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Wiegand interface
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Main page The Wiegand interface is a de facto wiring standard which arose from the popularity of Wiegand
Contents effect card readers in the 1980s. It is commonly used to connect a card swipe mechanism to the
Featured content rest of an electronic entry system. The sensor in such a system is often a "Wiegand wire", based
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on the Wiegand effect, discovered by John R. Wiegand. A Wiegand-compatible reader is normally
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connected to a Wiegand-compatible security panel.
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Contents
Interaction 1 Physical layer
Help
2 Protocol
About Wikipedia
3 See also
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4 External links
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Tools Physical layer [edit]


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Related changes The Wiegand interface uses three wires, one of which is a common ground and two of which are
Upload file data transmission wires usually called DATA0 and DATA1, alternately labeled "D0" and "D1" or
Special pages "Data Low" and "Data High". When no data is being sent, both DATA0 and DATA1 are pulled up to
Permanent link the "high" voltage level — usually +5 VDC. When a 0 is sent the DATA0 wire is pulled to a low
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voltage while the DATA1 wire stays at a high voltage. When a 1 is sent the DATA1 wire is pulled to
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a low voltage while DATA0 stays at a high voltage.
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The high signaling level of 5 VDC is used to accommodate long cable runs from card readers to
Create a book the associated access control panel, typically located in a secure closet. Most card reader
Download as PDF manufacturers publish a maximum cable run of 500 feet. An advantage of the Wiegand signaling
Printable version format is that it allows very long cable runs, far longer than other interface standards of its day
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Protocol [edit]
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The communications protocol used on a Wiegand interface is known as the Wiegand protocol. The
original Wiegand format had one parity bit, 8 bits of facility code, 16 bits of ID code, and a trailing
parity bit for a total of 26 bits. The first parity bit is calculated from the first 12 bits of the code and
the trailing parity bit from the last 12 bits. However, many inconsistent implementations and
extensions to the basic format exist.

Many access control system manufacturers adopted Wiegand technology, but were unhappy with
the limitations of only 8 bits for site codes (0-255) and 16 bits for card numbers (0-65535), so they
designed their own formats with varying complexity of field numbers and lengths and parity
checking.

The physical size limitations of the card dictated that a maximum of 37 Wiegand wire filaments
could be placed in a standard credit card, as dictated by CR80 or ISO/IEC 7810 standards, before
misreads would affect reliability. Therefore, most Wiegand formats used in physical access control
are less than 37 bits in length.

See also [edit]


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Access badge
Access control
Keycard
Common Access Card
Credential
Identity document
Magnetic stripe card
Photo identification
Security (physical, engineering)
Proximity card
Security
Smart card

External links [edit]

Technology Basics White Paper [DeadLink]


Open Security Research - Hacking the Wiegand Serial Protocol
SIA Standard, AC-01-1996.10 - Access Control - Wiegand
Another description of the Wiegand protocol (timing diagram on page 5)
LayerOne 2007 - Zac Franken - Wiegand Hacked (Video on Youtube)
US Patent, System and Method of Extending Communications With the Wiegand Protocol
US Patent, Device Authentication Using a Unidirectional Protocol
US Patent, Secure Wiegand Communications

Categories: Contactless smart cards Data transmission

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This page w as last modified on 30 June 2016, at 09:26.

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