830
15.28 Propylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate .............................................. 830
15.29 Dipropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate (DPMA) ..................................... 831
15.30 Propylene-Based Glycol Ether Acetate ................................................. 831
Propionates ................................................................................ 832
15.31 Methyl Propionate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832
15.32 Ethyl Propionate .................................................................. 832
15.33 N-Butyl Propionate ............................................................... 832
15.34 Amyl Propionate .................................................................. 833
15.35 Ethyl 3-Ethoxypropionate ........................................................... 833
Butyrater .................................................................................. 834
15.36 Methyl Butyrate .................................................................. 834
15.37 Ethyl Butyrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834
15.38 n-Butyl Butyrate .................................................................. 834
15.39 Ethyl Hydroxy-lsobutyrate .......................................................... 835
15.40 Isobutyl lsobutyrate ............................................................... 835
15.41 2.2.4-Trimethylpentanediol-l .3-Monoisobutyrate ......................................... 835
ComparativeData ........................................................................... 836
15.42 ARCOSOLV PM Acetate and ARCOSOLV PE Acetate ..................................... 836
15.43 Ashland Ester Solvents ............................................................ 838
15.44 Chemcentral Esters ............................................................... 838
15.45 CPSChemical Esters .............................................................. 839
15.46 Eastman Glycol Ether Esters ........................................................ 839
15.47 Hoechst Celanese Esters ........................................................... 840
15.48 Mobil OilEsters .................................................................. 842
15.49 Union Carbide Esaters ............................................................. 843
HiOherFattyAcldEsters ...................................................................... 850
15.50 Emery Methyl Esters .............................................................. 850
15.51 Procter & Gamble Methyl Esters ...................................................... 851
15.52 Stepan Esters ................................................................... 852
Adipater .................................................................................. 854
15.53 .......................................
Mixture of Dimethyl Adipate and Dimethyl Glutarate 854
15.54 ........................
Mixture of Dimethyl Adipate. Dimethyl Glutarate and Dimethyl Succinate 854
15.55 Dialkyl Adipate ................................................................... 855
15.56 Dioctyl Adipate ................................................................... 856
Oxalates .................................................................................. 857
15.57 DietylOxalate ................................................................... 857
15.58 Dibutyl Oxalate ................................................................... 857
15.59 Diamyl Oxalate ................................................................... 858
Lactates ................................................................................... 858
15.60 Methyl Lactate ................................................................... 858
15.61 Ethyl Lactate .................................................................... 858
15.62 Butyl Lactate .................................................................... 859
15.63 Amyl Lactate .................................................................... 860
15.64 Physical Properties of ctates......................................................... 860
Carbonates ................................................................................ 860
15.65 Diethyl Carbonate ................................................................ 860
15.66 JEFFSOLCarbonates ............................................................. 861
PMhalater ................................................................................. 867
15.67 Alkyl Benzyl Phthalates ............................................................ 867
15.68 Butyl Benzyl Phthalate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871
15.69 Dibutyl Phthalate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873
15.70 Di-2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate (Dioctyl Phthalate) ............................................ 874
Phosphates ................................................................................ 875
15.71 1-Butylphenyl Diphenyl Phosphate .................................................... 875
15.72 2-Ethylhexyl Diphenyl Phosphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876
15.73 lsodecyl Diphenyl Phosphate ........................................................ 879
mx Contents and Subject Index

15.74 Emulsifiable Triaryl Phosphate ....................................................... 881


15.75 Proprietary Triaryl Phosphate Ester .................................................... 881
15.76 Tributoxyethyl Phosphate ........................................................... 882
15.77 Tributyl PHosphate ................................................................ 883
15.78 Triphenyl Phosphate .............................................................. 883
Phosphites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885
15.79 Dialkyl Hydrogen Phosphites ........................................................ 885
15.80 Trialkyl Phosphites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886
15.81 Tertiary Phosphites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887
15.82 Organophosphfies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888
Silicates ...
................................................................................ 888
15.83 Ethyl Silicate .................................................................... 888
Plasticizers ................................................................................ 889
15.84 Summary of Typical Properties of Plasticizers ............................................ 890

HPLCAND WDATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891


GC-FiDChromatograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891
16.1 Methylane Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891
HPLC Gradient Chromatograms ................................................................ 892
16.2 Watervs Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892
16.3 Water vs Acetonitrile .............................................................. 893
16.4 Water vs 2-Propanol .............................................................. 894
16.5 Water vs Tetrahydrofuran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894
16.6 Water-01 % Trifluoroacetic Acid vs Acetonitrile-0.1 % Trifluoroacetic Acid ....................... 895
16.7 0.1 M Potassium Phosphate vs Acetonitrile .............................................. 896
16.8 0.1 M Potassium Phosphate vs Methanol ............................................... 897
16.9 0.05 M Potassium Phosphate vs Acetonitrile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 897
16.10 0.05 M Potassium Phosphate vs Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 898
16.11 0.01 M Potassium Phosphate vs 0.5 M Potassium Phosphate pH 6.8/6.4 ....................... 899
16.12 Hexane vsChloroform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900
16.13 Hexanevs Chloroform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900
16.14 Hexane vs Ethyl Acetate ........................................................... 901
16.15 Hexane vs2-Propanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901
16.16 HexanevsEther (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902
16.17 2.2. 4-Trimethylpentane vs Chloroform ................................................. 903
16.18 2.2. 4-Trimethylpentane vs Methylene Chloride ........................................... 903
16.19 2.2. 4-Trimethylpentane vs Ethyl Acetate ............................................... 904
16.20 2.2. 4-Trimethylpentane vs 2-Propanol ................................................. 904
16.21 Methylene Chloride vs Methanol ...................................................... 905
16.22 Methylene Chloride vs 2-Propanol .................................................... 905
16.23 Methylene Chloride vs Ethyl Acetate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906
16.24 Methylene Chloride vs Ether (Anhydrous) ............................................... 906
UitravioletSpectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907
16.25 Acetic Acid. Glacial., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907
16.26 Acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907
16.27 Acetonitrile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 908
16.28 Benzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 909
16.29 2-Butanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910
16.30 n-Butyl Acetate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910
16.31 n-Butyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910
16.32 n-Butyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911
16.33 tert-Butyl Methyl Ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911
16.34 Carbon Tetrachloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911
16.35 Chlorobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912
16.36 Chloroform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912
16.37 Cyclohexane .................................................................... 914
16.38 Cyclopentane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 914
16.39 Decahydronaphthalene (Decalin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915
16.40 o-Dichlorobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915
16.41 Diethyl Carbonate ................................................................ 916
16.42 Dimethyl Acetamide ............................................................... 916
16.43 Dimethyl Formamide .............................................................. 916
16.44 Dimethyl Sulfoxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 917
16.45 1.4-Dioxane .................................................................... 917
Contents and Subject Index mi

16.46 .................................................................
Ether. Anhydrous 917
16.47 2-Ethoxyethanol................................................................. 918
16.48 EthylAcetate.................................................................... 918
16.49 Ethylene Dichloride ............................................................... 919
16.50 ......................................................................
Ethyl Ether 919
16.51 GLYME ........................................................................ 920
16.52 n-Heptane ...................................................................... 920
16.53 Hexadecane .................................................................... 921
16.54 Hexane ........................................................................ 921
16.55 ..................................................................
Isobutyl Alcohol 923
16.56 iso-Octane (2.2.4-Trimethylpentane) .................................................. 924
16.57 .................................................................
Isopropyl Alcohol 924
16.58 ................................................................
Isopropyl Myristate 925
16.59 Methanol ....................................................................... 925
16.60 2-Methoxyethanol................................................................ 926
16.61 ............................................................
2-Methoxyethyl Acetate 926
16.62 ...............................................................
Methylt-Butyl Ether 926
16.63 Methylene Chloride ............................................................... 927
16.64 Methyl EthylKetone ............................................................... 927
16.65 Methyl Isoamyl Ketone............................................................. 928
16.66 .............................................................
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone 928
16.67 Methyl n-Propyl Ketone............................................................ 929
16.68 N-Methylpyrrolidone .............................................................. 929
16.69 Pentane ........................................................................ 929
16.70 Petroleum Ether .................................................................. 930
16.71 beta-Phenethylamine .............................................................. 930
16.72 2-Propanol ..................................................................... 931
16.73 .................................................................
n-Propyl Alcohol 931
16.74 ..............................................................
Propylene Carbonate 931
16.75 ........................................................................
Pyridine 932
16.76 ..................................................................
Tetrahydrofuran 932
16.77 Toluene ........................................................................ 933
16.78 ............................................................
1.2. 4-Trichlorobenzene 934
16.79 .................................................................
Trichloroethylene 935
16.80 1.1. 2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane ........................................................ 935
16.81 Triiuoroacetic Acid ................................................................ 936
16.82 .................................................................
Trimethylpentane 936
16.83 Water ......................................................................... 937
16.84 ortho-Xylene.................................................................... 937

APPENDM-COMPARATNE DATA FOR VARIOUS SOLVENTS ............................................ 938

REFERENCES.................................................................................. 960

TRADENAMEINDEX ............................................................................ 962


Introduction

A solution may be defined as a mixture of two or more substances which has uniform chemical and physical proper-
ties throughout. It may also be defined as a system whose component parts are two or more molecular species, there
being no boundary surfaces between these parts larger than molecules. There are two components to every solution-
the solvent and the solute. As a matter of convenience, the part of a solution which i s in excess is designated as the
solvent; the solute is the component which is in smaller proportion. Solvents, once used, may be recycled, reused, or
discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

The purpose of solvents i s to convert substances into a form suitable for a particular use. The importance of the role
of solvents is brought out most clearly by the fact that many substances exhibit their greatest usefulness when in
solution. Lacquer solvents, for example, are selected to produce homogeneous combinations and so selected as to
impart the most desirable mechanical properties. The physical properties of a fabricated solution can be regulated a t
will by the proper choice of solvents, thus adapting them to the most varied uses and methods of applications. Some
of the more important uses for solvents are in the adhesives, coatings, electronics, ink, pesticide, pharmaceutical,
photographic reproduction, and textile industries. Large quantities of solvents are also involved in dry cleaning,
metal degreasing, oil refining and recovery, and as fuel additives.

Solvents vary in their dissolving power, so that the line of demarcation between solvents, latent solvents and non-
solvents is difficult to define. Some of the factors which influence solvency are atmospheric conditions, purity and
molecular association. Molecular aggregation is the explanation for increased, attenuated, or decreased solvent power
or, more concisely, eccentric solvency. Any substance that will dissolve another i s called a solvent. Thus, we have a
gaseous solution when a liquid or a solid is dissolved in a gas; a liquid solution when any one of these is dissolved in a
liquid, and a solid solution when any one of them is dissolved in a solid.

Mixing of solvents, diluents and thinners often results in change of solvent properties. Some chlorinated compounds
become good solvents for cellulose esters when mixed with an alcohol. On the other hand, some active solvents for
esters of cellulose lose some of their solvent power when mixed with hydrocarbons. Alcohols are added to lacquers
to improve flow and to prevent blushing, although they vary considerably in these respects. Alcohols are not true or
active solvents for nitrocellulose as are the active dissolvents like ethyl lactate or n-butyl acetate. The alcohol group,
however, cannot be classed as nonsolvents like toluene or naphtha. When an alcohol is added to a true solvent, the
solvent power of the latter is not reduced but, on the contrary, this active solvent activates the alcohol to such an
extent that it too becomes a solvent. Therefore, alcohols are referred to as latent solvents, whose hidden solvent
qualities are brought out by the addition of an active solvent. The presence of a latent solvent increases the toler-
ance of an active solvent for a nonsolvent. This group of latent solvents is also called extenders, because they in-
crease the volume of a mixture without decreasing the solvent power.

In general, simple esters and ketones activate alcohols so that they too become solvents and are capable of tolerating
various proportions of diluents. This is due to the molecular aggregates formed. Two-type solvents containing both
an alcohol and an active solvent group, such as an ester, ether or ketone, activate alcohol to a lesser degree. Unit
volumes of a solvent will activate only a limited amount of alcohol, indicating that definite molecular aggregates are
formed. A mixture of 50% n-butyl acetate and 50% n-butyl alcohol will not lose i t s solvent power until 85 to 95% of
the volume is evaporated, contributing further evidence of the validity of the theory of molecular aggregates. Plas-
ticizers, which are the high-boiling solvents, also activate alcohols.

Liquids vary in their rate of evaporation. Naturally, in a mixture of liquids, some evaporate more rapidly than
others. For example, if the solvent constituent of a lacquer evaporates more rapidly than the diluent, the limit of
tolerance of the residual mixture is exceeded and gelling or precipitation occurs. As evaporation goes on, gigantic
molecular reactions take place. Vast numbers of molecules change places as the new aggregates are formed. Some are

1
2 Industrial Solvents Handbook

replaced and some are repelled, causing immiscibility, precipitation, blushing, or one or more of the many lacquer
faults. It follows that dilution ratios do not indicate tolerance during the change of solvent-nonsolvent balance
which occurs during drying.

In the theory of molecular aggregation, higher concentrations of cellulose derivatives contain fewer secondary-
valence bonds. Consequently, smaller amounts of diluent can be tolerated. This condition occurs during film drying.
Hydroxyl-containing solvents show greater tolerance for toluene than do the simpler esters. In the case of naphtha
the condition is reversed. There are, however, exceptions to this statement, among which are butyl lactate and Butyl
CELLOSOLVE, which have very high naphtha tolerance. Simple esters will tolerate 50 to 100% more naphtha
than will such materials as ethyl lactate, ethyl ether, ethylene glycol, diacetone alcohol, and so forth. Ethers of gly-
cols generally have higher dilution ratios than do the butyl esters with respect to benzene, toluene, and xylene.

Solutions of nitrocellulose tolerate larger quantities of nonsolvents than solutions of cellulose acetate. The "solvent-
power number'' i s influenced by both the nature of the diluent and the mixing of two or more solvents. Frequently,
when two or more nonsolvents are mixed, they may exhibit the qualities of a good solvent. This i s especially true
when one of the ingredients is an alcohol. The ether-alcohol solvent mixture for collodion is a familiar example.
Another example of acquired solubility is the mixing of butyl acetate with amyl or ethyl alcohol for the less highly
polymerized forms of glyceryl phthalate resins. Some of the chlorinated hydrocarbons will dissolve nitrocellulose
when mixed with an alcohol. A mixture of benzene and alcohol will dissolve nitrocellulose containing up to 11%
nitrogen. A toluene-ethyl alcohol solution of alkyd resin will dissolve nitrocellulose. In many cases the solvent prop-
erty of esters for resins and nitrocellulose is increased by the addition of an alcohol. On the other hand, when active
solvents for cellulose esters are mixed with aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons, the solvent power of these active
solvents is decreased.

These facts bring to light reasons why many of the old-type solvents have been valued for their impurities. For
example, methyl acetone, made from the distillation of wood, had particularly valuable solvent properties. Actually,
it i s a mixed solvent which consists of methanol, acetone, esters and higher ketones. This mixture has certain desir-
able properties not obtained by any of i t s component ingredients when used separately. For this reason the "syn-
thetic methyl acetone" is made to simulate it. For this same reason commercial grades of butyl and amyl acetate
contain 85% ester and the remaining portion i s the corresponding alcohol. Amyl acetate, containing i t s characteristic
impurities when manufactured from fusel oil, is also valued for i t s solvent properties. The synthetic product is
different because it lacks these impurities. It is made from the pentane fraction of gasoline by chlorination; the
chloropentane is hydrolyzed to form amyl alcohol, and is finally esterified to the acetate.

Because of today's concern with environmental pollution, chemical composition limitations of solvent formulations
have been adopted by many state and local governmental agencies in the more highly industrialized areas of the
country. These rules and regulations seriously affect the use of many solvents, and solvent blends must be reformu-
lated to conform to the maximum allowable concentrations of the restricted solvents. It is necessary for the solvent
user t o acquaint himself with the governmental regulations of solvent use in his particular locale.
Hydrocarbon Solvents

PARAFFINS

Table 2.1: Methane (4) Table 2.2: Ethane (4)

