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1/16/2018 Metals and NonMetals Class 10 Notes Science Chemistry

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Chapter 1 chemical reactions and


equations Chapter 3 Metals and NonMetals Class 10 Notes NCERT CBSE Chemistry Download pdf

Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts Metals and NonMetals Class 10 Notes
NCERT CBSE Chapter 3 Chemistry Download pdf
Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals
Elements are classified broadly into two categories on the basis of properties: Metals: Iron, Zinc,
Chapter 6 Life Processes
Copper, Aluminium etc.

Chapter 7 Control and


Coordination Non – metals: Chlorine, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Sulphur etc.Apart from metals and non-metals
some elements show properties of both metals and non – metals, e.g. Silicon, Arsenic, Germanium
Chapter 12 Electricity
.They are called metalloids
Chapter 13 Magnetic Effects of
Electric Current
Comparison of physical and chemical properties of metals and non – metals:-
Chapter 14 Sources of Energy S.No Property Metals Non-Metals
Chapter 4 Carbon and its Metals are solid at
Non-metals generally
Compounds room
1 Physical State exist as solids and
temperature. Except
gases, except Bromine.
Chapter 8 Diversity in living mercury and gallium.
Organisms Metals generally have
Non-metals have low
Melting and high m.pt and b.pt
Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution 2 m.pt and b.pt except
boiling points except gallium and
diamond and graphite.
cesium.
Chapter 5 Periodic Classification
3 Density Generally high. Generally low.
of Elements
Malleability and Neither malleable nor
4 Malleable and ductile.
Chapter 10 Light (Reflection and Ductility ductile.
Refraction) Generally poor
Electrical and Good conductors of
conductors of heat and
Chapter 11 The Human Eye and 5 thermal heat
electricity except
the Colourful conductivity and electricity.
graphite.
Chapter 16 Management of Do not have luster
6 Luster Poses shining luster.
Natural Resources except iodine.
Give sonorous sound Does not give
chapter 15 Our Environment 7 Sonorous sound
when struck. sonorous sound.
Solid non-metals are
Generally hard except
8 Hardness generally soft except
Na, K
diamond.
Comparison of Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-metals:-

1 Reaction Metal + Oxygen→Metal Non-metal + Oxygen


with oxide →Non-metal oxide
Oxygen 4Na(s) + O2(g) C + O2 →CO2
→2Na2O(s) S + O2 →SO2
4Al(s) + 3O2(g) →2Al2O3 Non-metals form acidic
Metals form basic oxides oxides
Zn and Al form CO and HO2O are

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1/16/2018 Metals and NonMetals Class 10 Notes Science Chemistry
amphoteric oxides (they neutral oxides(they are
show the properties of neither acidic nor basic
both acidic and basic in nature)  Non- metal
oxides) oxides are soluble in
Most of the metal oxides water
are insoluble in water They dissolve in water
Some of them dissolve to to form acids
form Alkali SO2 + H2O →H2SO3
Na2O(s) + H2O(l)
→2NaOH(aq)
Metals react with water Non-metals do not react
to with water, steam to
form metal oxides or evolve hydrogen gas.
Reaction metal hydroxide and H2 Because  Non-metals
2 with gas is released. cannot give electrons to
water 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) hydrogen in water so
→2NaOH + that it can be released
H2(g) + heat as H2 gas.
Metal + Acid →Metal salt
+ Hydrogen Non-metals do not react
HCl with acids to release H2
Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)→ gas                  
MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) Reason- Non-metals
Reaction H2SO4 cannot loose electrons
with 2Na(s) + H2SO2→ and give it to Hydrogen
3
dilute Na2SO4(aq) +H2(g) ions of acids so that the
Acids gas is released.
HNO3
Metal + HNO3→ H2 gas Mn + 2HNO3→
is not displaced. Mn(NO3)2 + H2
Reason- HNO3 is strong H2 gas from HNO3
oxidizing agent.
When metals react with When non-metals react
salt with salt solution, more
solution, more reactive reactive non-metal will
Reaction metal will displace a less displace a less reactive
4 with salt reactive metal from its non-metal from its salt
solutions salt solution. solution.
CuSO4(aq) + 2NaBr(aq) + Cl2(g)→
n(s)→ ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s) 2NaCl(aq) + Br2(aq)
Non-metal +
Metal + Chlorine→ Metal Chlorine→Non-metal
Chloride Chloride
Reaction ionic bond is formed. covalent bond is formed.
5 with Therefore Ionic Therefore covalent
Chlorine compound is obtained. compound is obtained.
2Na+ Cl2 → 2NaCl H2(g) + Cl2 → 2HCl
 
Metals react with
hydrogen Non-metals react with
Reaction to form metal hydride hydrogen to form
6 with This reaction takes place hydrides     H2(g) + S(l)
Hydrogen only for most reactive
→ H2S(g)
metals.       2Na(s)+ H2(g)
→ 2NaH(s)

Properties of ionic    
compounds
 Physical solid and hard due to strong force of attraction. 
1. :  
nature (generally brittle)
Melting point have high M.P and B.P, as large amount of heat
2. and boiling :   energy is required to break strong ionic
point attraction.
soluble in water and insoluble in kerosene and
3. Solubility :  
pertrol.           
Conduction of ionic compounds in solid state-----does not
4. :  
electricity conduct electricity.
Reason—Ions can not move due to rigid solid structure. Ionic compounds
conduct electricity in molten state.
Reason--  Ions can move freely since the electrostatic forces of attraction
between the oppositely charged ions are overcome due to heat.
 
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1/16/2018 Metals and NonMetals Class 10 Notes Science Chemistry

Occurrence of metals.
It occurs in Earths crust, sea-water

Ores
Minerals that contain very high
percentage of a perticular metal
Minerals
and these met als can be
Elements or compounds, occuring
extracted economically on a
naturally in the earth‘s crust
large scale.
e.g Bouxite ore → Aluminium
Haematite   → Iron

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1/16/2018 Metals and NonMetals Class 10 Notes Science Chemistry

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