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When a force tends to compress or squeezed the member and the member is called compression

member and the force is called compression. (Usually termed as Column)

Note:

Slenderness ratio is always involved in the computation of allowable axial stress F a. For this reason the best

section for compression member is circular in cross-section; next is square.

1. Tension elongates the member while compression compressed or squeezed the member.

2. Net area resist tension white gross area is for compression.

𝐶

𝐴𝑔 =

𝐹𝑎

Where

Ag – gross area

C – Compression

Fa – Allowable axial stress

𝑘𝐿

1. When < 𝐶𝑐 (Short / Intermediate)

𝑟

𝑘𝐿 2

(

)

[1 − 𝑟 2 ]

2𝐶𝑐

𝐹𝑎 = 𝐹𝑦

𝐹𝑠

F.S. – Factor of Safety

𝑘𝐿 𝑘𝐿 3

5 3 𝑟 ( )

𝐹𝑠 = + − 𝑟 3

3 8𝐶𝑐 8𝐶𝑐

𝑘𝐿

2. When > 𝐶𝑐 (Long Columns)

𝑟

12𝜋 2 𝐸

𝐹𝑎 =

𝑘𝐿 2

23 ( )

𝑟

𝐿

3. For Secondary members; > 120

𝑟

𝐹𝑎 [𝑖𝑛 1 𝑜𝑟 2]

𝐹𝑎𝑠 =

𝐿

(1 − )

200𝑟

Where

𝐹𝑎 − 𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠

𝑘𝐿

− 𝑠𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜

𝑟

𝑘𝐿

≤ 200 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛)

𝑟

𝑘 − 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝑘𝐿 − 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ

𝑟 − 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑦𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝐼

𝑟=√

𝐴

𝐿 − 𝑈𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ

2𝜋2 𝐸

𝐶𝑐 = √ column slenderness

𝐹𝑦

A column is a compression member that is so slender, compare to its length that usually that usually

fails by buckling rather than by crushing. They are classified into three groups.

1. Short Columns

For short columns, the failure will be by crushing and no buckling will occur.

𝑘𝐿

= 𝑠𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜

𝑟

2. Intermediate Columns

For intermediate columns, some of fiber will reach the yield stress and the member will fail

by a combination of crushing and buckling and their behavior is skid to be elastic.

3. Long Columns

For long columns, the axial buckling stress usually remains below the proportional limit and

column will usually buckle elastically. Long columns usually fail by buckling or excessive latent

bending. The longer the column is the greater its tendency to buckle and the (similar) smaller head

it will support. The tendency of a member to buckle is usually measured by its slenderness ration

which is defined as the ratio of the length of the member to its least radius of gyration. The greater

the slenderness ratio the smaller will be the capacity of such column. Slenderness ratio.

𝜋2 𝐸𝐼

𝑃𝑐𝑟 = 𝐼 = 𝐴𝑟 2

𝐿2

𝜋2 𝐸𝐴𝑟 2

𝑃𝑐𝑟 =

𝐿2

𝜋2 𝐸𝐴

𝑃𝑐𝑟 = 𝐿2

𝑟2

𝜋2 𝐸𝐴

𝑃𝑐𝑟 = 𝐿 2

critical load

( )

𝑟

r – least radius of gyration

The critical buckling stress, for

𝑃𝑐𝑟 𝜋2 𝐸

𝐹𝑐𝑟 = = 𝐿 2

𝐴 ( )

𝑟

ASTM A 36

𝑃𝑛 = 𝐹𝑐𝑟 𝐴𝑔

For LRFD

𝑃𝑢 ≤ ∅𝑐 𝑃𝑛

Where

𝑃𝑢 − 𝑠𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑠

∅𝑐 − 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛

∅𝑐 = 0.90

∅𝑐 𝑃𝑛 − 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ

For ASD

𝑃𝑛

𝑃𝑎 ≤

Ω𝑐

Where

𝑃𝑎 − 𝑠𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑖𝑐𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑

Ω𝑐 − 𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛

Ω𝑐 = 1.67

𝑃𝑛

− 𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ

Ω𝑐

𝑓𝑎 ≤ 𝐹𝑎

𝑓𝑎 − 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑎𝑙

𝑃𝑎

𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 =

𝐴𝑔

𝐹𝑎 − 𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠

𝐹𝑐𝑟 𝐹𝑐𝑟

= = = 0.6𝐹𝑐𝑟

Ω𝑐 1.67

Enter Load 𝑃𝑒

𝜋 2 𝐸𝐴

𝑃𝑒 =

𝑘𝐿 2

( )

𝑟

Enter Stress 𝐹𝑒

𝑃𝑒 𝜋 2𝐸

𝐹𝑒 = =

𝐴 𝑘𝐿 2

( )

𝑟

𝑘𝐿 𝐸

Where ≤ 4.71√

𝑟 𝐹𝑦

𝐹𝑦

or 𝐹𝑒 ≥ 0.44𝐹𝑦 𝐹𝑐𝑟 = [0.658 𝐹𝑐 ] 𝐹𝑦

𝑘𝐿 𝐸

when ≤ 4.71√

𝑟 𝐹𝑦

𝐹𝑐𝑟 = 0.877𝐹𝑒

W 360 x 122 of A992 steel is used as a compression member. 𝑘𝑥 = 1.0 and 𝑘𝑦 = 0.8. Its unsupported length

𝑃

is 6m. (a) Determine its design compressive strength (∅𝑛 𝑃𝑛 ) for LRFD. (b) Its ( 𝑛) allowable compressive

𝑜

strength for ASD.