FORMULA
I CHI FORMULA
I cu3-cn3

PROPERTIES
I RYM
iH
:;
I PURE
GRADE PROPERTIES I RE6Si:EH I PURE
GRADE
~~~

Composition. mol per cent I Composition. mol per cent


Nitrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane . .
. trace
Ethylene trace 0.05
Ethane 99.97 99.35.
Propylene 0.01 0.25
Propane 0.02 0.35

Fmezim point. triple point. F


Boiling point, F
Specific gravity of liauid a t 60160 F
n2W4 C
Oensitv of liquid at 60 F. lblgal
Vapor pressure et 70 F, p6a
Specific gravity of mal gas at
60 F and 14.7 psia (Air = 1) 1.0469'
Specific volume of real ga at
60 F and 14.7 psia, cu Wlb
Density of real ga at 60 F and
14.7 psia, Ibdw f t
Lquid volume, cu Wlb at -260 F
and 13.8 p h
Critical ternorretun. F
Critical p m m . psia
Flph point, mproximate. F
Flammabilitylimits. volume K in air
Lomr I
Higher I 13.0. I
Heatinnvalue for mal nu at 60 F and 1 I
.30 in Ha. muratadblu'$ BTUl cu ft
Heatingvalue for i d u l gm at
60 F and 14.7 psia, BTUlcu h.
Dry bldr
Saturated bask
I
1
I
low
I
I
I 985
GO F and 14.7 ph
nm
-.
0 hais
bnir
Saturated bldr
h.. BTUlcu ft,
.I
..__
17lW
1769.
I
*Litemturn valua *Litemure valua

3
4 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.3: Propane (4)

FORMULA I
PROPERTIES
I RESEARCH
GRADE
Compoution. mlpht p81 unt -
Ethane - ___
Propylene
PrOP8M
__
99.98 - .-
.

Imbume - -- __0.02- . - -
Norm81 Butan8 ___._. __
Butene2
Neopentane ___
Impentene ._____ ___ - ~

Normal Pentane
Purity by freezing point, mol pucent ___
-305.84' (triple poi"
Freezing point, F
Boiling point, F -43.73'
Specific gravity of liquid at 60/W F 0.5077. ~ 0.508 0.510
10/1 c 0.5005. 0.501
147.0 145.9

3 71 271
< O.OW5 C0.0005

60 F and 14.7 p i a (Air = 1) 1.5503.


Specific volume of real gas at
8.4515'
-156'
_____~.
L "W
Higher
Heatingvalue for ideal gm a t 60 F
2.1'
9.5. t
and 14.7 pi8, dry basis BTUlcu ft 2517'
*Literature

Table 2.4: lrobutane (4)

FORMULA

PROPERTIES

Composition, might per u n t


Ethana
Propylene -
Proprru
Imbutmu
Normal B u t m
Butm*Z
Neopmtane
Impentena
NonalPentw

Purity by f r w i n g point, mol print


Fnuing point, F
99.96
-255.28. I
99.5 I
Boiling point, F a n an. I
iu.aa
Specific grrvity of liquid I W80 F 0.5831. 0.583 0.563
MN c 0.5572. 0.557 0.557
119.1 119.8
4.68 4.68
45.8 45.4
72.2 72.2
__ __
. ., 111.5 111.5
Sulfur content, mwt p a cent < 0.m 0.m
Specific p i t y of me1 c
80 F nd 14.7 p l (Air 1)
a
-
t

Spncifc w l u n n of nlp a t
208M15.

80 F and 14.7 p l , cu ft Ab 6.3355. I I


F*lh point, tppmximat8, F I -117 I -117
I
Flammlility limits, wluma% in air
Lam
HiW
Hnting value for idnl gnat 80 F
and 14.7 &.dry be61 BTU/cu ft 3253. I I
Hydrocarbon Solvents 5

Table 2.5: n-Butane (4)

FORMULA
I cna-Cnl-Cnl-cna

PROPERTIES
I RESEARCH
GRAOE I PURE
GRADE
I T E ~ ~ ~ ~ A L

Composition. weight per a n t ~

Ethane __
Propylene __
PlOp8W I I 1 U.6
lrobutine __ 0.05 I 0.3 I 1.0
Normal Butam 99.95 I 99.4 I 97.6
..
95.0 min

NOOpmttn8 I I I 0.2
Iropsntane I 0.2 I 0.3
Normal Penurn I I 0.1 I 0.2

Table 2.6: 2,2-Dlmethylpropane (4)


Neopentane

FORMULA
I
I
9
cn,+-cn,
cn.

RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL


PROPERTIES
GRADE GRADE GRADE

(continued)
6 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.6: (continued)

PROPERTIES
I RESEARCH
GRADE
I PURE
GRADE
I TEiiWil

. . 100 F,pua - __ 35.9


___ _
_..- .. . - 36.7
130 F, psia . -. . -57.4 . - . - - __
57.1 -_ .-
- Rdrwtwe index. 2010 . ._. . - _- . - . . . - -
Co!or, Saybolt (unless indicatedl +30 . +30 - - - ..
- +N
Acidity, distillation reudue . neutral -
.. _ _ ImJral- _-
Nonvcjatile matter, gramdl00 ml ~. - . .. !.Was0.00115- -
Sulfur- content,we4&t per cent - . - __
- .- 0.005 - -~- . 0005 -
._C g. e r coy~:on_ _ - - . - -1 - - - .. 1. -
Doctor tm. _ _ - . ~- _. - - !!FE -_ - - V!p" - -
. -Kinematic viscouty, cs at 32 F
Specific gravity of real gas at
-
0.532. - -:
- - - - - - ._-. -1.-
60 F and 14.7 pria (Air = 1) 2.622.
Specific volume of real gas at
60 F and 14.7 pua, cu Wlb 4.997' . . ~

Fl@ point, approximate, F -85 - . -85


Flammcbility limits. volume% in air
. Low 1.4. ._ . _ - - .-
Higher 8.3.

Table 2.7: lsopentane (4)

FORMULA

RESEARCH runE TECHNICAL


PROPERTIES GRADE GRADE GRADE

Composition, %@t=mnt
___________
Normal Butam 0.1 0.2
cc8uto~2 ___..
2,2.-Oim*hylpropme - 0.1 0.1
Impentam 99.99 99.4 97.1
Normal Pentane 0.01 0.4 2.8
PmtenbZ
Cyclopentane

60 F 8nd 14.7 psia. cu Wlb ' ...

*Literature d u n
Hydrocarbon Solvents 7

Table 2.8: n-Pentane (4)

CH,-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH~
FORMULA

RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL


PROPERTIES GRADE GRADE GRADE

Comeositjon, weight per cent


Norma!_Butane
->-L ~
___
.- - Z&D~mathylptopane _ _ ~ - _-I____

-. Imp@nfanr_ - _ - 0.01 0.2 0.5


N o n r l h n u n e .. . . 99s 99.4 988 -
Pentene-2 -- - 0.1 0.2-
Cydopentane 0.3 0.5

Puritv by freezig pint,mCpar EInt 99.98 99.2


- Frnzim PO^ F- -201.50' __--
Boili oint F - __ - - - 96.93' ~- ----
____--
0istiE:on r;mF- - ____ __ -_ - _ -_ __ -
Initial boilingp&nt-. __ - - s-.-
10KCondlnrsd - . .- - .____ ___- - 97
5oK Condenrad- - - . - -97-
_-- 90KCondenred _ - - _____ -92.._--.
o m - __ ._-- - - -E?!-- --
Specific Vity of liquid at 60l60 F . 0.6312. o s 1 0 633
_______ -e1a!!Lc-- - , 0.62624. 0.626
_______._ -
AP~pmlFl!@ !- - - __ -~ ~ . _ _ _ _ _92.7
_ _ _ . __--92.0
Density pt_lipuiclat60% l b b l - . - , . . - 5.25 5.27 ____
-@orprexure at 70 F ~ E._ 8.56. 8.6
- 1RF,e~'1- - . ___ 15.57. 15.6
_-- 130 F,p! 26.4. 26.3
..Afmreindex. 2WO . _ ___-
13.5748-. ____ ____
Color. Saybolt_Lunlessindicated) - +30 - +30 -
- _ Acldlty.distclation reudue neutral neutral
___ Nonvolatile matter. pramt/lO&ml O.WO5
0.005
0.0005
0.005
Sulfur con!en_t,ei&t per c g !
Copper c o ~ o ~ o n _ _ 1 1
Doctor tM-- -- - - mgatm m m
Kinematic viscosity, cs at 32 F 0.431.
Specific gravity of real gas at
- - - -60.-
F-and 14.7 pria (Air = 1) 26400.
Specific volume of real w at
60fInd 14 7 ptra, cu Wlb 4.9629.
Flahpoint. approximate. F -57 -50
Flamm+ulitv limits, volume K in air
- -L-r 1.4.
Higher 8.3'
i

*Literature values.

Table 2.9: 2,2-Dimethyibutane (4)

Neo hexa ne

FORMULA
I
I
7%
CHa-y-CH2-CH3
CH-

I
PROPERTIES
REXARCH
CRAnF I PURE
GRADE
TECHNICAL
GRADE

Composition, weight per u n l


Impenunc
Cyclopmutm 0.2 0.1
2.2-Oimrthylbutam 9938 99.5 s6.4 95.0 min.
2,lOimoththylbutam 0.01 0.2 2.2
2Mnhylpmatm 0.01 ai 0.3
Mathylpmtm

Purity by fmzirq point, mol per Unl 99.97 99.4 99.0min.


Frwzingpoint, F -147.77'
Boiliq point, F 121.53'
Distillation r a w , F
Initial boiling point 120.5
Ow point 122.Z
8 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.9: (continued)

PROPERTIES
RESEARCH
GRADE
PURE
GRADE
I T E ~ ~ ~ ~ A L

*Litwmun dum

Table 2.10: 2,3-Dimethyibutane (4)

Di isopropyl

FORMULA
I ?'a'?"'
cna-Cn-cn-cna
Hydrocarbon Solvents 9

Table 2.11: 2-Methylpentane (4)

FH3
FORMULA CH,-CH-CH2-CH2-CH,

RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL


PROPERTIES GRADE GRADE GRADE

'Literature v d u n

Table 2.12: 3-Methylpentane (4)

FORMULA 1 :"a
CH,-CHa-CH-CH2-CH,

?ROPERTIES
I RESEARCH
GRADE I WRE
GRADE
I T E ~ ~ ~ C ~ L

(continued)
IO Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.12: (continued)

PROPERTIES
I RESEARCH
GRAOE
I PURE
GRAOE
I
I
1E:i;P

Specific W i .
t y of liquid at 6W60F
.- - ._
0.6690. .
0.669 0.669
-atJ@C __ - wp3y 3.F- - 0.664
API gravity at 60 F .'
-. - U.8
- . __
Cenr;iy ofTqGdat6o_F.b&$
_._
- 5.57
Vapor p m r e at 70 F, psi8 3.1-
- . 100 F. pua -. 6.0
i3a F. psia - -16.9 - -- -
R d r a c ~ w j d e x2
,W O 1.365?-. 1.376 . i.Bs
Color, Saybolt
Acid&, distdla<on rsliduc .
+a
. _
+30
"W!?l_
:: - '50
rmtnl
. _.
BoFvdatiC matter, grimdi00 mT 0.0005 - '- - -om----
.
.-.
Suifur c o k t . wetght per cent 0.W5 0.00s .
topper corrosion 1 1
Ooctor test
Flash point. approximate, F
Flammsbility limits. volume% in air
wpm
-25 .- nF
Lower 1.2. - . .-
Higher 7 7'

Table 2.13: n-Hexane (4)

FORMULA
I CH,-CH2-CH2-CH,-CH2-~~I

PROPERTIES
I RESEARCH
GRADE
I PURE
GRADE
I 1
E
WiE
;

'LiterMure nluos. *'Form a g l l a


Hydrocarbon Solvents 11
Table 2.14: 2,4-Dimethylpentane (4)

FORMULA

'Litoraturn WIUI

Table 2.15: 2,3-Dimethylpentane (4)

FORMULA
I CHa-CH-CH-CU2-CHa
FHaFHa

?fiO?ERTlLS
I 80%
6RAIE

-_ Purity by f m z i q point, mol p n a n t


_ _TGTw point, F
__._
_- DLillation m q ~ F.
Initial boilifq paint 193
OlldWd
--
12 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.16: 3-Methylhexane (4)

"71 PROPERTIES
TECHNICAL
FORMULA CH,-CH14H-ICHIII-CHl GRADE
Boilini ooint. F

Composition. wight psrcant __


__ -2.3-Dimethvbentana . .. 0.1
2-Methylhexane _-.____ 1.4
3-Methylhaxme __97.2 95.0 rnin
>Ethylpentme ~- ~ __ -_.o.s
_ _ - Normel Heptane
Dimethylcyclopentene 0.5
~~

Methylcyclohaxsne - _ _ ____~ -1m


-n L l imethylhexane ~ l o Saybolt
~. +x--- .- - .- --
1:2E?Ah-- .. . . ,,.."..,.I
I.." "I_
~
...... ...__. ..""..I.
. .
2.5-Dimethylhexane Nonvolatile~
matter. _
gramJlW
~ _ - . ~.IJW5 .. . .
.
Other Dimethylhexanes .
-. . .content
ulfur
~ - ....weight
. . percent 0.m5

t
..
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane Coppw corrosion
~ ______-.- - ~ o ~ oiart
-r __.- . -1 ...
2.2.3-Trimethylpentane __
~ ~

.
~ ~ ~ t , a p p r o - x ~ m . a ~ a.-~~-..
F . ~.
negative
- ~~ ~-
2.3.4-Trimethylpentam - 25 Estimated .
- - .
...
. - ~ ~

2.3.3.Trimthylpenta~ Flammabiltv limits. volume % in air


I "-, I

Higher I 1

Table 2.17: n-Heptane (4) Table 2.18: 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (4)


isooctane

FORMULA
I CHl--ICHIIB-CHa
FORMULA I CH3

CH3-d-CH2-dH-CHa
CH3
CH1

RESEARCH PURE
PROPERTIES

Comporition,rnipht perwnt-
GRADE GRADE PROPERTIES RESEARCH
GRADE ~~ 1 PURE
GRADE-
-...._

2.3-0inuthylpinta~
Composition.weight perwnt I __-
2.3-Oimithylpantana~
2-Mathylhuana
Wnhylhrxana
2-Methylhuane
3-Methylhaxana
-_
-~
5Ethylpintne tRCl >Ethylpantma .... -
Normal H@ptana 99.99 99.8 Normal Heptane trace
D imethykyclopantaw 0.01 0.2 0 imathylcyclopantane -.
Mathylcyclohaxma trace
1.2-Dimrthylhlxlm
Methylcyclohixane
2.2.Dimthylhexane 0.01
____ 0.2
2,CDitwthylhixam 2.44 imathylhexana
2.!LOimnhylhuam
~__________
2.5-0 imethylhexane
Dthw Dimnhylhexanm Othir Dimethylhexanes
2 2 1Trim.thvlamuna 2.2,CTritwthylpantana 99.99 99.8
2.2.3.Trirnrthylpmtana
2.3.4-Trimthvloantane

Puritv. bv. fnuim_Doim


. mol % 99.92 99.7 99.0 rnin
Fmzing point, F ."..."
Boiling point, F 1 209.17.
- .F
Distillation ranan. I
Initial boiling point I
.,n PY"'.
"0,
I
Sprific gravity of liquid at 6O/W F 0.6882' 0.6118
2Ol4 C 0.6837k 0.684
API orwitv et 60 F 11.1

Atidiw, dinillation midue neutral


Nonvoletik m m r . pmnJlW ml O.ooo5
Sulfur conmnt, wi&t pmant 0.005
C o p p corrosion
~ 1
~ Doaorta 1lgitiW
F l r h point, approxinuta. F 25
Flmmabilty limits, v o l u K % in air
1-
I , ..-
1 fl*
nah.r I I 7n*

*LiMatun valum. *Litantun valua


Hydrocarbon Solvents 13

Table 2.19: 2,3,4-Trimethylpentane (4) Table 2.20: Mixed Trimethylpentanes (4)

FORMULA

PROPERTIES RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL


GRAOE GRADE GRADE

Purity by f r u i t y point, mol W


F r n z i q point, F
Boiling point. F
Distillation range. F
Initial boiling point
Dry point
Specific p i t y of liquid m W60 f
_-.-
M I A I:
API gravity at 60 F
Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibdgd
Vapor p r a w n m 70 F, prie
io0 F. PI^
.-
130 F. osia
Rlfnctiw index. ZWO
Color Savbolt

Table 2.21: Mixed Dimethylhexanes (4)

TECHNICAL
PROPERTIES
FORMULA
I C8niI
Dklillation r a m . F
GRADE

PROPERTIES
I GRADE
14 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.22: n-Oxtane (4)

FORMULA CH,-lCH2Is-CII,

‘Literature values.

Table 2.23: 2,2,5-Trimethylhexane (4)

*Literatun values.
Hydrocarbon Solvents 15

Table 2.24: n-Nonane (4)

FORMULA
1 CH3-ICH21,-CH3

PROPERTIES I GRADE I PURE


GRADE
I T E ~ ~ ~ ~ L

- Composition.weight per cant

'Litersum values.

Table 2.25: n-Decane (4)


16 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.26: n-Undecane (4)

FORMULA
I cnp-ICH219-CHa

RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL


PROPERTIES
GRADE GRADE GRADE

Composition, wekht per cent - -~


Normal Nonane ___ .. ._______.
Normal Decane ___.____I____ _____
Normal Undecane _
99.8_ 99.6 ~ 99.1
Normal DOdKane ....
_ _ _Normal Tridecane ~

Isoparaffins 0.2 0.4 0.9

Purity by freezing point, mol K 99.64 99-!.99.0&~!_ 96.7 95.0 min


______._
Freezing point, F -14.07' _____ .
..
..
..
..
. ..
Boiling point. F 384.60' . .................
Distillation range, F __ __
____ Initial boiling point
Dry Point
-~ 384
. ........... 385 .
Specific gravity of liquid at 6W60 F--.- .- 0.7443. 0.7U
.......... 0.744
atW4 C 0.74024. 0.740
....... ... .--0.739
API gravity at 60F ___ _58.7
____ A 7
Density of l i q u i d 6 0 F, Ibdgal - 6.19 6.19
Vapor prarwre at 100 F, p s i ~ - ~ _ _
Refractive index, 2WD 1.41725. 1.417 1.419
Color, Saybolt ____ +30 . +30 +30
Acidity. distillation residde _-__
neutral neutral ........
Nonvolatile matter. gramdl00 ml 0.0005 .- 0.0005 _____.
Flash point. approximate. F 149 148

'Literature values

Table 2.27: n-Dodecane (4)

CHa-ICH21 ,O-CHa
FORMULA

PROPERTIES
I RESEARCH
GRADE I PURE
GRADE
I Nf;T:E:

* L i m e n valuu
Hydrocarbon Solvents 17

Table 2.28: n-Trldecane (4)

FORMULA
I CH3-ICH*1, ,-CH3

PROPERTIES
I RESiSiEH I E ; : : : I TECHNICAL
GRADE

ComPo%.c@!Lwe*r!m-. _. __ ~ . .- -
Normal Tridecane 99.9 99.8 99.2
Normal TetradKlne
Normal Pentadscane ~-
.______ ~ .- _-
~~. - ~ ____
Normal Hexadecane __ ______
Normal Heptadecane - ~~. ~~~

lroparaffins 0.1 0.2 0.8


Purity by freez%point. mol K ~ . ~.
-. 99.80 - -
~ .... 99.49 99.0 min . 96.81 95Omin-_
~ ~~ ~~~ ~

Freezing point, F 22.29'


F
Boiling point,______._ 455.78. -
Distillation range, F ___.. __ ~___
- Initial b o i ' i n e p o i n t - - ~.~~~- ~ - - ~ 452
~ _ _ 10%
_ _ Condensed
_____~~___ __
50% Condensed ~_ - - ~ ~~ ~~

_ c _
90% Condensed - _____.I

____ Orypoint ~ . _ ~ ~~. 458 ._ -.


~__-
~

-~ of liquid at 60/60 F
Spwificqravity ~
0.7601'. . ~ ~0.760
.~ ~.. . 0.762 . ~~

at 2014 C - 0.75622' 0.756 0.758


API gravity at 80 F . -~ ~

A P L ! W t Y a t G O F ~ _ _ ~ . 54.7
_______ 54.2
- ___~
Densit of li uid a t 60 F, Ibdgal
-Rafr2ive A x . 2 0 1 ~ 1 - -1 :__--
633L
1.42560' -__ 1.426
6.34_.----
1.427 .
-

_ _ Gardner
_ Color, _ _ ~ -
Acidity, distillation residue neutral neutral ~

Sulfur content, weight percent 0.005 0.W5


Bromine number
Kinematic viscositv. cs at 77 F
Flash point. approximate, F
'Literature values

Table 2.29: n-Tetradecane (4) Table 2.30: n-Pentadscane (4)

FORMULA
I cu3-icn1i,1-cu, FORMULA I CH3-ICH21,3-CH3

PROPERTIES PROPERTIES
I GRADE a

1 I:S
Composition, might percent.
~- - ..~
__.__- Normal Tridecana
Normal Tetradecane 99 Normal Totradecane _-
Normal--
Pentadscane -
Normal Hexadecane
__ Normal Pentadecane~--~
Normal Hexadecane
99.7

___ Normal Heptadecane I -- - Normal Heptadecane


lsoparaffint I 0.4 1 lsoparaffins 0.3
Purity: freezing point, mol X S%%& 95.0 min Purity by frluing point. mol K __ 96.80 95.0 min
48.14
Freezi point, F Fraezinp point. F -
Boiling point, F 488.33. .______ Boiling point, F
Distillation range. F --__ Distillation range. F ___
Initial boiling point __ --___- Initial boiling point __ 502
512
10% Condensed 10% Condensed
- 50% Condensed -. ~______~_ ~
50% Condenrad - 514
90% Condensed 90% Condenad 516
0 oint 492 . Dry point -
SpKz:gr3Vtty O f Iiqux6-
at 2014 C
r 0.7667.-
y r_____-
0.76276'__
0.769
0.765
Specific gravity of liquid at 60/60 F
at 2014 C
0.7721.
0.76830.
API grwity at 80 F ____- API gcavity at 80 F
API gravity at 60 F 52.5
- API Qrwityat 60 F 51.77'
Oensity of liquid at 60 F, lbdgal 6.40 Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibdpll 6.43'
Refrwtive index, 2WD 1.42892. 1.430 Refnctiw index, 2WD 1.4332
Color, Gardner -
11- Color, Gardner <1
_ _Acidity.
_ _ ~ distillation residui
Sulfur content, wight percent I I Sulfur content. wight percant
Bromine number I I Bromine number 0.10
Kinamatic viscosity. u a t 77 F Kinematic viscosity. u at 77 F
Flesh point, approximate, F I 250" I 250" Flash point, approximate. F 270
'Literature values *Litarature values
18 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.31: n-Hexadecane (4) Table 2.32: n-Heptadecane (4)

FORMULA
I CHa-lCHll(4--CHl FORMULA
I CH1-ICH1l ,.-CH1

I
I

PROPERTIES I TECHNICAL
GRAOE PROPERTIES
~
TECHNICAL
GRADE

Comporjtios weeh~e!cent ____ Composition, welght percent


- Normal Tridecme Normal Tridecane - - ~

Normal Tetrdaune ___


__Normal - _-- -- . . .
Tetradecane
.. . ~ N_ormg?%
! %c% 0.2 _ _ Normal Pentaduane
- Normal Hexadaune - 9 % - __
Normal Hexadecang
___._ __ _ . 0.3 ____
Normal Heptadecme Normal Heptaduane 99.4
lroparaff ins 0.2 lsoparaffins 0.3
Purity by freezing point. mol %
.-_____ - 96.35 95.0 min __Purity-byhezing point, mol % 96 60 95 0 min
Freezing point, F 63.79 ~Freezing
_point. _F _ 70 47
' Boiling point, F Boiling point, F
Distillation raw, F Dirtillation range, F - - - 5 mm Hp
- Initial boiling point 52 1 Initial boiling point - __ . 289
10%Condensed 53 1 -~ 10% Condensed 291
50%
- ._~_____--Condensed 53 1 50%
- Condensed
- .-- -~ 292
90%Condensed 292
__ -- Drvrnzn!
Specific gravity cf'lpuid at 601SOF -
____.

mra v i t y at 80 F
at 2014 C
51.8
___
Apt gravitv at 80 F
a!-%14C
- _. .
__
_. 50.8 ____
API ravi at60 F 49.9t API gravity at K F . - __ - . 48.91
Den&ty :liquid at 60 F, I&l 6.49 Oenrity of liquid at 60 F,l_bdpI - - . 6.53
_____
__ Refractive index, 20/0 1.4352 ~Refractive
_ _index, __ 2WO
. _- - - - .-
__
Color. Gardner Cl Color. Gardner
____ -_ - - C L - - -
_ _Acidity, distillation residue Acidity, distillation residue -
Sulfur content, might percent ~ _ _ - Sulfur content,
__ -might__ percenL .- -
Bromine number 0.21
- ___
.-_____ _Bromine
_ _number _ 0 43
__ Kinematic virosicy. cs a1 71 F Kinematic viwority,>s
-- a177 F
Flash point, ~pproximate.F 275 Flash point, approximate. F 300
'Literature values

Table 2.33: n-Octadecane (4) Table 2.34: n-Nonadecane (4)

FORMULA
I CH1-ICH1l ,.-CHa FORMULA I
I
CH1-ICH21,,-CH3

PROPERTIES
I TECHNICAL
GRAOE
PROPERTIES
I TECHNICAL
GRAOE

Normal Hexadscane Normal Hexadscane

Normal Octadecane Normal OcUdecane


Normal Nonadecane Normal Nonadecane
Normal Eicorne Normal Eicorne
lsoparaffins lsoparaffinr

Purity by freezing point, mol % 95.95 95.0 min Purity by froezing point. mol % - 95.37 95.0 min
Freezingpoint, F 81.82 Frwzinp point, F 87.98
Oistillation range, F 5 mm Hg Oistillation range, F ___ 5 mm Hp
Initial boiling point 302 Initial boilinp point 320
10%Condensed 310 10%Condensed 333
50%Condensed 312 50%Condensed 336
90% Condensed 312 90% Condensed 336
95%Condensed 313 95%Condenmd 336
API gravity at 100 F 51.8 API gravity at 100 F 51.0
API grlvity at 60 F 48.0t API gravity at 60 F 47.3t
Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibdgal 6.56 Density of liquid a t 60 F. Ibdgal 6.59
Color, Grdner 1 Color, Gradner ¶

Bromine number 0.48 Bromine number 0.53


Flash point, approximate, F 330 Flash ooint. aooroximte. F 335
tAPl gravity at 60 F iscormcted from 1WF. tAPl gravity at 60 F is cormctd from 1 W .
Hydrocarbon Solvents 19

Table 2.35: n-Eicosane (4)

FORMULA
I PROPERTIES I #ox
GRADE

~ __- _range,
Oinillation - _ F.- _ - - - -5 mm_HP - - - ~

PROPERTIES Initial boiling point 340 -


-- 10% Condensed __-_--352- - - - - -
__-___ 50% Condensed 354
___
Compst&o!. weight percent
9C% Condensed __ 355
Normal H e x ~ d e p ~ e
. Normal Heptadecane
_ _95% _ Condensed
_ _ ~ _
API pravlty at 100 F
- --
__ 356-_-
. 49 1
__
Normal Octadecane
__ - API gravity at 60 F @1f----
Normal Nonadwane - Density of liquid at- 60
Normal Eicosenc ____-- -F,-Ibdgal
- --y 3
Color, Gradner
-~ - -. 1
lvrparaffins Bromine number __ __~_
0 74
Flash point, approximate, f . - 360
tAPl gravity at 60 F is corrected from 1WF.

CYCLOPARAFFINS

Table 2.36: Cyclopentane (4)

FORMULA
I CHz-CH
I
CHz-C)4
'2 CH2

PROPERTIES

Normal Psnunn

Initial baililw mint

'Litontun v d u a
'*Major impwitinsarn 2,ZTJimathylbuune and 2,3-0in*thylbutar.
20 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.37: Methylcyclopentane (4)

Table 2.38: Cyclohexane (4)

PROPERTIES
I RESEARCH
GRADE I w.5x
GRADE
08.0%
GRADE

_ Composition.
_ _ wight percant
______
~
Normal Hexane
Msthylcyclopentlnr 0.5
2,CDimethylpentam 0.01 0.1 0.1
Cyclohexane 99.98 99.8 99.5 min 98.8 98.0 min
lrohsptana 0.1 0.4
3 t - 0 imethylpentm 0.01 0.2
Benzene & Toluene, ppm 193 5Wmar 200 5Wmax
1.1 -Dimrthylcyclopmtane
1.2 & 1.3~Dimethylcyclopsn~~~

Purity by f m i q point, mol 96


F m i q point, F
I 99.98
43.80.
I I
98.8

(continued)
Hydrocarbon Solvents 21

Table 2.38: (continued)

*Literature values

Table 2.39: 1 , l -Dimethylcyclopentane (4)

CH1-CH 00%
PROPERTIES
FORMULA I 'C-tCH,Il GRADE
Cli-CH,'
Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F . . 0.754

PROPERTIES I 90%
GRADE
_ _ _

API gravity at 60 F
_ p ~ ~

Density 01 liquid at 60 F. Ibdgal


at __
-
_ 2014 C
.____
0.749
pp

Composition, weight percent _- ~Vapor


_ _ _ at_ 70
pretufre _F, _psia ~
100 F. psis - ..____~___
Normal HexaE . ____p_

130 F. psia _____


Methylcyclopentane
Refractive index, ZWO __
2.4-Dimethylpentane .
Cyclohexane ~ Color, Saybolt - -
__ _______ ~-
. _____
Acidity. distillation residue
leheptanes -. _.___
--____- Nonvolatile matter. gramdl00 ml
3.3.0imethylpentane --__.___
SulfureweiphtpeGeni--
~-
Benzene & Toluene. ppm
Aniline point, F _ 117
1.1-Dimethylcyclopentane . 92' ~ ~

Kauri Butanol value 42.9


1.2 & 1.3-Dimethvlcvclo~entane
Copper
_____. corrosion p ~ ~ _ _

Ooctor test -
-- Kinematic viscosity. cs at 32 F
Flash point. approximate. F < 70
- ~ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Distillation range, F ~___~_______
'Major impurities are: Cyclohexane. 3.3-Dimethylpentane and 2.Methvlhexane.
10% Condensed -.-190p---p
50% Condensed
9mb Condensed 190
190 -
22 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.40: 1,2- and 1,3-Dirnethylcyciopentane (4)

90%
FORMULA
I
I
CH+CH,
I H
-
CH,-cH,
,CH-CH,
-
PROPERTIES

Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F


at 20/4 C
ERAOC-
-...._
0.748
0.744

PROPERTIES I 90%
GRADE
API grrvity at 60 F
Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibdgal
Vapor prstwre at 70 F, psia
__
~.

Composition, w g h t percent _ _ _ .. ~ ~
100 F, psia __ ..___-----
Normal Hexane __ _-__- 130 F. psia
-~
-
-
Methylcyclopentane Refractive index, 2010 - ---
2.4-Oimethylpentane - Color, Saybolt -
- ~ _ - _ _ _
Cyclohexane - ~. _ _ ___ - - ~ Acidity. distillation residue -
______--
Isaheptanes
~

3.3-Oimefhylpentane
Nonvolatile matter, gramdl00 ml
Sulfur content, w i g h t percent
_-
____..~-
Benzene & Toluene. pprn Aniline point, F 120_ _ _ _ _ - ~
~ _ _ .
1.1 Oimethylcyclopentane Kauri Butanol value 40.5
1.2 & 1.3 Oirnethylcyclopentane 92t .-
Copper corrosion
Doctor tnt I
Purity by freezing point. mol %
Kinematic viscosity. cs at 32 F
Freezing point, F --- < 70
Boiling point, F _ _
Flash point. approximate, F I
Oistillation range, F --___
Initial boiling point ___ .~ ______
196
10% Condensed __ -__- 197 tMijor impurity is 3-Methylhexane.
50% Condensed 197
90% Condensed ___ 197
Dry point 197 ___

Table 2.41: Methylcyclohexane (4)

FORMULA
. RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL
PROPERTIES
GRADE GRADE GRADE

Composition, weight percent


1.2.Dimethylcyclopentane
Normal Heptane
Methylcyclohexane
Ethylcyclopentane ~

Toluene

Purity by freezing point. mol % 99.86 99.3 99.0 min


-195.87' -196.20
213.68'

0.7740' 0.774 0.774


0.769 0.769
API gravity at 60 F
Density of liquid a t 60 F, Ibdgal 6.44
Vapor pressure at 70 F. psia
1 W F, psia ._ 1.61. 1.6 1.6
______
Refractive index, 20/0 1.42312* 1.423 - 1.423
Color. Saybolt +30 +30 +30
Acidity. distillation residue neutral neutral
Nonvolatile matter, gramdl00 ml 0.0005 O.OOU5
Sulfur content, weight percent 0.005 0.005
Copper corrosion 1
_______________________ 1
Doctor test negative negative
Flash point, approximate. F 22 22
I I I
'Literature values.
Hydrocarbon Solvents 23

Table 2.42: trans-l,4-Dlmethylcyclohexane (4) Table 2.43: cis-l,4-Dimethylcyclohexane (4)

FORMUL A

PROPERTIES
I TECHNICAL
GRADE
PROPERTIES
TECHNICAL
GRAOE

Composition. weight percent -


1.2 Oimethvlcvclopentane - __ _-__ .. - - _ --
Normal Heptane
_

_ _ _ Ethylcyclopentane Toluene
___ Toluene
tram 1.4.Dimethylcyclohrxane ~
0.11 - --
cit-1 .4-Oimethylcvclohexane 99.89
___-
Other Dimethylcyclohexanes __- Other Dimethylcyclohexanes
trans -1.2.Oimnhylcyclohexans
___ ciS-l.2-0 imethylcyclohexane
_~ ci~-l,2-Dimethylcyclohexane
orthoXylene ortho-Xylene
Unidnntified lmourities Unidentified Impurities

Purity by freezing point. mol % 97.4 95.0 min


Freezingpoint, F ___- -125.38. -
Boilhepoint. F -- ~ _ _ 255 78.
Distillation range, F
-
Initial boiling point - 255
- _ _ _5WCondensed --
.~
Dry point ~-
~
256
- _Specific gravity of liquid at 6W60 F
- ._____- 0.7872 -
at 2om-i- - - 0.7025
48.2
6.56

0.7
1.4297
+30
netural
- 0.0005
- Sulfur-conten!, wegh! percent ____
Copper cotrotion .
ooctor test .. negative-----
Flash point. approximate. F 40 (0 56) M1

Table 2.44: Mixed 1,4-Dimethylcyclohexanes (4)

PROPERTIES
I GRADE
TECHalCAL
FORMULA

I
I
C816
Freezing point, F
Boiling point, F
Distillation rage, F
PROPERTIES
I TECHNICAL
GRAOE
~ _ Initial _
boiling_
50% Condensed
_ _ Dry
_ _point~ _ _ _
point _ _ _.___
.

-
250
252

Composition. might percent _ _ Specific gravity of liquid at Mv60 F


1.2.Dimethylcyclopencne
API gravity at 60 F
Methylcyclohexane ~
Densty of liquid et 60 F, lbrlpll -
Ethylcyclopentnni Vapor
__ _ nt 70 F. pun
_presure
TO~UWI
trans-1,CD imethylcyclohaxme ~ Refractm
_ _index. _2WD
_ _ -_--_
-- 14257
cis-1.CDimethylcyclohexane
44'0
54.9 1 95.0 min __ Color. Snybolt
- -
0 t h Dimethylcyclohexanes 1.1 _Acidity,
_ dinillation rea+! I I neutral
tnnr-l.2-0imlthylcyelohexne ____
Nonvolatile
- matts, gamu'lW ml 0.0005
cis-1,Z-Oimlthylcyclohex8ne Sulfur content, m g h t prcent
onh*XyleM
Unidentifrd lmpuritia
24 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.45: trans-l,2-Dimethylcyclohexane (4)

FORMULA

PROPERTIES
RESEARCH
GRADE
I PURE
GRADE
I TECHNICAL
GRADE

Compowtion, weight percent


1.2.Dimethylcyclopenta~ ~

- Normal Hoptin8 .
Methylcyclohexane _ _ - - . .
Ethylcyclopmtanr - _ -
TolueM
t r m t 1,4-Dimrthylcyclohexane
cis1.CDimethylcyclohexane __
Other Dimethylcyclohexanes
trans. 1,2.0imMhylcyclohexane
ci~l.2-Dimethylcyclohexane - ~

ortho-Xylene
Unidentified Impurities

99.73 99.3 99.0 min


-126.75'
254.15' -.__

I t I 1
---I
Doctor t n l
_--

Flash point. approximate, F

'LitrrMurr v a l u n

Table 2.46: cls-l,2-Dimethylcyclohexane (4)

cn,-cH
I
'yI
FORMULA cn3-cn, cnI
CH./

PROPERTIES I PURE
GRADE

(continued)
Hydrocarbon Solvents 25

Table 2.46: (continued)

PROPERTIES

Dry point
RESEARCH
GRAOE I PURE
GRADE
~

Specific gravity of liquid a t 60/60 F 0.8W' 0.801


at 2014 C 0.79627' 0.796
API gravity at 60 F ~- 45.2 -
Density of liquid at 60 F. Ibu'gal 6.67
_ Vapor
_ pressure
_ _ a t 70 ~F, psia 0.23' 0.2
100 F, pria 0.54' ~ 0.5-..--
Refractiveindex, 201D 1.43596'
__ __ 1.436
Color, Saybolt +30 +30
Acidity, distillation residue . _neutral
~______
Nonvolatile matter, gramu'lW ml _____~~ 0.0005
____-
Sulfur content, weight percent 0.005
Copper corrosion 1 -
Doctor test nenative
Flash point, approximate. F 60 (0 56)

Table 2.47: Mixed 1,2-Dirnethylcyclohexane (4)

FORMULA PROPERTIES
Distillation range, F
I PURE
__
GRAPE
-

Initial boiling point


Dry point -
PROPERTIES Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F 0.792
GRAOE
at 20/4 C 0.789
Composition, weight percent - _ _ _ ~ - _ _ _ API gravity at 60 F 47.2
trace Density of liquid a t 60 F, Ibu'gal 6.59
tranr-1.2-Dimethylcyclohexane Vapor pressure at 70 F, psia
ctr-1.2-Dimethylcyclohexane 1W F, pria 0.6 wp
Ethylcyclohexane Refractive index, 2010 1.432
Ethylbenzene Color, Saybolt +30
Xylenes trace Acidity, distillation residue neutral
Isopropylbenzene Nonvolatile matter, gramdl00 ml 0.0005
Isopropylcyclohexane . _ Sulfur content, weiQhtDenent 0.005
Unidentified Copper corrosion I 1
I
~ ~~~~~

Purity by freezing point, mol % Doctor test negative


Frsszing point, F I Flash point, approximate. F I 55(D 56) '
Boiling p o c 260
*Literature values.

Table 2.48: Ethylcyclohexane (4)

PROPERTIES
I RESWCH I PURE
GRAOE
I TECHNICAL
GRAOE
~

~osfion-we~htprcent
Methylcyclohexane
_ _tnwl.2.D
_tmeth@yyoheteane
~
cir-1.2-Dtmsthylcyclohexne -- 2.0
Ethylcyclohexane __ 99.98 99.5 96.9
Ethylbenzene -- - - 0.02 0.4 0.8
Xylem __-
lsopropylbenzene
lmpropylcyclohunr
Unidmtifii trace 01 0.3

(continued)
26 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.48: (continued)

PROPERTIES
I RESEARCH
GRADE I PURE
GRADE
I TECHNICAL
GRADE
~~ ~

Purity by freezing point, mol X - 99.66 99.19 99.0min 96.06 95.0 min
Fmzing poin&f - 168.38' -
Boiling point. F ~ -_ _ ~ 269.21. ____
Distillation range, F
Initial boiling point - 266
Dry point ~ -- 269 ~

Specific gravity of liquid at 6O/6OF ~- 0.7922' 0.793 0.793


__ ___._ at 20/4 C -- - 0.78792' 0.788 - 0.788 ~

API gravity at 60 F __ - _.__ 46.9 46.9


Density of liquid at 60 F. lbdgal . . 6.60 6.60-_-
Vaporprercure at 70 F,psia __ -
1
.- -
W F . E i L .- 0
.48
' 0.5 ___. _~ 0._
5.- .. __
___
-- Refractive index. 2010-
.. . __ -. - 1.43304' _..____
1.433 __ 1.433
~____
Color,Saybolt - ~
+30 +30 +30
- Acidity, distillation residue. ._ . , ... ~ _ _ _ _ . neutral neutral
Nonvolatile matter. grnu'100 ml - - .___ 0.0005 0.0005
Sulfur content, -wj&hthlperEnt. .. . __ ~

- Copper c o n o s i ~ . - - ~- .. . ~- ..
Doctor t a l , -. , - - __ . _____-
Fluh point. approximate. F 66 66 66

'Literature values

Table 2.49: Isopropylcyclohexane (4)

FORMULA

RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL


PROPERTIES

'
GRADE GRADE GRADE
-__Comqosfi~nLwe~hyerc_Eent --
-__- Methylcyclohexan? __ -
-_ __
tran,~,2~imcthy~yclo~xan?
cit-1.2 Dimethylcyclohexan~__ -
Ethylcyclohexane
Ethvlbenzene
Xylen!! __ ___ _ _ ~
lsopropylbenzene
Isopropylcyclohexane __
Unidentified
____
Purity by freezing point. mol K _ _
Freezing point. F
Boiling point. F .
Distillationrange. F
Initial boiling point
ury point
Specific gravity of liquid at 60/60 F 0.8064. 0.807 0.807
at 20/4 C 06024. 0.803 0.803
API gravity at 60 F
Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibu'gsl
_-
-
6.72 __
Vapor pressure at 70 F. pw
1WF.psia .
Relractive indax, 20/0 1.44087'
________
Color. Saybolt
Acidity, distillation rcudue neutral neutral
Nonvolatile matter. pramdl00 ml. II 0.0005 0.0005
Sulfur conten(,-mwht percent
- Copper corrosion _ I I
Domrtm .____
Flash point apDroximite F 96 I 96 I 96
'literature values
Hydrocarbon Solvents 27

OLEFINS

Table 2.50: Ethylene (4) Table 2.51 : Propylene (4)

FORMULA
I CHI - CH2 FORMULA CHI - CH-CH,

PROPERTIES
I
RESEARCH I 98.8% PROPERTIES

1
GRADE GRADE GRADE GRADE

Composition. might percent


Propane 001 0.5
Propylene 99.99 99.5 99Dmin
Ethylene
T Ethane
Methana
_ - Carbon&o_xidegpm ~
I
Acetylene,epm (Iiguidl
- Carbonyl, ppm @quid)
- CarbonnMonox idegpm
- Okwgem _ _
Hydrogen. ppm

_ _Freezinai_nt, trifie poinLF


__ Boilingppt, F
Specific aravity otllquid a_t @/@F
- -et 20/4 C
~ AplpraviQ-at 60 F - - -
O g i w i ( y i d at 60 F, Ibrlgal
Vaporpr-mre at 70 F. psia
_ _ 100 F s i a
_ _ 130 F,pua_
Sulfur content, pem
&ecific gravity of real gas at
- 60 F and 14 7 PPI (Air = 1)
Specific volume of real gat at
60 F and 14.7 pua,cu ftllb
. Critical temperature, F
Critical premie, psia
Densify of real gas at 60 F
-_-. and M J RFL~~&IL!L
Flarhgozt. wproximate. F __
- -
--
--Flamma&lr
- Iflits,vo!u-mm %in ai
----...L o m r __--I_

Hiahel
Heating value for ideal 01s at 60 F
and 14 7 psia.BTUlcu ff, dry basis

'Literature values

Table 2.52: Isobutylene (4)

FORMULA
II RESEARCH
CH,-C
74
-
I
CH1

PURE
PROPERTIES

PROPERTIES
GRADE GRADE

Composition. weight percsnt


lsobutane 0.06 0.1
Isobutylene 99.81 99.3 99.0 min
Butene1 0.09 0.4
Butadienel.3
Normal Butane 0.04 0.2
Butene2 tnci true
AWtylMe (at Methylacetylene) ppm, wt.
Wmr, ppm. wight 177
Carbonyl (P Acetaldehyde) ppm, might nil
Propadiens. ppm. weight
28 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.53: butene-1 (4)

FORMULA
I CHa-CH2-CH - CH1
PROPERTIES I GRADE I
RESEARCH POLYMERIZATION
GRADE

I -301.63. I
PROPERTIES
I RESEARCH
GRADE IPOLYMERIZATION
GRADE
Freezina Doint. F
Boiling point, F
Specific gravity of liquid at 6060 F
20.73.
0.6013' 0.601
- Composition, might percent at 2014 C 0.5951.
lrobutane 0.1 API gravity at 60 F 103.9
lrobutylone 0.2 0.3
Vapor p m r e at 70 F.. oria
8. "Y 1 , W'
p ' I ,
I
C
3
.-
376
M
-
BUtOnbl 99.8 99.4 99.0 min
Buudienel.3 trace 100 F. pria I i 997
1
i i i 005F)
Normal Butans 0.2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 130 ~ _F. _osia_ _
Sullur content, ppm 1 10max
Butone2 trace
Acotyleni ILI Methylacetylene) ppm, W . 15 25max Specific gravity of real gar at
Water, ppm. might 60 F and 14.7pria (Air = 1) __
Carbonyl (LI Acnaldehyda) ppm, might Specific volume of real gas at
10 20max
Propdieno. ppm. might 60 F and 14.7 osia. cu ft/lb
4
Flash point, approximate.
___
Flammability l i m i i i
- Lorn 1.6' __
Highcr - - -- 9.3.
I I

*Literature values.

Table 2.54: trans-Butene-2 (4)

H
FORMULA CH,-C - C-CH9
I
H

Composition, mipht pment


Buowl 0.03 trace
Normal Butlno 0.07 0.2 1.3
trans-Butenb2 99.80 99.6 97.7 95.0 min
cieBuhnb2 0.10 0.2 1 .o

Purity by frnzing point, mol K 99.76 99.2 99.0 min


Frnzing point, F -157.99.
Boiling point, F 33.58. ______
Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F 0.6100. 0.610 0.609
at20/4 C 0.6042.
API gravity at 60 F 1W.5 - 100.8
Density of lipuid at 60 F. Ibdgal 5.07 5.07
_____
Vapor pnrwre at 70 F, p i a 29.94' 29.9 30
105 F, psia .. __ 52.2 __ . 52
130 F, prb 76.4 .___ 76
Flash point, approximate, F -100 -lw

Table 2.55: cis-Butene-2 (4)

I
H H
FORMULA
CH,-C
I
- 1
C-CHI

RESEARCH TECHNICAL
PROPERTIES
GRADE GRADE GRADE

Compoaition, might prcmt

Normal B u m

cbButsm2 99.5 95.7 95.0 min

(continued)
Hydrocarbon Solvents 29

Table 2.55: (continued)

PROPERTIES RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL


GRADE GRADE GRADE

Purity by freezing point, mol 96 - 99.92 99.4 99.0 min


Freezingpoint, F - -218.M.
~ ~ ___ .
Boiling point. FPP~__.~._. . 38.70. ~
-_______
Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F 0.6271. 0.627 0.632
at 2014 .c_____
__ - 0.6213. -
APhravity at 60 F _._ .__ .. - 94.2 92.4
Oenrity of liquid at 60 F, lbs/gal-. 5.22 5.26
Vapor Pr-re at 7_olsc ~~~. - 27.29' ~- 27.3
~ 27.8
105 F. pria .. .
. 49.8 50.8
130 F. psi!-_.. .. . -. ..
~ ~ _. - 73.2 ~
74.8
Flash point, approximate, F -100 -100

Table 2.56: Mixed 2-Butenes (4)

FORMULA I CH,-CH - CH-CH3

PROPERTIES I PURE
GRADE
1 TECHNICAL
GRADE

Freezingpoint, F
~~ ~

Boiling point, F _.
S p ~ i f i c ~ ~ i . ~ o ~ l a. ti 60160
q u i dF 0.619 0.618
at 2014 C 0.615 0.614
API.p i t y at 60 F 97.1 97.5
Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibdgal 5.15 5.14
M o r prspure at 70 F. p i a ._ 28.0 28.1
105 F. psia 51.0 51.2
- _____._ I30 F, pria . .~- 76.5 78.7
Flash point, approximate. F -95 -100

*Literature value%

Table 2.57: 3-Methylbutene-1 (4)

FORMULA CH2 - 7%
CH-CH-CH3

PROPERTIES I RESEARCH
GRADE I PURE
GRADE
I TEOCIX:C!L
99.97 96.3 95.0 min

Pentanes-2
0.01 tme 0.5
Normal Pentane

(continued )
30 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.57: (continued)

Purity by freegng point, mol % 9 9 4 99Omin


Fretzinppoint. F -2l1.29. .
Eojlgpnt, F 68 11. ~ - __
Distillation ranE, F_ . -
Initialboiling point
Dry point - - ~

Specificpravity of lipid-at60160 F-:. 0.63% 0633


at 2014 C 0 6272' 0.628 . - .
. APl g & t y a t 6 0 F -- . - -.
Density of liquid at 60 F, Ibdqal 5.27
Vapor pressure at 70 F, p a 15,25* 15 0

~
EO
Refractive index. 20/0
Color, Saybolt
F, pria
130 F,psia

Acidity, @stil+_n residue


26.41'

-1.3643'
+30
-

I 13.364 1 1364
+30

