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4 The Laplace Transform

Exercises 4.1
  1 ∞
1
−st

−st 1 −st  1 −st 
1. {f (t)} = −e dt + e dt = e  −se 
0 1 s 0 1
 
1 −s 1 1 −s 2 −s 1
= e − − 0− e = e − , s>0
s s s s s
 2 2
4  4
2. {f (t)} = 4e−st dt = − e−st  = − (e−2s − 1), s > 0
0 s 0 s
 1  ∞   1 ∞
−st −st 1 −st 1 −st  1 −st 
3. {f (t)} = te dt + e dt = − te − 2e  −se 
0 1 s s 0 1
   
1 1 1 1 1
= − e−s − 2 e−s − 0 − 2 − (0 − e−s ) = 2 (1 − e−s ), s > 0
s s s s s
 1   1
−st 2 −st 2 −st 1 −st 
4. {f (t)} = (2t + 1)e dt = − te − 2e − e 
0 s s s 0
   
2 −s 2 −s 1 −s 2 1 1 2
= − e − 2e − e − 0− 2 − = (1 − 3e−s ) + 2 (1 − e−s ), s > 0
s s s s s s s
 π   π
s 1 
5. {f (t)} = (sin t)e−st dt = − 2 e−st sin t − 2 e−st cos t 
0 s +1 s +1 0
   
1 −πs 1 1 −πs
= 0+ 2 e − 0− 2 = 2 (e + 1), s > 0
s +1 s +1 s +1
 ∞   ∞
s 1 
6. {f (t)} = (cos t)e−st dt = − 2 e−st cos t + 2 e−st sin t 
π/2 s +1 s +1 π/2
 
1 1
=0− 0+ 2 e−πs/2 = − 2 e−πs/2 , s > 0
s +1 s +1

0, 0 < t < 1
7. f (t) =
t, t > 1
 ∞   ∞
−st 1 −st 1 −st  1 −s 1 −s
{f (t)} = te dt = − te − 2e  = s e + s2 e , s > 0
1 s s 1

0, 0<t<1
8. f (t) =
2t − 2, t > 1
 ∞   ∞
−st 1 −st 1 −st  2
{f (t)} = 2 (t − 1)e dt = 2 − (t − 1)e − 2e  = 2 e−s , s > 0
1 s s 1 s

1 − t, 0 < t < 1
9. f (t) =
0, t>0
 1   1
−st 1 −st 1 −st  1 −s 1 1
{f (t)} = (1 − t)e dt = − (1 − t)e + 2e  = s2 e + s − s2 , s > 0
0 s s 0

 0, 0 < t < a  b b
c  c
10. f (t) = c, a < t < b ; {f (t)} = ce−st dt = − e−st  = (e−sa − e−sb ), s > 0
 a s a s
0, t > b

165
Exercises 4.1

  ∞
∞ ∞
e7 (1−s)t  e7 e7
11. {f (t)} = et+7 e−st dt = e7 e(1−s)t dt = e  =0− = , s>1
0 0 1−s 0 1−s s−1
 ∞  ∞ ∞
e−5 −(s+2)t  e−5
12. {f (t)} = e−2t−5 e−st dt = e−5 e−(s+2)t dt = − e  = , s > −2
0 0 s+2 0 s+2
 ∞  ∞   ∞
1 1  1
13. {f (t)} = 4t −st
te e dt = te (4−s)t
dt = te (4−s)t
− e (4−s)t  = , s>4
4 − s (4 − s) 2  (4 − s)2
0 0 0
 ∞  ∞
14. {f (t)} = t2 e−2t e−st dt = t2 e−(s+2)t dt
0 0
  ∞
1 2 −(s+2)t 2 2  2
= − t e − te−(s+2)t
− e −(s+2)t  = , s > −2
s+2 (s + 2)2 (s + 2)3  (s + 2)3
0
 ∞  ∞
−t −st
15. {f (t)} = e (sin t)e dt = (sin t)e−(s+1)t dt
0 0
  ∞
−(s + 1) −(s+1)t 1 
= 2
e sin t − 2
e −(s+1)t
cos t 
(s + 1) + 1 (s + 1) + 1 0
1 1
= = 2 , s > −1
(s + 1)2 + 1 s + 2s + 2
 ∞  ∞
−st
16. {f (t)} = t
e (cos t)e dt = (cos t)e(1−s)t dt
0 0
  ∞
1−s 1 
= e(1−s)t
cos t + e(1−s)t
sin t 
(1 − s) + 1
2 (1 − s) + 1
2
0
1−s s−1
=− = 2 , s>1
(1 − s)2 + 1 s − 2s + 2
 ∞
17. {f (t)} = t(cos t)e−st dt
0


st s2 − 1 t 2s
= − 2 − (cos t)e−st + + (sin t)e−st
s + 1 (s2 + 1)2 s2 + 1 (s2 + 1)2
0
s2 − 1
= 2 , s>0
(s2 + 1)
 ∞
18. {f (t)} = t(sin t)e−st dt
0


t 2s −st st s2 − 1 −st
= − 2 − (cos t)e − + (sin t)e
s + 1 (s + 1)2
2 s2 + 1 (s2 + 1)2
0
2s
= 2 , s>0
(s2 + 1)

