Cascade Control of a Tubular Chemical Reactor Using Nonlinear Part of Primary Controller

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Cascade Control of a Tubular Chemical Reactor Using Nonlinear Part of Primary Controller

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Chapter 12
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Petr Dostal, Jiri Vojtesek, Vladimir Bobal

Department of Process Control, Faculty of Applied Informatics

Tomas Bata University in Zlin

Nad Stranemi 4511, 760 05 Zlin, Czech Republic

E-mail: {dostalp;vojtesek;bobal}@fai.utb.cz

Cascade control, tubular chemical reacor, external linear fact that a concentration of the main component of the

control, pole assignment. reaction taking place in the reactor depends on the

output reactant temperature. Moreover, the procedure

ABSTRACT assumes that the output reactant temperature is

measured continuously. Then, in the cascade control-

The paper deals with the cascade control of a tubular loop, the concentration of a main product of the reaction

chemical reactor. The control is performed in the is considered as the primary controlled variable, and, the

primary and secondary control-loops. A gain of the output reactant temperature as the secondary controlled

primary discrete nonlinear P controller consists of two variable. The coolant flow rate represents a common

parts. The first nonlinear part is determined on the basis control input. The primary controller determining the set

of simulated or measured steady-state characteristics of point for the secondary (inner) control-loop is derived as

the reactor, the second part is selectable. The controller a proportional controller with a nonlinear part obtained

in the secondary control-loop is an adaptive controller. from the steady-state characteristics of the reactor and

The proposed method is verified by control simulations with a selectable part. Since the controlled process is

on a nonlinear model of the reactor with an exothermic nonlinear, a continuous-time adaptive controller is used

reaction. as the secondary controller. The procedure for the

adaptive control design in the inner control-loop is

INTRODUCTION based on approximation of a nonlinear model of the

The cascade control belongs to useful control methods TCR by a continuous-time external linear model (CT

for many technological processes. It may be applied in ELM) with recursively estimated parameters. In the

such cases when at least two output variables can be process of the parameter estimation, a corresponding

measured and only one input variable is available to the delta model is used, see, e.g. (Garnier and Wang 2008;

control. Principles and examples of the use of cascade Mukhopadhyay et al. 1992; Stericker and Sinha 1993;

control can be found e.g. in (Smuts 2011; King 2010; Bobál et al. 2005). The resulting CT controller is

Seborg et al. 1989). derived on the basis of the polynomial method, see, e.g.

Chemical reactors are typical processes suitable for the (Kučera 1993; Mikleš and Fikar 2004; Dostál et al.

use of cascade control. In cases of non-isothermal 2007). The control is tested by simulations on nonlinear

reactions, concentrations of the reaction products mostly model of the TCR with a consecutive exothermic

depend on a temperature of the reactant. Further, it is reaction.

known that while the reactant temperature can be

measured almost continuously, concentrations are MODEL OF TCR

usually measured in longer time intervals. Then, the An ideal plug-flow tubular chemical reactor with a

application of the cascade control method can lead to k1 k2

good results. In this paper, the procedure for control simple exothermic consecutive reaction A → B → C in

design of a tubular chemical reactor is presented. the liquid phase and with the countercurrent cooling is

Tubular chemical reactors (TCRs) are units frequently considered. Heat losses and heat conduction along the

used in chemical industry inclusive of manufacturing metal walls of tubes are assumed to be negligible, but

and processing of polymers and some others. From the dynamics of the metal walls of tubes are significant. All

system theory point of view, TCRs belong to the class densities, heat capacities, and heat transfer coefficients

of nonlinear distributed parameter systems. Their are assumed to be constant. Under above assumptions,

mathematical models are described by sets of nonlinear the reactor model is described by five PDEs in the form

partial differential equations (PDEs). The methods of

∂cA ∂c

modelling and simulation of such processes are + vr A = −k1 c A (1)

described e.g. in (Corriou 2004; Ingham et al. 1994). ∂t ∂z

Detailed analysis of the specific TCR is carried out for ∂ cB ∂c

example in (Dostál et al. 2008). + vr B = k1 c A − k2 cB (2)