𝐿𝑥 = 6 𝐿𝑦 = 6

𝐾𝑥 = 1.0 𝐾𝑦 = 0.8

Solution

Properties of W 360 x 122

A = 15 500 mm2

𝑟𝑥 = 154 𝑚𝑚

𝑟𝑦 = 63 𝑚𝑚

= = 38.96

𝑟𝑥 154 𝑚𝑚

= = 76.2 (𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑠)

𝑟𝑦 63 𝑚𝑚

For A992

𝐹𝑛 = 65 𝑘𝑠𝑖 = 450 𝑀𝑃𝑎

E = 200 000 MPa

𝑘𝐿

= 76.2

𝑟

𝐸 200 000 𝑀𝑃𝑎

4.71√ = 4.71√ = 113.4

𝑓𝑦 345 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑘𝐿 𝐸

< 4.71√

𝑟 𝐹𝑦

𝐹𝑦

Use 𝐹𝑐𝑟 = [0.658 𝐹𝑒 ] 𝐹𝑦

𝜋 2𝐸

𝐹𝑒 =

𝑘𝐿 2

( )

𝑟

2 (200

𝜋 000)

𝐹𝑒 = = 340

(76.2)2

345

𝐹𝑐𝑟 = [0.658(340) ] 345

𝐹𝑐𝑟 = 225.6 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑃𝑛 = 𝐹𝑐𝑟 𝐴𝑔

𝑃𝑛 = 225.6 (15 500)

𝑃𝑛 = 3496.8 𝑘𝑁

a) ∅𝑐 𝑃𝑛 = 0.9(3496.8)

∅𝑐 𝑃𝑛 = 3147.12 𝑘𝑁

𝑃𝑛 3496.8

b) =

Ω𝑐 1.67

𝑃𝑛

= 2093.9 𝑘𝑁

Ω𝑐

𝑘𝐿 𝐹𝑦

𝜆𝑐 = √

𝑟𝜋 𝐸

If 𝜆𝑐 ≤ 1.5

2

𝐹𝑐𝑟 = [0.658(𝜆𝑐 ) ] 𝐹𝑦

If 𝜆𝑐 > 1.5

0.877

𝐹𝑐𝑟 = [ ] 𝐹𝑦

𝜆𝑐 2

Another solution

𝑘𝐿 𝐹𝑦

𝜆𝑐 = √

𝑟𝜋 𝐸

76.2 345

𝜆𝑐 = √

𝜋 200 000

𝜆𝑐 = 1.01

2

𝐹𝑐𝑟 = [0.658(1.01 ) ]𝐹𝑦

𝐹𝑐𝑟 = 225.45 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝐿𝑥 = 6 𝐿𝑦 = 6

𝐾𝑥 = 1.0 𝐾𝑦 = 0.8

Solution:

𝑘𝐿

= 76.2

𝑟

2𝜋 2 𝐸

𝐶𝑐 = √

𝐹𝑦

2𝜋 2 (200 000)

𝐶𝑐 = √

345

𝐶𝑐 = 107

𝑘𝐿

< 𝐶𝑐

𝑟

Use

𝑘𝐿 2

( )

[1 − 𝑟 2 ]

2𝐶𝑐

𝐹𝑎 = 𝐹𝑦

𝑘𝐿 𝑘𝐿 3

5 3 𝑟 ( )

+ − 𝑟 3

3 8𝐶𝑐 8𝐶𝑐

𝐹𝑎 = 136.35 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝐶 = 2113.43 𝑘𝑁

𝑘𝐿

Min. 𝑟 =

200

W 360 x 72 is used as a column with both end fixed. Using ASTM A 36 steel AISC Specs, determine its

capacity if its unsupported length is (a) 8 m, (b) 12.9 m and (c) 14 m with lateral supports its midspan.

Properties of W 360 x 72

𝐴 = 9110 𝑚𝑚2 𝑘 = 0.5 (𝑏𝑜𝑡ℎ 𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑠 𝑓𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑)

𝑟𝑥 = 149 𝑚𝑚 𝐹𝑦 = 248 𝑀𝑃𝑎 (𝐴36)

𝑟𝑦 = 48.5 𝑚𝑚 𝐸 = 200 000 𝑀𝑃𝑎 (𝑀𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐸𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦)

Solution:

2𝜋 2 𝐸 2𝜋 2 (200 000)

𝐶𝑐 = √ =√ = 126.17

𝐹𝑦 248

a) L = 8m

𝑘𝐿 0.5 (8000)