4! 5!
19. {2t4 } = 2 20. {t5 } =
s5 s6
4 10 7 3
21. {4t − 10} = 2
− 22. {7t + 3} = 2
+
s s s s
2 6 3 2 16 9
23. {t2 + 6t − 3} = 3
+ 2− 24. {−4t2 + 16t + 9} = −4 3
+ 2 +
s s s s s s
3! 2 3 1 3! 2 6 1
25. {t3 + 3t2 + 3t + 1} = 4
+3 3 + 2 + 26. {8t3 − 12t2 + 6t − 1} = 8 4
− 12 3 + 2 −
s s s s s s s s

166
Exercises 4.1

1 1 2 1 5
27. {1 + e4t } = + 28. {t2 − e−9t + 5} = − +
s s−4 s3 s+9 s

1 2 1 1 2 1
29. {1 + 2e2t + e4t } = + + 30. {e2t − 2 + e−2t } = − +
s s−2 s−4 s−2 s s+2

2 3 s 2
31. {4t2 − 5 sin 3t} = 4 −5 2 32. {cos 5t + sin 2t} = +
s3 s +9 s2 + 25 s2 + 4

k s
33. {sinh kt} = 34. {cosh kt} = 2
s2−k 2 s − k2
   
et − e−t 1 2t 1 1 1
35. {et sinh t} = et = e − = −
2 2 2 2(s − 2) 2s
 t −t
  
−t −t e + e 1 1 −2t 1 1
36. {e cosh t} = e = + e = +
2 2 2 2s 2(s + 2)
 
1 2
37. {sin 2t cos 2t} = sin 4t = 2
2 s + 16
 
1 1 1 1 s
38. {cos t} =
2
+ cos 2t = +
2 2 2s 2 s2 + 4
39. (a) Using integration by parts for α > 0,
 ∞ ∞  ∞

Γ(α + 1) = tα e−t dt = −tα e−t  + α tα−1 e−t dt = αΓ(α).
0 0 0

(b) Let u = st so that du = s dt. Then


 ∞  ∞  u α 1
−st α 1
{t } =
α
e t dt = e−u du = α+1 Γ(α + 1), α > −1.
0 0 s s s

Γ(1/2) π
40. (a) {t−1/2 } = =
s1/2 s

Γ(3/2) π
(b) {t } = 3/2 = 3/2
1/2
s 2s

Γ(5/2) 3 π
(c) {t3/2 } = 5/2 = 5/2
s 4s
41. Identifying f (t) = tn we have f  (t) = ntn−1 , n = 1, 2, 3, . . . . Then, since f (0) = 0,
n
n {tn−1 } = {ntn−1 } = s {tn } and {tn } = {tn−1 }.
s
1 1
For n = 1, {t} = {1} = .
s s2
2 2
For n = 2, {t2 } = {t} = .
s s3
3 6
For n = 3, {t3 } = {t2 } = .
s s4
42. Let F (t) = t1/3 . Then F (t) is of exponential order, but f (t) = F  (t) = 1 −2/3
3t is unbounded near t = 0 and
hence is not of exponential order.

167
Exercises 4.1

2 d 2 2
Let f (t) = 2tet cos et = sin et . This function is not of exponential order, but we can show that its Laplace
dt
transform exists. Using integration by parts we have
 ∞      a 
d 2 a
e−st sin et dt = lim e−st sin et  + s e−st sin et dt
2 2 2 2
{2tet cos et } =
0 dt a→∞ 0 0
 ∞
−st t2 t2
=s e sin e dt = s {sin e }.
0
t2 2 2 2
Since sin e is continuous and of exponential order, {sin et } exists, and therefore {2tet cos et } exists.
43. The relation will be valid when s is greater than the maximum of c1 and c2 .
2
44. Since et is an increasing function and t2 > ln M + ct for M > 0 we have et > eln M +ct = M ect for t sufficiently
2
large and for any c. Thus, et is not of exponential order.
45. By part (c) of Theorem 4.1
1 1 (s − a) + ib s − a + ib
{e(a+ib)t } = = = .
s − (a + ib) (s − a) − ib (s − a) + ib (s − a)2 + b2
By Euler’s formula, eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ, so
{e(a+ib)t } = {eat eibt } {eat (cos bt + i sin bt)}
= {eat cos bt} + i {eat sin bt}
s−a b
= +i .
(s − a) + b
2 2 (s − a)2 + b2
Equating real and imaginary parts we get
s−a b
{eat cos bt} = and {eat sin bt} = .
(s − a)2 + b2 (s − a)2 + b2
46. We want f (αx + βy) = αf (x) + βf (y) or
m(αx + βy) + b = α(mx + b) + β(my + b) = m(αx + βy) + (α + β)b
for all real numbers α and β. Taking α = β = 1 we see that b = 2b, so b = 0. Thus, f (x) = mx + b will be a
linear transformation when b = 0.