∂t ∂z

Simulation ©ECMS Thorsten Claus, Frank Herrmann,

Michael Manitz, Oliver Rose (Editors)

ISBN: 978-0-9932440-2-5 / ISBN: 978-0-9932440-3-2 (CD)

∂Tr ∂T Qr 4U1 TABLE

T I.: VARIA

ABLES USED IN CO

ONTROL AND APP

PROXIMATIONS

+ vr r = − (Tr − Tw ) (3)

∂t ∂ z ( ρ c p ) r d1 ( ρ c p ) r L=8m n 1 = 1200

∂Tw 4 d1 = 0.02 m d 2 = 0.024 m

= 2 [ d1U1 (Tr − Tw ) + d3 = 1 m

∂t 2

(d 2 − d1 ) ( ρ c p ) w (4)

ρr = 985 kg/m3 c pr = 4.05 kJ/k

kg K

+ d 2 U 2 (Tc − Tw ] 3

ρw = 7800 kg/m

m c pw = 0.71 kJ/k

kg K

∂Tc ∂T 4 n1 d 2 U 2 ρc = 998 kg/m 3

c pc = 4.18 kJ/k

kg K

− vc c = 2 (Tw − Tc ) (5)

∂t ∂ z (d3 − n1 d 22 ) ( ρ c p )c

U1 = 2.8 kJ/m2s K m2s K

U2 = 2.56 kJ/m

with initial conditions k10 16

1 = 5.61⋅10 1/s 018 1/s

k 20 = 1.128⋅10

c A ( z,0) = c As ( z ) cB ( z, 0)) = cBs ( z ) Tr ( z,0) = Trs ( z ) E1/R = 13477 K E 2/R = 15290 K

, , ,

Tw ( z,0) = Tws ( z ) , Tc ( z,0) = Tcs ( z) 04 kJ/kmol

(-ΔHr1) = 5.8⋅10 ((-ΔHr2) = 1.8⋅104 kJ/kmol

and boundaryy conditions cAs 0 = 2.85 km

mol/m3 cBs 0 = 0 kmoll/m3

c A (0, t ) = c A 0 (t ) (kmol/m3), cB (0, t ) = cB 0 (t ) (kmol/m m3),

Trs0 = 323 K TcsL = 293 K

Tr (0, t ) = Tr 0 (t ) (K), Tc ( L, t ) = Tc L (t ) (K).

(

Here, t is thee time, z is thee axial space variable,

v c staands qrs = 0.15 m3/s

for concentrrations, T foor temperaturres, v for fl fluid

velocities, d for diameeters, ρ for densities,

d cp for

CO

OMPUTATIO

ON MODELSS

specific heatt capacities, U for heat tran nsfer coefficieents,

n1 is the num mber of tubess and L is thee length of tubbes. For computatio on of both ssteady-state anda dynamicc

The subscrippt (⋅)r stands foor the reactantt mixture, (⋅)w for chaaracteristics, the finite differences method iss

the metal walls of tubes,, (⋅)c for the coolant, and the em

mployed. The procedure

p is bbased on substitution of thee

superscript (⋅⋅)s for steady-sstate values. spaace interval z ∈< 0, L > by a set of discrete nodee

The reactionn rates and heeat of reactio ons are nonlinnear poiints {zi} for i = 1, … , n, and, subssequently, byy

functions exppressed as appproximation ofo derivativess with respectt to the spacee

⎛ −E j ⎞ varriable in eachh node point by finite difffferences. Thee

k j = k j 0 expp ⎜ ⎟ , j = 1,2 (6) pro

ocedure is in detail

d describeed in (Dostál et

e al. 2008).