~~~
Nonvolatile matter, gramdlW ml
Flash point. approximate. F
-
.
1 -70 1 -70

*Literature values

Table 2.58: 2-Methylbutene-1 (4)

FORMULA
I
~~

Composition, weight percent ____


3-Methylbutene.1 trace 03
2 Methylbutene-1 99.99 99 8 9 7 3 95Omin
2 Methylbutene-2 __ trace 01
Pentene-1 ______ -_ --4sl 01 19
- Pentensr-2_ _ _ _ _ -~- _.___
. trace 0.2
lsopentane -._ __
.- - - ~

Normal Pentane 01 02

__Purity by freezing point, 99 05 .--9 9 5 99Omin


Freezing PO% F -61'
_- -215 __ - ._- __ __

8 o l ~ ~ ~ w ! ! l ! __-__
L _____ .- ___ 8809'-
- .. - ~~

~~
Distillations, F __ ___
~ ___ -
- Initial boilinppoint ---- ~~ ._- 87
__ C Y E ! ! ___~ ~ _ _ 88
Specific gravity of liquid at 60/60 F 0 6557. -. 0.656 . 0 656
~ at20/4&- ---0.6504:-
- -- _ 0 650
__. ~
0 650
API gravity at 60 F 842 _ _
--- 842
Density o f liquid at 60 F, lbrlgal , 546 __ 5 46
Vapor pressure at 70 F, pria - 10_ 21'
_ _ 103 - 10 3
100 F. pria 18.40. ___ 18 8 - 18 8 ___
130 F. pria - - -____ 32 0 32 0
- Refractive index, 20/0 --- -- - -. - - __ . -
13778' 1378 1 370
Color, Saybolt . -+34 - - _ _ .- +30 - +M
_ Acidity. distillation residue- -- - - .- - - n e- utral __ neutral
Nonvolatile matter,gramdl0(l ml ~. - O.DW5 0 0005
Flash point. approximate. F -55 -55
~ ~~ -

'Literature valuer
Hydrocarbon Solvents 31

Table 2.59: Methylbutene-2 (4)

_~

FORMULA
I RESEARCH
CHl-C=CH-CHl

PURE
3

TECHNICAL COMMERCIAL
PROPERTIES
GRADE GRADE GRADE GRADE

Compo$o_n,weight percent
. 3Methylbutene 1 .
I
2-Methylbutenel trace 0.2 0.2 10 3
~ 2MeWuteoe-l 99 99 99.5 97.4 95 0 rnin 87 8
Pentenell-
- - _ - - trace 0.1
Pentenes2 - - - __ -. 0.01 0.3 2.3 08
__lsopentane -, 1.1
Normal Pentane

Purity by f!SzinppoinJ,m>l% 99.78 I


Free<inppoint,F .- -2(

APl&tv at 60 F
Density 01 IiquLd at 60 F & / p a l

Refractive {ndex. 2010


Color, Saybolt
Acidity. dinillation residue

'Literature values

Table 2.60: Pentene-1 (4)

FORMULA I CH2 - CH - CH2 - CH2 - CHI


RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL
PROPERTIES
GRADE GRADE GRADE

Acidity. distillation residue I nautral nautnl


___
Nonvolatilr matter. # r a d 1 0 0 ml I 0.m 0.-
Flash point. anproximate. F 1-60 -60

Hiphrr I 8.7. I I
LitornureMIU(I.
32 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.61 : cis-Pentene-2 (4) Table 2.62: trans- Pentene-2 (4)

I -
n n H
FORMULA
I i
cn1 - c c - cnz - cn1 FORMULA I
-
cn3 - c cI - C
H
H-
~ CH

TECHNICAL RESEARCH
GRADE PROPERTIES
GRADE
Composition, weight percent - Composition, weight percent
lsopen!a!!e
._ lropentane
. - Pentene-l Peritene 1
2-Methylbutene.1 2 Methylbutene-1
NoJmal Pentane Normal Pentane 0.02
_ _ tranr-Pentane2 . o i 3.2 tranr-Pentgne 2 99 63
cir.Pente_n_aZ
- 99.9 96.8 95 0 min _cis_Pentene 2 0.35
2 Methylbutene-2 2 Methylbutene 2

__Purity by lreezinppoint, mol % 99.8 Pu_rityby freezinppoint, mol % 99.53


Freeziq point, F -240.50' Freezingpoint, F -220.44'
. Boiling point, F 98 50' Boilingpoin!, F 97.44'
Ontillation range, F Distillation ranpe, F
. Initial boiling point Initial boiling point

-
Dry Point
.Specificgrwi!y of liquid at 60160 F
. .
. API gravity a t 60 F
a2014. C t
I
0 6608'
0.6556'
0.660
0.655
82.9
5.49
Dry Point
Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F

API gravity at 60 F
at 2014 C
0.6533'
0.6482'

Density of liquid at 60 F,lbs'gal __ 5.447'


8.3 Vapor erewre at 70 Fgsp- 10.2'
15.1 100 F, psia 15.4'
26.6 130 F, pua 26.3'
1.383 .Retractive index, 2010 1.3793.
+30 Color. Saybolt +30
neutral Acidity, distillation residue
a.0005 Nonvolatile matter, gramdl00 ml
-50 Flash point, approximat5 F
_ Fl_rmmab~limrnr,vol~_me% in air
LeyraL lower
Higher Higher

Literature viluos. Literature values,

Table 2.63: Mixed 2-Pentenes (4)

FORMULA
I -
C H ~ CH - CH - cn2 - CH PROPERTIES
I PURE
GRADE
I TE:W;ZL

PROPERTIES I PURE I TEt;:gL


Specilic gravity of liquid at 60160 F 0.656
8.652
0 658
0.654
I I
Composition, might pace! . .
85
15.2
x 7
_RPfr&CtNeindcx, 2010
Color, Saybolt --
Acidity, distillation residui - neutral
Hydrocarbon Solvents 33

Table 2.65: Mixed 2,3-Dimethylbutenes (4)

r"3
CH =CH-C-CH>
FORMULA 1 1 FORMULA '6'11

I
CHI

TECHNICAL TECHNICAL
PROPERTIES PROPERTIES
GRADE GRADE

I
-- 2.3-Dimethylbutene-
--- 1 ~ ... ...
2.3-0 imethylbutene-2 .~ ~ ~~ -~
__ cir-4-Methylpentene-2 cis_
CMethy&%ene 2
tranr-4-Methylpentene-2~
. - ~.
~~ ~
-- _ - --_ - __
~~

~ ~ ~.~~~~ trans4 Methylpentene 2-


2-Methv&ntene-2
~ . .. . ~. ~

~ ~ - ~ -~ ~- 2 Methy9entene 2
Other Olefins 1.1 Other Olefins
I
Puriry by f r e g i y point, mol % - -. - . - Puriry by freezing point. mol %
Freezing point, F -184 43 Freezing point, F
.- __
Boiling pointLE- E o t l i n g p o i ~ .F
Distillation range.
_ _ - -F Oistillattoii range F
Initial boiling point 106 Initial boiling point
- .- .
1@
- Condensed 106 10% Condensed
50% C o n d e n t e d _ - ~ - - - - ~ 107 - - -
--__50% _Condensed-
_ .- . . . -
90%Conden=d_ _ - - 111 -. 90% Condensed
.- Dry
_ point
- ~ -
114
___ - Dry point 169
Specific gravityol IiGidat 66EO F 0 6582 Specificgravity of liquid at 60/60 F
~

0 703
- a t 2074 c 0 6533 a t 2014 C
-API pTfifat 6c- -
Density of liquid at 60 F. lbdga? -_..
835 API gravity at 60% 69 i
- 548 - Density of liquid at 60 F. Ibdgal 5.85
-- - _ _ - ._.
Vapor
- -preGure- at 70F. ps.1- - 72 - Vapor pressure at F. psia -- - ___
- - _-100 F,psia 1x6 ._ _ _ 100 F. psia
130F.pGa _ --
- _5 _1 - __
- F , rosia
130
-- - -
Retractive index. 2010 13766 Refractive index. 2010
Color, Saybolt +30 Color. Saybolt
_ _Acidity. distiilation
_
residue ---neutral Acidity. distillation residue neutral
- ~-
____
- Nonvolatile matter.
- grams/lOO __mT---- - .. 00005 Nonvolatile matkr. gramdl6a ml
Ooctor test
Flashpoint2pp%$ak:r - -
-
negative
45
---- - Ooctor test
Flash point.approximate. F I
I
- -35----

Yiteraiure values.

Table 2.66: 4-Methyl-pentene-1 f 4 )

F"3
FORMULA C H =~ cn-cn2-cn-cn,

PROPERTIES

~ Composition,
_ _weight_percent_ _ ~ ~ ~ .
-
... ~ . ~ ~
3.3-Dimethylbutene- I _-
2.3.Oimethylbutane -_
4-Methylpentene-l 99.94 -~99.6 99.1 -.
34ethylpentene-- 1 0.02 0.1 -. .4L ____
2.3.Dimethylbutene-1 --__
2.3-Oimethylbutene-2 -_____
cis4-Methylpentene-2- 0.02 0.3 0.6 -
tran+4-MethyIpenteneZ
--______.___ 0.02 o.t--

(continued)
34 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.66: (continued)

PROPERTIES
RESEARCH
GRADE I PURE
GRADE
I TEGC:r$L

API gravity at 60 F 80.0 80.0


Density of liquid at 60 F. lbdgal 5.57 5.57
____
Vapor pressure at 7 0 F, pria 4.48' 4.5 4.5
100 F. pria 8.5
_____- 8.50' 8.5 ___._
130 F. pria - 14.97' 15.0 __ 15.0
__- -_
__Refractive index, 2010 . __ 1.38267' . __ 1.383 ~
1.383 -
Color, Saybolt
-
+30 +30 +30 __
Acidity, neutral neutral
____-
__I_

Nonvolatile matter, grarnsI100 ml 0.0005 - 0.0005


Doctor test ~ -___ _..__---
-. __--__-
Flash point, approximate. F -25 -25

*Literature values.

Table 2.67: cis-4-Methylpentene-2 (4)

'Literature values.
Hydrocarbon Solvents 35

Table 2.68: trans-4-Methylpentene-2 (4)

FORMULA I CH3-C
7
- 75
C-CH-CH3

-_ Purity by freezing point, m d % 99.94 ... 99.2 99.0 mtL- 95.6 95.0 m n
-Freezing point. F _~ ___~ -221.46' - -. ~~~

