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# Simulation Description: Thermal Heat Exchangers (Transient Heat Transfer) Page 1 of 5

## To select a particular topic, click-on the required link below:

l Thermal Capacity
l Calculating Zero Flow HT

Thermal Capacity

If no thermal capacity is set for a transient simulation, then the 'Thermal Simulation' description
for Steady State Heat Transfer use is applicable. However, if the relevant thermal capacity data
items are set, the total capacity (solid and fluid) for each path is added as 50% of the total
upstream and 50% of the total downstream of a central 'inertialess' heat exchanger case. A
diagrammatical view is given in Figure 1.

Figure 1

Considering one path, say Path 1 → 2. The total thermal capacity, I12 say, will be calculated
from the masses of the liquid and solid elements defined in the sub-form and the specific heats
calculated from the set solid and liquid types.

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Simulation Description: Thermal Heat Exchangers (Transient Heat Transfer) Page 2 of 5

As noted in the 'About Compressible Flow - Solution Methods', the specific heat used will be
'time averaged' appropriate to the prevailing temperature at the particular time step. Thus:

Equation 1

Where:

## = Mass of contained fluid for path 1 -> 2

= Mass of contained solid for path 1 -> 2

## = Average specific heat of the liquid for path 1 -> 2

=
Average specific heat of the solid. is calculated using the specific heats at the last
and current time step, at node 2

The temperatures at the intermediate nodes, i.e., T11, T22, T33 and T44 are used internally
during the simulation. If you define the performance of the heat exchanger by setting the Hot
Stream Temperature Drop (ΔTh) or the Cold Stream Temperature Rise (ΔTc) (see the 'See How
to Use: Steady State Heat Transfer' for details), then the program defines these as:

Equation 2

Thus, when viewing results, the instantaneous values of T1 - T2 may differ from the set ΔTh, but
the average value of T1 - T2 over time will tend to the set value of ΔTh.

## Calculating Zero Flow HT

Modelling Approach

For Transient, this is similar to that used in Steady State, except that heat is absorbed or
released by the fluids and by any solid mass present, as temperature changes, as well as being
exchanged between Path 1-2 & Path 3-4. The Flow Cases become:

## Zero flow in both paths

The heat capacities of the stationary fluids are taken into account and the heat capacity of the
structure is : (mcp)12 + (mcp)34

If either Mass or Solid Type is not set, the thermal capacity of that part of the structure is zero.
The solid temperature, Tref, is updated according to the heat flows and thermal capacities.

## Zero flow in one path only

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Simulation Description: Thermal Heat Exchangers (Transient Heat Transfer) Page 3 of 5

As for Steady State, except that the thermal capacities of the fluids are taken into account, as is
any thermal capacity of the solid structure.

## Calculating Zero Flow in Both Streams

To do this, both sides are considered as a solid bar with thermal capacity exchanging heat to a
common uniform variable temperature, Tref.

Equation 3

Hence:

Equation 4

Equation 5

Equation 6

Hence:

Equation 7

Equation 8

## Tref can be found from the equation qi + qo + qs = 0.

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Simulation Description: Thermal Heat Exchangers (Transient Heat Transfer) Page 4 of 5

Where:

## qi = The total heat flow from path 1→2, to the solid

qo = The total heat flow from path 3→4, to the solid

and

Equation 9

## Calculating Zero Flow in Path 1→2 only

If we model path 1→2 as a solid bar exchanging heat to a uniform temperature of:

Equation 10

Equation 11

Equation 12

## Calculating Zero Flow in Path 3→4 only

If we model path 3→4 as a solid bar exchanging heat to a uniform temperature of:

Equation 13

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Simulation Description: Thermal Heat Exchangers (Transient Heat Transfer) Page 5 of 5

Equation 14

## The energy equation for side 3→4 becomes:

Equation 15

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