⎝ RTr ⎠

Qr = (− Δ H r1 ) k1 c A + (− Δ H r 2 ) k2 cB (7) TH

HE CONTRO

OL OBJECTIIVE AND ST

TEADY-

ST

TATE CHAR

RACTERISTIICS

where k0 aree pre-exponenntial factors, E are activattion

energies, ( − Δ H r ) are reaction entthalpies in the Baasic scheme of the cascade control is in Fig. 1. Here,,

negative connsideration andd R is the gas constant. NPPC stands forr the nonlinea ear proportion nal controller,,

The fluid veelocities are calculated via the reactant and ACC for the adapttive controllerr.

coolant flow rates as Thhe control objective is to aachieve a con ncentration off

thee component B as the prim mary controlled output nearr

4 qr 4 qc to its maximum. A dependencce of the concentration of B

vr = , vc = (8)

π n1 d12 π (d32 − n1 d 22 ) on the output reaactant temperaature is in Fig

g. 2.

The TCR parameter valuues with corrrespondent uunits

used for simuulations are giiven in Table 1.

From the system engineering point of viiew,

c A ( L, t ) = c A out , cB ( L, t ) = cB out , Tr ( L, t ) = Tr out and

Tc (0, t ) = Tc oout are the output variab

bles and q r ( t ) , Figure 1: Cascade C

Control Schem

me.

qc (t ) , c A 0 (t ) , Tr 0 (t ) and

a Tc L (t ) are the innput

Thhere, an operatting interval cconsists of two

o parts. In thee

variables. Am mong them, for the co ontrol purpo ses, firsst subintervall, the concenntration B in ncreases withh

mostly the ccoolant flow rate

r can be taaken into accoount inccreasing reactant tempeerature, in the secondd

as the controol variable, whhereas other inputs enterring subbinterval it ag gain decreasees. The endpo oints definingg

into the proocess can bee accepted ass disturbancess. In botth intervals arre

this paper, thhe output reacttant temperatu ure

315.55 ≤ Tr out ≤ 328.499 1.344 ≤ cBs ≤ 2.2

Tr out = Tr ( L, t ) (9)

is consideredd as the seconndary (inner) controlled

c outpput. in the

t first interv

val, and,

The concenntration cB out representts the prim mary 331.32 ≤ Tr out ≤ 334.633 1.356 ≤ cBs ≤ 2.2

controlled ouutput. in the

t second intterval.

max

cBw

2.2 2.2

max

cBw

2.0 2.0

(kmol/m )

cB (kmol/m )

3

3

1.8 1.8

1.6

1.6

s

Simulated data

1.4

cB

s

Approximation

Interval 1 Interval 2 1.4

Interval 1

1.2

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

315 320 325 330 335 ξ (1)

s

Tr out

(K)

Figure 2: Steady-State Dependence of Product B Figure 4: Steady-State Characteristics in the First

Concentration on Output Reactant Temperature. Interval.

cBw

can be slightly higher than 2.2 kmol/m3. However, the 2.2

Simulated data

Approximation

maximum desired value of cB will be limited just by 2.2 2.0

kmol/m3.

cB (kmol/m )

3

For purposes of later approximations, the output 1.8

s

Tr out − T min

1.4

ξ=

r out

(10) Interval 2

T max

r out −T min

r out

1.2

0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

where Trmin max

out = 315.46 and Tr out = 335.01 .

ξ (1)

Interval.

−1

⎛ d cB ⎞

2.2 ΔTr w = Gw (Trmax min

out − Tr out ) ⎜ ⎟ Δ cB w (13)

⎝ d ξ ⎠ cB

max

CBw

2.0

cB (kmol/m )

3

1.8

coefficient.