80iling point. F--_- ~137.50. ~ _ _ ~ __


Distillation range, F .. ~..~~ ..
__Initial boiling point -~ 137.1
Drypoint 137.8
Specific gravity of liquid at 60/60F
-. 0.6736'.-_---. 0.673 . 0.674 -
- at 20/4 C _ 0.66862' 0.669 - 0.670
L!qgravltya1601._~____~~_.~ ~
78.1
__-____ 78.4 .___
- .-Oensity of liquid at 60 F, I b d ~ a l --____-._ ..... -_5.60 5.61
Vapor pressureat 70 F. psia 3.66' 3.7 3.7
100 F, psia 7.12' ~7.1 _ _
7.1 _
__ ~
130 F , p l i e ~- 12.82' 12.8
~~~ . 12.8
Pefractive index, 20/0 1.3a878. 1.389 1.389
Color, Saybolt . +30 -+30 . +30
Acidity, distillation residue __ _ ~- neutral neutral
Nonvolatile matter, gramdl00 ml ____ 0.0005 ~ 0 . 0 0 0 5 ~
Flash point, approximate, F -20 -20
I I

*Literature values.

Table 2.69: Mixed 4-Methyl-2-Pentenes (4)

FORMULA
I PURE
CH3-CH - CH-CH-CH3
c"3

TECHNICAL
PROPERTIES GRADE GRADE

Com]-nLweqhtpcrcent .
4 Methylpntenel _
__ _ _ _ _
___ cir4-Methylgentane2
~ lranr-4.Methylpenten1-2
-~
2-Methylpentene 1
36 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.70: 2-Methylpentene-1 (4)

FORMULA

RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL


PROPERTIES
GRADE GRADE GRADE

_ _Composition,wglahtp_ercenr._
___-CMethylpentene-1
_-__cis-CMethylpentene-2
__ ~ __
2.Mathylpentane-1 99.90 99.8 95.8 95.0 min
_____
lroolefins 0.10

*Literature valum

Table 2.71 : 2-Methylpentene-2 (4)

FORMULA
I CHI-C
7%
- CH-CHa-CH3

PROMRTIES I PURE
GRADE
TECHNICAL
GRADE

Composition. wight percent

cLsMghylpntene-2
- trans-dMathylpentenc-2
- _ _2-Msthylpentencl ~

-_ ._2-Methylpntene-2 96.0 95.0 min


ftoolefins 0.1 2.4
I I

'Literatun wlua
Hydrocarbon Solvents 37

Table 2.72: Hexene-1 (4)

FORMULA cn2 = cn-cn2-cn2-cn2-cn,

RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL


PROPERTIES
GRADE GRADE GRADE

'Literature values.

Table 2.73: cis-Hexene-2 (4) Table 2.74: Mixed 2-Hexenes (4)

1
_ _ _ _ _ _ ~

FORMULA cn3-c - c-cn2-cn2-cn, FORMULA -


cH3-cH cn-cH2-cn2-cn3
PURE TECHNICAL
RESEARCH PROPERTIES GRADE GRADE
PROPERTIES
GRADE
Composition, weight percent .. - - - -
Composition. weight percent
trxe 03
~

Hexenel .-
Hexene-1
___-_-.___~_-- 0.1 ~-
.
~

tranr-Hexene-2 - 0.2 - tiant-Hexene-2 i:it99Omin -


cis-Hexene.2 99.6 cis Hexene-2 __ 0.8 21
Hexener-3 ~ --- -
~~ ~

- -.
Hexe!Er-?p.- _ ~ ~

Normal Hexane
Normal Hexane - ~ -- - - -

_ _ lsoolefins
_ . _ ~ . 0.1 lsoolefins -_____ _ - - -

Heptene-l --__- -
__Heptene-l tranr-Heptene-3 . - _ ..
- tranr-Heptene-3
cis.Heptene.3 cis-Heptene3 .. - -
tranr-Heptene 2 -
tranr-Heptene.2 -~ ca-Heptene2
cis.Heptene2
Purity by freezing point, mol % 99.28 Purity by freezing point. mol % ~
.~ ~~~ ~- .
Freezing point, F -222.04' Freezing point. F ~~

-~ Boiling point, F _ _ _ -~ 156.00' Boiling point, F ~ -


__Distillation range, F Distillation range. F ____ __-. ~- ~-
Initial boiling point Initial boiling point 155.0
__.___.__ 155.0 .
Dry point Dry point 155.1 155.1
Specific gravity of liquid at 6076m 0.6 920*
_________ Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F -. 0.684 ~ 0.686 ~

at 2014 C 0.68720' at2014 c - . . ~ ~ _ _ _ - . ~ -


API gravity at 60 F API gravity at 60 F 75.4 74.8
~- -..- -
Density of liquid at 60 F. m a l 5.760' Density of liquid a t 60 F. Ibdgal 5.69 5.71 ~-. __
Vapor pressure at 70 F. psia 2.4' Vapor pressure a t 70 F. psis ____ 2.4 2.4 .
-___ 100 F, psia 4.9' 100 F, psia .
5.0 -~
... . -~
5.0 -
130 F, psia 9.1' 130 F, psia ~ .~~ !.2._. - -~.- ~ 9.2
_ _ Refractive
_ ._ index. 20/0- 1.39761. Refractive index, 2010 ~~
1.396 1.396 __
Color. Saybolt +30 Color, Saybolt +30
_
+30
Acidity, distillation residue Acidity. distillation residue -~ neutral ..
neutral ~

-__-Nonvolatile matter. gramdl00 ml Nonvolatile matter, gramdl00 ml _. 0.0005 .. -. 0.0005


Flash point. appoximate. F Flash point, approximate, F -5 -5
*Literature values.
38 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.75: Mixed 2- and 3-Hexenes (4) Table 2.76: Heptene-1 (4)

FORMULA
I CP12 FORMULA CHI -CH-ICH214-CH3

PROPERTIES I GRADE PROPERTIES


TECHNICAL
GRADE

__
COmpOSltlOn,wzight_percent Composition. weight_eerce_nt .
Hexen! 1 23 Hexene 1 ___
____ .-
.
trans Hexene 2-- -
- __ tranrHexene 2 -
__ .cis-Hexene 2 158 95Omin cir-Hexene-2 ._ - __
Hexenes 3 ~-
71 10 81 1 Hexenes 3
- .
No&zHexane Normal Hexane_ -
lsoolefinr . - lsoolefinr - - - 13 -

._.HepteGe
__- 1 -- - - - -_ Heptenel - 9 7 6 - - -_
tranrHeptene3
- __- ___ - ~ ~
tranr-Heptene3 05 -

cis Heptene-3 cirHeptene-3 0s _ .


_. tranr-Heptene-2 tranr-Heptene 2 01
cis Heptene-2 cir-Heptene2

Purlty by freezing point. mol % Purity by freezing point. mol % 9 5 4 95Omin


- _ _Freezmg
_ point F Freezing point. F _. --1830
_Boiling p z n t F . - Boiling point. F - -

Distillation
- range. F ~ - - Distillation range. F ___ -
Initial__
boiling point - 152 2 Initial boiling point .- - -199 - . -
. Dry
-- Point __ - . 1554
- --
Dry point 202
__-- - -
_ _Specific
_ _ _ _gravity
_ _ of liquid at___
60/60 F - 0685_--- Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F -07032 ~ -

at 2014 c .
~~

__ - - -._ at 2014 C - ~ 0 6982


API gravity at 60 F- -75 i API gravity at 60 F ,- Loo .
- OensitL o f 5 u i d at 60 F. lbdgal 5 70 Density of liquid a t 60 F. lbdgal 5 85
__ -
VapoLpresureat 70F psia ~- 25 - Vapor pressure at 70 F. psia - 09 - -
100 F. psia -. -52 - - -- 100 F. psia 20
-
130 F. p ~ a - 96 - ~-__ 130 F. psia ~- 39
-
Relractiv; Index 2010
Color Saybolt
- __ - _ _ -1396- _ -Refractive index. 2010-
Color, &bolt
.. - 14003 -
+30 -
+--+30 -
Acidity dirtillation~endue - ~ neutral Acidity. distillation
______ residue -- neutral
- Nonvolatile matter g r a m d l m h .~ - -.0 0 0 8 5 - - Nonvolatile matter. - gramdlW mi -
Flash point approximate. F -10 Flash point. approximate. F - 25 (0 561

Table 2.77: cis-Heptene-2 (4)

I H
H t
FORMULA CH3-C = C-ICH I -CH3
2 3

PROPERTIES
I TEGCRHANFL Boiling point. F
Oinillation range. F
- --

Initial boiling point -


Composition, weight percent [ - -

Haptene. 1

cl+Heptent-3
trans-Heptsnc-2
cis.Heptenc-2 9 6 0 95Omtn
Hydrocarbon Solvents 39

Table 2.78: Mixed 2-Heptenes (4) Table 2.79: Mixed 3-Heptenes (4)

I - cn-(cnl13-cn3 1
-
FORMULA
I cn,-cn FORMULA lcn3-cnl-cu c n - i c H l I p 3

PROPERTIES
I
n
I
PURE
GRADE
I
TECHNICAL
GRADE
PROPERTIES

I
TECHNICAL
CRAOE

Composition. weight percent


~

Heptene 1
_______
trans Heptene-3
-~ -
__cis Hep?? ~ _ ~ ~ _ _ _
trans Heptene-2 - 05
cis Heptene
_________~ - 2
- 2.4.4 Trimethylpentene 1
2.4.4 Trimethylpentene-2 ~_

- 2.3.3
_ Trimethylpentene
_ - ~ - 1
lroolefins I

_ _ _ ~ ~ ~ ~
API gravity at 60 F _ _._~ 67.5 ~ _ _ _ 68.0 ____-
_ . _ ~ ~ _ _ ~
Density of liquid at 60 F. Ibdgal 5.92 5.91
Vapor pressure a t 100 F. pria _.___
Refractive index, 2010 - . 1.406 1.405 - ~

Color, Saybolt ___ ~


+30
- - +30
Acidity, distillation residue _ _ _neutral
_ neutral
Nonvolatile matter. gramdl00 ml .. .. 0.0005 0.0005 -~ ...
Bromine number -. _ _ _ ~ ~ _ _
Kauri Butanol value
Copper corrosion ..
~ - -~ ~

Doctor test .____ ..~____ _____


Flash point, approximate, F 28 28

Table 2.80: 2,4,4-Trimethylpentene-1 (4)

a - Diisobuty lene

FORMULA - 7". F"3


cn1 c-cn1-c-cu3
I
CH3

RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL


PROPERTIES
GRADE CRAOE GRADE

Composition, weight percent


-~ _-__ ~

Heptene-l
-~tranr-Haptene-3 _________
cis-Heptene-3
tranr-Heptene-2
cir-Heptens-2
2.4.1-Trimethylpentene-1 99.86 99.39 98.7
2,4,4-Trimethylpentene-2 - 0.05 0.08 0.1
._.___
2.3.3-Trimethylpentene-1 -
lsoolefins 0.09 0.53 1.2

Purity by freezig point, mol % 99.58 99.0 99.0 min 97.6 95.0 min
Freezing point, F -136.26.
Boiling point, F 214.59'

(continued)
40 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.80: (continued)

PROPERTIES

Distillation range, F
RESEARCH
GRAOE I PURE
GRAOE 1 TECHNICAL
GRAOE

- - -
Initial boiling point _____-_ _- .- - 214 3
10K Condensed
-_____- _ -_
50)6 Condensed ______ ___--- _ _ - ~
90% Condensed __ ___~__________-
Dry point . _ 214 6
-_.__
Specific gravity of liquid at 60160 F 0 7194. 0.719 . ~__
0 720- - _
- at 2014 C 0 7150' ____
0.715 0716
API gravity at 60 F ____________
65 3 _.- * O _ _ _ _ ~
~.Density of liquid at 60 F, I b d g c .- 5 98 - 5.99 ~

Vapor presure at 100 F. psia _ _1.6~ _ _ _ 16


___
Refractive index. 2010 ___ .. 14086. 1 409
____ 1 409 --~

--Color,
- - Saybolt +30 _
_ _ ~_~ .. ~ _ +30
__ ~ - __ -

Table 2.81 : 2,4,4-Trlmethylpentene-2 (4) Table 2.82: Mixed Dllsobutylenes (4)

p - D ii s 0 buty le ne

7".
5"3
- cn-c-cn,
FORMULA cn,-C
I
CHI
FORMULA
I C.",.

PROPERTIES
~
I TECHNICAL
GRADE
PROPERTIES
I SOX
GRAOE

Composition, wetght percent


- ~
__
- Composition. m q -
h t pucent __
Heotene.! Heptene 1 __
traru-Heptene.3 trawHeptene3
--____
cis-Heptane4 cn4bptenr-3
trans.Heptens2 trancHepmne2
cis-Heptene.2 cir-HlptsnY
2.4.4-Trimethylpentenh 1 2.4.CTrimrthylpentm 1 73.2
2.4.4-Trimethylpentens-2 2,4,+Trimethylpenh~2 17.0
2.3.3 Trimethylpentene.1 - 2.3.3-Trim8thyIpentenc 1 _2.9 _ _ ~
lsoolefinr lroolafins 6.9

Purity by freezing point, mol X 95.1 95.0min Purity by frlsling point, mol X
_-
Freezingpoint, F I F r n z i q point, F
Boiling point, F Boiling point, F
- _
Distillation range, F - Distillation range, F
Initial boiling point 219 Initial boiling point 216 200min
10% Condmad - 10% Condrnrd 217
50%Condensed ~- 5oK condenad 218
-- 9096 Condenad 9096 Condanmd 220
~ Ory_ point _ _ 230 Dry point 224 260 max
-~ Specific grlvity of liquid at WMl F 0.724 Spwilic~gflvityof liquid at W60 F 0.723
_- at M I 4 C -- a1014 c
API gravity at 60 F 64.0 ~ API gravity at 60 F 64.2
Density of liquid at 60 F, lbdgrl 6.03 Density of liquid at 60 W
-.-.____ g
d 6.02
Vapor presuru at 100 F, pua 15 Vapor prmure at 100 F, psh 2.0
Refrutive index. 20/0 1.416 RdrKtiva index. M/O
Color, Saybolt
- _ _ ~ +a . CJor. S2bolt-
- +30
-- Acidity. distillation residue
~

_ Acidity.
_ distillation readue neutral . neutral
_ - _Nonvolatile
__ matter,_gramdlW
_ _ _ ml O.OOO5 __ Nonvolatile
___._ matmr. gramdl00 ml ' 0.0005
Bromine number __ -..-Bromine
-- number - 140.3 130min
Kauri Butanol value Kauri Butanol value 38.3
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~
- .~
__
CODDU corrosion __ Copper corrosion .. .-
Doctor t m
1 lmax
- o"~!m_ - -_ w. w.
Flash point. approximate. F 35 IO 1310) Flash point, ap- 35 (Est.)
Hydrocarbon Solvents 41

Table 2.83: Octene-1 (4)

FORMULA I -
cu2 cn--Icu2i5-cn3

PROPERTIES

Composition. weight percent


I RESEARCH
GRADE I PURE
GRADE I TECHNICAL
GRADE

____
Octenbl . 99 95 99.8 98.0
-trans.0ctene-2 ________
cir-Octene-2
mixed Octenes.3 0.01 0.1 -0.5
. _trans-0
_ ctene.4
_ ~ _ _ _ _ ~ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -
Nonenbl -~ ~ -

Table 2.84: cis-Octene-2 (4) Table 2.85: Mixed 2-Octenes (4)

u n
FORMULA
I
CU3-C - 1
c -lCn214-CH3 FORMULA I cn,-cu - cn-icH2i4-cu,
PROPERTIES PROPERTIES

Compasiti~nwelghtpercent Composition. weight percent


%ene 1 __ ~ _ _ Octenbl
transOLtene2.
Octene 2
-cis__
3.6
95 6
trans-Octene-2
cis-0ctens.2 :::;} 99.0 min
_ _
95.0 min
_ ~
mixeds-0 3 0.1 mixd-Octsnn-3 0.4 1.8
trans Octane4 0.1 - tran,Octene-4 .-
Nonene 1
-~ __ Nonsna.1
Oecencl- - __ - Olwne-1
lroolefins 0.6 lmolefins 0.1 0.3

__ ___ by freezing point. mal K


Purity 95.0 95 0 min Purity by f r w i n g point, mol 96
Freezing point.
._ F
8 a i l g point. F
~

_ Oinillatio~ranpe,
_ F -
_ _ _Initial b>lg point 257 ~

Drypoint 259
SGfic-of liquid I t 6W60 F 0.728
atM/4 c
API gravity at 60 F 62.4
Density of liquid at 60 F. lbdgal 6.07
Vyomprenure
._ 70 F. psu
- 700 F. psu
___ _ _ 130 F, psia
Retractive index, 20/0 1.414
Color. Saybolt
_.
Acidity. distillation residue neutral
Nonvolatile
__ ~ matter,- gramdl00
_ml _ - 0.0005
Flash point. approximate, F Fllrh paint, approximate. F
42 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.86: Mixed Octenes (4) Table 2.87: Nonene-1 (4) Table 2.88: Decene-1 (4)

FORMULA I - CH1 CH -ICHIIo-CHJ FORMULA pl- CH-ICHll,-CH,


I I
TECHNICAL TECHNICAL TECHNICAL
PROPERTIES GRADE PROPERTIES GRADE PROPE RTlES
GRADE

__
Composition. weight percent Composition weight percenl_ Composition, weight p e r c e n t --__

kI!y-
_ - p

-I
Octene . _ _Octene
_ 1 4.7 __ __
Octene 1 -__ _ _
tranetes2 trans Octene 2 Octene 2
-____
-trans __
CIS Octene 2 CIS Octene 2 cis Octene 2

t:fEy
~

mixed_Ogener3 -
tranr_0ctge-4 _ _Octenes
mixed _ 3__ - _ _
tranr-KcEns_l - T rmixed G 4 3
a &Octener -
NoneneL-._ - 98.7_. Nonene 1
_- . _
pOecene 1 -p___
Oecene 1 98.9 -

lwolelinr Iwolefins I1

__
Purity byfrepz i q p o in1,?om pUtllrpy freezing point. mol %
Freeziy point. F
I . 97.1 95.0 mu-
I

Freezing point. F
__ -.
Boiling point,
_ _ F ~ -
-- Boilinp point. F p__.
Oistillatio? range.F Oistillation
- __ ranqe, F ~

_ Initial boiling eoint - Initial boiling point


D r y O ! ! ! L - - OfY P01"'-
._ ___ _
0 7452
at 2014 C 0 7408
API gravity at 60 F
- _____
__._ - -____
Density of liquid at 60 F,JW9_al
- Density of liquid a1 60 F, Ibdgal
Vaporewre at 70 F. psia
-
inn F
__ __ Vapor pressure at 70F pria
-
-.
~- 130 r,psia -____
Refractive index, 20/0 Refractive index, 20/0 14216
Color, Saybolt
_____
CnJor. Saybolt
Color. Saybolt
A c i d l t v . i l l a t i o n re?* _Acidit
_ distillation residue c0-00
1 I?".0
I?"

5- --- .I
Acidit distillation residue -neutral
_ _ ~
Nonvolatile matter. gramdl00 ml -Nonvktile maner. pramr/lM?! N z o k i l e matter gramdl00 m l
-
. ..
Flash ooint. aooroximate. F 1 70 Flash point. approximate, F Flash ooint aooroximate F 120 (En I
I

Table 2.89: Undecene-1 (4) Table 2.90: Dodecene-1 (4)

FORMULA I -
CH1 CH - ICHIII)- CH, FORMULA CH2 - CH - (CH21s- CHg

PROPERTIES PROPERTIES
I TECHNICAL
GRADE

_ P_ u r i t a freezim mint. mol X 95.4 95.0 min


Freezinppoint. F -
Distillation
.~ - rmSLF
__-
a
___.
... n-
..*-
lniliplpoilina Doint
. . .
110

m-
#
Color, Saybok
- AradiW d m l h ~ residue
n -llDYml
F M point, gproximate. F 174
44 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.94: Isoprene (4) Table 2.95: Plperylene (4)

FORMULA CH1 - 7% -
C-CH CH1 FORMULA -
C H ~CH-CH - cn- cn3
90%
PROPERTIES GRADE GRADE PROPERTIES GRADE

Composition, weight percent Composition, weight percent


2 Methylbutene-1
2-Methylbutadiene 1 3
Pentens-2
2 Methybutene-2
tranr-Pentadiene-1.3
cit-Pentadiene-1.3
Cyclopentene
trace

0.01
trace
9999 I trace
2 Methylbutenel
2 Methylbutadiene 1.3
Pentenes 2
2-Methybutene-2
trans Pentadiene-1.3
cir-Pentadiene 1.3
C yclopentene
Cyclooctadiene 1.5
01
07
::}SO
82
o mine.

iryciuoctad3ene~l.5
__
4-V~1$cyclohexenel 4 Vinylcyclohexenel
- _1 Meih$cyclohexenel
_ .. . 1 Methylcyclohexenel
3-Methylcyclohexene 1 3 Met hy lcy cloheiene 1
4 Methylcyclohexane 1 4 Methylcyclohexanel
Unidentified Unidentified

Purity hy l r e e z i y point, mol %


Freezing point, F
Eoiiingpoint. F
Distillation range, F
Initial bofing point
99.98
-230.11'
9332'
.
. t
+
-
99.6 9 9 0 min

.
...
Purlty by freezing point. mol %
Freezing point, F
00111nypoint, F
Dlstillation range. F
lnitlal boiling point
10% Condensed
-lor -
10% Condensed
50% Condensed 509b Condensed 108
90% Condensed 90% Condensed 109
Dry point Dry point 113
Specific gravity of Tiquid at 60/60 F 0 6861' 0.686 Specific gravity of liquid at 60EO F 0 690
at 2014 C at 2014 C - _.
API gravity at 60 F API gravity at 60 F 73.5
Density of Liquid at 60 F, lbdgal 5.71: . Density of Liquid at 60 F, lbdgal 5.75
Vapor prwure at 7U F, pria 9.19' Vapor pressure at 70 F, pria
100 F,psia 16.67' i6.T - 100 F. psis 12.7
130 F, pria 28.23. 26.Z 130 F. pria
Refractive index. 2010 1.422 Refractive index. 20/D
Color, Saybolt +30 +30 Color Saybolt
Acidity. dirtillation residue Acldtty. distillation residue
Nonvolatile matter, gramd100 ml Nonvolatile matter, gramd100 ml
Doctor test Doctor test ._
Flash point, approximate, F Flash point. approximate, F -20 (Est.)

'Literature values. 'Literature values


"Dinribution of isomer content varies

CYCLOOLEFINS

Table 2.96: Cyclopentene (4)

FORMULA
I CH2

H
:
- CH2
- CH ICHa

I
PROPERTIES I I PURE
GRADE
TEj:rF

99.95

(continued1
Hydrocarbon Solvents 45

Table 2.96: (continued)

I
~ .Unidentified
_ _ _ _ _ _ ~ ___
Benzene __ __ _.
Toluene - -- -_
Ethylbenzene __
Xylenes
Purity by f r e e z i ~ o i n t ,mol % 99.93 99.5 99.0min
__ __-
- -21 1.14'
-. .F-r m i r q point, F
-Boiling point, F w
__ Distillation range. F - ~ _ _ __-
___Initial boiling point __ ~
111
112
- ~

Dry point - ~ ~ . . . ~
t y of liquid a t 60160 F
S p e c i f i z i___ -
0.7775' -~0.778 ___ 0.778
___.
o,772
.-
0.77199' 0.772
~~

__ at20/4 C .__
50.4 50.4
API gravity at 60 F
___
Density of liquid at 60 F. wdg-
Vapor prmure at 70 F. psia ___ - __- --
6.48 - 6.48
---
I00 F. psis
130 F,
_
psia --
Refractive index, 2010 1.42246. 1.422 I X - 1
+30 +30 t30
Color, Saybolt
neutral neutral --
Acidity, distillation
.. ~~. residue _ _ _ ~ _ _ _ ..
0.0005
_ _ _ 0.0005
~

Nomolatile ma!er,g_ramdlW m i . _ _ _ -. . ~_ _ __~ .


Copper corrosion
Ooctor test . ___
Fllrh point, approximate, F - 35 -
Flammability limits, volume % in air __ ..- _--
.
Lower - -_
Higher
-
*Liter~turevalues.
Cyclopntene and Cyclohexeneare sometimes inhibited with 2.6-diteniarybutyl4nthylphenol which
can be removed by distillation.

Table 2.97: Cyclohexene (4)

CH1 -CHI

FORMULA C"2 ,C"1 PROPERTIES


'CH -CH

-_Distillation ranp, F ~

PROPERTIES I Ryii:EH I
I
PURE
GRADE ____
Initial boiling point
Dry point
Specific gravity of liquid at 6060 F 0.8159'
181
182
_____
0.816 -
Composition. weight percent _-____. ___ at20/4 C - - 0.81096* 0.811
41.9
__
Pentenu-2 API gravity at 60 F
2-Methylbutens2 _. __ Density of liquid a t 60 F. lbdgal 6.79 -
Cyclopentene -___ _-__ Vapor prmure at 70 F, psia
2.Methylbutenel _.
.- _ _ _ ~ 100 F. psia 3.1
Penteml - 130 F, psia
Cyclopntane Refractive index, 2010 1.44654' 1.446 __
Cyclohexane ______99.99 99.5 Color. Saybolt +30 t30
Cyclohexane 0.01 0.2 Acidity. distillation residue ____ neutral -._ _
Unidentified 0.3 ~ Nonvolatile
_ _ _ matter. _ _gramdl00
_ _ ml __ O.wO5
Coppr corrosion
Doctor t m
Ethylbenzene Flah point, approximate. F
Xylenes Flammability limits, volume % in air

Purity by frming point, mol % 99.92 99.4 99.0 min Higher


Frming point, F -154.32.
Boiling point, F 181.36. .Literatun value.
Cyclopenteneand Cyclohexeneare sometimes inhibited with
2.6-diteniarybutyl4n~ylphenolwhich u n be removad by distillation.
46 Industrial Solvents Handbook
~

Table 2.98: 4-Vinylcyclohexene-1 (4)

! PROPERTIES

.?Methylbutene-1
Composition, weight percent

2 Methylbutadiene 1.3
Pentenes 2
2 Methybutene 2
trans-Pentadiene-1.3
I 1 RESEARCH
GRADE

____-__
__ __ _ _ -
__ ~
-.
PURE
GRADE

.__-
I TECHNICAL

~
GRADE

_ _ _
cis-Pentadiene-1.3 __
Cyclopentene . -__-_
Cychoctadiene-1.5 0 01 0.1 1.5
4 Vinylcyclohexene-1 99.99 99.9 98.5
l%eif;$cyclohexene
- _ _ -- - 1
3 Methylcyc!ohexene-l
4.MethyIcyclohexane- 1

Purity by freezing point. mol % 99 88 9 9 3 9 9 0 min 97.0 95 0 min


Treezmgpoit. F -16407'
BoXngTTint, F 262 4'
Distillation range, F
Initial b0Ti.S point 262
lO%ConJenred ~ ._ __.____
50% Condensed - -_ --__
90% Condensed - - __ - - __
Dry P O 5 - 265
BpecTcjravXy ofbquid at61116a F 0 834' 0.836 0
_ _ _ ~ 836 -
at 20/4 C - - - 0 8303'-.. -- 0 830 0 833
APlg5vityaL6OF .-~
_______-__-37 8 __ ._ 37 8
Density of Liquid at 60 F. lbdgal -- 6 96 6 96
VFpE p r w G a i 7U F,pGa -~
.- - -- ~

-~
7WT. pila _ _ _ 0~'5_ _ 05 05
I ~ F psia
Refractive index. 2010
, -1
________ 1-464
-
1.464
-_ - - - ~

Color, Saybolt - +30 - +30


Acidity, distxlation residue neutral neutral
t6involXlEiaKer. gramJfm) _ .
ml - 0 0005 0.0005
Doctor test
FTa3 @Xi. approximate. F 70 70
'Literature values.

Table 2.99: Mixed Methylcyclohexenes (4)

FORMULA CP12 PROPERTIES I GRADE


TECHNICAL 10% Condenmd
PROPERTIES GRADE -_
3l3.%tondenmii 218
_.
gO%FCondensed
Composition. weight percent ____..
~.~- Drv E i n 7 ???
2-Methvlbutene-l-....- ~ ~ ___ - ~ ...- ~~

at 2014 C 0.8041
-
API gravity at 60 F 43.5
2-Methybutene-2---~ .
.- ~

Oenrity of Liquid at 60 F. lbrlpal 6.73


trans-Pentadiene-1.3 .. -~~
cis-Pentadiene-1.3
__ ____ _ _ _ ~ .
~ . - Vapor preoure at 7UTjG
-
l a w . nsia
0.6
9 f
Cyclopentene , psis
-__
~ o ~ ~ & i e - --l ~
sfractivs index, 2010 1.4431
4-Vinylcyclohexene-1 - Color, Saybolt
- I-Methylcyclohexene.1 0.4)
7GJiiymilbtionreridue neutral
3.Methylcyclohexene~ 45.5195.0 min
4-Methylcyclohexane-1 52.5)
Doctor test
-- UnXKtXeb 1.6
T l a m , - G T a t s , F

Purity by freezmg point. mol %


reeling p o X F - -

Distillation range, F
Initial 6oiling point 215
Hydrocarbon Solvents 47

Table 2.100: Cyclooctadiene-l,5 (4)

FORMULA
PROPERTIES

Dlstillstion range,-
__I--
F
I
E; : : : I TECHNICAL
GRADE

Initial boiling point-- - 298


PROPERTIES
PURE TECHNICAL -
_ ..
lG%ConGnnrea
-
1
GRADE GRADE 50%Tondhed
- 9O%€ondensed - -

-1
Dry point 304
Composition. weight percent
- 2 Methylbutenel Tc-Xt@iIIo-FdjiiE 0.8865' 0.886
at 2014 C 0 8833'
2 Methylbutadienel.3
_
TI_ _grGitVTt
- @F-- 1-r: 0 883

--I
. 28 2
Pentenes 2
~

2 Methybutene 2 Density of Liquid at 60 F, Ibu'pal 7 38


tranr-Pentadiene-1.3
__ 70 F,psia -
-Viporpressureii
cirPe adiene 1.3 - _- - mor,psz - 0 5. 05
7363 0;;
- Cyclopentene - -
Refractive index, 2OrO 1.4933'
Cyclooctadiene-1.5 1.493
Color, Saybolt +30 +30
- 4 Vinylcyclohexenel Acidity. distillation residue
. _ ~M4@yclohexene-i--
3 Methylcyclokexenel
4-Methylcyclohexane 1
Unidentified
1
- - It - -
XTciZtest-- --
Flash point. approximate, F
- . ._

100 96

Purity by freezing point, mol % 99.5 9zOmin *Literature values.


Freezing point, F ~ -69.53'-
EocgPoini, F - -
-

AROMATICS

Table 2.101: Benzene (4)

I
I
cn-cn.
FORMULA CH
,
CH - cn I
CH
PROPERTIES
II;;;R;
I PURE
GRADE
Acidity, distillation raidua -
I
nwtnl
RESEARCH PURE Nonvol8tila m8ttar. gnmJl00 ml
PROPERTIES .~ O.ooo5
GRADE GRADE Cvpr conowon .-___
O ~ C ~ tam
O I .__ nqative
Composition, might percent .
~~

-FImh - - F-
-- point, approximate, - _. -. 10
hntsnw2
Fbmm8bility limits, volume% In air
2-Mathylbutml-2 __ ..
Cyclopntane - -
__L o u a c - - - - 1.3<-
____ -
Hiphn
2Methylbutmel - __ I
7.9.
I
__-Pentenel
Cyclopantim
_- 'Literatun V~IUIL

Cyclohexma -
Cyclohuma
Unidentified
Benzem 99.99 99.8
TOlUeM 0.01 0.1
Ethylbaruane 0.1
xyl#nrr
48 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.102: Toluene (4)

,cn - CH PURE
c - CH3 PROPERTIES
FORMULA Cn\
-
cn cn
GRADE

PROPERTIES
I RYiiMEH I PURE
GRADE .
. 30.8 - -

7 26
0 45' 0.4
103' 1.0
2.15' _2.2.
149693' 1497
-- --+3-0
. .- - - i30
. _- neutral
Nonvolatilematter. gramdl00 ml 0.0005
Copper corrouon
Docior tm
Flash p o w approximate, F 40 IO 56r
Flammabilitv limits. volume X in air
Lower
Hqher
I I
'Literature values.
Purityky fmzree$nf,mol% . .
Freezing point, F
~ .~..
_ .Boi!!LlLp_Ln-! __
Distillation
..- . - .. r a w .
F .
_ _ Initial
~ boiling point -~
.~ Dry
.. point
..~ _ ~~

Table 2.103: Ethylbenzene (4)

c - CHI - CH
& \
FORMULA cn CH
I /I
CH cn
* OU'
RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL
PROPERTIES
GRADE GRAOE GRADE

Composition, might percent I I I

_ _ _ _. --____ __..____
Doctor test -
Flash poinr,qproximate, F __
._.
-
, 59 (01310) 59 ( 0 1319)