Exercises 4.2
   
1 1 2 1 2
1. = = t
s3 2 s3 2
   
1 1 3! 1
2. = = t3
s4 6 s4 6
   
1 48 1 48 4!
3. − 5 = − · = t − 2t4
s2 s s2 24 s5
 2   
2 1 1 4 3! 1 5! 2 1 5
4. − = 4· 2 − · 4 + · = 4t − t3 + t
s s3 s 6 s 120 s6 3 120
   
(s + 1)3 1 1 3 2 1 3! 3 1
5. = + 3 · + · + · = 1 + 3t + t2 + t3
s4 s s2 2 s3 6 s4 2 6
   
(s + 2)2 1 1 2
6. = + 4 · + 2 · = 1 + 4t + 2t2
s3 s s2 s3

168
Exercises 4.2

 
1 1 1
7. − + = t − 1 + e2t
s2 s s−2
   
4 6 1 1 1 4! 1 1
8. + 5− = 4· + · 5 − = 4 + t4 − e−8t
s s s+8 s 4 s s+8 4
   
1 1 1 1
9. = · = e−t/4
4s + 1 4 s + 1/4 4
   
1 1 1 1
10. = · = e2t/5
5s − 2 5 s − 2/5 5
   
5 5 7 5
11. = · = sin 7t
s2 + 49 7 s2 + 49 7
 
10s
12. 2
= 10 cos 4t
s + 16
   
4s s 1
13. 2
= 2
= cos t
4s + 1 s + 1/4 2
   
1 1 1/2 1 1
14. = · = sin t
4s2 + 1 2 s2 + 1/4 2 2
   
2s − 6 s 3
15. = 2· 2 −2· 2 = 2 cos 3t − 2 sin 3t
s2 + 9 s +9 s +9
   √  √
s+1 s 1 2 √ 2 √
16. 2
= 2
+ √ 2
= cos 2t + sin 2 t
s +2 s +2 2 s +2 2
   
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
17. = · − · = − e−3t
s2 + 3s 3 s 3 s+3 3 3
   
s+1 1 1 5 1 1 5
18. = − · + · = − + e4t
s2 − 4s 4 s 4 s−4 4 4
   
s 1 1 3 1 1 3
19. = · + · = et + e−3t
s2 + 2s − 3 4 s−1 4 s+3 4 4
   
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
20. = · − · = e4t − e−5t
s2 + s − 20 9 s−4 9 s+5 9 9
   
0.9s 1 1
21. = (0.3) · + (0.6) · = 0.3e0.1t + 0.6e−0.2t
(s − 0.1)(s + 0.2) s − 0.1 s + 0.2
   √ 
s−3 s √ 3 √ √ √
22. √ √ = 2−3
− 3· 2 = cosh 3 t − 3 sinh 3 t
(s − 3 )(s + 3 ) s s − 3
   
s 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
23. = · − + · = e2t − e3t + e6t
(s − 2)(s − 3)(s − 6) 2 s−2 s−3 2 s−6 2 2
   
s2 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1
24. = · − − · + ·
s(s − 1)(s + 1)(s − 2) 2 s s−1 3 s+1 6 s−2
1 1 5
= − et − e−t + e2t
2 3 6
     
1 1 1 1 1 s 1 1 √
25. 3
= 2
= · − 2
= − cos 5t
s + 5s s(s + 5) 5 s 5 s +5 5 5

169
Exercises 4.2

   
s 1 s 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
26. = · 2 + · 2 − · = cos 2t + sin 2t − e−2t
(s2 + 4)(s + 2) 4 s +4 4 s +4 4 s+2 4 4 4
     
2s − 4 2s − 4 4 3 s 3
27. = = − + + +
(s2 + s)(s2 + 1) s(s2 + 1)2 s s + 1 s2 + 1 s2 + 1

= −4 + 3e−t + cos t + 3 sin t


   √ √ 
1 1 3 1 3 1 √ 1 √
28. = √ · 2 − √ · 2 = √ sinh 3 t − √ sin 3 t
s −9
4
6 3 s −3 6 3 s −3 6 3 6 3
   
s 1 s 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
29. = · + · − · = cos 2t + sin 2t − e−2t
(s2 + 4)(s + 2) 4 s2 + 4 4 s2 + 4 4 s + 2 4 4 4
   
6s + 3 s 1 s 1 2
30. = 2· 2 + −2· 2 − ·
(s2 + 1)(s2 + 4) s + 1 s2 + 1 s + 4 2 s2 + 4
1
= 2 cos t + sin t − 2 cos 2t − sin 2t
2
31. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
1
s {y} − y(0) − {y} = .
s
Solving for {y} we obtain
1 1
{y} = − + .
s s−1
Thus
y = −1 + et .

32. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is

2s {y} − 2y(0) = {y} = 0.

Solving for {y} we obtain


6 3
{y} = = .
2s + 1 s + 1/2
Thus
y = 3e−t/2 .

33. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


1
s {y} − y(0) + 6 {y} = .
s−4
Solving for {y} we obtain
1 2 1 1 19 1
{y} = + = · + · .
(s − 4)(s + 6) s + 6 10 s − 4 10 s + 6
Thus
1 4t 19 −6t
y= e + e .
10 10
34. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
2s
s {y} − {y} = .
s2 + 25

170
Exercises 4.2

Solving for {y} we obtain


2 1 1 1 s 5 5
{y} = = · − + · .
(s − 1)(s2 + 25) 13 s − 1 13 s2 + 25 13 s2 + 25
Thus
1 t 1 5
y= e − cos 5t + sin 5t.
13 13 13
35. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is

s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) + 5 [s {y} − y(0)] + 4 {y} = 0.