1.6

The derivatives of approximate polynomials calculated

s

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 d cB

ξ (1) = 1.393 + 0.674ξ − 2.241ξ 2 (14)

dξ

Figure 3: Steady-State Dependence of cB on ζ .

d cB

= 36.386 − 45.748ξ (15)

dξ

THE NPC DESIGN

The derivatives of approximate polynomials can be seen

The procedure of the NPC design appears from steady-

in Figs. 6 and 7.

state characteristics and its subsequent polynomial

approximation. Steady-state characteristics with

polynomial approximations corresponding with Fig. 3 1.5

1.3

The polynomials for both interval have forms

dcB/dξ (kmol/m )

3

1.2

cB = 1.342 + 1.393ξ + 0.337ξ 2 − 0.747ξ 3 (11) 1.1

1.0

in the first interval, and 0.9

s

2 0.8

cB = −12.247 + 36.386ξ − 22.874ξ (12) 0.7

Interval 1

in the second interval. 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

ξ (1)

Evidently, the desired value of the reactant output

temperature in the output of the NPC can be computed Figure 6: Approximate Polynomial Derivative in the

for each cB as First Interval.

2

0

δ y (t ′) + a1′ δ y (t ′) + a′0 y (t ′) = b′0 u (t ′) (21)

-2

where t′ is the discrete time.

dcB/dξ (kmol/m )

3

-6

operator approaches the derivative operator, and the

estimated parameters a ′, b′ reach the parameters a, b of

s

-8

the CT model.

Interval 2

-10

0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Delta Model Parameter Estimation

ξ (1)

Figure 7: Approximate Polynomial Derivative in the Substituting t ′ = k − 2 , equation (21) can be rewritten to

Second Interval. the form

δ 2 y(k − 2) + a1′δ y(k − 2) + a0′ y(k − 2) = b0′ u(k − 2) . (22)

ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Then, establishing the regression vector

Nonlinearity of the reactor is evident from the shape of

the steady-state dependence of the output reactant ΦδT ( k − 1) = ( −δ y ( k − 2) − y ( k − 2) u ( k − 2) ) (23)

temperature on the coolant flow rate shown in Fig. 8. where

y(k − 1) − y(k − 2)

335 δ y (k − 2) = (24)

T0

330

the vector of delta model parameters

ΘδT ( k ) = ( a1′ a0′ b0′ )

325

(25)

Tr (K)

s

320

is recursively estimated by the least squares method

315

Interval 2 Interval 1 with exponential and directional forgetting from the

ARX model (see, e.g. (Bobál et al. 2005) in the form

0.24 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.40

s 3

qc (m /s) δ 2 y(k − 2) = ΘδT (k ) Φδ (k − 1) + ε (k ) (26)

Figure 8: Dependence of the Output Reactant where

Temperature on the Coolant Flow Rate.

y(k ) − 2 y(k − 1) + y(k − 2)

δ 2 y(k − 2) = . (27)

Note that all of the following control simulations are T02

performed in intervals shown in Fig.8.

Adaptive Controller

External Linear Model of the TCR

The feedback control loop is depicted in Fig. 9. In the

For the control purposes, the controlled output and the scheme, w is the reference signal, e denotes the tracking

control input are defined as error, u the control input, and y the controlled output.

u(t ) = Δ qc (t ) = qc (t ) − qcs (16) The transfer function G(s) of the CT ELM is given by

(19). The reference w is considered as a step function.

y (t ) = ΔTr out (t ) = Tr out (t ) − Trsout (17)

The CT ELM is proposed in the time domain on the w e u y

basis of preliminary simulated step responses in the Q CT ELM

form of the second order differential equation -

y(t ) + a1 y (t ) + a 0 y(t ) = b0 u(t )

(18)

and, in the complex domain, as the transfer function Figure 9: Feedback Control loop.

b0

G (s) = (19) The feedback controller design is based on the

s 2 + a1 s + a 0

polynomial approach. Procedure for designing can be

External Delta Model briefly described as follows:

The transfer function of the controller is in the form

Establishing the δ operator

d −1 q( s)

δ= Q( s ) = (28)

(20) p( s )

T0

where δ is the forward shift operator and T0 is the where q and p are coprime polynomials satisfying the

sampling period, the delta ELM corresponding to (18) condition of properness deg q ( s ) ≤ deg p ( s ) .

