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# GROUP 1

## The electrical power of the heater is recorded = P

The mass of the aluminium cylinder is recorded = m
The initial temperature of the aluminium is read off the thermometer = 1
The electric heater is switched on and the stop watch is started simultaneously.
After heating for a time , t , the heater is switched off.
The maximum reading on the thermometer is recorded = 2
Calculate the heat supplied by the heater = Pt
Calculate the heat absorbed by the aluminum cylinder = mc ( 2-1)
On the assumption that there is no heat loss to surroundings;,
Pt = mc (2-1)
c = Pt .
m (2-1)

Precautions

(1) Insulates the aluminium cylinder with felt cloth or wool to decrease the loss of heat to
the surroundings.
(2) Some oil is poured into the hole before the thermometer is inserted to ensure more
perfect heat conduction.

Discussions
The value of the specific heat capacity of aluminium ,c determined in the experiment is
larger than the standard value of c.
This is because the experimental value of the temperature rise , less than the expected
temperature rise due to some heat loss to the surroundings.
The smaller the temperature , the greater the
specific heat capacity because c = Pt
m
GROUP 2

## The electrical power of the heater is recorded = P

The empty beaker is weighed and its mass is recorded = m1
The beaker is filled with water and the beaker is weighed again and it mass is recorded = m2
The initial temperature of the water is read off the thermometer = 1
The electric heater is switched on and the stop watch is started simultaneously.
After heating for a time , t , the heater is switched off.
The maximum reading on the thermometer is recorded = 2
Calculate the heat supplied by the heater = Pt
Calculate the heat absorbed by the water
= ( m2 - m1)c (2-1)
On the assumption that there is no heat loss to surroundings;,
Pt = ( m2 - m1)c (2-1)
c = Pt .
( m2 - m1) (2-1)
Precautions

(1) The water must be stirred continuously to ensure its temperature is uniform.
(2) The beaker should be wrapped with a tissue or felt cloth and placed on a polystyrene
sheet to prevent heat loss to the surroundings and the table.

Discussions

The value of the specific heat capacity of water ,c determined in the experiment is larger
than the standard value of c.
This is because the experimental value of the temperature rise , less than the expected
temperature rise due to some heat loss to the surroundings.
The smaller the temperature , the greater the
specific heat capacity because c = Pt
m
GROUP 3

## Freeze some pure water.

Crush the ice into small and fill a funnel with them.
When the ice begins to melt inset the bulb of a thermometer so that it is covered with ice.
When the mercury stops shrinking , mark the stem of the thermometer at the mercury level,
as 0oC.
Now arrange the thermometer inside a flask so that its bulb is just above the surface of
boiling water.
When the mercury stops expanding , mark its level on the thermometer stem ,as 100oC.
Divide the distance between the marks 0oC and 100oC into 100 equal parts, marked as a scale
along the stem.

## The formula is used to calibrate a thermometer

 = temperature of a substance
o= ice point
100= steam point
xo = the length of the mercury column at
ice point
x100 = the length of the mercury column at
steam point
x = the length of the mercury column when
the thermometer is placed in a
substance
GROUP 4
To determine the latent heat of fusion of ice

## The electrical power of the heater is recorded = P

The mass of each the two empty beakers is determined using the weighing balance.
Mass of empty beaker A = m1
Mass of empty beaker B = m2
When water starts to drip from the filter funnels at a steady rate, the heater in Set A is
switched on.
The stopwatch is started and the empty beakers A and B are placed beneath the filter
funnels.
After a period of t , the heater in Set A is switched off.
The masses of both beakers of water , A and B are determined using the weighing balance.
Mass of beaker A + water = m3
Mass of beaker B + water = m4
Calculate mass of ice melted by the electric immersion heater, m = (m3 - m1) - (m4 - m2)
Calculate the heat supplied by the heater = Pt
Calculate the heat absorbed by the ice during melting = mlf
On the assumption that there is no heat loss to surroundings;,
Pt = mlf
lf = Pt
m
Precautions
(3) The immersion heater must be fully immersed in the ice cubes to avoid or reduce heat
loss
Discussions
The value of the specific latent heat of fusion of ice ,lf determined in the experiment is
larger than the standard value of lf.
This is because the experimental value of the mass of ice melted ,m less than the
expected m due to some heat loss to the surroundings.
The smaller the mass m, the greater the
specific latent heat of fusion of ice,lf,
lf = Pt
m
GROUP 5