Solving for {y} we obtain


s+5 4 1 1 1
{y} = = − .
s2 + 5s + 4 3 s+1 3 s+4
Thus
4 −t 1 −4t
y= e − e .
3 3
36. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
6 3
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) − 4 [s {y} − y(0)] = − .
s−3 s+1
Solving for {y} we obtain
6 3 s−5
{y} = − +
(s − 3)(s2 − 4s) (s + 1)(s2 − 4s) s2 − 4s
5 1 2 3 1 11 1
= · − − · + · .
2 s s − 3 5 s + 1 10 s − 4
Thus
5 3 11
y= − 2e3t − e−t + e4t .
2 5 10
37. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
2
s2 {y} − sy(0) + {y} = .
s2 +2
Solving for {y} we obtain
2 10s 10s 2 2
{y} = + = 2 + − .
(s2 + 1)(s2 + 2) s2 + 1 s + 1 s2 + 1 s2 + 2
Thus
√ √
y = 10 cos t + 2 sin t − 2 sin 2 t.

38. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


1
s2 {y} + 9 {y} = .
s−1
Solving for {y} we obtain
1 1 1 1 1 1 s
{y} = = · − · 2 − · 2 .
(s − 1)(s + 9)
2 10 s − 1 10 s + 9 10 s + 9
Thus
1 t 1 1
y= e − sin 3t − cos 3t.
10 30 10
39. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
    1
2 s3 {y} − s2 (0) − sy  (0) − y  (0) + 3 s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) − 3[s {y} − y(0)] − 2 {y} = .
s+1

171
Exercises 4.2

Solving for {y} we obtain


2s + 3 1 1 5 1 8 1 1 1
{y} = = + − + .
(s + 1)(s − 1)(2s + 1)(s + 2) 2 s + 1 18 s − 1 9 s + 1/2 9 s + 2
Thus
1 −t 5 8 1
y= e + et − e−t/2 + e−2t .
2 18 9 9
40. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
  3
s3 {y} − s2 (0) − sy  (0) − y  (0) + 2 s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) − [s {y} − y(0)] − 2 {y} = .
s2 +9
Solving for {y} we obtain
s2 + 12
{y} =
(s − 1)(s + 1)(s + 2)(s2 + 9)
13 1 13 1 16 1 3 s 1 3
= − + + − .
60 s − 1 20 s + 1 39 s + 2 130 s + 9 65 s + 9
2 2

Thus
13 t 13 −t 16 −2t 3 1
y= e − e + e + cos 3t − sin 3t.
60 20 39 130 65
41. For y  + 6y = e4t the transfer function is W (s) = 1/(s + 6). The zero-input response is
 
2
y0 (t) = = 2e−6t ,
s+6
and the zero-state response is
   
1 1 1 1 1 1 −6t 1
y1 (t) = = − · + · =− e + e4t .
(s − 4)(s + 6) 10 s + 6 10 s − 4 10 10

42. For y  − 4y  = 6e3t − 3e−t the transfer function is W (s) = 1/(s2 − 4s). The zero-input response is
   
s−5 5 1 1 1 5 1
y0 (t) = = · − · = − e4t ,
s − 4s
2 4 s 4 s−4 4 4
and the zero-state response is
 
6 3
y1 (t) = −
(s − 3)(s2 − 4s) (s + 1)(s2 − 4s)
 
27 1 2 5 1 3 1
= · − + · − ·
20 s − 4 s − 3 4 s 5 s + 1
27 4t 5 3
= e − 2e3t + − e−t .
20 4 5
43. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
s+3 s+3
s {y} + {y} = 2
= 2 .
(s + 3) + 4 s + 6s + 13
Solving for {y} we obtain
s+3 1 1 1 s+1
{y} = 2
= · − · 2
(s + 1)(s + 6s + 13) 4 s + 1 4 s + 6s + 13
 
1 1 1 s+3 2
= · − − .
4 s + 1 4 (s + 3)2 + 4 (s + 3)2 + 4

172
Exercises 4.3

Thus
1 −t 1
y= e − e−3t cos 2t + e−3t sin 2t.
4 4

1, t ≥ 0, t = 1
44. Let f (t) = 1 and g(t) = . Then {f (t)} = {g(t)} = 1, but f (t) = g(t).
0, t=1

Exercises 4.3
  1
1. te10t =
(s − 10)2
  1
2. te−6t =
(s + 6)2
  3!
3. t3 e−2t =
(s + 2)4
  10!
4. t10 e−7t =
(s + 7)11
  2   2t  1 2 1
5. t et + e2t = te + 2te3t + te4t = + +
(s − 2)2 (s − 3)2 (s − 4)2
    2 2 1
6. e2t (t − 1)2 = t2 e2t − 2te2t + e2t = − +
(s − 2)3 (s − 2)2 s−2
  3
7. et sin 3t =
(s − 1)2 + 9
  s+2
8. e−2t cos 4t =
(s + 2)2 + 16
s s−1 3(s + 4)
9. {(1 − et + 3e−4t ) cos 5t} = {cos 5t − et cos 5t + 3e−4t cos 5t} = − +
s2 + 25 (s − 1)2 + 25 (s + 4)2 + 25
    
t t 9 4 5
10. e3t 9 − 4t + 10 sin = 9e3t − 4te3t + 10e3t sin = − +
2 2 s − 3 (s − 3)2 (s − 3)2 + 1/4
   