takes the form

As known, the problem is solved by controller whose 328

polynomials are given by a solution of the polynomial 326

equation 324

a( s) p ( s) + b( s) q ( s) = d ( s) (29)

Tr out (K)

322

In this paper, the polynomial d(s) is considered in the 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

t (s)

form

Figure 11: Reactant output temperature responses

d ( s ) = n( s ) ( s + α ) 2 (30) (ts = 15, α = 0.05).

where the polynomial n(s) is chosen as a result of

spectral factorization 2.2

cBw

∗ ∗

a ( s ) a ( s ) = n ( s ) n( s ) (31) 2.0

cB (kmol/m )

3

and α is a selectable double pole. 1.8

controller has the transfer function Gw = 0.8

1.4 Gw = 1

2

q s + q1 s + q0

Q(s) = 2 (32) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

s ( s + p0 ) t (s)

with parameters computed from (26).

0.05).

The above procedure implies that the controller

parameters can be adjusted by the single selectable

0.38

parameter α. Gw = 0.8

Gw = 1

0.36

qc (m /s)

3

gain on the control signals. 0.28

All simulations were performed on nonlinear model of

the TCR. In the secondary control-loop, the P controller 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

with a small gain was used at the start of simulations. t (s)

For the δ-model parameter recursive identification, the Figure 13: Coolant flow rate responses (ts = 15, α =

sampling period T0 = 0.5 s was chosen. The value of the 0.05).

selectable parameter α is stated under each figure.

In the first case, simulations in the first operating It can be seen that an increasing Gw accelerates all

signals in the control loop. However, its value is not

interval started from the point cBs = 1.3504 kmol/m3, unrestricted and its convenient value should be found

Trsout = 315.55 K and qcs = 0.383 m3/s. The desired experimentally.

An effect of the period ts in the same operating interval

value of cB has been chosen as cBw = 2.2 kmol/m3 An

can be seen in Figs.14 – 17. Although shortening ts

effect of the parameter Gw on the reference w, output leads to faster control responses, its length is determined

temperature Tr out , the concentration cB and the control by possibilities of measurement.

input qc responses is evident from Figs. 10 – 13.

12

10

12

8

10

w (K)

6

8

4

w (K)

6

τs = 8

2

4 τs = 10

Gw = 0.8 0

2 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Gw = 1

0 t (s)

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Figure 14: Reference Signal Courses (Gw = 0.5, α =

t (s)

0.05).

Figure 10: Reference Signal Courses (ts = 15, α = 0.05).

328 334.5

326 334.0

324 333.5

Tr out (K)

Tr out (K)

322 333.0

320 332.5

318 332.0

τs = 8

316 τs = 10

331.5

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

t (s) t (s)

Figure 15: Reactant Output Temperature Responses Figure 19: Reactant Output Temperature Response.

(Gw = 0.5, α = 0.05).

2.2

2.2 cBw

cBw

2.0

2.0

cB (kmol/m )

3

cB (kmol/m )

3

1.8

1.8

1.6

1.6

τs = 8

τs = 10 1.4

1.4

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 t (s)

t (s)

(Gw = 0.5, α = 0.05).

0.270

0.38 τs = 8 0.265

τs = 10

0.36 0.260

qc (m /s)

3

0.34 0.255

qc (m /s)

3

0.32 0.250

0.30 0.245

t (s)

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

t (s)

Figure 21: Coolant flow rate response.

Figure 17: Coolant flow rate responses

(Gw = 0., α = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS

The paper deals with design of the cascade control of a

In the second case, simulations in the second operating tubular chemical reactor. The presented procedure

interval started from the point cBs = 1.3564 kmol/m3, supposes measuring both the output concentration of a

main reaction product and the output reactant

Trsout = 334.63 K and qcs = 0.244 m3/s. The desired value temperature. The control is performed in the external

of cB has again been chosen as cBw = 2.2 kmol/m3. and inner closed-loop where the concentration of a main

Here, only signal courses for Gw = 1.2, ts = 10 and α = product is the primary and an output reactant

0.08 are presented. All signal courses are shown in Figs. temperature the secondary controlled variable. A

18 – 21. common control input is the coolant flow rate.