Flammability limits, volum K in air-
LOW^
Highar --
-+i -t'
*Literature valua
Ethylbonzeneis wmetimes nablized with 2.6-diteniarybutyl.4-mrthylphenal which can be removed by distillation,
Hydrocarbon Solvents 49

Table 2.104: p-Xylene (4)

FORMULA
I
RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL
PROPERTIES
GRADE GRADE GRADE

Table 2.105: m-Xylene (4)

I
CHB .CH
FORMULA
cn c -CH,
"CH'

__Composition, welpht percent


Benzene
Toluene
- Ethylbenzene 0.1
p#r*Xylene 0.01 0.1 0.4
met*Xylens
-___ 99.99 99.9 99.2
ortho-Xvlms I 0.3
~-
r - ~ ~~

- Purity by freezing point, mol 96 99 94 99.2 99Omin 98.2 95.0 min


__Boiling
Frwzirq point, F -54.17'
point, F 282.39' -
Distillation range, F
____--
Initial boiling point 2Ba
28 I
__- Dry -
Specific gravity of liquid at 60/60 F 0.8687. 0 869 0.869
at 2014 C O.BM17' 0.864 0.864
MI gravity at 60 F 3\.3 31.3
(continued1
50 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.105: (continued)

~ ___
Density at 60-F, Ibdgal
of liquid-- .. 7.24 7 24
- Vapor pressure at 100 F, ptia 0 33. 0.3 03
F, psia
____.__-
130 0 74' 0.7 0.7
Refractive index, 20/0 149722' 1.497 1497
Color, Ssybolt +30 +30 +30
Acidity,
-___ distillation
- -r- e-xe -1
.. neutral neutral
_Nonvolatile
_ matte_r.p&l W m l 0.oOaS 0 WO5
Acid
_. wash
- - --- color _.. __
Color -- _. .
D ~ t telf-
y . nspative negative
Flash point, approximate.7 84 84
Flammability Iimi!s, volume K in?!!
_____.F

F
-
.

___L o w _-- 11-


Higher 6 4.

'Literature values.

Table 2.106: o-Xylene (4) Table 2.107: Cumene (4)

FORMULA FORMULA I CH *
t
c'c.H
.
CH, ,CH
C"

" :I: 'RSG' '? I I


RESEARCH PURE PURE TECHNICAL
PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES GRADE GRADE GRADE GRADE

Composition. m q h t percant
metaXylene __-
_.__-
ortho:Xylme 99.99 -
Ethylbentene -

Purity by frnzirq point, mol K


-~ 99.92 99.3 99.0min 98.k 95.0 min
FrrzirqpoinF- -
Boilinq point,
ra~F~..F- ... .. .
. ~ .. ~ _ _ _ . ~ __ ~

-.Dinilation ~-
Initial boilinn ooint 306

. .
130 F, psia 7 4 -
1491---m i--
~

+30 +30 +30


__
T i ~ i i k i i a C ireiidur
i neutral neutraT
-IJbKiii&mafir, prmUiOiTm!
-am---- -- 1T;w(15- -
.
T&poin(.roxlmrtl.F-
~ --__- ni --m-
_ _ _ ~
T l a ~ y l s ~ v o r u Ki n air%-
F
-
.

-
_-Lomr _ _ . 0.9' -~
Hyhr 6.5'
'Literature valum *Literature valum
Iropropylbenzetu and 1.2.4 Trimethylbenzene are sometimes stabilized
with 2.6 ditrrtian, butyl I-methylphenolwhich can be removed by distillation
Hydrocarbon Solvents 51

Table 2.108: n-Propylbenzene (4) Table 2.109: Pseudocumene (4)

FORMULA FORMULA
I
PROPERTIES I GRADE PROPERTIES I RYiiMIi 1 E ; ; ; ; 1 TECHNICAL
GRADE
Composition, weight percent
___-__ .. Composition, weight percent
matc-Xylene
ortho-Xylene _ _- -. ___ -
___Ethylbenzene ~ - -- -
- Iropropylbenzene
___-_ - 1.5
Normal Propylbenzene 96.6 95 0 min
Mahylethyrbanle6iap n
1,Z.&Trimethylbenzene __ _______
__
1.3,5-TrimathyIbenzane
12.3-Trimethvlbenzene

0 8621
API gravity at MI F 31 7
Dinuty of liquid at 60 F, lbrlgal 7 22
.-
Vaaar a r m n at 1W F m-a __ -.
I -
_-____
130 F, psia
Refractivs index, 2WD 14915
Color, Saybolt .. +30
Acidity, distillation residue
Nonvolatilematter, gramrl1W ml -. . 0.0005
Flash point, approximate, F 114
Flammability limits, volume % in air -__
Low
Highr
'Literature v d u l r
lropropylbmzene and 1.2,CTrimethylbenzene m romtims) stabilized with 2,Bditertiary
butyl4mathylphenol which can be removed by distillation.

Table 2.1 10: n-Butylbenzene (4)

CH
I f
- CH1 -CHI - CH3
FORMA C H I C\CH
I II
C". - . . F

PROPERTIES

Composition. mipht percon1 .


sacondq-BulylbenzeM 0.2 3.8
mrmd-Butvlb~nzlm 99.8 99.4 95.6 95.0 min
l-PhMylbutw2 0.6

(continued)
52 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.110: (continued)

PROPERTIES
I
I
RESEARCH
GRADE
PURE
GRADE
TECHNICAL
GRADE
Spwific prlvity of liquid at 60/WF 0.8646. _- 0.865
_ ~ _ _ ._ 0.865 -
_______ X2L314.C 1 0.86013. . _ _om____. 0.860.--

Oensity of liquid at 60 F, lWpl I I 7.20 I ____


7.20
Refractive index. 2010 ___ . 1.48979' I 1.490 I 1.490 -
Color,&b@t +30 I +30 I +30 -
- Acidity. d i s t mI residue I neutral I neutral
- Nonvolatilematter. gramdlW ml I 0.m I 0.0005
.____ -.
- Color Alpha ___ -
_ -
F I point.
~ ?epXximate,F . 160 160 -
.-___
Flimmrbility
. - Iimitr,uma %Lair
Lomr 0.8
ntghrr 6.8

Table 2.11 1: lsobutylbenzene (4)

I cn
.c"'Cn
.

'Literature values
Hydrocarbon Solvents 53

Table 2.112: sec-Butylbenzene (4)

Composition. might percent I I I


Toluene
_.r .r, -.-.-
lloaroavlbanzrn@ I I I
tertiary-Butylbenzene 0.02 0.6 0.9
lsobutylbenzme 0.1
secondaryButylbenzene 99.98 99.4 98.9
normal-Butvlbenzene 0.1
Water, ppm, might

Flesh point. approximate, F


I I 126 I 126
'Literature values.
Secondary-Butylbenzeneis sometimes stablized with tertiarybutylcatechol ITBC) which can be removed by distillation.

Table 2.1 13: tert-Butylbenzene (4)

,-
cn1 - F -cnl
FORMULA
I CHfC,CH

RESEARCH PURE TECHNICAL


PROPERTIES
GRADE GRADE GRADE
Composition, might percent I I I
lropropylbenzene I I 0.1 I 0.5
tertiary. Butylbenzene 99.99 99.8 98.2
lrobutvlbenzene
secondary-Butylbenzene 0.01 0.1 1.1
normal-Butylbenzene 0.2
Water, ppm. weight

*Literature values
54 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.1 14: 1-Phenylbutene-2 (4) Table 2.1 15: sec-Amylbenzene (4)

I
cn -cn-cn-cn3 cn,-cn-cn1-cn2-cn3
l l
FORMULA c,ndC-c! FORMULA c~ +-Fn
I .
cn cn
'cn'

PROPERTIES
I TECHNICAL
CRAOE
PROPERTIES
PURE
GRADE
TECHNICAL
GRADE
-
Composition,weight percent -__
__--_
Compoution. weigJht percent .- __
secondary.8utylbenzene secondayButylbanzene ______ -- - - - -

normal-Butylbenzena normal-Butylbenzene ____


1 Phanvlbutene.2 96.4 95 0 mtn- l.Phenylbut& ~ . __
other Afiylbenzena other Alkvlbenzena ___
-__ Phenylbutenes
other 3.6 ~~
other Phcnylbutenes - ~

secondary-Amylbenzene sacondary-Amylbenzene 99.5 99Omin 9 7 3 95Omin


3-Phenylpentane 3-Phenylpentane . ~ 0.1 0.8 --
2 Phenyl12 methylbutana 2-Phenyl 2 methylbutane 0.4 -. _ 1. 9 - _-
Ligh(1benzena Lght Amylbenzena - .
Alkylbrnzener
-____ Alkylbenzena - -
secondaq.Butyl Chloride secondary-Butyl Chloride - -
Butenes Butenes

P u m lrnzinp point, mol Y 1


Freezinq point. F Frwziqpoint, F
Boiling point, F ~-
Distillation ranp. F -- _____ Distillation range, F
Initial boiling point 360 Initial boiling point -374- ___
10% Condensed _ _ _ _ ~ 10% Condensed
5ox Condanrd .- ______-- -~ 50KCondensed
90% Condansed
Dry point 361
SpWifiC g r ~ i t yof liquid at 60/60 F 0 888 --

a t 2014 C - __
API a r ~ i t vat 60 F 27- 8 - ~

Oarmty of liquid at 60 F, Ibdprl 740 _ _ ~ - Oenrity of l i p i d at 6 0 F , d / l


Rdnctive index, 2010 1511 ___ Refractwe indexL20/D
Co!oLSybolt
Acidity, distilletion residue
Nonvolatile matter, gramdl00 mi 0.0005 -~ Nonvolatile matter, gramr/lOO ml

Color Alpha . __
-- AInhr
- Color I--
t t
Flah point. @proximate, F F k h poinf-aRproximsF
- volume X in air
FlammabtlJy limits, - _ -
LOm Lower
H@wr Higher
I I

'Litnatun v d u u *Literature valueL


l-Phenylbu1e11e2 is sometimes stsbilizedwith teniery-butylcatechol
ITBC) which u n be removed by distillation.

Table 2.116: Mixed Amylbenzenes (4)

PROPERTIES I
I
PURE
GRADE
Distillation range, F
-- 5696- - - -
10%Condensed
50% Condensed 3716- -

I
~

PURE
PROPERTIES
GRADE
90% Condensed
Dry p m t
-__-___
372 0
372 4 - -___
oall- - -

Denuty of liquid a t 60 F . = F ' 7 25


Refractive index. 20/0 1490- - -
Color, Saybolt _+ 3_0 - -
Acidity, distillation raudue neutral
__ -
Nonvolatile matter, gramdl00 ml . ~ -
Color Alpha
Flash point, approximate, F 155 -
Flammability limits, volume X in air - - - ~ -
I n-r
Higher
I
'Literature values
TERPENES Hydrocarbon Solvents 55

Table 2.1 17: DIPENTENE No. 122 Terpene Solvent (28)


DIPENTENE NO. 122' a terpene solvent with a pleasant terpene odor obtained by fractionation of
oils extracted from pinewood, meets the Federal specification for commercial dipentene. It can be used
as a component in solvent systems for oleoresin-based coatings, and as an antiskinning agent. Other
uses include the production of dipping finishes and various chemical specialties.

General Sales Specifications


k.7hT"Wt&--m-

Color, Hazen (APHA)", max 0.5


Specific gravity at 15.6/15.6% 0.84541.865
Refractive index at 2OT 1.472-1.477
ASTM Distillation. 'C 1st cc - 95% 168 min - 188 max
(i)Amcriun Public Hula A n a i l i a n

Typical Properties
Specific gravity at 15.6/15.6'c 0.853
Refractive index at 20% 1.475
Distillation range, 'c, 5% 175
9546 183
Freezing point, 'c 1-40
Flashpoiit, TCC, 'c 0 49 (120)
Aniline point, 'c <O
Unpolymerized residue, % 1.5
Monocyclic terpenes, % 91
Dipentene, 46 37
Kauri-butanol value 62

outstanding characteristics
High clarity; near colorlessness; pleasant odor; high solvency; good antiskinning properties; good
wetting and dispersing properties for pigments.
Solvent for synthetic and natural resins, rubber, waxes, raw and polymerized oils, and metallic driers.

Table 2.1 18: SOLVENOL 2 Terpene Solvent (28)

A High-Solvency Terpene Hydrocarbon


soLVENoLO2 terpene solvent is a pale yellow to near colorless liquid that has high solvency for
resins, waxes, and greases. It is exceptionally effective as a softening and swelling agent for rubber.
Of pinewood origin, it is a mixture of monocyclic terpenes with a stronger solvency than turpentine
for waxes and resins.

General Sales Specifications


l k " & S T ~ ~ ~ . V d k b b ~ -

Specific gravity at 15.6/15.6'c 0.8454870


Distillation range, "C, first cm', min 165
95%, max 195

Typical Properties
Specific gravity at 15.6/15.6% 0.860
Distillation range, %, 5% 166
95% 183
Color, Hazen 45
Hercules terpene 0.3
Freezing point, 'C C-40
Flashpoint, TCC, 'F r C ) 115 (46)
Kauri-butanol value 80
Aniline point, 'F (T) <23 (<-5)
Density at WF (15.6'c). Ibs/gal (kg/l) 7.17 (36)

Outstanding Characteristics
Clear, near colorless liquid; high solvent power; highly effective softening and swelling agent for
natural and synthetic rubbers.
56 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.1 19: SOLVENOL 226 Terpene Solvent (28)

SOLVENOLB226 terpene solvent is a pale yellow to near colorless liquid that has high solvency for
resins, waxes, and greases. Of pinewood origin, il is a mixture of monocyclic terpenes rich in para
-menthane. It is used as a solvent in the manufacture of cleaning compounds; textile dyes; waxes and
polishes for floor, furniture, leather, and shoes; and in other chemical specialties.

General Sales Specifications


W.-d-T-MU.---

Specific gravity at 15.6/15.6% 0.829-0.840


Distillations range, *C
5%. min 158
95%, max 180
Typical Properties
Specific gravity at 15.6/15.6% 0.838
Refractive index at 2OT 1.460
Distillation range, ‘C
5%. min 165
95%, max 172
Color. Hazen 45
Freezing point, %(T) -40
Flashpoint (SETA), T(T) 108 (42)
Kauri-butanol (KB) value 62
Aniline point, ‘F r) 73 (23)
Density at WF (15.6%), lbslgal (kgfl) 7 (0.84)
Unpolymerized residue, % 30

Outstanding Characteristics
Clear,near colorless liquid; high solvent power; excellent welting and penaratiOg p e e s

Table 2.1 20: HERCULES Steam-Distilled Wood Turpentine (28)

HERCULES* SDW TURPENTINE is a clear, water-white liquid that complies with all
requirements of Federal and ASTM specifications for pure spirits of turpentine.

General Sales Specifications


W.-d-TdWlnLiM.-ry.

Specific gravity at 15.6/15.6% 0.860-0.866


Refractive index at 2W 1.465-1.469
ASTM distillation range, %, 5% 154.0
95 % 170.0
Typical Properties
Specific gravity at 15.6/15.6% 0.861
Refractive index at 2 0 T 1.468
Unpolymerized residue, % 1.3
Initial boiling point, ‘c 150
ASTM distillation below 17OT, % 98
Freezing point, ‘C <-40
Aniline point, ‘c 21
Kauri-butanol value 56
Moisture trace
Flashpoint, TCC. %cF) 36 (97)
Color (Hercules terpene) 0.1
Density at 60% (lS.CC), Ibdgal (kgn) 7.18 (.86)

Outstanding Characteristics
Clarity; water-white color; typical turpentine odor; high solvency power; excellent wetting and
penetrating properties; uniform purity.

Solvent for raw and bodied drying oils, and for natural and synthetic resins and waxes.
Hydrocarbon Solvents 57

Table 2.1 21 : HERCULES alpha-Pinene (28)

HERCULW alpha-pioene is a clear, water-white product obtained by fractional distilration of ~

steamdistilled wood turpentine. It consists predominantly of the bicyclic terpene hydrocarbon, alpha-
pinene. Hercules alpha-pinene can be used wherever a high-purity-grade alpha-pinene is required.

General Sales Specifications


W T I U . L d - - - l y r

Specific gravity at 15.6%/15.6'C 0.8620-0.8645


Refractive index at 20% 1.4655-1.4670
Distillationrange.%,5 %min-95%max 155-159

Typical Properties
Specific gravity at 15.6T/15.6% 0.863
Refractive index at 2OT 1.466
Components, %
alpha-pinene 84.7
Camphene 13.9
beta-pinene 0.5
Distillation range, %, 5%-95% 156-158
Color, Hercules terpene 0.1
Freezing point. T c-40
Flashpoint, Tag closed up, 'F CC) 91 (33)
Kauri-butanol value 52
Density at WF (15.6%), IbsJgal (kg/l) 1.2 (0.86)

Outstanding Characteristics
Clear, water-white, high purity, chemically reactive, excellent solvent, narrow distallation range.

Table 2.122: Selected Properties of Some Common Terpene Solvents (43)

SPEED OF FLASH Solubility


KAURI BOIL. RANGE, OC EVAPOR., PT. Pararametar
SOLVENT BUTANOL fNITIAL R B L E L nINUTES nX0E ICar/cc)'"
Dipentenes 62 175 188 33.0 125'
Gum Turpentine 65 155 183 16.0 93 O 8.2
Limonene 125 58 162 179 112
Pine Oil >500 204 227 500.0 188' 8.61
Terpene SW >500 209 234 500.0 180
II
"Organic Solvents," Central Solvents & Chemical Co.
58 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.1 23: Arizona Terpene Products (5)

ACINTENEO A ALPHA-PINENE

ACINTE- A is a clear, colorless liquid with a mild turpentinelike odor which is very high in alpha-pinene
content. A C I N " P A is miscible in alcohols and insoluble in water.

PRODUCT PROPERTIES
specificatons Typical Analysis
Color, APHA' 20 max. 5
Distillation Range, 'CZ
First Drop 156.3
97% 157.4
Moisture, %3 <0.1 e0.1
Kauri-butanol Value4 68
Composition:'
Alpha-pinene, % 91 min. 93.0
Camphene, % 2.5
Beta-pinene, % 2.5
Other Terpenes, % 2.0
Specific Gravity, 15.5"/15.5"C2 0.8636
Weight Per Gallon, 15"C, lb 7.19
Refractive Index, 2O0F 1.4661

-
Flash Point, Closed Cup, ' C ( O r n 6 33(91)

1. ASTMD 1209-79 5. By Gas Chromatography. Arizona chemical


2. ASTM D 802-82 Company method furnished upon request
3. Arizona Method 6. ASTM D 93-85 by tag-closed tester
4. ASTM D 1133-86

AClNTENE@ B Beta Pinene


CH 1
1
I

CH
ACINTENE B Beta Pinene is obtained by fractional distillation of sulfate turpentine.
It i s used as an intermediate in the manufacture of synthetic resins.

Produn Characteristics Specification Typical Analysis Method of Analysis


Color, APHA 20 max. 5 ASTM D 1209-62
Distillation Range, OC: ASTM D233-65
First Drop 165-167- 166
90% 167-169 169
97% 169-173 172
Specific Gravity. 15.5OCl15.50C 0.8685 min. 0.8708 ASTM D233-65
0.8715 max.
25°C/250C 0.8654
Refractive Index. 20% 1.4760 min. 1.4774 ASTM D233-65
1.4780 max.
Flash Point, Closed Cup, OF 100 ASTM 056-64
Moisture, % 0.0 0.0 Arizona Method
Composition by GLC:
&Pinene, % 7.5
6-Pinene, % 76.3
Dipentene, % 11.0
Camphene, % 1.7
pCymene, % 0.5
Others, % 3.0
Pounds Per Gallon, 15OC 7.25
25% 7.1 9 (continued)
Hydrocarbon Solvents 59

Table 2.1 23: (continued)

ACINTENE~DP DIPENTENE
ACINTENP DP is a clear, yeUowish liquid with a lemon-pine-likeodor. It is obtained by several fractional
distillationsof CNde sulfate turpentine. ACINTENE DP is not a co-produd of any process and is sometimes referred
to as a'natural" dipentene. ACINTENE DP is miscible in alcohols and insoluble in water.

PRODUCT PROPERTIES
Specifications Typical Analysls
Color, Gardner ' 2 max. <l
Distillation Range, OC
First Drop 177
95% 187
Kauri-Butanol Value 90
Composition:'
Alpha-Pinene,% <1
Beta-Pinene, % 5
Camphene,% <1
MyrceneCarene,% 1
Dipentene, % 73
Para-Cymeneflerpinolene.% 10
Terpene Alcohols,% <1
Other Terpenes, 96 10
SpecificGravity, 15.50/15.5°C 0.8558
Weight Per Gallon, 1SoC,Ib 7.13
Refractive Index. 2OoC 1.4779
Flash Point, Closed Cup, OC(OF) 54 (130)
Indudes some beta-phellandrene.

Methodsof Analysis:

1. ASTM D 1544-86; Using Gardner colordisks - 1963standard.


50% in heptane.
2. ASTM D 802-82 4. By Gas-tiquid Chromatography. Arizona Chemical Company
method furnished on request.
3. ASTM D 1133-86
5. ASTM D 93-85 by taQ-CloSedtester

ACINTENEB CRDB TERPENE


PRODUCT PROPERTIES

Specification Typical Analysis


Color, Gardner' 15
AN cos
Moisture, %* 0
Composition:'
Total Terpene Alcohols, % 36
Alpha-Terpineol, % 21
Cis-Anethole, % 4
Trans-Anethole, % 15 min. 19
Methyl Chavicol, % 10 min. 15
Other Terpene Alcohols, % 15
Other, % 26
Specific Gravity, 15.5"/15.5"C2 0.959
Weight Per Gallon, W C , Ib 7.8
EPA 24 Volitals 99.8
Flash Point, Closed Cup, 'C(OF)' 91(195)
c

METHODS OF ANALYSIS:
1. ASTM D 1544-86
2. ASTM D 803-93
3. By Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Arizona Chemical Company method
furnished on request.
4. ASTM D 93-85 by Tag-Closed Tester
(continued)
60 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.123: (continued)

ACINTENE~N LIQUID TERPENE POLYMER

ACINTEN@ N Is a dark bmwn, very viscous liquid obtained fmm the fractional distillation of Sulfate turpentine
It Is composed of terpene dimers and polymers. ACINTENE N is soluble In turpentine, ammatlc Solvents, and
mineral splrlte.

PRODUCT PROPERTIES
Speclflcallons Typlcal Analysis
Color, Gardner ' 18 max. 17
Moisture, % 0.2 max. 0.05
Spedfic Gravity, 15.50/15.5% 0.963
Weight Per Gallon. 15%. Ib 8.02
v l w s l t y . Gardner-Ho!dt. 25'C Ze min. ze+
vlscoslty, cps,25% 3400
Rash Polnt. Closed Cup, 'CeQ ' 150 (300) min. 163 (325)

Methodsof Analysls: -
1. ASTM D 1544-86; Using Gardner color disks 1963 standard.
50% in heptane
2. ASTM D 802-82
3.ASTM D 93-85 by lagclosedtesler

ACINTENE~L TURPENTINE B O ~ O M FRACTION


S

ACINTENEQ L i s a dark brown, viscous liquid obtained from the fractional distillation of sulfate turpentine. It is
composed ofditerpenes. tdterpenes, and higher molecular-weightterpene polymers. ACINTENE L is soluble in
turpentine, amrnatic solvents, and mineral spirits.

PRODUCT PROPERTIES
Typlcal Analysis
Color, Gardner ' 13+
Specific Gravity, 15.5% 5.5'C * 0.96
Weight Per Gallon, 1SoC. Ib 8.00
Viscosity, Gardner-Holdt, 25'C * 22
Viscosity, cps, 25'C 3400
Flash Point, Closed Cup, 'C('Q 163 (325)

Methods of Analysis -
1. ASTM D 1544-86:Using Gardner color disks 1963 standard,
50% in heptane
2. ASTM D 802-82
3.ASTM D 93-85by lagclosed tesler
Hydrocarbon Solvents 61

COMPARATIVE DATA

Table 2.124: Amoco PANASOL Solvents (20)

Panasol solvents sales specifications'

Panasol Panasol Panasol Panasol


AB-130 AN4K AN3N an-35
Specific gravity
at 16"C(61O F ) , ASTM D4052 0.860 - 0.890 0.934 - 0.947 0.979 - 1 007 0.979 - 1.007
at 25"C/25"C, ASTM 04052 .-.., - - -
Distillation point. ASTM D86
Initial boiling point, "C (OF). min 149(300) 177 (350) 210 (410) 232 (450)
95% boiling point, "C (OF) 202(395) - - -
End point. "C ( O F ) , max - 288 (550) 288 (550) 288 (550)
Flash point, ASTM 056, TCC,
"C ("F), min 38(100) 63(145) - -
"C ( O F ) , max 57(135) - - -
Flash point. ASTM D93. PMCC
"C ("F). min - - 95(203) 95(203)
Cdor, ASTM D1500, max 1 .o 2.0 2.0 2.0
Appearance at 16"C(61OF), clear, no free clear, no free clear, no free clear, no free
visual test suspended suspended suspended suspended
matter matter matter matter
Aromatics, ASTM 01319, vol Yo,min 98 78 95 95
Copper corrosion. ASTM D849 - Pass Pass Pass

. - __ - -~ ~ -_
Panasol Solvents non-specification properties
___ ---- _._ . __
Inspection Tests AN-2K AN3N AN-3S HAB-500 AB-130

API Gravity @ 60°F 20.3 11 8 10.9 13.2 30.4


Specific Gravity Q (io' f 0.932 0 987 0.994 0.978 0.874
Lbs /Gal @ 60°F 7.762 8.224 8.276 8.1 10 7.278
ASTM Color 0.5 0.5 <1 0 3.5 <0.5
TCC Flash Point."F 151 208 >212 207 127
Mixed Aniline Point,"F 76.5 53.8 52 7 57.4 60.4
Kauri-Butanol Value - 98.0 89.0 65.0 85.0
Aromatics, Weight YO 86.0 99.5 99 2 99.8 98.6
Mono-aromatics 31.6 13.9 5.1 8.5 96.6
Di-aromatics 54.4 85.6 94.1 91.3 2.0
Molecular Weight by VPO 175 164 157 196 215
Crystallization P0int.T 48 -8 +5 -45 -48
Pour Point,"F -54 -1 7 -1 1 <-76 -71
Distillation,"F
Initial Boiling Point 354 436 4 70 412 328
5 376 450 482 466 340
10 386 456 488 516 344
20 404 464 492 532 347
30 418 470 496 546 350
40 430 474 498 556 351
50 444 478 50 1 565 352
60 456 484 504 572 354
70 468 490 506 578 356
80 480 498 510 584 360
90 494 510 518 594 364
95 508 522 526 610 369
End Point 532 540 543 649 422
XRF Sulfur Content, ppm 'ND 'ND 'ND "ND "ND
XRF Chloride Content, ppm 68 'ND 9 'ND 'ND

'NO= None detected


62 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.125: Ashland Aliphatic and Aromatic Solvents (69)

Aliphatic Solvents

Pentane 5.26
~~
0.631 34-40 94-104 ~~
(0 26 - 0 8.1
-
Hexane 5.61 0.675 65-70 149-158 (0 29 151 (0.1 6.3 '
Cyclohexane 6.53 0.784 80-82 176-180 0 55 652 0 5.5
LACOLENET"' 6.04 0.725 91-109 195229 18 33 150 (1 2.4
~ ~ ~~ ~

Super LACOLENET"' 6.31 0.758 91-110 195230 18 47 105 20 2.2


Heptane 5.79 0.695 92-100 198212 15 30 146 0.1 4.5
VM & P Naphtha 6.20 0.744 119-141 246-285 50 32 153 < 1 1.6
90 Solvent 6.35 0.762 140-163 285-325 86 34 150 <1 0.33
KWlK DRITM 6.44 0.772 154-182 310-360 105 32 154 <1 0.20
Rule 66 Mineral Spirits 6.44 0.773 154-196 31- 105 32 155 (1 0.12
Mineral Spirits, NE 6.50 0.780 154-205 310400 105 36 139 14 0.12
Odorless Mineral SDirits 6.32 0.759 174-213 345415 125 28 185 (1 0.11
Low Odor Base Solvent 6.61 0.793 182-201 370-550 150 30 166 4 (0.01
140 Solvent 6.54 0.785 188-288 360394 142 31 160 1 0.08
Mineral Seal Oil 6.79 0.816 254-318 490-605 2653 22 187 8 (0.01
n-Butyl Acetate = 1 2 Mixed Aniline Point 3 COC

Aromatic Solvents

Toluene 7.27 0.873 110-111 230-233 45 105 50 1.8


Ethyl Benzene 7.26 0.871 135-137 275-278 59 96 50 0.90
Xylene 7.23 0.866 138-143 280-289 81 98 52 0.86
HI-SOL@10 7.29 0.876 152-177 306-350 105 90 55 0.15
HI-SOL 70 7.14 0.857 163202 325395 105 70 95 0.10
~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~

HI-SOL 15 7.43 0.893 177-216 350-420 142 89 61 0.06


In-Butyl Acetate = 1
Hydrocarbon Solvents 63

Table 2.126: Chemcentral Solvents (Aliphatic and Aromatic) (67)


. -.
Relrac Dlsllltallon R.npo
6' 760 mm ng
ALIPHATIC PETROLEUM lndsa
NAPHTHAS. W/W°F c 20%
.... - .-- -
lit I ' l A N I I1 11'1
Ilt I d N l -1 1.1'

I 1 Illlhl NI I , II I nil
I A , , < > I l t 14 O I I Ill N l II i 4 9 ' ,

i3w SOLVENT 0.772


M I N I U A l S I A I OII <IH7RI

MINI IIAI SI'IHIlS fl i R i

OI>l1111I S S M I N & I I A I S I I I I I I I S il 1b7I'


ii i w-
sToD.~n.D.so~~~~~E.~..
HllRRl I 1 S l l I V C N l .. - . ~ ...
0.7720
fir xs1.11~ ,I fiH?

VMCI'NAI'IIIHA I1 I I V

wmn SUIVI NI 19
<I
V M & I' N A I Y I l l i A 66 il 1541 260 288
- - .
________--
MINERAL SPIRITS 68 ..
0.7724
0 711s
- 376 397
e140 S O l V E N l 6 6

Flush E~ploalreLlmlls
ALIPHATIC PETROLEUM Polnl %by Vol. In A t
T q Cc satu-
NAPHTHAS.
- -_ tn
I

n
I46 1 il R II I HI1
IA( O I I F R 1111 llf N 1 1 V 70 I >
..... .