1 1 2 1
11. = = t2 e−2t
(s + 2)3 2 (s + 2)3 2
   
1 1 3! 1
12. = = t3 et
(s − 1)4 6 (s − 1)4 6
   
1 1
13. = = e3t sin t
s2 − 6s + 10 (s − 3)2 + 12
   
1 1 2 1
14. = = e−t sin 2t
s2 + 2s + 5 2 (s + 1)2 + 22 2
   
s (s + 2) 1
15. = − 2 = e−2t cos t − 2e−2t sin t
s2 + 4s + 5 (s + 2)2 + 12 (s + 2)2 + 12
   
2s + 5 (s + 3) 1 5 1
16. = 2 − = 2e−3t cos 5t − e−3t sin 5t
s2 + 6s + 34 (s + 3)2 + 52 5 (s + 3)2 + 52 5
     
s s+1−1 1 1
17. = = − = e−t − te−t
(s + 1)2 (s + 1)2 s + 1 (s + 1)2

173
Exercises 4.3

     
5s 5(s − 2) + 10 5 10
18. = = + = 5e2t + 10te2t
(s − 2)2 (s − 2)2 s − 2 (s − 2)2
   
2s − 1 5 1 5 4 3 2 3
19. = − 2− − − = 5 − t − 5e−t − 4te−t − t2 e−t
s2 (s + 1)3 s s s + 1 (s + 1) 2 2 (s + 1)3 2
   
(s + 1)2 1 2 1 3! 1
20. = − + = te−2t − t2 e−2t + t3 e−2t
(s + 2)4 (s + 2)2 (s + 2)3 6 (s + 2) 4 6
21. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
1
s {y} − y(0) + 4 {y} = .
s+4
1 2
Solving for {y} we obtain {y} = 2
+ . Thus
(s + 4) s+4
y = te−4t + 2e−4t .

22. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


1 1
s {y} − {y} = + .
s (s − 1)2
Solving for {y} we obtain
1 1 1 1 1
{y} = + =− + + .
s(s − 1) (s − 1)3 s s − 1 (s − 1)3
Thus
1
y = −1 + et + t2 et .
2
23. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
 
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) + 2 s {y} − y(0) + {y} = 0.

Solving for {y} we obtain


s+3 1 2
{y} = = + .
(s + 1)2 s + 1 (s + 1)2
Thus
y = e−t + 2te−t .

24. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


6
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) − 4 [s {y} − y(0)] + 4 {y} = .
(s − 2)4
1 5! 1 5 2t
Solving for {y} we obtain {y} =
. Thus, y = t e .
20 (s − 2)6 20
25. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
1
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) − 6 [s {y} − y(0)] + 9 {y} = .
s2
Solving for {y} we obtain
1 + s2 2 1 1 1 2 1 10 1
{y} = = + − + .
s2 (s− 3)2 27 s 9 s2 27 s − 3 9 (s − 3)2
Thus
2 1 2 10
y= + t − e3t + te3t .
27 9 27 9

174
Exercises 4.3

26. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


6
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) − 4 [s {y} − y(0)] + 4 {y} = .
s4
Solving for {y} we obtain
s5 − 4s4 + 6 3 1 9 1 3 2 1 3! 1 1 13 1
{y} = = + + + + − .
s (s − 2)
4 2 4 s 8 s2 4 s3 4 s4 4 s−2 8 (s − 2)2
Thus
3 9 3 1 1 13
y= + t + t2 + t3 + e2t − te2t .
4 8 4 4 4 8
27. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is

s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) − 6 [s {y} − y(0)] + 13 {y} = 0.

Solving for {y} we obtain


3 3 2
{y} = − =− .
s2 − 6s + 13 2 (s − 3)2 + 22
Thus
3
y = − e3t sin 2t.
2
28. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
   
2 s2 {y} − sy(0) + 20 s {y} − y(0) + 51 {y} = 0.

Solving for {y} we obtain


4s + 40 2s + 20 2(s + 5) 10
{y} = = = + .
2s2 + 20s + 51 (s + 5)2 + 1/2 (s + 5)2 + 1/2 (s + 5)2 + 1/2
Thus
√ √ √
y = 2e−5t cos(t/ 2 ) + 10 2 e−5t sin(t/ 2 ).

29. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


s−1
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) − [s {y} − y(0)] = .
(s − 1)2 + 1
Solving for {y} we obtain
1 1 1 1 s−1 1 1
{y} = = − + .
s(s2 − 2s + 2) 2 s 2 (s − 1) + 1 2 (s − 1)2 + 1
2

Thus
1 1 t 1
y= − e cos t + et sin t.
2 2 2
30. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
1 1
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) − 2 [s {y} − y(0)] + 5 {y} = + .
s s2
Solving for {y} we obtain
4s2 + s + 1 7 1 1 1 −7s/25 + 109/25
{y} = = + +
s2 (s2 − 2s + 5) 25 s 5 s2 s2 − 2s + 5
7 1 1 1 7 s−1 51 2
= + − + .
25 s 5 s2 25 (s − 1)2 + 22 25 (s − 1)2 + 22

175
Exercises 4.3

Thus
7 1 7 51
y= + t − et cos 2t + et sin 2t.
25 5 25 25
31. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation and letting c = y(0) we obtain
{y  } + {2y  } + {y} = 0

s2
{y} − sy(0) − y (0) + 2s {y} − 2y(0) + {y} = 0
s2 {y} − cs − 2 + 2s {y} − 2c + {y} = 0
 
s2 + 2s + 1 {y} = cs + 2c + 2
cs 2c + 2
{y} = +
(s + 1)2 (s + 1)2
s+1−1 2c + 2
=c +
(s + 1)2 (s + 1)2
c c+2
= + .
s + 1 (s + 1)2
Therefore,    
1 1
y(t) = c + (c + 2) = ce−t + (c + 2)te−t .
s+1 (s + 1)2

To find c we let y(1) = 2. Then 2 = ce−1 + (c + 2)e−1 = 2(c + 1)e−1 and c = e − 1. Thus

y(t) = (e − 1)e−t + (e + 1)te−t .

32. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation and letting c = y  (0) we obtain
{y  } + {8y  } + {20y} = 0
s2 {y} − y  (0) + 8s {y} + 20 {y} = 0
2
s {y} − c + 8s {y} + 20 {y} = 0
(s2 + 8s + 20) {y} = c
c c
{y} = = .
s2 + 8s + 20 (s + 4)2 + 4
Therefore,  
c
y(t) = = ce−4t sin 2t.
(s + 4)2 + 4

To find c we let y  (π) = 0. Then 0 = y  (π) = ce−4π and c = 0. Thus, y(t) = 0. (Since the differential equation
is homogeneous and both boundary conditions are 0, we can see immediately that y(t) = 0 is a solution. We
have shown that it is the only solution.)
33. Recall from Chapter 3 that mx = −kx − βx . Now m = W/g = 4/32 = 18 slug, and 4 = 2k so that k = 2 lb/ft.
Thus, the differential equation is x + 7x + 16x = 0. The initial conditions are x(0) = −3/2 and x (0) = 0.
The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
3 21
s2 {x} + s + 7s {x} + + 16 {x} = 0.
2 2
Solving for {x} we obtain
√ √
−3s/2 − 21/2 3 s + 7/2 7 15 15/2
{x} = 2 =− √ − √ .
s + 7s + 16 2 (s + 7/2) + ( 15/2)
2 2 10 (s + 7/2) + ( 15/2)2
2

176
Exercises 4.3

Thus √ √ √
3 −7t/2 15 7 15 −7t/2 15
x=− e cos t− e sin t.
2 2 10 2
34. The differential equation is
d2 q dq
2
+ 20 + 200q = 150, q(0) = q  (0) = 0.
dt dt
The Laplace transform of this equation is
150
s2 {q} + 20s {q} + 200 {q} = .
s
Solving for {q} we obtain
150 3 1 3 s + 10 3 10
{q} = = − − .
s(s2 + 20s + 200) 4 s 4 (s + 10)2 + 102 4 (s + 10)2 + 102
Thus
3 3 −10t 3
q(t) = − e cos 10t − e−10t sin 10t
4 4 4
and
i(t) = q  (t) = 15e−10t sin 10t.

35. The differential equation is


d2 q dq E0
+ 2λ + ω 2 q = , q(0) = q  (0) = 0.
dt2 dt L
The Laplace transform of this equation is
E0 1
s2 {q} + 2λs {q} + ω 2 {q} =
L s
or
  E0 1
s2 + 2λs + ω 2 {q} = .
L s
Solving for {q} and using partial fractions we obtain
   
E0 1/ω 2 (1/ω 2 )s + 2λ/ω 2 E0 1 s + 2λ
{q} = − 2 = − .
L s s + 2λs + ω 2 Lω 2 s s2 + 2λs + ω 2
 
For λ > ω we write s2 + 2λs + ω 2 = (s + λ)2 − λ2 − ω 2 , so (recalling that ω 2 = 1/LC,)
 
1 s+λ λ
{q} = E0 C − − .
s (s + λ)2 − (λ2 − ω 2 ) (s + λ)2 − (λ2 − ω 2 )
Thus for λ > ω,  
 λ 
−λt
q(t) = E0 C 1 − e cosh λ2 − ω2 t− √ sinh λ − ω t .
2 2
λ2 − ω 2
 
For λ < ω we write s2 + 2λs + ω 2 = (s + λ)2 + ω 2 − λ2 , so
 
1 s+λ λ
{q} = E0 − − .
s (s + λ)2 + (ω 2 − λ2 ) (s + λ)2 + (ω 2 − λ2 )
Thus for λ < ω,  
 λ 
−λt
q(t) = E0 C 1 − e cos ω2 − λ2 t− √ sin ω − λ t .
2 2
λ2 − ω 2
For λ = ω, s2 + 2λ + ω 2 = (s + λ)2 and
   
E0 1 E0 1/λ2 1/λ2 1/λ E0 1 1 λ
{q} = = − − = − − .
L s(s + λ)2 L s s + λ (s + λ)2 Lλ2 s s + λ (s + λ)2

177
Exercises 4.3

Thus for λ = ω,
 
q(t) = E0 C 1 − e−λt − λte−λt .

