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1) Walter Gropius

2 ) Frank Lloyd Wright

3) Otto Wagner

4) Meis Van der Rohe

5) Eero Saarinen

6) Erich Mendelson

7) Richard Neutra

8) Kenzo Tange

9) Le Corbusier
WA LT E R G R O P I U S
“A r c h i t e c t u r e b e g i n s w h e n e n g i n e e r i n g e n d s ”
German architect and art educator
- founded the Bauhaus school of design

BAUHAUS SCHOOL:
- pioneered a functional, severely simple architectural style
- the elimination of surface decoration and extensive use of glass.
- The school introduced a formal method of architectural education, combining
architecture with other disciplines of art and craft.

Bauhaus originally in
Weimar, and then
moved to Dessau.
FA G U S S H O E FA C TO RY :
1910-1911 : working with Adolph Meyer, he designed the Fagus shoe factory.

The client’s wish for an attractive facade was solved by Gropius in a special way: by means
of a projected steel skeleton, which pulled the function of support to the inside, the
idea of the ‘curtain wall’ was at this point first expressed in a consistent manner.
The corners are left without any support, yielding an unprecedented sense of openness and
continuity between inside and out.

-influenced by architect
Frank Lloyd Wright.

-influenced by Japanese
ideas, reinterpreting
Japanese shoji screens in
steel and glass.

-the more open


relationship between
interior and exterior space

-lack of ornament often


expressed as “Form follows
function.”
GROPIUS HOUSE:

- Gropius imposes the modernist aesthetic on the local materials by painting the house a
stark white

- with the tinted ribbon windows and the glass block appears to be a, slightly Corbusian,
foreign object placed in the landscape.
THE BAUHAUS BUILDING

Form follows function: the building was designed entirely for the needs of the different
areas of art and design.
Bridge with administration offices, connecting school and workshop blocks.
In Walter's designs he
wanted to use a lot of
steel and concrete.
- looks spacious
- light from large
windows, for
workshops and
studios.

The building had sharp clean lines and its façade is made
predominately of glass, giving it a spacious and minimalist feel.
F51 ARMCHAIR:

- Follows the architectural principles of the Bauhaus school.

- uses blocks of colour

- square and rectangular shapes to function as all the separate and necessary
parts of the chair.
FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT
“I believe in God , I spell it nature”
- 1867-1969

- Wright studied civil engineering

- Worked with Louis Sullivan, influenced by his works.

ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE:

Wright’s design philosophy was called ‘Organic Architecture’


central principle: Building should develop out of its natural surroundings.

- Opposed the mechanical imposition of preconceived styles

- He believed, Architectural form must be determined by the function, environment and


the materials of the building

- The interiors often have an open plan, with one room flowing into the other.
“A building should appear to grow easily
from its site and be shaped to harmonize
with its surroundings if Nature is
manifest there.”
“No house should ever be on a hill or on
anything. It should be of the hill. Belonging to
it. Hill and house should live together each
the happier for the other.”
- open plan, with
one room
flowing into the
other.
- overhangs and terraces,
Prairie School houses in the early 1900s to his one story Usonian houses
starting in the 1930s

1893-1920: PRAIRIE STYLE HOUSES:


Prairie houses were designed to blend in with the flat, prairie landscape, in California.

Features:
- Low buildings,
- shallow sloping roofs,
- clean skylines,
- suppressed chimneys,
- overhangs and terraces,
- unfinished materials that blend with the surroundings

Eg. Arthur Heurtley House, Robie House


ARTHUR HEURTLEY HOUSE, 1902
Though , it is double storied, The building is still ground hugging. With wide
roof overhangs and prominent horizontal lines in the elevation.
- Low building,
- shallow sloping roofs,
- clean skylines,
- suppressed chimneys,
- overhangs and terraces,
- unfinished materials that blend with the
surroundings
ROBIE HOUSE, 1902
- Horizontal lines, shallow sloping roofs, with overhangs
Central fireplace.
Open plan, rooms flowing into
another, opening into terraces.

Service areas separate from


living areas.
USONIAN HOUSE STYLE:

In 1936, during the USA depression, Frank Lloyd Wright developed a simplified
version of Prairie architecture called Usonian.

Wright believed these stripped-down houses represented the democratic


ideals of the United States.

Wright's Usonian homes were small, one-story structures set on


concrete slabs with piping for radiant heat beneath. The kitchens were

incorporated into the living areas. Open car ports took the place of
garages.
ZIMMERMAN HOME

In the early 1950s, when the Zimmerman house was first built, some
neighbors were puzzled. They called the small, squat Usonian house a
"chicken coop."
The building uses matte red brick, cast concrete and originally red clay
roof tiles.
- Open floor plan, with rooms flowing into each other, yet smaller and more compact
than the prairie houses.

- The fire place and chimney is replaced by radiant floor heating.

- The indoor garage replaced by the open, semi-covered car port.

- The front side is discrete with smaller openings, while the rear side opens up into the
landscape.
The distinctive concrete cast window casings near the entrance provide
light and privacy from the roadside.
Dining opening into the landscape.
KENTUCK KNOB, 1954
the Hagan House
-Low profile, ground hugging
building

-natural material, blends with


the surroundings
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1959
The building rises as a spiral, similar to the form of a sea-shell.
• An elevator take the visitors
to the top level.

• The ramp allows for viewing


of artworks, while slowly
descending down.
The width and radius of the ramp increases as you go up, and the building
cantilevers out.

The form comprises of a large


cone, fitted with a smaller
inverted cone in its center.
JOHNSON WAX BUILDING, Wisconsin
Johnson Research Tower, along with the
administration building.

• Is an example of streamlined design.

• Has over 200 types of curved red


bricks.

• Pyrex glass tubing from ceiling to let


in soft light.
The administration building, has an open plan
office space, with lily pad columns, made of
concrete supporting broad circular slabs.

The rest of the ceiling is glass, letting in soft


light.