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Compression Members

When a force tends to compress or squeezed the member and the member is called compression
member and the force is called compression. (Usually termed as Column)

e.g. Column, strut, some web members

Note:
Slenderness ratio is always involved in the computation of allowable axial stress F a. For this reason the best
section for compression member is circular in cross-section; next is square.

Two significant difference between tension and compression members

1. Tension elongates the member while compression compressed or squeezed the member.
2. Net area resist tension white gross area is for compression.

Design of compression member

𝐶
𝐴𝑔 =
𝐹𝑎
Where
Ag – gross area
C – Compression
Fa – Allowable axial stress

Allowable Compressive Stress (𝐹𝑎 )

AISC Specs for Fa

𝑘𝐿
1. When < 𝐶𝑐 (Short / Intermediate)
𝑟

𝑘𝐿 2
()
[1 − 𝑟 2 ]
2𝐶𝑐
𝐹𝑎 = 𝐹𝑦
𝐹𝑠
F.S. – Factor of Safety
𝑘𝐿 𝑘𝐿 3
5 3 𝑟 ( )
𝐹𝑠 = + − 𝑟 3
3 8𝐶𝑐 8𝐶𝑐

𝑘𝐿
2. When > 𝐶𝑐 (Long Columns)
𝑟
12𝜋 2 𝐸
𝐹𝑎 =
𝑘𝐿 2
23 ( )
𝑟

𝐿
3. For Secondary members; > 120
𝑟
𝐹𝑎 [𝑖𝑛 1 𝑜𝑟 2]
𝐹𝑎𝑠 =
𝐿
(1 − )
200𝑟
Where
𝐹𝑎 − 𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠
𝑘𝐿
− 𝑠𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜
𝑟
𝑘𝐿
≤ 200 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛)
𝑟
𝑘 − 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟
𝑘𝐿 − 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ
𝑟 − 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑦𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝐼
𝑟=√
𝐴
𝐿 − 𝑈𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ
2𝜋2 𝐸
𝐶𝑐 = √ column slenderness
𝐹𝑦

Ratio dividing elastic and inelastic buckling

Axially Loaded Compression Members

A column is a compression member that is so slender, compare to its length that usually that usually
fails by buckling rather than by crushing. They are classified into three groups.

1. Short Columns
For short columns, the failure will be by crushing and no buckling will occur.

𝑘𝐿
= 𝑠𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜
𝑟

2. Intermediate Columns
For intermediate columns, some of fiber will reach the yield stress and the member will fail
by a combination of crushing and buckling and their behavior is skid to be elastic.
3. Long Columns
For long columns, the axial buckling stress usually remains below the proportional limit and
column will usually buckle elastically. Long columns usually fail by buckling or excessive latent
bending. The longer the column is the greater its tendency to buckle and the (similar) smaller head
it will support. The tendency of a member to buckle is usually measured by its slenderness ration
which is defined as the ratio of the length of the member to its least radius of gyration. The greater
the slenderness ratio the smaller will be the capacity of such column. Slenderness ratio.

𝜋2 𝐸𝐼
𝑃𝑐𝑟 = 𝐼 = 𝐴𝑟 2
𝐿2
𝜋2 𝐸𝐴𝑟 2
𝑃𝑐𝑟 =
𝐿2
𝜋2 𝐸𝐴
𝑃𝑐𝑟 = 𝐿2
𝑟2
𝜋2 𝐸𝐴
𝑃𝑐𝑟 = 𝐿 2
critical load
( )
𝑟

Where A – cross-sectional area


r – least radius of gyration

If critical load is divided by A


The critical buckling stress, for

𝑃𝑐𝑟 𝜋2 𝐸
𝐹𝑐𝑟 = = 𝐿 2
𝐴 ( )
𝑟
ASTM A 36

AISC Requirements for compression member

𝑃𝑛 = 𝐹𝑐𝑟 𝐴𝑔
For LRFD

𝑃𝑢 ≤ ∅𝑐 𝑃𝑛
Where
𝑃𝑢 − 𝑠𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑠
∅𝑐 − 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛
∅𝑐 = 0.90
∅𝑐 𝑃𝑛 − 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ

For ASD
𝑃𝑛
𝑃𝑎 ≤
Ω𝑐
Where
𝑃𝑎 − 𝑠𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑖𝑐𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
Ω𝑐 − 𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛
Ω𝑐 = 1.67
𝑃𝑛
− 𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ
Ω𝑐

If an allowable stress formulation is used


𝑓𝑎 ≤ 𝐹𝑎
𝑓𝑎 − 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝑃𝑎
𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 =
𝐴𝑔
𝐹𝑎 − 𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠
𝐹𝑐𝑟 𝐹𝑐𝑟
= = = 0.6𝐹𝑐𝑟
Ω𝑐 1.67
Enter Load 𝑃𝑒
𝜋 2 𝐸𝐴
𝑃𝑒 =
𝑘𝐿 2
( )
𝑟
Enter Stress 𝐹𝑒
𝑃𝑒 𝜋 2𝐸
𝐹𝑒 = =
𝐴 𝑘𝐿 2
( )
𝑟
𝑘𝐿 𝐸
Where ≤ 4.71√
𝑟 𝐹𝑦
𝐹𝑦
or 𝐹𝑒 ≥ 0.44𝐹𝑦 𝐹𝑐𝑟 = [0.658 𝐹𝑐 ] 𝐹𝑦

