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ADU ECEg 4333

College of
Engineering and
Technology

Chapter – 3
Feed forward and ratio control

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ADU ECEg 4333
Feed forward control
Main advantages FB control are as follows.
 Corrective action occurs as soon as the controlled variable
deviates
 Feedback control requires minimal knowledge about the
process to be controlled
 PID controller is both versatile and robust. If process
conditions change, re-tuning the controller usually produces
satisfactory control.
 Its simplicity

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Its main disadvantages are as follows
 No corrective action is taken until after a deviation in the
controlled variable occurs.
to compensate for disturbances, the controlled variable must
first deviate from the set point.
 It does not provide predictive control action to compensate for the
effects of known or measurable disturbances.
 It may not be satisfactory for processes with large time constants
and/or long time delays.
 In some situations, the controlled variable cannot be measured on-
line, so feedback control is not feasible.

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 Many processes can permit some amount of deviation
 In situations where feedback control system fails to achieve good
performance, significant improvement is possible with the addition
of feed forward controller on the existing feedback controller.
 The basic concept of feed forward control is to measure important
disturbance variables and take corrective action before they upset
the process.
 In contrast, a feedback controller does not take
corrective action until after the disturbance has upset the process
and generated an error signal.

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Con…

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Disadvantages of feedforward controller:
 The disturbance variables must be measured online.
 To make effective use of feedforward control, at least an
approximate process model should be available. In particular,
we need to know how the controlled variable responds
to changes in both the disturbance variable and the
manipulated variable.
 Ideal feedforward controllers that are theoretically capable of
achieving perfect control may not be physically realizable.

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 In practical applications, feedforward control is normally used

in combination with feedback control.

 Feedforward control is used to reduce the effects of

measurable disturbances.

 While feedback trim compensates for inaccuracies in the

process model, measurement errors, and unmeasured


disturbances.

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Figure: FB/FF control

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Ratio control
Ratio control is a special type of feedforward control that has
had widespread application in the process industries.
Its objective is to maintain the ratio of two process variables at
a specified value.
The two variables are usually flow rates, a manipulated
variable u and a disturbance variable d. Thus, the ratio is
controlled rather than the individual variables.
Ratio control can be implemented in two basic schemes.

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Ratio control Method 1 Method 2


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Applications of ratio control
Typical applications of ratio control include

 Specifying the relative amounts of components in blending

operations.

 maintaining a stoichiometric ratio of reactants to a reactor

 keeping a specified reflux ratio for a distillation column, and

 Holding the fuel-air ratio to a furnace at the optimum value

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Feedforward controller design based on:-
 steady-state Models
 Dynamic Models
design procedure, consider the blending process

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Design objective: to design a feedforward control structure to
maintain exit composition x at a constant set Point xsp , despite
disturbances.
Disturbance: variations in the inlet composition, x1 .
Manipulated input: The manipulated variable is inlet flow rate w2
Assumptions: inlet flow rate w1 and the composition of the other
inlet stream x2 are constant.
Note: the feedforward controller has two input signals:
the x1 measurement x1m and the set point for the exit
composition x sp .

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 The starting point of the design procedure is the steady state mass
and component balances. Mass balance
 W= w1 + w2 ………………………………………....1
 Component balance
 Wx= w1x1 + w2x2 ……………………………………2
 All the variables are considered as steady state values. Substitute
equation 1 in equation 2 and solve for w2

From the assumptions we know that w1 and x2 are constants.


x is to be substituted with its constant set point value xsp

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cascade control
 Cascade control is a control system in which a secondary (slave)
control loop is set up to control a variable that is a major source of
load disturbance for another primary (master) control loop.
 The controller of the primary loop determines the set point of the
summing controller in the secondary loop.

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 A disadvantage of conventional feedback control is that corrective


action for disturbances does not begin until after the controlled
variable deviates from the set point.
 feedforward control offers large improvements over feedback
control for processes that have large time constants or time delays.
 However, feedforward control requires that the disturbances be
measured explicitly, and that a model be available to calculate the
controller output.

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 An alternative approach, and one that can significantly improve the
dynamic response to disturbances, employs a secondary
measurement point and a secondary feedback
controller.
 The secondary measurement point is located so that it recognizes
the upset condition sooner than the controlled variable, but the
disturbance is not necessarily measured. This
approach is called cascade control.

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Process example

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 The important controlled variable

superior control strategy

This strategy consists of two sensors, two transmitters, two


controllers, and one control valve
the preheater exit temperature is used only as an intermediate
variable to improve control of the reactor temperature, which is the
important controlled variable.

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 The strategy works as


Controller TC101 looks at the reactor temperature and decides
how to manipulate the preheater outlet temperature to satisfy its set
point.
 In general, the controller that keeps the primary variable at set
point is referred to as the master controller, outer controller, or
primary controller.
 The controller used to maintain the secondary variable at the set
point provided by the master controller is usually referred to as the
slave controller, inner controller, or secondary controller.

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 In designing cascade control strategies, the most important consideration is
that the secondary variable must respond faster to changes in the
disturbance, and in the manipulated variable, than the primary variable
does the faster the better.

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Block diagram of a cascade control system


The block diagram for a general cascade control system is shown in
the following Fig. Subscript1 refers to the primary control loop,
whereas subscript 2 refers to the secondary control loop.

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Thus, for the furnace temperature control example,
Y1 = Reactor temperature
Y2= preheater outlet temperature
D1 = cooling water temperature
D2 = fuel pressure
Y m1 = measured value of Reactor temperature
Y m2 = measured preheater outlet temperature
Ysp1 = set point for Y1
Ysp2 = set point for Y2

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Tuning of cascaded controllers


Two important questions remain concerning how
to put the cascade strategy into full automatic
operation and how to tune the controllers.
The answer to both questions is the same: from
inside out. That is, the inner controller is first
tuned and set into remote set-point mode while the
other loops are in manual.

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 As the inner controller is set in remote set point, it is
good practice to check how it performs before
proceeding to the next controller.
 This procedure Continues outwardly until all controllers
are in operation.

 The tuning technique that we have seen in the second


chapter, Ziegler-Nichols technique, can be used to tune
the cascade controller.

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Do you have any
Question on the
chapter?

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