## The electrical power of the heater is recorded = P

The electric heater is switched on the heat the water to its boiling point.
When the water starts to boil at a steady rate , the stopwatch is started and the reading on the
balance is recorded = m1
After a time ,t the reading on the electronic balance is recorded again = m2
Calculate the mass of water evaporated, m = m1 - m2
Calculate the heat supplied by the heater = Pt
Calculate the heat absorbed by the water during vaporisation = mlv
On the assumption that there is no heat loss to surroundings;,
Pt = mlv
lv = Pt
m
Precautions

(1) The immersion heater must be fully immersed in the water to avoid or reduce direct
heat loss to the surroundings.

Discussions
The value of the specific latent heat of vaporization of water ,lv determined in the
experiment is larger than the standard value of lv.
This is because the experimental value of the mass of water evaporated ,m less than the
expected m due to some heat loss to the surroundings.
The smaller the mass m, the greater the
specific latent heat of fusion of ice,lv,
lv = Pt
m
GROUP 6

To investigate the relationship between the pressure ,P and volume, V of gas at constant
temperature.

Hypothesis : When the gas pressure continues to increase , its volume will continue to
decrease.
Variables :
Manipulated ; Pressure of air trapped
Responding ; Volume of air
Constant ; Mass and temperature of air inside the
syringe.
Apparatus/ material : A 100 cm3 syringe, ruler, weight, clip , retort stand.
Arrangement of apparatus:

Procedure:
Measure the distance between the 0 cm3 and 100 cm3 marked are marked onto the syringe
scale by using a ruler = L
Calculate the cross-sectional area, A of the piston , A = 100
L
Record the atmospheric pressure when the position of the piston at 0 cm3 marked = Po
A weight of mass m is placed onto the piston.
Record the reading of the syringe = V
Calculate the pressure of the trapped air , P
P = Po + mg
A
The experiment is repeated for 5 times with different value of m.
Tabulate the data:
P
V
Analyse the data:
Plot a graph V against P
GROUP 7

## To investigate the relationship between the temperature ,T and volume, V of gas at

constant pressure.

Hypothesis : When the temperature of a gas increases , its volume increases too.
Variables :
Manipulated ; Air temperature
Responding ; Volume of air
Constant ; Mass and air pressure in the capillary tube.
Apparatus/ material : thermometer, capillary tube , beaker, retort stand, Bunsen burner,
tripod stand, wire gauze, ruler, sulphuric acid ,water and ice. Arrangement of apparatus:

Procedure:
The internal cross-sectional area of the capillary tube is recorded = A
Ice is placed into the water and these are continuously stirred .
The temperature ,  . of water , and the vertical column , L of trapped air are recorded and
measured.
Calculate the volume , V of trapped air V = AL
The experiment is repeated for 5 times with different value of 
Tabulate the data:

V
Analyse the data:
Plot a graph V against 
GROUP 8

## To investigate the relationship between the temperature ,T and pressure, P of gas at

constant volume.

Hypothesis : When the temperature of a gas increases , its pressure increases too.
Variables :
Manipulated ; Temperature of the trapped air
Responding ;
Constant ; Mass and volume of trapped air
Apparatus/ material : thermometer, round flask , beaker, retort stand, Bunsen burner, tripod
stand, wire gauze, ruler, Bourdon gauge, rubber tube, wooden block, water and ice.
Arrangement of apparatus:

Procedure:
The mixture of water and ice is stirred continuously until the temperature of the bath is