The controller in the external control-loop is a discrete

0.0 nonlinear P-controller derived on the basis of simulated

-0.5 or measured steady-state characteristics of the reactor.

-1.0 The controller in the inner control-loop is an adaptive

-1.5 continuous-time controller. In its derivation, the

recursive parameter estimation of an external delta

w (K)

-2.0

model of the reactor, the polynomial approach and the

-2.5

pole placement method are applied.

-3.0

The presented method has been tested by computer

-3.5 simulation on the nonlinear model of the tubular

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

t (s) chemical reactor with a consecutive exothermic

Figure 18: Reference Signal Course. reaction.

REFERENCES

Bobál, V., J. Böhm, J. Fessl, and J. Macháček. 2005. Digital

JIŘÍ VOJTĚŠEK was born in Zlin, Czech

self-tuning controllers, Springer Verlag, Berlin. Republic in 1979. He studied at Tomas

Corriou, J.-P. 2004. Process control. Theory and applications. Bata University in Zlin, Czech Republic,

Springer – Verlag, London. where he received his M.Sc. degree in

Dostál, P., F. Gazdoš, V. Bobál, and J. Vojtěšek. 2007. Automation and control in 2002. In 2007

"Adaptive control of a continuous stirred tank reactor by he obtained Ph.D. degree in Technical cybernetics at

two feedback controllers". In Proc. 9th IFAC Workshop Tomas Bata University in Zlin. In the year 2015 he

Adaptation and Learning in Control and Signal became associate professor. He now works at the

Processing ALCOSP'2007, Saint Petersburg, Russia, P5-1 Department of Process Control, Faculty of Applied

– P5-6.

Dostál, P., V. Bobál, and J. Vojtěšek. 2008. "Simulation of

Informatics of the Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Czech

steady-state and dynamic behaviour of a tubular chemical Republic. His research interests are modeling and

reactor". In Proc. 22nd European Conference on simulation of continuous-time chemical processes,

Modelling and Simulation, Nicosia, Cyprus, 487-492. polynomial methods, optimal, adaptive and nonlinear

Ingham, J., I.J. Dunn, E. Heinzle, and J.E. Přenosil (1994). control.

Chemical Engineering Dynamics. Modelling with PC

Simulation, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim. VLADIMÍR BOBÁL was born in

Garnier, H. and L. Wang (eds.). 2008. Identification of Slavičín, Czech Republic. He graduated in

continuous-time models from sampled data. Springer- 1966 from the Brno University of

Verlag, London.

King, M. (2010). Process Control: A Practical Approach,

Technology. He received his Ph.D. degree

John Wiley , Chichester, UK. in Technical Cybernetics at Institute of

Kučera, V. 1993. "Diophantine equations in control – A Technical Cybernetics, Slovak Academy of Sciences,

survey". Automatica, 29, 1361-1375. Bratislava, Slovak Republic. He is now Professor in the

Mikleš, J., and M. Fikar. (2004). Process modellig, Department of Process Control, Faculty of Applied

identification and control 2, STU Press, Bratislava. Informatics of the Tomas Bata University in Zlín. His

Mukhopadhyay, S., A.G. Patra, and G.P. Rao (1992). "New research interests are adaptive control systems, system

class of discrete-time models for continuos-time systems". identification and CAD for self-tuning controllers.

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AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES

PETR DOSTÁL studied at the Technical

University of Pardubice, where he obtained

his master degree in 1968 and PhD. degree

in Technical Cybernetics in 1979. In the

year 2000 he became professor in Process

Control. He is now Professor in the Department of

Process Control, Faculty of Applied Informatics of the

Tomas Bata University in Zlín. His research interest

are modeling and simulation of continuous-time

chemical processes, polynomial methods, optimal and

adaptive control.

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