= = 82.47

𝑟 48.5

𝑘𝐿

< 𝐶𝑐

𝑟

(82.47)2

[1 − ]

2(126.172 )

𝐹𝑎 = (248)

5 3(52.47) (82.47)3

+ −

3 8(126.17) 8(126.17)3

𝐹𝑎 = 103.91 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝐶 = 𝐹𝑎 𝐴

𝐶 = 103.91 (9110 𝑚𝑚2 )

𝐶 = 946.62 𝑁

b) L = 12.9 m

𝑘𝐿 0.5 (129000)

= = 133

𝑟 48.5

𝑘𝐿

> 𝐶𝑐

𝑟

𝐹𝑎 =

23 (133)2

𝐹𝑎 = 55.22 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝐶 = 𝐹𝑎 𝐴

𝑁

𝐶 = 55.22 (9110 𝑚𝑚2 )

𝑚𝑚2

𝐶 = 530.38 𝑘𝑁

14

𝐿𝑦 = =7𝑚

2

𝑘𝑥 = 0.7

𝐿𝑥 = 14 𝑚

𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑 ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑑

𝑘𝑥 = 0.5

= = 146.98

𝑟𝑥 149𝑚𝑚

= = 101 (𝐺𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑠)

𝑟𝑦 48.5𝑚𝑚

𝑘𝐿

< 𝐶𝑐

𝑟

(101)2

[1 − ]

2(126.172 )

𝐹𝑎 = (248)

5 3(101) (101)3

+ −

3 8(126.17) 8(126.17)3

𝐹𝑎 = 88.58𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝐶 = 𝐹𝑎 𝐴

𝑁

𝐶 = 80.58 (9110 𝑚𝑚2 )

𝑚𝑚2

𝐶 = 806.96 𝑘𝑁

Laboratory: Design of Tension Members

Design the web member of our riveted truss (your own choice) are under tension, using 2 unequal length

angles long legs back to back straddling on 10 mm gusset plate. Use ASTM A36 steel, AISC specification

and 𝑈 = 0.75. It is connected by 1 line of 12 𝑚𝑚 ∅ rivets.

Design of the web members of our riveted truss (your own choice) using two unequal leg angles long legs

back to back straddling on a 10 mm gusset plate. Use AISC specs ASTM A36 steel and 𝐾 = 1.0.

Design the ceiling joist of our riveted truss (your own choice) using W-shape specification and ASTM A36

𝐿

Steel. Use minimum 𝑑 = where L is the span of the joist (use simply supported beam) spacing of ceiling

30

joist is equal to 1𝑚. Assume laterally supported.

Given:

Ceiling Load = 80 𝑃𝑎

Ceiling joist = 150 𝑃𝑎

1m

1m

1m

6m

Design the purlins of our riveted truss (your own choice) using LC Shape with sagrod each third point.

There should be purlin on every joint and spacing of purlins should be controlled by the allowable span of

𝐿

roof covering which is equal to 1.52 𝑚. Use minimum 𝑑 = 30. ASTM 36 steel, AISC Specifications and

allowable bending stress 𝐹𝑏 = 0.6𝐹𝑦 .

Analysis #1 DL + LL

Analysis #2 DL + WL

Design the top chord of our riveted truss using 2 unequal angles (long back to back) straddling on 12 𝑚𝑚

gusset plate. For the load transmitted by the purlins to the top chord, see Laboratory Design of Purlins.

Use 𝐹𝑏 = 148.8 𝑀𝑃𝑎 ASTM A36 steel and AISC specs.

Design the bottom chord of our riveted truss using 2 unequal angles (long legs back to back) straddling on

12 𝑚𝑚 gusset plate. Use ASTM A36 steel, 𝐹𝑏 = 148.8 𝑀𝑃𝑎 and AISC Specs. Assume that the load

transmitted by the ceiling joist is 1m. See laboratory Design of Ceiling Joist for uniform load. Analyze 𝐿0 𝐿1

and 𝐿1 𝐿2. (Note: provide 𝑈3 𝑀 perpendicular to the bottom chord which will serve as lateral support.

Determine the number of 16 𝑚𝑚 diameter 𝐴502 − 2 for each member at every joint of our riveted truss.

Use A36 steel, whose 𝐹𝑦 = 248 𝑀𝑃𝑎 and 𝐹𝑢 = 400 𝑀𝑃𝑎, and allowable shear stress from rivet 𝐹𝑣 =

152 𝑀𝑃𝑎 and allowable bearing stress is equal to 𝐹𝑝 = 1.2 𝐹𝑢 . Use thickness of gusset plate equal to

12 𝑚𝑚, Note 8-joints.

Design U2L2 of certain riveted fink truss using 2 unequal leg ∠𝑠 long legs back to back straddling on 10 mm

gusset plate. Use ASTM A36 steel and AISC. Specs it resists a tensile load of 145 kN and its unsupported length

is 1.98 m. Use on line of 16 mm∅ rivets. Use u = 0.85

𝜰

tgp

T =145 kN

1.98 m

Fu = 400 MPa

dn = 17 mm d = 17 + 1.6 = 18.6 mm

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