rseosOLv~NT - - 105 1.o
M l N F R A l S F A l 011 n i 705
MINEAAI SI'IRllS I1 I ? 11 I17 1114 11 I
0I)ORI F S S M I N F R A L S P I H I l \ ri 2 >I In e , !7 9 I 11

-_-_
RUOBER S O L V E N l
--
6 Ill 14 I47 n 13
-~
-_BTODDA~D~OLVENL
-
HEXSOLV
0 21
n 11
33
11
166
140
108
ll
0.7
I,'

VM h P N A P H T I I A
U460 S O L V E N l
V M h P N A P l l l t l A 66 __ - __
I :::I:
I 11
14
I7
1411

_4 _0
5>
1411
I 1

1 4

__
(1 n
MINERALSPIRITSO8 - - __
108 0.7
._
VI40 SOLVENT 66
-
n nn I44 in

__ - - .-I----- - -I------
spec uo1rac
Gravilv
AROMATIC HYDROCARBON Per
SOLVENTS "C

DTN7FNL mi 8n 806 176 171


TO1 V I N F 7A'iil 110111 730232
t 11970
14670
1472
14897
14882
' 4962
I5020
64 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.127: Crowley Solvents (60)

METHYL NAPHTHALENE NO. 5

Specifications TYDica1

Specific Gravity 60'/60"F 0.975/1.010 0.988

Distillation Range: '


F "c '
F 22-
I B P , Min. 4 00 204 440 227
FBP, Max. 600 315 550 288

Flash Point, PMCC, Min. 200 93 215 102


(Non-Combustible)

Aromatic Content, Min. 95% 98%

Mixed Aniline Point, ASTM, Max. 61 16.1 11.8

Color, ASTM, Max. -2 1.0

Color, Visual Pale Straw

Pour Point 15 -10

AROMATIC SOLVENT 58 SAF-T-SOL ZOO

Specific Gravity @ 60'F. .9279/.9465 Specific Gravity @ 60/60"F 0.987

Distillation Range OF. Distillation Range (ASTM D-850)


5% 430°F
IBP 375 50% 555'F
5% 449 90% 590'F
10% 465
50% 523 Aniline Point, Mixed ASTM 15'C
70% 564
90% 634 color Yellow
95% 666
EP 689 ssu Viscosity @ 1 0 0 ' ~ 40 secs

Flash Point OF. 240 Pour Point -60'F

Yromatic Content 74% Flash Point, COC 250'F

Color 2.0 Aromatics 98%

SSU Viscosity @ 1 0 0 ~ ~ . 46.3

Pour Point 'F. -25


Hydrocarbon Solvents 65

Table 2.128: Dynaloy Solvents (37)

DESCRIPTION
Dynasolve 210 was developed to fill a widespread need for a solvent that would dissolve RTV silicones and silicone conformal coatings
effectively at room temperature. Dynasolve 210 dissolves silicones quickly and effectively, but it contains methylene chloride, and may
attack other polymers or coatings, such as epoxies and urethanes. Dynasolve 220.225, and 230, while not quite as fast as Dynasolve
210, contain no chlorinated solvents and are more selective. In most cases, Dynasolve 230 is fastest, followed by Dynasolve 225, and
then Dynasolve 220.

Dynasolve 210, 220, 225 and 230, when not contaminated by water, will not attack metai or metal components, with the exception of
aluminum. However,aluminum may be etched after extended immersion in these Dynaadves. Contaminationof these Dynasdves with
water will result in the formation of acids that can attack most metals and other substrates. Test data showsthat mu-metalwas untouched
after a 24 hour immersion in Dynasolve 210. Dynasolve 220; 225, and 230 will not attack acrylic or polycarbonate.

TYPICAL PROPERTIES
DYNASOLVE DYNASOLVE DY NASOLVE DYNASOLVE
210 220 225 230
Color Amber Amber Amber Amber
Specific Gravity 1.272 0.828 0.806 0.707
Boiling Point 104 F 31 1-348 F 235-290 'F 202-222 'F
Flash Point None 110 F 52'F 16°F
PH 2.14 1.70 1.60 1.30

DYNASOLVE CU-5

SAFETY CLEANING SOLVENT FOR URETHANES

DESCRIPTION

Dynasolve CU-5 i s a u n i q u e s o l v e n t t h a t was developed f o r use i n


c l e a n i n g urethane r e s i d u e s and c r y s t a l l i z e d i s o c y a n a t e s f r o m v a r i o u s
t y p e s o f p o l y u r e t h a n e p r o c e s s i n g equipment.

T Y P I C A L PROPERTIES

Color: C 1 ear
Specific Gravity: 1.060
B o i l i n g Point: 202oc
Flash Point: 191OF CC
pH : 4 - 6

DYNASOLVE CU-6

SAFETY CLEANING SOLVENT FOR URETHANES

DESCRIPTION

Dynasolve CU-6 i s a unique s o l v e n t t h a t was developed as a


n o n - g e l l i n g , h i g h e r f l a s h p o i n t v e r s i o n o f Dynasolve CU-5.

TYPICAL PROPERTIES

Color : Clear
Specific Gravity: 1.055
Boi 1i n g P o i n t : 202oc
Flash Point: 210OF CC
pH : 4 - 6
(continued)
66 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.128: (continued)


DYNASOLVE XD 16-4

SAFETY SOLVENT FOR REWOVAL OF SILICONE OILS


AND UNCURED SILICONE POLYMERS
DESCRIPTION

Dynasolve XD 16-4 i s an experimemtal solvent t h a t was developed f o r


removal o f s i l i c o n e o i l s and uncured s i l i c o n e polymers from molds,
molded p a r t s , and processing equipment.
TYPICAL PROPERTIES

Color: L i g h t Amber
Specific Gravity: 1.032
Boi 1i n g Point : >3000F
Flash P o i n t : 2620 F
pH: N/A

DYNASOLVE XD 22-1

SAFETY SOLVENT FOR CLEANING AND DEGREASING

DESCRIPTION

Dynasolve XD 22-1 i s an experimental solvent t h a t was developed f o r


use i n cleaning and degreasing a p p l i c a t i o n s . Dynasolve XD 22-1 i s a
non-chlorinated, non-flanmable', non-carcinogenic, non-ozone d e p l e t i n g
s o l vent
TYPICAL PROPERTIES

Color: C1 ear
Specific Gravity: 0.780
Boi 1i n g Point : 360° F
Flash P o i n t : 143OF CC
pH : N/A

DYNASOLVE XD 27-2

SAFETY SOLVENT FOR CIRCUIT BOARD CLEANING AND DEFLUXING

DESCRIPTION

Dynasolve XD 27-2 i s an experimental solvent t h a t was developed f o r


cleaning and d e f l u x i n g o f p r i n t e d c i r c u i t boards. Dynasolve XD 27-2 i s
a non-chlorinated, non-flammable', non-carcinogenic, non-ozone
d e p l e t i n g solvent designed as a replacement f o r CFCs.
TYPICAL PROPERTIES

Color: Transparent Yellow


Specific Gravity: 1.000
B o i 1i n g P o i n t : 3630 F
Flash Point : 191OF CC
pH : 8 - 9
Hydrocarbon Solvents 67
0
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68 Industrial Solvents Handbook
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Hydrocarbon Solvents 69
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70 Industrial Solvents Handbook
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Hydrocarbon Solvents 71
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72 Industrial Solvents Handbook
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74 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.131 : Flna Aromatic Solvents (6)

Typical Properties
Solvent Name Flash IXslillation , Common Apvlications
-
De&

FAS 70 180 20 150 645 Warnicr climate oil well appliullwm


Wood trcaling prerrvalivr

FA5 104 115 30 m-495 Down hole oil well applicahons


Washoil
Reaction solvent in chemical pr<xnsing
Carrier solvent for spccially chemicals
High oclane gasolinr hlendstwk

FAS 150 155 22 370 - 630 Very similar lo FAS 104 except higher flash
Uscd in the same applications as FAS 104.

FASTX-150 155 26 w-4w Water white (Sayboll +30) solvcnl


Paint hlendslock/solvcnl
Reaction solvcnt in c h r m i a l processing
for spccially paint and oilfield chrmicals
Oilhcld chemical solvrnl
High quality wash oil

FAS Tx-200 219 11 450 - 527 Carrier for agricultural products


High flash solvent applicalions in coatings
Used in manufacturing specially chemicals

Toluene (90% Purity) 31 232 - 253 High oclane, low RVP gasoline hlendstock

Xylene 31 281 - 285 Many uses in solvents, gawlinr,


chemical processing

Table 2.132: Hoechst Celanese Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (42)

Methyl lsobutyl Ketone


IMIBK. Isobutyl melhyl ketone, Hexane,
Isopropylacetone; 4-Methyl-2-pentanone)

Physical Properties
AutoignitionTemperature MO'F (449°C)
Cntical CompresstbilityFactor 0.254
Critlcal Pressure 32 3 a h
Cntical Temperalure: 298.3%
Criical Volume: 0.369 mVkmol
Dipole Moment 9.0 X 10-30cm
EvaporationRate (n-BuAc = 1): 1.54
FlammabilityLimil (vol %in air):
Upper Limit: 8.0
L o w Limit: 1.2
Flash Pointa
gl( Closed Cup): 60°F (16°C)
Freezing Point: <-5O"C (e-58°F)
Heat of Vaporization:
(BTUk) 182 177 172 167 136
Temperature("F) 26 61.9 98.1 134 315
Ltquid Density:(Wgal) 6.86 6.71 6.55 6.24 5.90
Temperature(S) 25.7 61.9 98.1 171 243
Lquid Heat Capadly:
(BTWlbPF) 0.514 0.518 0.521 0.546
Temperature(4) 77.0 85.7 94.4 155
Lquid Thermal Conductiwty:
(BTUrmsaCPF) 2.45 X 105 2.32 X 105 2.06 X 105
Temperature('F) 5.03 54.7 154
LiquidVismwty:(cp) 0.774 0.570 0.436 0.345
Temperature(4) 32.8 70.7 109 147
NormalBoiling Point (760 mm Hg): 118°C (241°F)
SduLilii(grams/100gramsofwateratM"C):1.95
Specific Gravity (2OW4'C): 0.801
Surlace Tension: (dynedcm) 24.4 22.3 16.3
Temperature(00 61.9 981 207
Vapor Density (Ar = 1, at 20%): 3.46
Vapor Pressure: (mm Hg) 3.15 12.1 14.9 37.1 42.3
Temperalure(4) 25.7 61.9 68.0 98.1 207
Hydrocarbon Solvents 75

Table 2.133: Kendall/Amalie, Witco Special Solvents (65)

KENSOL 8
C.A.S. #68410-98-0

ASTM
METHOD PROPER= SPECIFICATION
D-287" GRAVITY, API 69.0 MIN 76.0 MAX
DS6 FLASH POINT, (T.C.C.) -4°FI-20°C MAX

TYPICAL VALUE

D-287 GRAVITY, API 72.0


LBSJGAL. 5.79
D-156 COLOR, SAYBOLT +30
ODOR TYPICAL SOLVENT
DOCTOR TEST SWEET
D-86' DISTILLATION, -'F -
"C
IBP 109 43
5% 129 54
50% 167 75
95% 209 98
EBP 247 119
0-323 REID VAPOR PRESSURE 6.52 LBSAN*
TOTAL AROMATICS 2.85%
BENZENE 1.15%
TOLUENE 1.70%

KENSOL I O
C.A.S. 68410-97-9

ASTM
METHOD PROPERTIES SPECIFICATION
D-287 GRAVITY, API 65 MIN
0-323 REID VAPOR PRESSURE 4.0 MIN 16.3 MAX
0-97 POUR POINT -40°F I 4 O " C MAX
D-8V DISTILLATION "F MIN MAX
_"F _ "C -"F _"C
IBP 100 38 134 57
10% 135 57 170 77
50% 200 93 235 113
90% 275 135 310 154
EBP 315 157 350 177

TYPICAL VALUE
D-28F GRAVITY, API 68
LBSJGAL. 5.9
D-323 REID VAPOR PRESSURE 4.6
D-156 COLOR, SAYBOLT +30
(BEFORE DYE)
0-56 FLASH POINT, (T.C.C.) -10"FI-23°C /

(cont inued )
76 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.133: (continued)

KENSOL 17
C.A.S. 64742-48-9
ASTM
METHOD PROPERTIES SPECIFICATION
D-287" GRAVITY, API 58 MlN I 6 1 MAX
D-8V DISTILLATION, "F
IBP 170°F MIN
EBP 400°F MAX

TYPICAL VALUE
0-287" GRAVITY, API 61
LBSJGAL. 6.1 2
D-8V DISTILLATION -"F -%
IBP 175 79
5% 210 99
10% 217 103
50% 244 118
90% 291 144
95% 303 151
EBP 358 181
D-1319 FLORESCENT INDICATORANALYSIS (F.I.A.)
AROMATICS, VCLUIE % 6.5%
OLEFINS, VOLUME % .5%
SATURATES VOLUME % 93
D-156 COLOR, SAYBOLT +30
D-56 FLASH POINT, (T.C.C.) +25"F 1 4 %

KENSOL 30
REGULAR MINERAL SPIRITS, C.A.S. 8052-41-3
ASTM
METHOD PROPERTIES SPECIFICATION
D-287" GRAVITY, API 50.8 MlN 152.7 MAX
D-56 FLASH POINT, (T.C.C.) 105°F 140°C MIN
D-86* DISTILLRTION, OF
5% 310°F MIN
95% 390°F MAX
EBP 410°F MAX

TYPICAL VALUE
D-287* GRAVITY, API 52
LBSJGAL. 6.42
D-156 COLOR, SAYBOLT +30
ODOR MILD PETROLEUM SOLVENT
D-611 ANILINE POINT 149°F I65°C
D-1133 KAURI BUTANOL VALUE 32.5
0-97 POUR POINT -40°F 140°C
D-1319 FLORESCENT INDICATOR ANALYSIS
AROMATICS, VOLUME % 9.4
OLEFINS, VOLUME % .7
SATURATES, VOLUME 89.9
D-86 DISTILLATION -OF -"C
IBP 306 152
5% 322 162
50% 341 170
95% 375 190
EBP 393 201

(continued)
Hydrocarbon Solvents 77

Table 2.133: (continued)

KENSOL 33
RULE 66 MINERAL SPIRITS, C.A.S. 8052-41-3
ASTM
METHOD PROPERTIES SPECIFICATION
D-287' GRAVITV, API 51 MIN / 54 MAX
D-56 FLASH POINT, (T.C.C.) 105°F 140°C MIN
D-86* DISTILLATION, "F
5% 310°F MIN
95'% 390°F MAX
EBP 410°F MAX
UV ANALYSIS, VOL % AROMATICS 7.2 MIN 17.8 MAX

TYPICAL VALUE
0-287* GRAVITY, API 52
LBSJGAL. 6.42
D-156 COLOR, SAYBOLT +30
0-61I ANILINE POINT 65
0-1133 KAURI BUTANOL VALUE 32.5
0-97 POUR POINT -40°F I 4 " C
D-1319 FLORESCENT INDICATOR ANALYSIS
AROMATICS, VOLUME Yo 7.5
OLEFINS, VOLUME % 0.5
SATURATES, VOLUME 92
0-86 DISTILLATION -"F -"C
IBP 318 137
5% 325 161
50% 339 169
95% 368 185
EBP 333 197

KENSOL 48T
NARROW CUT PETROLEUM DISTILLATE, C.A.S. #64741-86-2

ASTM
METHOD PROPERTIES SPECIFICATION
D-92 FLASH POINT 'F. COC 170 / 77°C MIN
D-28P GRAVITY, 'API 46.8 MIN - 48.0 MAX
D-86' DISTILLATION, "F
IBP 380 MIN 1193°C MIN
EB P 475 MAX 1246°C MAX

TYPICAL VALUE
0-287' GRAVITY "API 47.4
LBSJGAL. 6.5
D-92 FLASH POINT "F, COC 185 185°C
D-156 COLOR, SAYBOLT +30
D-1611 ANILINE POINT, "c 72.5 I162OF
D-1133 KAURI BUTANOL VALUE 28.3
D-86 DISTILLATION _ _
"F "C
IBP 391 199
10% 409 209
50% 422 217
90% 443 228
EBP 465 24.1
D-97 POUR POINT, "F 4 0 140°C
D-88 VISCOSITY Q lOO'F, SUS 31.2
D-445 VISCOSITY Q 40%, CST 1.56
DOCTOR TEST SLIGHTLY SOUR
COPPER STRIP CORROSION 1b
D-13.19 F.I.A. ANALYSIS, VOLUME X
AROMATICS 11.4
OLEFINS 3.1
SATURATES 85.5
78 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.134: Mobil Oil Aliphatic and Aromatic Solvents (64)

I Toluene, Nitration Grade I

ProDertv Method Specification TvDical

Acidity ASTM D 847 No Free Acid Negative

Acid Wash Color ASTM D 848 2 max c1

Appearance at 65 to 70 'F Visual Clear Liquld Free of Clear


(10.3 to 25.6 "C) Sediment & Haze

Color, Platinum-Cobalt ASTM D 1209 20 max 0

Copper Corrosion ASTM D 049 Negative Pass 1A

Distillation Range Including ASTM D 850 1 max 0.7


110.6 "C at 760 mm Hg
Pressure, 'C

Non-Aromatics, Volume % Gas Chromatograph 1.5 max 0.02

SpecKi Gravity, 60/60'F ASTM D 891 -


0.869 0.873 0.072
(15.6A5.6 'C)

Sulfur Compounds ASTM D 053 Free of H2S & SO2 Negative

Compiles wlth ASThl D 841 Product Number: 871004 (Ibs). 060224 (gals)
Pounds per Gallon, 60 "F (15.6 T ) : 7.26 Speclficatlon Date: August 1,1996

I Solvent Xylene I
Property Method Specification TVDiCal

Acidliy ASTM D 847 No Free Acid Negative

Acid Wash Color ASTM D 048 6 max 3

Color. PlatinumCobalt ASTM D 1209 20 max 0

Copper Corrosion ASTM D 049 Negative Pass 1A

Distillation, "C ASTM D 850


Initial Boiling Point 137 min 138
Dty Polnt 143 max 140
Range including 139.3 ' C 5 max 2
at 760 mm Hg Pressure

Specific Gravity, 60/60O F ASTM D 091 -


0.860 0.875 0.071
(15.6A5.6 "C)

Sulfur Compounds ASTM D 853 Free of H2S & SO2 Negative

Complles wlth ASTM D 043


Pounds per Gallon. 60 "F (15.6 T):
7.26 Product Number: 870808 (ibs), 868182 (gals)
Production Polnt: Chalmette, LA Specification Date: August 1.195%

(continued)
Hydrocarbon Solvents 79

Table 2.134: (continued)

L Pegasol R-100 Aromatic Solvent I


ProDerW Method SDecification TvDical

Appearance Visual Report Clear & Bright

Aromatics. Volume % Gas Chromatograph 95 min 99.3

Benzene, Volume % Gas Chromatograph 0.1 m a < 0.01

Dlstlllation, OF ASTM D 86
Initial Boiling Point 300 mln 310
Dry Point 350 max 340

Flash Point, TCC. OF AST?dD56 105 mln 109

Kauri-ButanolValue ASTM D 1133 Report 91

Specific Gravity, 60/60O F ASTM D 091 -


0.865 0.885 0.875
(15.6A5.6 "C)

Pounds per Gallon, 60 "F (15.6 T):


7.30 Product Number: 870204 (ibs), 868331 (gals)
Productlon Point: Chalmeiie. LA Specification Daw August 1.1996

T-400 Aromatic Solvent

ProDerty Method SDecification Typical

Appearance Visual Report Clear & Brighl

Aromatics, Volume % Gas Chromatograph 95 min 99.3

Distillation. OF ASTM D 86
lnltial Boiling Point 300 min 310
Dry Point 400 max 340

Flash Point, TCC. 'F ASTM D 56 105 min 109

Kauri-ButanolValue ASTM D 1133 Report 91

Specific Gravity. 60/60F' ASTM D 891 -


0.865 0.085 0.875
(15.6A5.6 "C)

Pounds per Gallon. 60 "F (15.6 T):


7.30 Product Number: 870915 (ibs). 860916 (gals)
Production Point: Chaimeiie, LA Specification Date: August 1,1996

(continued)
80 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.134: (continued

T-500-100 Aromatic Solvent 1


ProDem Method Specification Tvpical

Acidity ASTM D 847 No Free Acid Negative

Aromatics, Volume % Gas Chromatograph 94 rnin 99.4

Copper Corrosion ASTM D 849 Negative Pass 1A

Distillation, 'F ASTM D 850


Initial Boiling Point 290 min 300
Dry Point 345 max 340

Doctor ASTM D 4952 Sweet Negative

Flash Point, TCC. 'F ASTM D 56 100 min 102

Kauri-Butanol Value ASTM D 1133 Report 92

Specific Gravity, 60/60'F ASTM D 891 -


0.860 0.875 0.874
(15.6115.6 'C)

Sulfur Compounds ASTM D 853 Free of H2S & SO2 Negative

Pounds per Gallon, 60 O F (15.6 O C ) : 7.29 Product Number: 870923 (Ibs). 860924 (gals)
Production Point: Chalmette, LA Specification Date August 1, 1996

Property Method Specification Typical

Appearance Visual Clear & Bright Clear & Bright

Aromatics. Volume % Gas Chromatograph 95 mln 99.7

Color, Saybolt ASTM D 156 + 25 min 30

Distillation, O F ASTM D 86
Initial Boiling Point 350 mln 360
Dry Point 420 max 380

Flash Point, TCC. 'F ASTM D 56 142 mln 145

Kauri-Butanol Value ASTM D 1133 89 min 90

Specific Gravity, 60/60O F ASTM D 891 -


0.890 0.910 0.892
(15.6A5.6 ' C )

Pounds per Gallon. 60 O F (15.6 "C): 7.50 Product Number: 870212 (Ibs), 868323 (gals)
Production Point: Chalmde, LA Specmcation Date August 1.1996
Hydrocarbon Solvents 81

Table 2.135: Penreco Hydrocarbon Solvents (18)

...............
Speciflcations 2281 011 aaaa oil 2261 011 2289 011 2280 011
...................................... ....................
CAsNo.
............................................................. :; 84742-14-8 8414246-7 8042476 804247.6
..................... .................... ....................
API Pnrlly. 80°F 4w HI 44/47 43/41 uu44
: SWIIIC anvlty, SOO/BO*F
.............................................................. : 77Y/ 797 ~ Y YmixI 7YllNll kmIn2r
Obllll.th, ASlM 0 86
IBP, 'F. mln 975
rc. mlnl (IYI
...........................................................
, End Polnl. "F. moa 400
(% maul (23R

Physical Properties (Typical)


..............................................................
i Spec(IIC Q d t y . BO/BO'F
: ............................................................. ;
7% ,795 .KO4 812

: Pound./a.(lon, B O T 6.56
: ............................................................. :
6.64 6.69 6.76
j VI~ty,iQoT,SUS 32.0 33.2 34.5 38.0

I.a 2.18 2 28 4.30

164 I75 IRI 192


...................
zv 26.5 24 5 22.6

I63 210 ?IS 260


174) (W) t i m (127)

4 -IS ,I 25
1-40) (-261 I-IS) (-4)

pertles (Typical)
.......................................
;
1 -byW.WX
...................................... <I C I

i WlbonNumber,byGC c ,,,-c,, c,, CIS


: ............................................................. ;

Table 2.136: Phillips 66 High Purity Hydrocarbon (4)

H Y L)l<O(',4I< I\( )N L IQL 111)s H Y DRKA R BON L I yuI I)s


MINIMUM MINIMUM
PRODUCT CATALOG PURITY PRODUCT CATALOG PURITY
GRADE NO. MOL% GRADE NO. MOLY

n-Bulylben7ene Isopenlane
Pure
.........
A63400 990 Pure 126400 990
Isobulylbenzeiir Commercial 126200 -
~~ ~~

Pure A65400 990 2 -Mcthylbutene-2


~ .
Cy1 lohexane Commercial 017800 ~

Pure N24400 990 ~ ~~~ ~-___


98% N24900 980 Melhylcyclohexane
~ ~ ~ ____ Pure N29400 -
Cyclopenldire
Pure N22400 990 2-Methylpentane
70% N22800 -
__ ___ ~
Pure 130400 990-
11Decane 3-Melhylpentane
Pure P10400 - Pure 132400 990
2r?Dim~lhylbulane INeohexze) n-Octane
Pure 134400 990 Technical PO8700 970
3 3 Dimethvlbulene 1 INeohexene) 020300 95 0 n-Pentane
Pure Po5400 990
n-Dodecane Commercial ~05392 wn
Technical P12300 950
Toluene
n-Heptane Pure A42400 990
Pure PO7400 99.0 Reference Fuel A42444 -
Commercial PO7200 -
ASTM Po7444 - 2,2,4-Tnmethylpentane(see Isooctane)
ortho-Xylene
Pure Po6400 990 Pure A47400 990
Technical W6300 950 Technical A47300 950
High Purity PO6200 850
meta-Xylene
Hexene-l Technical A44300 950
Technical 021300 95.0
para-Xylene
Pure A48400 990 -
lsohexanes
Commercial __ ___ 136200 -
82 Industrial Solvents Handbook
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Table 2.138: Sunoco Chemicals Solvents (72)

Mineral Spirits - Toledo Refinery

__ -
Sales Test
Tests Specs Typicals Method
c b n ~ b o r l , V d% Sun GC-MS

48 0
02
74 4
17 4
a01

0 782 Mm - 0 799 hb. 0 791 D8Y I

47 4 D287

D86

MoMin-33oMax 320
395 Max 387
1.5Max 1 .o

25 Mi11 30 13 I 50

Clear Clear V d

105 MiIl I IO DX,

29.0 Min - 42.0 Max 39 d1133

I20 Min 126 D61 I

loo Max 4 d4w5

copper- LA D130

BromincNwlber <I DIISY

Meetp ASTM DU5 Type I Mineral Spirits(Stoddmrd SohmtL

Toluene (Nitration) - Toledo Refinery


Sales Test
Tests Specs Typicals Method

99 95
0 0 3 Max 401
0 03
03Max 0.02

0.869 Min - 0.813 Max 0 872 D4052 or Equnalent

1.oMax 0.6 D8Mor Equivaletu

5 D1209

0 D848

Allpearance ClWJ V I
@ 65 78F
~

Tacal Sub. WL ppm 1.0 Max q15 d4w5

None Daeded None Dcw.ai d853

D84Y

D847

d1492

D1744

Meetp ASTM D841 s@kahns for Nitrntion Grmdc Tokreae.


(continued)
Hydrocarbon Solvents 91

Table 2.138: (continued)

Benzene - Toledo Refinery

- ~ _-
Sales Test
Tests Specs Typicals Method
ConlposuonWL % D4492 or Eqwvalen(

99.95
0.015
0.15Max 0 035

I.0Max 0.6 D8soorEqunaknr

sddrficabonpouqC 5 35 Mul 5 49 D852

COlM. PIC0 scale 20 Max 5 Dl209

Aod Wash mor IMa\ 0 D W


Ckar clear V d

Taal Sulfur,WL p p i I.Oh4aY 4).I D’un5

-
CYCLOHEXANE MARCUS HOOK, PA

Sales Test
Tests Specs Typical Method

Composition D3054

Cyclohexane, Wt. % 99.9 Mtn


Benzene, Wt. ppm 20 Max
Total Aromatics, Wt. ppm 150 Max
Methylcyclopentane,Wt ppm 200 Max
Methylcyclohexane, Wt ppm 200 Max

Color, Saybolt 30 Min D156

Total Sulfur, Wt ppm 1 Max D4045

Total Chlorides, Wt ppm 1 Max UOP 395-90

Non-Volatile Matter, mgll00 ml 1 Max D1353

Free Water None Visual

aeets ASTM D3055,Cyclohexane 995 specifications.


(continued)
92 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.138: (continued)


-
CUMENE PHILADELPHIA, PA
Sales Test
Tests Specs Typical Method

Cumene, Wt % 99.9 Max 99.95 D3760

Ethylbenzene, Wt ppm 50 Max <5 D3760


N-Propylbenzene. Wt ppm 250 Max 166 D3760
Butylbenzene, Wt ppm 200 Max 93 D3760
Benzene, Wt ppm 20 Max 5 D3760
Diisopropylbenzene, Wt ppm 15 Max 2 D3760
Toluene, Wt ppm 5 Max 3 D3760
C8 - C9 Saturates, Wt ppm 100 Max 52 D3760
Methylstyrene, Wt ppm Report 60 03760

Cumene Hydroperoxide, Wt ppm 100 Max 43 03703

Phenols, Wt ppm 5 Max 0.5 H952

Specific Gravity, 6Oo/6O0F 0.864 - 0.865 DB91


0.867

Color, Pt-Co Scale 15 Max 5 D1209

Acid Wash Color 2 Max 1 0848

Toltal Sulfur, Wt ppm 0.1 Max 0.03 D4045

Bromine Index 75 Max 44 D1492

Appearance Clear Clear Visual

Meets ASTM D4077 specifications.

-
XYLENE MARCUS HOOK, PG
Sales Test
Tests Specs Typical Method
Composilion. Vol % D2360 or Equivalent
Total Cgromatics --_ 99.8
Paraxylene .__ 23-26
Metaxylene ___ 51-57
Orthoxylene ___ 12-15
Ethylbenzene _-- 2-14
Benzene 0.01 Max ~0.005
Toluene 0.5 Max 0.07
CQ+ Aromatics 1.0 Max e0.2
Non-Aromatics 0.3 Max 0.02

Specific Gravity, 0.865 Min 0.872 D4052


15.56Cll5.560 0.875 Max

Color ( p1-Co Scale ) 20 Max 5 D1209

Distillation,'C D850 or Equivalent


Range(induding 139.3" C) 5 Max 2.0
IBP 137 Min 139.0
Dry Point 143 Max 141.0
Acid Wash Coloi 2 Max 0 D848

Acidity Pass Pass D847

Total Sulfur, Wt ppm 1 Max cO.1 D4045

Sulfur Compounds Pass Pass DE53


( H,S and SO, )

Copper Corrosion Pass Pass 0849

Bmmine Index 8Max 1 D1492

Appearance, Q 65-78 "F Clear Clear Visual

Water, Wt ppm - 100 D1744

Non-volatile Matter, mg1100 ml __ C1 D1353


Meets ASTM D843, nitration grade specifications.
Hydrocarbon Solvents 93

Table 2.139:' 3M SCOTCH-GRIP Solvents No. 2 and No. 3 (54)

Typical
Physical
Properties
Solvent No. 2 Solvent No. 3
Petroleum Distillate M EK
Solvent or Blend N-Hexane and Toluene (Methyl Ethyl Ketone)
Flash Point - 14°F. (TCC) 20°F. (TCC)
Net Weight (Approx.) 6.3-6.7 6.65-6.75
(Ibs./gal.)

Table 2.140: Total Petroleum Special Solvent (52)

HDF-201

Property Test Method'') Typical Requirement


Gravity, 'API D-1298 42 40.0 MinI44.0Max
Pounds per gallon @ 60°F 6.71 MinI6.87Max
'Jisilal Appearance @ 70'F Clear & Bright
Haze D-4176 1 Max.
Color Saybolt D-156 +30 +24 Minimum
Flash PM OF 0-93 206 201 Mid211 Max
Viscosity. 104°F. cst D-445 2.0 1.6 Mid2.4 Max
Aniline Point, OF. D-611 Report
Kauri-Butanol Value D-1133 Report
