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Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations – part

Two
In Article “Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations – part One”, we indicate that the contents of
our articles for Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations will include the following points:

 Glossary of Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers,


 Power and distribution transformer components,
 Power and distribution transformer classification: construction and application,
 Three-phase power and distribution transformer connections,
 Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations.

The following points were explained before ( or will be explained) in our course “EP-3:Electrical Procurement –
Transformers Course” :

 Power and distribution transformer components,


 Power and distribution transformer classification: construction and application,
 Three-phase power and distribution transformer connections,

So, we will not go through these points here, we will focus only on the following two points:

1. Glossary of Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers,


2. Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations.

And we already explained the Glossary of Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers in Article “Power and
Distribution Transformers sizing calculations – part One” , today we will explain the second point; Power and
Distribution Transformers sizing calculations.

Note:

I’d like from all of you to review our course “EP-3:Electrical Procurement – Transformers Course” to be more
familiar with the contents of our new articles about the Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations.

Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations

Our study for the Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations will include the explanations of the
following points:

1. Resources used to calculate basic ratings of power and distribution transformers,


2. Selection Factors,
3. Special cases,
4. Calculations procedures.
1- Resources Used To Calculate Basic Ratings Of Power And Distribution
Transformers

 The Resources used in our study to calculate basic ratings of power and distribution transformers will be
the ANSI/IEEE Standard C57 (Distribution, Power, and Regulating Transformers).
 We will go through the important points in the ANSI/IEEE Standard C57 that will lead to the accurate sizing
of power and distribution transformers as follows:

1. C57.12.00 specifies the following service conditions for liquid-immersed distribution and power transformers:

1. Temperature should not exceed an average ambient temperature of 300C.


2. Altitude should not exceed 3300 ft (1000 meters).
3. Voltage should be approximately sinusoidal.
4. Load current should be approximately sinusoidal and a harmonic content should not exceed 0.05
per unit.
5. Frequency should be at least 95% of the rated value (e.g., 60 Hz).

2. C57.12.00 lists the following preferred continuous kVA ratings for liquid immersed power and distribution
transformers (Table-1).

Single-Phase Transformers Three-Phase Transformers

kVA kVA kVA kVA kVA kVA

3 167 5000 15 1000 15,000

5 250 6667 30 1500 20,000

10 333 8333 45 2000 25,000

15 500 10,000 75 2500 30,000

25 833 12,500 112.5 3750 37,500

37.5 1250 16,667 150 5000 50,000

50 1667 20,000 225 7500 60,000


75 2500 25,000 300 10,000 75,000

100 3333 33,333 500 12,000 100,000

750

Table-1: Standard Transformer kVA Ratings (Liquid-Filled)


3. C57.12.00 lists the following basic dielectric insulation levels (BIL) for liquid-immersed transformers (Table-2).

Nominal Transformer BIL Chopped Wave Low


Frequency
System Category Full Minimum Minimum
Test Label
Voltage Wave Voltage Time to

kV Flashover kV
kV kV
crest rms
rms Crest sec

0.48 and Power and 30 36 1.0 10

below Distribution

2.4 Distribution 45 54 1.5 15

2.4 Power 60 69 1.5 15

4.16 Distribution 60 69 1.5 19

4.16 Power 75 88 1.6 19

13.8 Distribution 95 110 1.8 34

13.8 Power 110 130 2.0 34

34.5/19.9 Distribution 150 175 3.0 50


34.5/19.9 Power 200 230 3.0 70

69 Power 350 400 3.0 140

115 Power 450 520 3.0 185

230 Power 825 950 3.0 360

Table-2: Transformer BIL Ratings


4. C57.12.00 specifies that the angular placement for three-phase transformers shall be in accordance
withFigure-1.

Figure-1: Phase Relation of Terminal Designations

5. C57.12.00 list four categories for the rating of transformers (Table -3):

Category Single-Phase Three-Phase


kVA Ratings kVA Ratings
Ia 5 to 500 15 to 500
II 501 to 1667 501 to 5000
III 1668 to 10,000 5000 to 30,000
IV above 10,000 above 30,000

Table-3: Transformer Categories (Liquid-Filled)

a :Category I shall include distribution transformers manufactured in accordance with ANSI C57.12.20 [B3] up
through 500 kVA, single phase or three phase. In addition, autotransformers of 500 equivalent two winding kVA
or less, which are manufactured as distribution transformers in accordance with ANSI C57.12.20 [B3], shall be
included in Category I, even though their nameplate kVA may exceed 500.

6. C57.12.00 specifies that power transformers that are rated 200 kVA and below, and that have high voltage
ratings 8660 volts and below, shall have additive polarity. All other single-phase transformers shall have
subtractive polarity.

7. C57.12.00 specifies that the average winding temperature rise above ambient temperature shall not exceed
650C when measured by resistance and that the winding hottest-spot temperature rise shall not exceed 800C.

Note: Transformer ratings are based on a 24-hour average ambient of 300C.