𝑘𝐿 𝐸
when ≤ 4.71√
𝑟 𝐹𝑦

𝐹𝑐𝑟 = 0.877𝐹𝑒

W 360 x 122 of A992 steel is used as a compression member. 𝑘𝑥 = 1.0 and 𝑘𝑦 = 0.8. Its unsupported length
𝑃
is 6m. (a) Determine its design compressive strength (∅𝑛 𝑃𝑛 ) for LRFD. (b) Its ( 𝑛) allowable compressive
𝑜
strength for ASD.

𝐿𝑥 = 6 𝐿𝑦 = 6

𝐾𝑥 = 1.0 𝐾𝑦 = 0.8

Solution
Properties of W 360 x 122
A = 15 500 mm2
𝑟𝑥 = 154 𝑚𝑚
𝑟𝑦 = 63 𝑚𝑚

𝑘𝑥 𝐿𝑥 1.0 (6000 𝑚𝑚)


= = 38.96
𝑟𝑥 154 𝑚𝑚

𝑘𝑦 𝐿𝑦 0.8 (6000 𝑚𝑚)


= = 76.2 (𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑠)
𝑟𝑦 63 𝑚𝑚
For A992

𝐹𝑦 = 50 𝑘𝑠𝑖 = 345 𝑀𝑃𝑎


𝐹𝑛 = 65 𝑘𝑠𝑖 = 450 𝑀𝑃𝑎
E = 200 000 MPa

𝑘𝐿
= 76.2
𝑟
𝐸 200 000 𝑀𝑃𝑎
4.71√ = 4.71√ = 113.4
𝑓𝑦 345 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑘𝐿 𝐸
< 4.71√
𝑟 𝐹𝑦

𝐹𝑦
Use 𝐹𝑐𝑟 = [0.658 𝐹𝑒 ] 𝐹𝑦

𝜋 2𝐸
𝐹𝑒 =
𝑘𝐿 2
( )
𝑟
2 (200
𝜋 000)
𝐹𝑒 = = 340
(76.2)2

345
𝐹𝑐𝑟 = [0.658(340) ] 345
𝐹𝑐𝑟 = 225.6 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑃𝑛 = 𝐹𝑐𝑟 𝐴𝑔
𝑃𝑛 = 225.6 (15 500)
𝑃𝑛 = 3496.8 𝑘𝑁

a) ∅𝑐 𝑃𝑛 = 0.9(3496.8)
∅𝑐 𝑃𝑛 = 3147.12 𝑘𝑁

𝑃𝑛 3496.8
b) =
Ω𝑐 1.67
𝑃𝑛
= 2093.9 𝑘𝑁
Ω𝑐

𝑘𝐿 𝐹𝑦
𝜆𝑐 = √
𝑟𝜋 𝐸
If 𝜆𝑐 ≤ 1.5

2
𝐹𝑐𝑟 = [0.658(𝜆𝑐 ) ] 𝐹𝑦
If 𝜆𝑐 > 1.5

0.877
𝐹𝑐𝑟 = [ ] 𝐹𝑦
𝜆𝑐 2
Another solution

𝑘𝐿 𝐹𝑦
𝜆𝑐 = √
𝑟𝜋 𝐸

76.2 345
𝜆𝑐 = √
𝜋 200 000
𝜆𝑐 = 1.01

2
𝐹𝑐𝑟 = [0.658(1.01 ) ]𝐹𝑦
𝐹𝑐𝑟 = 225.45 𝑀𝑃𝑎

Solve the previous problem using AISC Equations.

𝐿𝑥 = 6 𝐿𝑦 = 6

𝐾𝑥 = 1.0 𝐾𝑦 = 0.8
Solution:

𝑘𝐿
= 76.2
𝑟
2𝜋 2 𝐸
𝐶𝑐 = √
𝐹𝑦

2𝜋 2 (200 000)
𝐶𝑐 = √
345
𝐶𝑐 = 107

𝑘𝐿
< 𝐶𝑐
𝑟
Use

𝑘𝐿 2
( )
[1 − 𝑟 2 ]
2𝐶𝑐
𝐹𝑎 = 𝐹𝑦
𝑘𝐿 𝑘𝐿 3
5 3 𝑟 ( )
+ − 𝑟 3
3 8𝐶𝑐 8𝐶𝑐
𝐹𝑎 = 136.35 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝐶 = 𝐹𝑎 𝐴𝑔 = 136.35 (15, 500)


𝐶 = 2113.43 𝑘𝑁
𝑘𝐿
Min. 𝑟 =
200