Distillation, 'F D-86
Initial Boiling Point 425 405 MinI445Max
50% Recovered 460 435 Mid485 Max
Final Boiling Point 480 450 Mid510 Max
Pour, OF D-97 -10 Max
Sulfur, wt.% D-4294 .005 Max
Mutation Assay Ames Tesb, Pass (negative)
Ultraviolet absorbance 2lCFR 178.3620(c) Pass
U.S.Dept. of Agriculture Authorization Pass

(1) ASTM Standard Test Methods


(2) Modified SalmonellaMcrosome
(continued)
94 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.140: (continued)

HDF 300
PropemL Test Methodw Typical Requirement

Gravity. API D-I 298 40 37.0 Min141.O Max

Pounds per gallon @ 60F 6.83 MW6.992 Max

Visual Appearance @ 70F Clear & Bright

Haze D-4176 1 Max

Color Saybolt D-I 56 28 +20 Minimum


Flash COC F D-92 275 265 Minimum

Viscosity, SUS @ 104F D-2161 41 37 Mid44 Max

Aniline Point, F. D-611 189

Kauri-Butanol Value D-I 133 23


Distillation, F D-86

Initial Boiling Point 530 480 Minl550 Max


50% Recovered 560 540 Min1580 Max
Final Boiling Point 605 580 Min1630 Max
Benzene GC N.D.w
Mutation Assay Ames Testcs Pass (negative)

Ultraviolet absorbance 2lCFR 178.3620(c) Pass

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Authorization Acceptable

(1) ASTM Standard Test Methods


(2) Nondetectable with detection limit of 0.5ppmw
(3) Modified Salmonella/Microsome

HEXENES
Properly Test Method") Reauirement

Gravity, API D-1298 70 Min180 Max

Olefin Content, Vol. % D-1319 85 Minimum

C, Hydrocarbons, Wt. % D-5134'" 97 Minimum

Total Sulfur, ppmw D-4045 20 Maximum

Total Chlorides UOP 395-79 5 Maximum

Uniroyal Naugard (TM) BHT, ptb -- 10

This product contains no other gasoline componen:s or gasoline additives.

(1) ASTM Standard Test Methods, unless otherwise specified.

(2) Modified for carbon number separation of olefinic material.


(continu ed )
Hydrocarbon Solvents 95

Table 2.140: (continued)

P-P M I X [ R e f i n e r y Grade)

ProDerty T e s t Method"' Tvpical Requirement


Vapor P r e s s u r e @ 100°F., p s i g D-2598 206 213 Maximum

V o l a t i l e Residue:
Evaporated Temperature, 95% D-1837 -40 -37 Maximum
or
Butane and Heavier P e r c e n t D-2163 0 - 1.0 2.0 Maximum

R e s i d u a l Matter:
Residue on Evaporation of 100 m l D-2158 <.05 0.05 Maximum
O i l S t a i n Observation D-2158 Pass Pass
T o t a l S u l f u r , ppmw D-4045 0 - 2 10 Maximum
Hydrogen S u l f i d e D-2420 Pass Pass
C o r r o s i o n Copper S t r i p D-1838 1 No. 1 Maximum
Moisture Content D-2713 Pass Pass
Composition (Mole P e r c e n t ) : D-2163
Propylene 80 70 Minimum
Propane 19 30 Maximum
Ethane and l i g h t e r .1 1.0 Maximum

(1) ASTM S t a n d a r d T e s t Methods

220 FLASH SOLVENT


Property Test Method(1) Typical Resuirement
Gravity, 'API D-1298 41 40.0 Min144.0 Max
Pounds per gallon @ 60°F 6.71 Min16.87 Max
Visual Appearance @ 70°F Clear & Bright
Haze D-4176 1 Max
Color Saybolt D-156 +30 +20 Minimum
Flash COC "F D-92 230 220 Minimum
Flash PM "F D-93 214 21 0 Minimum
Viscosity, 104"F, cst D-445 2.7 1.6 Min12.8 Max
Aniline Point, "F. D-611 174
Kauri-Butanol Value D-1133 28
Distillation, "F 0-86
Initial Boiling Point 460 450 Minl490 Max
50% Recovered 490 465 MinAl5 Max
95% Recovered 515 470 Mid520 Max
Final Boiling Point 530 500 Mi111560 Max
Benzene GC Nq2)
Mutation Assay Ames Testp) Pass (negative)
Ultraviolet absorbance 2lCFR 178.3620(c) Pass
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Authorization Acceptable

(1) ASTM Standard Test Methods


(2) Nondetectable with detection limit of 0.5 ppmw
(3) Modified Salmonellahlicrosome
96 Industrial Solvents Handbook
Hydrocarbon Solvents 97

Table 2.141: (continued)

UCAR Solvents for Electrostatic Coatings* Resistivity (Megohms)

Alca hols Esters


Ethanol (zoo proof) 0.03 Butyl CELLOSOLVE' Acetate 3.00
Primary Amyl Alcohol 0.10 Butyl Acetate 3 50
I-Propanol 0.18 Isobutyl Acetate 5.00
Butanol 0.18 Isopropyl Acetate 7.00
lsobutanol 0.18 n-Propyl Acetate 10.00
Isopropanol (anhydrous) 0.35 Ethyl Acetate 18.00
2-Ethylhexanol 8.00 Primary Amyl Acetate >20.00

Glycol Ethers Ketones

CARBITOLa Solvent (low yravity) 0 03 Acetone 0 04


Methyl CARBITOLn Solvent 0 03 fliacetone Alcohol 0 06
Butyl CELLOSOLVERSolvent 0 06 lsophorone 0 08
Butyl CARBITOL" Solvent 0 1'3 Methyl Ethyl Ketone 0 13
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone 0 45
Methyl n-Amyl Ketone 0 75
- fliisobutyl Ketone I50

Surface Tension Reduction of a Higher Solids Acrylic Resin (79)

32

I
30

28 1

2h
IO 20 3u 40 50
Ketone Added ' by WI
I

(continued )
98 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table2.141: (continued)

Surface Tenslon of UCAR Solvents (19)

Surface Tension
Solvent dynesjcm
Diisobutyl Ketone 22.2
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone 23.G
Methyl Ethyl Ketone 24.6
Methyl n-Amyl Ketone 26.1
Diacetone Alcohol 31.0
lsoohorone 32.0
Isopropyl Acetate 22.3
Isobutyl Acetate 23.6
Ethyl Acetate 23.7
n-Propyl Acetate 24.3
Primary Amyl Acetate 25.2
Butyl Acetate 25.4
Butvl CELLOSOLVE" Acetate 27.4
I BUM CELLOSOLVE" Solvent 28.6
Butyl CARBITOL" Solvent 31.0
Methvl CARBITOL" Solvent 35.9

Influence of Letdown Solvents' (19)

Coating Surface Tension, Solvent Surface Tension.


Solvent dyneslcm dyneslcm

Diisobutyl Ketone 39.0 22.5


Diacetone Alcohol 44.0 31.0
Isopropanol 46.5 21.4
Ethylene Glycol 55.5 48.4

('1 lnduslrial Higher-Solids Coatings, Present and future, A. Heitkamp, et ai,


High Solids Coatings, December 1980.
Hydrocarbon Solvents 99
PD
C
0
f
a
0
e
‘0
I”
‘0
c
a
0
Y
-a
-ca
-aa PD
c
0
8 f
a
c 0
3
.. e
*
‘0
I
-a
0
U
-ca
a
100 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.142: (continued)

MINERAL SEAL OIL

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

Unocal Hydrocarbon Sales Mineral Seal Oil is a highly refined,


hydrotreated paraffinic light oil that is water-white in appearance.
Properties include a very low odor, low aromatic content and low
pour point. This product meets 21CFR178.3620(~).

Typical ASTM
Specifications Properties Test

XODUCT CODE 2540


AT1 GW-VITY ( 6 0 / 6 0 F) DEGF 35.7 D-287
DISTILLATION, IBP DEGF 493 D-86
DISTILLATION, 50% DEGF 516 D-86
DISTILLATION,END POINT DEGF 563 D-86
SPECIFIC GmVITY ( 6 0 / 6 0 F) 0.830-0.860 0.845 D-1298
DENSITY 8 60 F (15.6 C) LB/GAL 6.93-7.18 7.05 CALC'D
VISCOSITY, k0C CSt 3.0-4.0 3.40 D445/216
VISCOSITY, lOOC C9t
-~
~ 1.31 D445/216
VISCOSITY, 3.0 OF sus 36-40 37.8 D445/216
ANILINE POINT DEGF 170 D-611
FLASH POINT (COC) DEGF 248 MIN 259 D-92
COLOR, SAYBOLT SAYBOLT +20 MIN 30 D-156
AROMATIC CONTENT wT%
. -. e3 GC
SULFUR CONTENT PPM el D-4084
CLOUD POINT DEGF -4 MAX -22 D-2500
APPEARANCE @ 70 DEGF Clear & Bright C & B
POUR POINT DEGF -6 MAX -27 D-97

RETARDSOL

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

Unocal Hydrocarbon Sales Retardsol is a water-white kerosine that


meets ASTM 2-K specifications. Kerosine consists primarily of
ClO-Cl6 aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and is widely used as
heaEing oil and diesel fuel. Because of its high solvency and high
flash point Unocal Hydrocarbon Sales Retardsol finds many commercial
applications in general cleaning solvents and in agricultural sprays.
Specifications and typical properties are listed below.

Typical * ASTM
Specifications Properties Test

MANUFACTURER LEMONT REFINRY


PRODUCT CODE 2019
AF'I GRAVITY (60/60 F) 39-51 40.7 D-287
DISTILLATION, IBP DEGF 320 D-86
DISTILLATION, 10% DEGF 347-400 390 D-t?5
DISTILLATION, 50% DEGF 450 MAX 430 D-86
DISTILLATION, DP DEGF 550 MAX 510 D-86
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (60/60 F) 0.8215 D-1298
DENSITY 8 60 F (15.6 C) LB/GPL 6.84 CALC'D
VP-XR PRESSURE @ 20 C mm Hg 0.1
VISCOSITY @ 20 c CSt 2.117 D-445
KAURI-BUTANOL VALUE (KB) 34 D-1133
>-KLINE POINT DEGF 141 D -611
F U S X POINT (TCC) DEGF 110 MIN 123 D-56
COLOR, SAYBOLT +22 MIN 27 D-156
CCCTOR TEST NEGATIVE D-235
COKQOSION, 3 €?AS0 212 F 1A D-130
PAELFFINS VOL% 42 GC-MS
CYCLOPARAFFINS VOL% 38 GC-W
ASOMATIC CONTENT VOL% 20 MAX 19 GC
BENZENE CONTENT VOL% 0.01 D-2600
OLEFINS VOL% 0.5 D -1159
SinFUR CONTENT hT% 0.20 MAX 0.03 D-4084
REFILACTIVE INDEX @ 20 C 1.4952 D-1218
SOLUBILITY PARAMETER (cal/cc)1/2 7.9
Hydrocarbon Solvents 101

Table 2.143: Vista LPA Solvents (40)

Typical Properties of Vista LPA Solvents


Vistu I'isca Vista Vistu Vista
Tvnical Prmrties LPA LPA-IIP LPA-142 LPA-170 LPA-210 Visru-47

Distillation Range,OF.
IBP 362 335 368 413 465 4M
10% 388 340 312 420 474 472
20% 392 341 373 422 475 474
50% 412 345 377 424 479 479
90% 460 355 386 43 I 495 497
95% 476 360 389 434 506 508
EP 516 385 405 458 539 S31

Flash Point,
Tag Closed Cup, "F 148 112 146 178 - -
Pensky Martens, O F - - - - 226 228
Fwm Point. "F -90 <-I03 <-103 -81 -43 0
Pour Point, "F -95 <-I12 <-I12 -92 -45 0

Specific Gravity 60'/60'F ,809 ,794 ,809 .81 I ,823 .8 I2


Density, Ibdgal. @ WF 6.75 6.63 6.75 6.77 6.87 6.78
Averape Molecular Weieht 167 141 152 171 194 197
Average Composition
% Paraffinic 46 25 27 58 65 72
% Naphthenic 54 75 73 42 35 28
% Ammatic 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.7

Color. Saybolt Universal +30 +30 +30 +30 +20 +20


Relative Evaporation Rate 0.02 0.19 0.09 0.03 0.004 co.004
(n-Butyl Aaetate=l)
Vapor Pressure, m m Hg
1009: I .o 2.0 1.1 0.37 0.10 0.10-

Viscosity. cSt
70°F 2.2 1.4 1.8 2.4 3.8 3.8
100°F I .6 1.1 1.4 I .8 2.6 2.6

Aniline Point, F
' 160 137*" 142" 160 I70 I80
Kauri Butanol Value 32 36 35 32 29 27
Solubility parameten".
(CnVcm4 OJ 8.1 8.0 8. I 8. I 7.9 7.8

Bromine Number <.2 <.2 <.2 <.2 <.2 <.2


Carbonyl. as C=O ppm <IO <IO <IO <IO <!O <IO
Nitrogen, ppm <I <I <I <I <I <I
Sulfur, ppm <I <I <I <1 <I
Water, ppm 40 60 40 40 40

Vista MR Solvent (40)

Descrlptlon
Vista MR Solvent is a highly refined hydrocarbon in the kerosene boiling range. It is colorless, has a mild odor,
low viscosity, and a typical aromatics content of 15%. MR Solvent has an extremely low sulfur and nitrogen
content. The unique process used to produce MR Solvent yields low levels of normal paraffins. Consequently, MR
Solvent has a higher solvent strength and lower freeze point than competitive solvents with equivalent boiling
ranges.

Distillation Range, O F . (ASTM D-86) Color, Saybolt Universal t30


IBP 370 Relative Evaporation Rate
10% 390 (n-Butyl Acetate=l) 0.02'
20% 4w Vapor Pressure. m m Hg
50% 420 100°F 1.2
90% 475
95% 480 Viscosity. cSI
EP 510 70°F 2.t
100°F 1.6
Flash Point,
Tag Closed Cup, "F 148 Aniline Point, "F 145
Pensky Martens. "F 154 Kauri Butanol Value 33
Freeze Point, "F <-90 Solubility parameler'(CaUcm3) 8.1
Pour Point, "F 4 5 Celane Number 43
Bromine Number 4 2
Specific Gravity GO"/MPF 0.817 Carbonyl.as C=O ppm <lo
Density, IWgaI.VP 60°F 6.82 Nitrogen. ppm <1
Average Molecular Weigh 170 Sulfur, ppm <1
Average Composition Waler. ppm <50
% Paraffinic 45
% Naphthenic 'Estimal(l
40
% Ammfiic 15
(continued)
102 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 2.143: (continued)

Vista C14 Normal Paraffin

pesaiotion;
Vista C14 npuafftn is a high purity, linear saturated paraffin. It is a clear, low odor, low vircoclity liquid.

Rooer(les Specification Tvvical -


Total n-paraffih, Wt% 96.5 96.5-98.0
Hydrocarbon Distribution (WLoh)
Sc13 1 1 max 6-10
c14 87 min 87-90
x1 5 2.5 max 1 -2
Average Molecular Weight - 197-201
Aromatics, Wt% 1.5 max 0.9
Bromine Number 0.04max 0.025
Color Saybolt +20 min -
+25 +30
Specifc Gravity, 15" C/15' C - 0.768
Density at 60"F, Ib/gal - 6.40
FIash Point, (PM) "c/ O F 931200min 109-114' C/229-237'F
Melting Point, T I OF - 4/40
ViscoSity cSt @ 40"C/104"F - 2.1
Distillation Range, 'C/ O F
IBP - 2441472
EP - 25 11484
Appearance - Clear Liquid

Vista C1416 n-Paraffin Solvent

Dorcrlption:
Vista C1416 n-paraffin is a high purity, linear saturated paraffin blend ofvarious molecular weights in the
C13-CI7carbon range. I t is aclear,strawcolored, lowodor, lowviscosity liquid.

Properties Specification Wpical


'bra1n-Paratfin,wr.% 96.5 97.0
C13 and Lower 5.0 max I .0
CIJ - 26.5
C13 + C14 - -
CIS - 53.5
Cl6 - 14.0
Cl7 + 6.0 max 5.0
. A v c ~ ~molecular
c weight - 211
.\romacics, wr.% 1.5 max 0.9
Bromine Number 0.04 mas 0.02s
Color. Saybolt - lhmin + IO
Spccific Gravity,25'C - 0.775
Flash poinr."F - 250
\felting Rangc."C - 8
Viscosity @ 1OO"FcSt - 2.7
Distillation mngc. "F - -
IBP - 487
50% 493
95% 51 1
EP 547
4ppcarancr Clear
straw
Liquid
Halogenated Hydrocarbons

CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS

Table 3.1: Allyl Chloride (7) Table 3.2: n-Amyl Chloride (7)

3-Chloropropene-1 CH2=CHCH2CI 1 -Chloropentane C H3CH2CH2CH2CH2CI


PHYSICAL PROPERTLES PHYSICAL PROPERTLES

Boiling point 45'C Acidity a s HC1 0.025% m u .


F i r e point 4'C Amylene 1% m u .
F l a s h point 4% Boiling range 105- 109'C
Latent heat of vaporisation 84.6 cal/g Di8tillation 95% between 104.9-108.9.C
specific gravity @25/25'c 0.933 F l a s h point 54'F
Specific heat 0 . 31 cal/g/'C Other hydrocarbons None
Refractive index @ 2 5 % 1.412 Polychlorides content None
Viscosity @ Z S X 0.33 centipoise Solubility in water In8oluble
Weight p e r gallon @2SDC 7. 8 l b Specific gravity @zo/za 0.885
Weight p e r gallon 7. 38 lb

Table 3.3: Mixed Amyl Chlorides (7)

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Acidity a8 HCI 0.03% m u . Distillation range 95% between 85-109.C


Amylene and pentane content 3.0% max. Evaporation r a t e @ 108.F:Minutea
1. 30 25%
Boiling point (approx. ) 1.67 50%
1-Chloropentane 108.2.C 4. 30
96.7% 7 5%
2 -Chloropentane 6. 58 100%
3-Chloropentane 97.3%
1-Chloro-2-methylbutane 99.9.c Flash point (0.C. ) 34'F
4-Chloro-2-methylbutane 98.8% Kauri-butanol value 71 cc
3-Chloro- 2-methylbutane 93.0%
2 -Chloro- 2 -methylbutane 86. O'C Solubility in water Negligible
Specific gravity @ZO.C 0.88
Vapor p r e s s u r e @ Z O ' 4 2 . 8 rnm
Water azeotrope @77-82*C 90% C&illCl (approx. )
Weight per gallon 7. 33 lb

103
104 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 3.4: Benzyl Chloride (7)

a-Chlorotol uene CbHs-CH2-CI

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Distillation range Not m o r e than 2 '


including 179. 4'C
F r e e z i n g point -43'C
Molecular weight 126. 58
Refractive index N E 1.5365
Specific gravity @15. 5*/15. 5'C 1.107
Weight p e r gallon @ 15. 5'C 9.23 l b

Table 3.5: n-Butyl Chloride (7)

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES n-BUTY L CHLORIDE FORMS AZEOTROPES WITH:

Acidity 0.01% max. % B. P. 'C of Azeotrope


Boiling point @760 mm 78'C
80 Acetone 55. 8
Diatillation range Not l e s s than 9 5 %
between 76.0-79.5.C 1.9 n-Butyl alcohol 77. 7
C. )
F l a s h point (0. 2O.F 57 n-Butyl nitrite 76. 5
Latent heat of vaporization @76. 5'C 7 9 . 8 cal/g 35 Ethyl a c e t a t e 76. 0
Melting point -123.1.C 20. Ethyl alcohol 65. 7
Refractive index @ Z O X 1.4004 4 Isobutyl alcohol 77.7

Solubility i n water Negligible 62 Isobutyl nitrite 66.2


Specific gravity @ 2 0 / 4 T 0.884 23 Isopropyl alcohol 70. 8
Speciffc heat @ 2 O T 0.451 cal/g 29 Methyl alcohol 57.0

Surface tenaion @ 2 O T 23.66 dynes/cm 38 Methyl propionate 76. 8


W a t e r content None 40 Methyl propyl ketone 77.0
Wefght p e r gallon 7. 37 l b 16 Nitromethane 75.0
18 n-Propyl alcohol 74.8
38 n-Propyl f o r m a t e 76. 1
6.6 Water 68. 1

Table 3.6: sec-Butyl Chloride (7)

I
FORMULA
CI
CH, - CH
4
- CH2 - CH3
PROPERTIES
I 98.0%
GRADE

PROPERTIES
I

I S8.W
GRADE API gravity at 60 F 1
Specific gravity of liquid at 60/60 F
at 2014 C ~- ~-
-
0.879
0 . 8 7 5 - ___
29.5

1
~

l-
I Density of liquid at60 F, I b d p l - __- .-__7 32
Composition, m i g h t percent Refractive index, 20/0 ~ __1 396
____~__
Color, Saybolt
mcondary-Butyl Chloride 99.5
Butenes 0.5
Acidity, distillation residue _______-_ -_
_ Nonvolatile_ matter, gramdl00
~ ml ~ -
Purity by frnzinq point, mol % Color Alpha
F n u i n q point, F Flashjoint, approximate, F < 80- ____-
Boiling point, F _ _ _ _ limits, volume X in air
_ _ Flammibility
Lower

Condensed
I
151 Higher I - - --
'Literature values
50% Condenwd 154
90% Condensed
Dry point 156
Halogenated Hydrocarbons 105
Table 3.7: Butyryl Chloride (27)

Butanoy I Ch I or ide Cg H7COC I

Butanoyl chloride is a clear colorless liquid with a characteristic


pungent odor. It reacts with water and alcohol and is infinitely
soluble i n ether. It is used for organic synthesis to introduce the
butyryl group.

PHYSICAL PRO PE RT IE S

M o l e c u l a r Weight 106.5
Freezing Paint -89'C
Boiling P o i n t 102°C
Distillation Range 100" t o 110°C

R e f r a c t i v e Index nZO/D 1.4121

Specific G r a v i t y , 15. 5'/15. 5'C 1.028

P o u n d s p e r Gallon a t 15.5'C 8.56

Table 3.8: Caprylyl Chloride (27)

Octanoy I Chloride

Captylyl chloride is a water-white to straw-colored liquid with a


pungent odor. It usually contains small quantities of hexanoyl and
decanoyl chlorides.

PHYSICAL P R O PERTIES

M o l e c u l a r Weight 162.7

C h l o r i n e C o n t e n t (typical) 21.8%

F r e e z i n g Point <-70 'C

P o u r Point (-7O'C

D i s t i l l a t i o n Range(' 1 8 3 ' to 212'C

R e f r a c t i v e Index, n2O/D 1.4357

Flash Point (Cleveland o p e n c u p ) 8 2 'C

Fire Point (Cleveland o p e n c u p ) 87.C

S p e c i f i c G r a v i t y , 15.5*/15.5*C
0.955
Pounds per G a l l o n at 15.5.C 7. 96

D e n s i t y C o r r e c t i o n Factor, g m / c c / l 'C 0.00085

C o e f f i c i e n t of C u b i c a l Expansion at 1 5 . 5 'C/1 'C 0.00096

(1) T y p i c a l A S T M d i s t i l l a t i o n to 90%. Decomposition o c c u r s


beyond this point.
106 Industrial Solvents Handbook
<
V
-
V
V
i?
L
c
Halogenated Hydrocarbons 107

Table 3.10: Chlorinated Butane Derivatives (73)

Physical P r o p e r t i e s of Intcrmedrates and Product.

B.P., Press., Density Refractive Chlorine. '


.4
compound * C , , coir. mm. d" Index. N E Fouad Calcd.
-~
~ - - ~ - ---
1 -Chlorobutane 77.5-78.5 745 I. 3995
I , I-Dichlorobutans 114.8-115.1 752 1.0797 1.4305
1 , 2-Dichlorobutana 122.9-123. 3 743 1.1118 I. 4425
1 , 3-Dichlorobutane 1 3 3 . 0 - 1 33. 2 744 1.1083 1.4414
I , 4-Dichlorobutanc 154.1-154.2 749 I . 1324 I . 4522
I , I . I-Trichlorobutans 133.1-133.3 750 I . 2242 I . 4483 65.76 65.88
I . 1.2-Trrchlorobutanc 156. 3 - 1 56.8 146 I . 2797 I . 4667 65.95 65.08
I , I , 3-Tr1chlorobutane 153.2- 153. 8 750 I. 2514 1.4593 65.92 65. 88
1 . I . 4-Trrchlorobutane 183. 6-183. 8 754 I . 2947 I. 4753 65.92 65.88
I . I , 1,L-Tetrachlorobutane 69.1-69.4 LO. 0 I. 3952 1.4812 72.63 72.39
I . I . 1. 3-Tctrachlorobutans 69. 5-69.8 20.0 1.3747 I . 4772 72. l e 72.39
I . I . I.4-Tetr~chlorobutanr 86.8-87.1 LO. 0 1.4001 I . 4858 72.81 72.39
I , I -Dichloro-I-butene 103. 3 - 1 0 3 . 5 747 I . 4465 56.211 56.74
u Chlorobutyraldehyde
~
106.108'
. ~ . ~ 740 1,441 35. 38 33.28
n-Butyryl chloride 101-101.5' 745 I. 4098
cr-Chlorohutyryl chloride 51. 5-51. 7 40.0 1.4410
p -Chlorobutyryl chlorrde 53.0-53.3 LO. 0 1.4411
y-Chlorobutyryl chloride 71.0-71.2 LO. 0 I . 4597
Ethyl u-chlorobutyrate 64.2-64.4' LO. 0 1.4202
Ethyl fi chlorobutyrate .... ~I'.
69.9-70. . LO. 0 1.4222
n-Propyl acetate 101-102 745 1.3823
I -Chloropropyl acetate 48.6-48.8 LO. 0 1.4143
2-Chloropropyl acetate 57.1-57.6 LO. 0 1.4205
3 -Chloropropyl acetate 58.4-58.8 10.0 1.4215
n - Propyl c hloroacetate 52.6-52. 8 10.0 I . 4233
I Chlorine analy.1. by reaction with 'odium diphenyl in dlmethyl'Cellosolve~[L. M. Ligaett. Anal. Churn. ,26, 748(1954)].
Av. of three ~ a l p e (56.17.
. 56.22 and 56.25%).
' Uncorrected.

1 111 1
Table 3.11: Chlorinated Hydrocarbons (73)

Carbon Tetrachloride 1589' 1322' 170 172 600 900 - - - 0080' 0013' 14598

1.1 1 Trichloroelhane 600 ~ ' 0 ~ ~ - - 114350.

Chloroform Tech 11 60 1600 - 0800' 0097 14455

Ethylene Dichloride 446 61 6 59CC - 0810 0150 14427

Methylene Chloride 104 1450 3500 - - - 1320' 0198' 14210

Monochlorobenzene 107 105 - - 0 048 Insoluble 1 5215

Orthodichlorobenzene I 1303' 1 1084' I 355 362

Perchloroethylene 1618' 1346' 250 254

Propylene Dichloride I 1159' I 964' I 204 208

Trichlorobenzene I 1454' I 1210' 418 427 15690'

Trichloroelhvlene II 1459' II 1214'


I
I 188 190
1 I I 1 1
' D a d at 'Detd at 'Detd at 'Dstd at *D.td at 'Dad at
75 c 75 c 1M c 2 S / x ) C: 25/20'C 75/20'C

Table 3.12: Chlorinated Organic Solvents (69)

Speclflc Dlst. Range "F flash


Gravity --~-____ "F
Pt.
20'/20' c IBP DP TOC

Carbon Tetrachloride 1 584 169 171 None


Chloroform 1485 I40 143 None
Ethylene Dichloride I255 181 183 70
Methylene Chloride 1366 103 105 None
Monochlorobenzene I113 268 27 I 84
Orthodichlorobenzene I313 355 361 170
Perchlorethylene 1627 247 25 I None
Trichlorethylene I455 187 I90 flone
1.1 .I -Trichloroethane 1316 I62 I90 None

'TCC
108 Industrial Solvents Handbook
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Halogenated Hydrocarbons 109

Table 3.13: (continued)

Compatibility of Liquid Chlorowax with Other Materials

Alkyd Resins
Phthalic Drying Oil Modified Solution
Phthahc-Non-DrvmqOil Modified Solution
Resin Mod;iic:d Solution
Styrene Modiiicv Solution
Rosin Moditicid Solution
Asp ha It Petroleu m Hot Melt
Butyl Oleate Hot Melt
Cai bowax Hot Melt
Cellulose Acetate Hot Melt
Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Solution
Chlorinated Rubber Solution
Coumarone-Indene Resins Solution
Dibenzyl Sebacate Solution
Oibutyl Phthalate Solution
Dicapryl Phthalate Solution
DI iso-butylAdipate Solution
Dioctyl Adipate Solution
Dloctyl Phthalate Solution
Di-iso-octyl Phthalate Solution
Diocytl Sebacate Solution
Epoxy Resins Solution
Maleic Resins Solution
Methyl Methacrylate Solution
Petroleum Resins Solution
Paraplex G-60 Solution
Paraplex G-62 Solution
Phenolic Resin, Non-heat Hardening Solution
Pliolite Resins Solution
Polydichlorstyrene Solution
Polyester Resins Solution
Polyethylene Resins Solution
Polystyrene Resins Solution
Polyvinyl Chloride Resins Solution
Rosin Solution
Rosin Ester Resins Solution
Rubber
Natural Solution
Nitrile Solution
SBR Solution
Neoprene Solution
Eutyl Solution
Santicizer 141 Solution
Santicizer 160 Solution
Terpene Resins Solution
Tetrahydrofurfural Oleate Solution
Triaryl Phosphate Solution
Tricresyl Phosphate Solution
Triphenyl Phosphate Solution
Urea Formaldehyde Resins Solution
Waxes
Mineral Hot Melt
Natural Hot Melt
Paraffin Hot Melt

(continued1
110 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 3.13: (continued)

Miscibility of OxyChem Chiorowax Grade

CHLOROWAX is miscible with many


organic solvents, including aliphatic, aromatic and
terpene hydrocarbons; chlorinated aliphatic and
aromatic hydrocarbons; hydrogenated naphthas;
ketones, esters and drying oils. They are in-
soluble in water, glycerine and glycols. With a
few exceptions, the liquid grades are insoluble in
the lower alcohols.

SOLVENT MISCIBLE WITH


CHLOROWAX OTHER
45LV, 500-C, GRADES
50 LV & 65

Acetone Yes Yes


Amyl Acetate Yes Yes
Benzene Yes Yes
Butanol, Normal Yes No
Butanol, Tertiary Yes No
Carbon Tetrachloride Yes Yes
Dioxane Yes Yes
Ethanol Yes No
Ethylene Acetate Yes Yes
Ethylene Dichloride Yes Yes
Ethylene Glycol No No
Glycerine No No
Isopropanol No No
Linseed Oil Yes Yes
Methanol Yes No
Methyl Ethyl Ketone Yes Yes