8. C57.92 lists the following derating factors for 550C or 650C rise transformers that are being operated at
ambient temperatures above or below 300C (Table-4).

Note: Table-4 is valid for temperatures that range from 00C to 500C.

Type of Cooling % of Rating


Decrease Load for Increase Load for
each 0C each 0C
Higher Temperature Lower Temperature
Self-cooled -- OA 1.5 1.0
Water-cooled -- OW 1.5 1.0
Forced-air-cooled -- OA/FA, OA/FA/FA 1.0 0.75
Forced-oil-cooled -- FOA, FOW and 1.0 0.75
OA/FOA/FOA

Table-4: Transformer Loading on Basis of Temperature for Liquid-Filled Transformers

9. C57.12.10 lists the following OA/FA ratings for power transformers that are rated 750 - 12,500 kVA (Table-5).

Single-Phase (kVA) Three-Phase (kVA) Three-Phase (kVA)


Without Load Tap Changing With Load Tap Changing
OA FA OA FA OA FA
833 958 750 862 - -
1 250 1 437 1 000 1 150 - -
1 667 1 917 1 500 1 725 - -
2 500 3 125 2 000 2 300 - -
3 333 4 167 2 500 3 125 - -
5 000 6 250 3 750 4 687 3 750 4 687
6 667 8 333 5 000 6 250 5 000 6 250
8 333 10 417 7 500 9 375 7 500 9 375
- - 10 000 12 500 10 000 12 500

Table-5: OA/FA Ratings (750 - 12,500 kVA)

10. C57.12.10 lists the following OA/FA/FA ratings for power transformers that are rated 18 MVA and larger
(Table-6).

OA First-Stage Second-Stage

18 000 24 000 30 000


21 000 28 000 35 000
24 000 32 000 40 000
27 000 36 000 45 000
40 000 53 333 66 667
45 000 60 000 75 000

Table-6: OA/FA/FA Ratings (Greater Than 12.5 MVA)

11. C57.12.01 specifies the same usual service conditions for dry-type transformers as for liquid-filled
transformers.

12. C57.12.01 lists the following continuous kVA ratings for dry-type power and distribution transformers (Table-
7):

Single-Phase Transformers Three-Phase Transformers

kVA kVA kVA kVA kVA kVA

1 167 5000 15 300 3750

3 250 6667 30 500 5000

5 333 8333 45 7500


750

10 500 10,000 75 1000 10,000


15 833 12,500 112.5 1500
12,000

25 1250 16,667 150 2000 15,000

37.5 1667 20,000 225 2500 20,000

50 2500 25,000

75
3333 33,333

100

Table-7: Standard Transformer kVA Ratings (Dry-Type)

13. C57.12.01 lists the following limits of temperature and temperature rise ratings for dry-type transformers
(Table-8).

Average Winding Temperature Insulation System

Rise by Resistance (0C) Temperature (0C)

60 130

80 150

115 185

130 200

150 220
Table-8: Limits of Temperature and Temperature Rise Ratings for Dry-Type Transformers

14. C57.12.01 lists the same categories of dry-type transformers as liquid-filled transformers, except that
Category IV does not exist for dry-type transformers.

15. C57.12.01 lists the following BIL ratings for dry-type transformers (Table-9).

Nominal BIL Low Full Crest Impulse


Levels
System Frequency Wave
Chopped
Voltage Voltage 1.2 x 50 s Wave

Insulation Minimum
Time To
Level
kV kV crest Flashover

kV rms kV crest
Sec
kV crest

0.48 and 10 4 10 10 1.0

below

2.4 20 10 20 20 1.0

4.16 30 12 30 30 1.0

13.8 60 19 60 60 1.5

34.5 150 50 150 150 2.25

Table-9: BIL Ratings for Dry-Type Transformers


16. C57.12.51 lists the AA/FA ratings for dry-type transformers (Table-10).

Self-Cooled Forced-Air-Cooled

(AA) Ratings (AA/FA) Ratings

(kVA) (kVA)

750 1000

1000 1333

1500 2000

2000 2667

2500 3333

3750 5000

5000 6667

7500 10000

Table-10: AA/FA Ratings for Dry-Type Transformers

17. C57.96 lists the following derating factors for dry-type transformers that are being operated at temperatures
above or below 300C (Table-11).

Note: Table-11 is valid for temperatures ranging from 00C to 500C.

Type of Unit Maximum Rated Hottest-Spot Percent of Rated


Hottest-Spot Temperature kVA/0C
Temperature 0C 300C Ambient Increase for Average
Ambient
Less than 300C or
Decrease for
Average Ambient
Greater Than 300C
Ventilated 150 140 (0.57)
Self-Cooled 185 175 (0.43)
220 210 (0.35)
Sealed 150 140 (0.65)
Self-Cooled 185 175 (0.49)
220 210 (0.40)
Table-11: Transformer Loading on Basis of Temperature for Dry-Type Transformers

In the next article, we will focus on the other points in Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations
which are:

 Selection Factors,
 Special cases,
 Calculations procedures.