Methylene Chloride Yes Yes
Mineral Spirits Yes Yes
Monochlorobenzene Yes Yes
Orthodichlorobenzene Yes Yes
Perchloroethylene Yes Yes
Perilla Oil Yes Yes
Propanol Yes No
Solvesso 100 Yes Yes
Soy Bean Oil Yes Yes
Toluene Yes Yes
Turpentine Yes Yes
Xylene Yes Yes
Halogenated Hydrocarbons 111
O
X
E
E
.*,.
L
t
0
L
0
0
i
..
112 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 3.15: Chloroform (7)

Tri c hloromethone CHC13

PHYSICAL PROPERTEES

Acidity a s HC1 0.001% by wt, m a .

Boiling point 61.2.C


Boiling range e 7 6 0 mm 60.0-61. S'C
Coefficient of cubical expansion
Av. / * C , liquid 0.001 399
Color (Saybolt) 24 m u .
Dielectric constant, 1000 cycle 4.90
F i r e point Nonflammable
F l a s h point Nonflammable
Freezing point 63%
Heat of evaporation @ B. P. 59. O cal/g
Latent heat of evaporation @B. P. 106.4 Btu/lb
Refractive index g20.C 1.4467
@25'C 1,4422
Solubility in water Q20.C 0.82
Solubility of water in solvent
Ql0.C 0.06 g/water/100 g
Specific gravity 25/25'C 1.477
Specific heat
Liquid. 20' 0.234 cal/g/'C
Specific r e ri rtivity 4. o x 109 ohms/cm
Thermal conductivity
Liquid 0 . 0 8 0 Btu/hr (rq ft)
(*F/ft)
Vapor deneity (B. P., 760 mm) 4. 36 g/liter
Vapor p r e r r u r e a3O.C 243 mm

Vircosity @ZO*C 5. 63 rnillipofrer


@ 30 ' C 5.10 rnillipoiser
Water: no cloud @-lO*C 0.021% by wt, m u .
Weight per gallon @25*C 12.29 lb

CHLOROFORM FORMS AZEOTROPES WITH:

n B. P. 'C of Azeotrope

20.5 Acetone 64. 5


35 2 -B romopropane 62.2
96 2 - Butanone 79.7
6.8 Ethanol 59.3
13 Ethyl formate 62.7
15 F o r m i c acid 59.2
2.8 n-Hexane 60
4. 5 Isopropanol 60.8
It. 5 Methanol 53.5
23 Methyl acetate 64.8
2. 8 Water 56.1
Halogenated Hydrocarbons 113

Table 3.16: Chloromethylene Compounds (24)

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
_.__
SPECIFIC ISOMER
EMPIRICAL MOL. ASSAY
PRODUCT BOILING GRAVITY REF. INDEX CONTENT
FORMULA WT. (Method)
RANGE "C n 2: (Prox.)
X * C .
____
COMMERCIAL
95% in 1.040- 1.5360- 99 %
BENZYL CHLORIDE C7H,CI 126.6 3 " range 1.111 1.5370 rnin.
i c l . 179°C
- . ___ .
para METHYLBENZYL C.H,CI 140.6 199- -- 1.535-
CHLORIDE 204" 1.540 (11
-__ -~.- ...
METHYL~ENZYL C,H,CI 140.6 199- 1.070- 1.5360- 98 %
CHLORIDES 204" 1.080 1.5370 (2)
15.5")
ETHYLBENZYL 154.7 217- 1.046- 1.5293-
CHLORIDES 222" 1.047 1.5305
ISOPROPYLBENZYL 109- 1.01- 1.520-
CHLORIDES 168.7 112" @ 1.03 1.530
15mm. ___ ___
2,4-DIMETHYLBENZYL 154.7 221- 1.050- 1.5375-
CHLORIDES 226" 1.065 1.5385
___
3.4-DIMETHYLBENZYL 154.7 225- 1.059- 1.5370-
CHLORIDES 232" 1.062 1.5390

DICHLOROBENZYL 195.5 245- 1.410- 1.5755- 94 %


CHLORIDES 253" 1.418 1.5765 (2)

_-
DEVELOPMENT .- __ ____
2,5-DIMETHYLBENZYL 154.7 221- 1.035- 1.5350- 98 %
CHLORIDE 226" 1.045 1.5360 (2)
- ____ ____
meta-CHLOROBENZYL 161.1 98-104" 1.25- 1.5532- 97.5%
CHLORIDE @ 15mm 1.27 1.5542
____-____ _--
a,a'-DICHLORO. 175.1 ~ O X133°C
. -- 70.80% ( p )
XYLENES @ 15mrn. 20.30% (0.)
___-_ _____-
BIs.CH LOROMETHYL. 190-
DURENE 231.2 196" dec.
___ (3)
RESEARCH
ortho-METHYLBENZYL 140.6 98 %
CHLORIDE (1)
meta-METHYLBENZYL 140.6 98 %
CHLORIDE
___..
CHLOROMETHYC- 180.5 135- 9 8%
TETRALINS 145' (2)
@ 7mm.
a-CHLOROMETHYL-p- 190.7 58- 95 %
METHYLNAPHTHALENI 62 min.
(3) (2)

(1) Gas-Liquid Partition Chromatography


(2)Alcoholic potassium hydroxide hydrolvsis
(3) Melting range
114 Industrial Solvents Handbook
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116 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 3.21: o-Dichlorobenzene (7)

l12-Dich lorobenzene

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Purified Technical

Boiling point k8O.f.C 179.6.C


Boiling range (within) 3. O'C 4.0%
Dielectric constmnt
1000 c g d e a 9.82
Ebctrical cductivity
@ 0% 10-9 recip. ohm
Fire point 103'C 103'C
Flash point 68% 68'C
Freesing point -18.3.C -ZZ.S'C
Heat of combuation 671.8 kg'cal/mol.
Heat of fuaion 88 joules/g
Impurities (p-dichloro-
benzene. trichloroben-
sene) Not over 4% Not over 12%
k t e n t heat of vaporisa-
tion OB. P. 65 cal/g at.
Refractive index @ZZ*C 1.5518
Solubility in water @25*C Leas than 0.01%
Specific gravity @ 20/4*C 1I 3048

Spocific heat 0.271 cal/g/*C


Specific roaiativity 2 . 0 x 10' ohma/cm
W d g h t per gallon @ZS% 10.85 l b

Table 3.22: p-Dichlorobenzene (7)

p-DICHLOROBENZENE FORMS AZEOTROPES WITH:

z B. P. *C of A r e o t r o p e

20 Cineole 173.5
33. 5 Cyc lohexanol 153.6
31 2-Etharyethyl a c e t a t e 155.5
34 n-Hexyl alcohol 151.6
46 Camphene 155.0
63.5 Iaoamyl e t h e r 112.4
21 I a o u n y l propionate 155.2
14 d- Limonene 174.2
50 u-Pinene 153.4
2 Phenol 156.0
43 P r o p y l i#ovale rate 154.5
Halogenated Hydrocarbons 117

Table 3.23: Dlchlorodiisopropyl Ether (7)

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Acidity a s HCl 0.01% by wt, max.


Boiling point e 7 6 0 mm 187.3.C
Boiling range @760 mm Not m o r e than 5% d i s -
tills below 180'C
Not l e s s than 95% d i s -
tills below 190'C
Color (Pt-Co scale) 25 max.
F l a s h point (0.C. ) 185.F
Solubility in water @2O'C 0.17% by wt
Solubility of water in solvent @ZO*C 0.11% by wt
Specific gravity @20/20'C 1.1122
Vapor p r e s s u r e @ZO*C 0.85 mm
Weight p e r gallon @2O'C 9.26 lb

Table 3.24: Dichloroethylene (7)

H CI
tra ns-Acety I ene Dichloride
I I
cis-Acetylene Dichloride c=c
I I
CI H
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
cis isomer trans isomer

Acidity as HCl 0.0005 % by wt, mu. Acidity a s HCl 0 . 0 0 0 5 % by wt. max.


Boiling point @760 m m 60.3% Boiling point e 7 6 0 mm 48.0-48. 5'C
Coefficient of cubical expansion Boiling range @760 mm 47.0-48.5.C
Av. /*C, liquid 0.00127
Coefficient of cubical expansion
Color (Saybolt) 24 m a . Av./*C, liquid 0.00136
F l a s h point 6'C Color (Saybolt) 24 max.
F r e e r i n g point -80.5'C F l a s h point 4'C
Latent heat of vaporization @ B. p. 73.0 cal/g Freezing point 50 'C
Refractive index @ 15.C 1.4519 Latent heat of vaporization @B. P. 73.7 cal/g
Residue on evaporation 0.007% by wt, max. Refractive index @ 15'C 1.4490
Solubility i n water @25*C 0.77 g/100 g Residue on evaporation 0.0007% by wt, max.
Solubility of water in solvent Solubility in water @25*C 0.63 g/100 g
@lO'C 0.04 g water/100 g Solubility of water in solvent
Specific gravity @fO/4*C 1.282 @lo% 0.03 g water/100 g
Specific heat Specific gravity @20/4*C 1.257
Idquid, L O T 0.270 cal/g/'C Specific heat
V a p o r density (B. P., 760 m m ) 3.54 & i t e r Liquid, 20'C 0.270 cal/g/ 'C
Vapor premsure @ 30 * C 273 m m Vapor denclity (B. P . , 760 mm) 3.67 g/liter
Viscosity liquid @ Z O * C 0.48 centipoise Vapor pre8sure g3O.C 395 mm
Water: no cloud @-15.C 0.001% by wt, m u . Viscosity liquid @2O'C 0.41 centipoise
Weight p e r gallon @20% 10.70 l b Water: no cloud @ 15.C - 0.004% by wt, m u .
Weight p e r gallon @ 2 0 % 10.49 lb
118 Industrial Solvents Handbook
Table 3.25: Dichloroethyl Ether (7)

2,2'-Dic hloroethyl Ether


sym- or B,B'-DichIoroethyl Ether

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Acidity a s HCl 0.005% m u .


Apparent ignition t e m p e r a t u r e in a i r 396'C
Boiling point 178'C
Boiling range @760 mm Not m o r e than 5% d i s -
tills below 173'C
Not l e s s than 95% d i s -
t i l l s below 179'C
Color (500 rnrn tube) Not m o r e than 2 yellow
Lovibond
Ethylene dichloride 1 . 0 % max.
F l a s h point (C. C. ) 55'C
Latent heat of vaporization @ 178 'C 64. 1 cal/g
Refractive index @ 2 0 T 1.457
Specific gravity @ Z O / Z O * ~ 1.219-1.224
Specific heat @20-30'C 0. 369 c a l
Surface tension @25*C 41.8 dynes/ a q c m
Vapor premmure @ 2 0 T 1.2 mrn
Viscosity @Z5*C 2.0653 centipoises
Weight p e r gallon @ZO'C 10. 17 l b

Table 3.26: Dichlorohydrin (7)

G I yc erol DichIorohydr in
Dichl oroisopropyI AI coho1 CIC H2C H( OH)CH2C I
1,3-Di ch Ioropropanol-2
Q- Ropenyldic hl orohydri n
1 .3-DICHLORO-Z -PROPANOL FORMS AZEOTROPES WITH:
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

7Q B. P. 'C of Azeotrope
Boiling point (1,3-) 174%
( 1 , 2 - ) 183%
91 Bromobenzene 155.5
Boiling range 174-176% (95%)
39 0- Bromotoluene 170. 5
F l a s h point 74'C
32 p- Brornotoluene 172.8
Refractive index 1.47-1.48
62 Camphene 152.8
Specific gravity 1.36-1.39
43 u-Chlorotoluene 168.9
Vapor premmure 7 mm
85 o-Chlorotolene 158.0
78 p-Chlorotoluene 160.0
1.2-DICHMRO-3-PROPANOL FORMS AZEOTROPES WITH: 45 Cymene 165.5
55 p- Dichlorobenzene 162.2
b B. P. 'C of Azeotrope
62 2 , 7-Dimethyllac tane 155.0
55 0- Bromotoluene 171.6 85 Dimethyl oxalate 162.0
15 Camphene 156.0 33. 5 Indene 173.5
60 u-Chlorotoluene 171.0 30 Iodobenzene 173.0
68 Indene 160.0 10 Isoamyl butyrate 178.6
60 u-Limonene 169.3 52 Isoamyl e t h e r 165.9
43 2-Octanol 172.5 43 d-Limonene 166.8
80 a-Pinene 153.0 50 Mesitylene 156.0
50 Thyrnene 170.8 41 -
p Methylanlaole 173.1
35 Methylheptenone 178.5
57 o-Phellandrene 163.0
63. 5 -
a Pinene 150.4
63 Pseudocumene 164.4
85 Styrene 142.5
38 a-Terpinolene 166.8
40 Thymene 166.5
Halogenated Hydrocarbons 119
Table 3.27: Dichloromethane (22)

Methylene Chloride CHzC12


Methylene Dichloride

Methylene chloride is a clear, water- highls volatile and mobile. Methylene


white liquid at ordinary temperatures. chloride is completely miscible with
with a pleasant, ethereal odor. It 15 most organic liquids.

TYPICAL PR 0P E RTI ES

Molecular \$'eight 84.93 g water/100 g methylene


Boiling Point, "F 103.6 chloride at 25 "C 0.2
"C 39.8 Azeotrope with Water,
Freezing Point, O F - 142.1 Boiling Point, "F 100.6
"C - 96.7 "C 38.1
Flash Point (Tag open cup) none Azeotropic Water
lgnition Temperature, "F 1224 Content, wt '70 1.5
"C 662
Specific Gravity of Vapor Specification for standard grade
(air = 1.00) 2.94 Appearance Clear, free of
Density at 20°C, suspended matter
pounds per gallon 11.15 Color, APHA, maximum 10
Viscosity at 20°C, Odor Characteristic;
centipoises 0.425 n o residual
Specific Heat at 20°C, Specific Gravity,
calk# "C) 0.29 25 T / 2 5 "C 1.319 to 1.323
Vapor Pressure at 2OoC,mm 348.9 Acidity, ppm, maximum 5
Evaporation Rate at 25 "C Nonvolatile Residue, ppm,
(ether = 100) 71 maximum 10
Heat of Vaporization, caVg 75.3 Free Halogen none
BtuAb 135.5 Distillation Range
Solubility (loo%), "C 39.5 to 4 0 . 5
.g methylene chloride/100 g water "F 103.1 to 104.9
at 20°C 2.0 Water, ppm, maximum 100

Flarnrnabilitv of Methvlene Chloride-Oxvoen-Nitroaen Mixtures


VAPOR PRESSURE

0 IO 20 10 40
TEMPERATURE,
degrees Centigrade

(continued)
120 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 3.27: (continued)

1 , l -DICHLOROMETHANE FORMS A Z E O T R O P E S WITH:

z B. P. 'C of A z e o t r o p e

30 Ac et one 51. 6
23 Biallyl 56.5
94.8 1. 3-Butadiene -5.0
20 C h l o r o m e t h y l m e t h y l ether 54
30 C y c lopentane 38.0
55 Diethylamine 52.0
11.5 Ethanol 54.6
21 Idomethane 39.8
8 Iaoproponol 56.6
51 Pentane 35.5
23 Propylene oxide 40.6
6 tert-Butanol 51. 1
1.5 Water 38. 1

Table 3.28: Dlchloropentanes (7) Table 3.29: 2,4-Dichlorotoluene (7)

C5H 1OC'2

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES PHYSICAL P R O P E R T E S

Acidity as HCl 0.025% m u . Acidity as acetic acid Nil


Average chlorine content 48% ZOO. 5 %
Boiling point @ 7 60 nun Hg
Distillation 95% between 130-200'C @ S O rnm Hg 113.0.C
@10 rnrn Hg 11. O'C
Evaporation r a t e @ 109.F:Minutes
3.83 25% Congealing point -13.C
8.00 50% Distillation Range @160 nun Hg 199-ZOZ'C
14.20 75%
90.00 100% F i r e pcint (Cleveland 0. C. ) 383.F
Flaah point (0.C. ) 9?*F F l a s h point (Cleveland 0. C. ) 199'F
Heat of vaporization 68.5 cal/g Moisture content Nil
Kauri-butanol value 61 c c Molecular weight 161.04
Solubility in water Negligible Pounds p e r gallon 10.34
Specific gravity @ 2 0 T 1.01-1.08 Purity 99.0%
Specific heat 0.369 c d / g Refractive index NU D 1.5480
Surface tension @tS*C 31.8 dynea/crn Side chain chlorine None
Viscoaity @25*C 0.016 poiae Specific gravity @ts/zs'c -
1.241 min. 1.251 m u .
Water azeotrope @80-9l*C 66% CfiioCla (appr=. 1 Surface tenaion, DuNouy @25*C 38.29 dynes/crn
Water content None Vapor p r e a s u r e @l30*C 100 mm Hg
Weight per g8llon 8.94 l b
Halogenated Hydrocarbons 121

Table 3.30: Epichlorohydrin (7)

n
3-Ch loropropylene-1 ,2-oxide O-CH2-CH-CH2CI

Epichlorohydrin i s a colorless, mobile, highly reactive liquid. I t i s completely miscible with many organic liquids such
as acetone, carbon tetrochloride, alcohols, benzene, ethers, halogenated hydrocarbons, fixed oils, etc . It i s not
miscible with glycerin and water. The two reactive functional groups make i t a very useful chemical intermediate. In
the presence of a catalyst, its epoxy group enters into an exothermic reaction with the active hydrogen atoms of alcohols,
amines, carboxylic acids, phenols, mercaptans, etc. The atom i n the molecule reacts w i t h acid salts, alkali metal pheno-
lates, and alcohalates, amides, amines, etc.

Epichlorohydrin i s used to o large extent as a raw material i n the manufacture of epoxy resins. When condensed with di-
hydric phenols or phenolic resins, epoxy resins are obtained which range from liquids to solids. It i s also used i n the
manufacture of ion exchange resins, adhesion resins and a lorge number of other chemicals.

Absolute viscosity a t 20"C., cps. 1.1


ABP/AP., at 740 to 760 mm. Hg, "C. per mm. 0.044
Boiling point, "C., 760 mm. 115.2
50 mm. 45
10 mm. 16
Freezing point, "C. -58.1
Heat of vaporization a t 1 atm., Btu/lb. 174
MolecuIar weight 92.53
Refractive index, nD a t 20°C. 1.4359

Solubility, % by weight a t 2OoC.,


i n water 5.9
water i n 1.2
ASG/A T. at 20" to 30°C. 0.00120
Specific gravity at 20/20°C. 1.1761
Vapor pressure at 2OoC., mm. Hg 12.7
Flash point (open cup), OF. 105

Table 3.31: Ethyl Chloride (22) (23)

Manochloroethane CzHsCl
Muriatic Ether

TYPICAL PROPERTIES
Molecular Weight: 64.52 Refractive Index of Vapor, nk5 1 .oo 1
Description : Ethyl chloride is a Vapor Pressure, mm Hg
colorless mobile liquid at 1 atmosphere 0°C (32°F) 464
below 12.4"C (54°F). Above the boiling 10°C (50°F) 692
point, i t is a colorless gas. Ethyl chloride 20°C (68°F) 101 1
has an ethereal odor and is highly volatile Specific Gravity of Vapor (air=]) 2.23
and flammable. Solubility at 0"C,
g ethyl chloride/100 g water 0.447
- 138.3 g water/100 g ethyl chloride 0.07
Freezing Point, "C
"F -217 Solubility:
Ethyl chloride is soluble in most organic
solvents.

(continued 1
122 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 3.31: (continued)

Flash Point, Tag open cup, "C -43 Reactivity:


"F -45 At ordinary temperatures the oxidation and
Explosive Limits, hydrolysis of ethyl chloride take place
volume % in air 3.16 to 15 slowly. In the absence of air and water, it
Autoignit ion Temperature, "C 519 can be used with most common metals up
"F 966 to 200°C (392°F). Ethyl chloride burns
Specific Heat at P C , with a green-edged flame, producing hydro-
cal/ (9) ("C)or Btu/ (Ib) ("F) 0.37 gen chloride, carbon dioxide and water. It
Heat of Vaporization at Boiling Point is thermally stable t o 400°C (752°F);
calk 92.5 thermal splitting yields ethylene and hydro-
Btu/lb 165.6 gen chloride. The reactivity of ethyl chlo-
Viscosity at 1 O"C, cps 0.279 ride as an intermediate is often based on
Density at 2WC, pounds/gallon 7.461 the affinity of alkali metal atoms for its
chlorine atom.

Specification and Typical Analysis

Typical
Specification Analysis
Purity, wt % 99.5 minimum 99.97
Color, APHA 20 maximum <5
Appearance clear, free of clear, free of
suspended matter suspended matter
Acidity as HCI, wt % 0.002 maximum <0.0001
Water, wt % 0.02 maximum 0.0010
Nonvolatile Residue, wt % 0.01 maximum <0.0001
Total Impurities, wt % 0.5 maximum 0.03
Distillation Range, "C 12 t o 13 12.2 t o 12.4
Specific Gravity, oOC/4"C 0.922 to 0.925 0.922

Ethyl Chloride Vapor Pressure vs Temperature

Solubility, Approximate, g/100 g Solvent at 25OC


Acetone 103
Benzene 110
n-Heptane 87
Ethanol (21OC) 48
Methanol 37
Water ( 2 0 ' ~ ) 0.6

TEMPERATURE, OF
Halogenated Hydrocarbons 123

Table 3.32: Ethylene Chlorohydrin (7)

Glycol Chlorohydrin CICH2CH20H


2-Chlorethyl Alcohol

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Abaolute viacoaity @ 20 'C 3.4 centipoises


Apparent apecific gravity @20/20*C 1.2040
Boiling point @ 760 m m Hg 128.7.C
@ 50mmHg 60'C
@ 10mmHg 29'C
Coefficient of expansion @ 55% 0.00092
F l a a h point (Cleveland 0. C. ) 140 'F
F r e e z i n g point - 6 2 . b'C
Molecular weight 80.52
Pound. p e r gallon @tO*C 10.03
Solubility i n water @ZO*C Complete
Solubility of water in solvent @ZO*C Complete
Vapor p r e a n u r e @2O'C 4.9 m m Hg

Table 3.33: Ethylene Dichloride (7)

1 ,2- Di c hl oroethane
sym-Dichloraethane
Ethylene Chloride CI CH2 -CH2CI
Dutch Oil
Eloyl Chloride

PHYSICAL PROPERTEES

Acidity aa H C l Not m o r e than 0.001% Purity Not l e a l than 99. 0 %


Apparent ignition t e m p e r a t u r e Refractive index 1.4443
i n air 449'C
Solubility i n water Q20.C 0.87 % by wt
Boiling point 83.6.C
Solubility of water in solvent
Boiling range e 7 6 0 mm Below 82.5.C none @ZO'C 0.16% by wt
Above 84.O.C none
Specific gravity @20/2o*c 1.2550
Coefficient of cubical e x p n a i o n
Av./.C, liquid (10-30.C) 0.00116 Specific heat 0. 31 cal/g/'C
Color (500-mmtube) {Laviboad) Not m o r e than 1.0 yellow Specific reairtivity 9.0 x 10' ohma/cm
Dielectric conatant @ 2 0 T 10. 5e0.3 Surface tenaion @25'C 37.5 dynea/cm
E l e c t r f c a l conductivity 3 x 10-8 T h e r m a l conductivity @ 2 0 % 0.0038 cal/cm/msc/'C
Explomive limit. i n a i r 6.2-15.9% by VO~.
Vapor dcnaity (B. P., 760 mm) 3.88 g/liter
F i r e point 28% Vapor preraure @ 2 0 T 6 3 mm
@30T 99 mm
F l a a h point (ASTM 0. C. ) 21'C
Viacoaity @25*C 0.0078 poime
F r e e z i n g point -35'C
W a t e r cant ant Not m o r e than 0.02%
Heat of combuation 2720 cal/g
Weight p e r gallon @ 2 5 % 10.38 lb
Latent heat of evaporation @ B. P. 7 7 . 3 cal/g
Nonvolatile m a t t e r Not m o r e than 0.001
g/loo c c

(continued)
124 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 3.33: (continued)

ETHYLENE DICHLORLDE FORMS AZEOTROPES WITH:

m B. P. 'C of Azeotrope

18 Allyl alcohol 79.9


6 tert-Amyl alcohol 83
79 Carbon t e t r a c h l o r i d e 75. 6 Limits of Flammability of Ethylene Dichloride
19.5 1, 1-Dichloroethane 72 i n Air and Carbon Dioxide
37 Ethanol 70.3
38 Formic acid 77.4
6. 5 Isobutanol 83. 5
43. 5 Isopropyl alcohol 74.7
19 Propanol 80.7
10 n-Propyl f o r m a t e 84.1
I8 Trichloroethylene EL. 9
32 Methanol 61
8.2 Water 70. 5

Water Content vs. Cloud Point (53)

CARBON DIOXIDE IN ATMOSPHERE, PERCEhT

-30 -20 -10 0 10 20


mud Point Temperature. "C

Table 3.34: 2-Ethylhexyl Chloride (7) Table 3.35: Glycerol a-Monochlorohydrin (7)

CICH2CHOHCH20H

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Average weight @.?O'C 7. 33 lb/gal Boiling point 213'C


Boiling point @760 m m Hg 172.9'C Boiling range (ASTM) 90% between 136-14L'C @40 rnm
F l a s h point (0.C. ) 140'F C. )
F l a s h point (0. LBO'F
Molecular weight 148.67 Refractive index @ Z 5 * C 1.4781
Solubility i n water @ Z O X 0. 1% by w( Solubility in water 100%
Solubility of w a t e r i n 8olvent@LO*C 0.1% by wt Specific gravity @ t O / l ° C 1.320
Specific gravity @LO/ZO*C 0.8833 Weight p e r gallon 10.98 lb
Vapor premsure @LO*C 1 . 3 rnrn ng
Halogenated Hydrocarbons 125
u
a
&
Y
0
w o w N in
$ I N
W 1c IC
0 1
Y
d
rd
u
s
V
Y
d
Y
+
V
x
0
Y
x
0

u
&
0
l4
s .V 0
rs'
E
fx
*
P
N
0
W
C
0
f
-:
W d
m
@,
-
E
.5 4, E
Y
W
P
1 u d
Y 9
a a d
I-
d
ai
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Y
.r(
5
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&
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a
126 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 3.37: n-Hexyl Chloride (7)

"
6
' 13"
Boiling range 133-135.C
Flamh point 95T
Specific gravity @zO/ZO*C 0.871

Table 3.38: Methylene Chloride (53)

Product Description Methylene Chlorlde


Water Content vs. Cloud PI
Methylene chloride is a clear, colorless, heavy, nonflam-
toxic
mableofliquid
the chloromethanes
with a pleasantand
ethereal
is notodor.
photochemically
It is the least ~~

reactive. As one of the most powerful solvents in the I


chlorinated group, it has found a wide range of applica- I

3
tions where superior solvency is important. Vulcan's
methylene chloride is available in Technical, Aerosol,
Degreasing, Special and Decaffeination grades. The
Technical and Decaffeination grades meet the requirements
of the American Chemical Society Reagent Chemical
Specifications, 7th Edition, 1987, the Food Chemicals Codex,
3rd Edition, the National Formulary XVI and Military
Specification MIL-D4998D. 180
E,
Physical Properties i"
Formula CH,CI, 9" 150

1
Molecular Weight 84.94
Boiling Point 40.1"C; 104.2"F &
Density 10.98 Ibs./gal. @ 25°C $ ,20
Specific Gravity @ 25i25"C 1.320
Freezing Point -96.7"C; -142.1OF
-- i1I
I I
Viscosity @ 25°C
Flash Point
0.430 CP
None Ij- . ..
- 1 -4
I----
Latent Heat
of Vaporization @ b.p.
Specific Heat,
78.7 cal/g; 141.7 BTU/lb 6o I--- -. .

liquid @ 2O'C 0.276 callgPC


Solubility @ 25'C 30
water in solvent 0.1 70g/l OOg solvent
solvent in water 1.32glOOg water
__
-70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20
Cloud Point Temperature, "C
Halogenated Hydrocarbons 127

Table 3.39: Isopropyl Chlorlde (7)

C H3C HCICH3
Boiling point 35.4.c
Freezing point -117.C
Refractive idu 1.3811
Solubility in water @12, 5'C 0.344'
Specific gravity @ L O / 4 T 0.8590 g/100 g
Vi8COdty @ 22. 5 'c 0.2962 centipohe
Weight per gallon 7. 5 lb

Table 3.40: Methyl Chloride (23)

Monochloromethane CH3CI
PHYSlCA L P ROPE FIT I ES
Molecular Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50.49
BollingPoint.760mm.Hg... . . . . . . . . . . . . -23.7OC.(-lO.7OF.)

S p x i f w Heat. cal.
................

Cntical Pressure

R h v e lndex
Vapor at 2 5 O C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.O00703
Solubihty. cc/lOO a.solvent at 20° C .
Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Benzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4723
Carbon Tetrachloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3756
....................
EthylAkohoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3740

(continued)
128 Industrial Solvents Handbook

Table 3.40: (continued)

Thermodynamic Properties of Methyl Chloride (Ideal Gas State)

SO1
I Fo-Hozss~s

WEE E~NERGY
1 FORMATION FROM ELEMENTS
1

ENTROPY FUNCTION FREE


CAL /DEG / C M /DEG / HLATAHOI. ENERGYA F 4 LOG,onr
MOLE MOLE CAL /MOLE CAL /MOLE

298 9 73 55 80 55 so -20630 14952 10 960


300 9 76 18 55 a6 5580 -20642 14918 10 868
400 11 50 1080 50 91 56 21 -21283 12907 7 052
500 13 28 2332 61 70 57 w -21825 10750 4 699
600 14 64 3707 64 19 50 02 22313 8495 3094
700 I5 92 5236 66 55 59 07 -22699 6144 1918
800 17 03 6885 68 75 60 I5 -23012 3764 1028
900 17 76 B4M) 70 30 6@ 97 -23454 1111 269
IOW I8 86 10480 71 75 61 27 -23444 2086 . 455
1100 19 60. 12400 74 58 63 31 -23586 3551 705
1200 20 26 14400 76 32 64 32 -23673 6027 - 1097
1300 20 82 16450 77 97 65 32 -23747 8493 . 1427
1400 21 32 18560 79 52 66 27 -23789 10987 . 1715
1500 21 75 20720 81 01 67 20 -22803 13502 .I967