36. The differential equation is


dq 1
+ q = E0 e−kt , q(0) = 0.
R
dt C
The Laplace transform of this equation is
1 1
R {q} + {q} = E0 .
C s+k
Solving for {q} we obtain
E0 C E0 /R
{q} = = .
(s + k)(RCs + 1) (s + k)(s + 1/RC)
When 1/RC = k we have by partial fractions
   
E0 1/(1/RC − k) 1/(1/RC − k) E0 1 1 1
{q} = − = − .
R s+k s + 1/RC R 1/RC − k s + k s + 1/RC
Thus
E0 C  −kt 
q(t) = e − e−t/RC .
1 − kRC
When 1/RC = k we have
E0 1
{q} = .
R (s + k)2
Thus
E0 −kt E0 −t/RC
q(t) = te = te .
R R
  e−s
37. (t − 1) (t − 1) = 2
s
    e−2s
38. e2−t (t − 2) = e−(t−2) (t − 2) =
s+1
  e−2s 2e−2s
39. t (t − 2) = {(t − 2) (t − 2) + 2 (t − 2)} = +
s2 s
      e−s 4e−s
40. (3t + 1) (t − 1) = 3 (t − 1) (t − 1) + 4 (t − 1) = 2 +
s s
  se−πs
41. cos 2t (t − π) = {cos 2(t − π) (t − π)} =
s2 + 4
  π    π  π  se−πs
42. sin t t− = cos t − t− = 2
2 2 2 s +1
 −2s   
e 1 2 −2s 1
43. = · e = (t − 2)2 (t − 2)
s3 2 s3 2
   
(1 + e−2s )2 1 2e−2s e−4s
44. = + + = e−2t + 2e−2(t−2) (t − 2) + e−2(t−4) (t − 4)
s+2 s+2 s+2 s+2
 −πs 
e
45. = sin(t − π) (t − π)
s2 + 1
 −πs/2  
se π  π
46. 2
= cos 2 t − t−
s +4 2 2

178
Exercises 4.3

   
e−s e−s e−s
47. = − = (t − 1) − e−(t−1) (t − 1)
s(s + 1) s s+1
   −2s 
e−2s e e−2s e−2s
48. = − − 2 + = − (t − 2) − (t − 2) (t − 2) + et−2 (t − 2)
s (s − 1)
2 s s s−1

49. (c) 50. (e) 51. (f ) 52. (b) 53. (a) 54. (d)
  2 4
55. 2−4 (t − 3) = − e−3s
s s
  1 e−4s e−5s
56. 1 − (t − 4) + (t − 5) = − +
s s s
2       
57. t (t − 1) = (t − 1) + 2t − 1
2
(t − 1) = (t − 1)2 + 2(t − 1) − 1 (t − 1)
 
2 2 1 −s
= + 2+ e
s3 s s
       
3π 3π 3π se−3πs/2
58. sin t t− = − cos t − t− =− 2
2 2 2 s +1
    1 e−2s 2e−2s
59. t−t (t − 2) = t − (t − 2) (t − 2) − 2 (t − 2) = 2 − 2 −
s s s
    1 e−2πs
60. sin t − sin t (t − 2π) = sin t − sin(t − 2π) (t − 2π) = −
s2 + 1 s2 + 1
    e−as e−bs
61. f (t) = (t − a) − (t − b) = −
s s
    e−s e−2s e−3s 1 e−s
62. f (t) = (t − 1) + (t − 2) + (t − 3) + · · · = + + + ··· =
s s s s 1 − e−s
63. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
5 −s
s {y} − y(0) + {y} = e .
s
Solving for {y} we obtain
 
5e−s 1 1
{y} = = 5e−s − .
s(s + 1) s s+1
Thus
y=5 (t − 1) − 5e−(t−1) (t − 1).

64. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


1 2 −s
s {y} − y(0) + {y} = − e .
s s
Solving for {y} we obtain
 
1 2e−s 1 1 1 1
{y} = − = − − 2e−s − .
s(s + 1) s(s + 1) s s+1 s s+1
Thus 
y = 1 − e−t − 2 1 − e−(t−1) (t − 1).

65. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


1 s+1
s {y} − y(0) + 2 {y} = 2
− e−s 2 .
s s

179
Exercises 4.3

Solving for {y} we obtain


 
1 −s s + 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 −s 1 1 1 1 1 1
{y} = − e = − + + − e + − .
s2 (s + 2) s2 (s + 1) 4 s 2 s2 4 s+2 4 s 2 s2 4 s+2
Thus  
1 1 1 1 1 1
y = − + t + e−2t − + (t − 1) − e−2(t−1) (t − 1).
4 2 4 4 2 4
66. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
1 e−s
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) + 4 {y} = − .
s s
Solving for {y} we obtain
 
1−s −s 1 1 1 1 s 1 2 −s 1 1 1 s
{y} = − e = − − − e − .
s(s2 + 4) s(s2 + 4) 4 s 4 s2 + 4 2 s2 + 4 4 s 4 s2 + 4
Thus  
1 1 1 1 1
y= − cos 2t − sin 2t − − cos 2(t − 1) (t − 1).
4 4 2 4 4
67. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
1
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) + 4 {y} = e−2πs .
s2 +1
Solving for {y} we obtain
 
s −2πs 1 1 1 2
{y} = 2 +e − .
s +4 3 s2 + 1 6 s2 + 4
Thus  
1 1
y = cos 2t + sin(t − 2π) − sin 2(t − 2π) (t − 2π).
3 6
68. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
e−s
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) − 5 [s {y} − y(0)] + 6 {y} = .
s
Solving for {y} we obtain
1 1
{y} = e−s +
s(s − 2)(s − 3) (s − 2)(s − 3)
 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= e−s − + − + .
6 s 2 s−2 3 s−3 s−2 s−3
Thus  
1 1 2(t−1) 1 3(t−1)
y= − e + e (t − 1) + e3t − e2t .
6 2 3
69. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
e−πs e−2πs
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) + {y} = − .
s s
Solving for {y} we obtain
   
−πs 1 s −2πs 1 s 1
{y} = e − 2 −e − 2 + 2 .
s s +1 s s +1 s +1
Thus
y = [1 − cos(t − π)] (t − π) − [1 − cos(t − 2π)] (t − 2π) + sin t.

180
Exercises 4.3

70. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


  1 e−2s e−4s e−6s
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) + 4 s {y} − y(0) + 3 {y} = − − + .
s s s s
Solving for {y} we obtain
 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
{y} = − + − e−2s − +
3 s 2 s+1 6 s+3 3 s 2 s+1 6 s+3
   
−4s 1 1 1 1 1 1 −6s 1 1 1 1 1 1
−e − + +e − + .
3 s 2 s+1 6 s+3 3 s 2 s+1 6 s+3
Thus  
1 1 −t 1 −3t 1 1 −(t−2) 1 −3(t−2)
y= − e + e − − e + e (t − 2)
3 2 6 3 2 6
   
1 1 −(t−4) 1 −3(t−4) 1 1 −(t−6) 1 −3(t−6)
− − e + e (t − 4) + − e + e (t − 6).
3 2 6 3 2 6

71. Recall from Chapter 3 that mx = −kx + f (t). Now m = W/g = 32/32 = 1 slug, and 32 = 2k so that
k = 16 lb/ft. Thus, the differential equation is x + 16x = f (t). The initial conditions are x(0) = 0, x (0) = 0.
Also, since 
20t, 0 ≤ t < 5
f (t) =
0, t≥5
and 20t = 20(t − 5) + 100 we can write

f (t) = 20t − 20t (t − 5) = 20t − 20(t − 5) (t − 5) − 100 (t − 5).

The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


20 20 −5s 100 −5s
s2 {x} + 16 {x} = − 2e − e .
s2 s s
Solving for {x} we obtain
20 20 100
{x} = − e−5s − e−5s
s2 (s2 + 16) s2 (s2 + 16) s(s2 + 16)
   
5 1 5 4  −5s
 25 1 25 s
= · − · 1−e − · − · e−5s .
4 s2 16 s2 + 16 4 s 4 s2 + 16
Thus
   
5 5 5 5 25 25
x(t) = t− sin 4t − (t − 5) − sin 4(t − 5) (t − 5) − − cos 4(t − 5) (t − 5)
4 16 4 16 4 4
5 5 5 5 25
= t− sin 4t − t (t − 5) + sin 4(t − 5) (t − 5) + cos 4(t − 5) (t − 5).
4 16 4 16 4

72. Recall from Chapter 3 that mx = −kx + f (t). Now m = W/g = 32/32 = 1 slug, and 32 = 2k so that
k = 16 lb/ft. Thus, the differential equation is x + 16x = f (t). The initial conditions are x(0) = 0, x (0) = 0.
Also, since 
sin t, 0 ≤ t < 2π
f (t) =
0, t ≥ 2π
and sin t = sin(t − 2π) we can write

f (t) = sin t − sin(t − 2π) (t − 2π).

181
Exercises 4.3

The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


1 1
s2 {x} + 16 {x} = − 2 e−2πs .
s2 +1 s +1
Solving for {x} we obtain
1 1
{x} = − e−2πs
(s2 + 16) (s2 + 1) (s2 + 16) (s2 + 1)
 
−1/15 1/15 −1/15 1/15
= 2 + 2 − 2 + 2 e−2πs .
s + 16 s + 1 s + 16 s + 1
Thus
1 1 1 1
x(t) = − sin 4t + sin t + sin 4(t − 2π) (t − 2π) − sin(t − 2π) (t − 2π)
60 15 60 15

− 60
1
sin 4t + 1
15 sin t, 0 ≤ t < 2π
=
0, t ≥ 2π.

73. The differential equation is


dq
2.5 + 12.5q = 5 (t − 3).
dt
The Laplace transform of this equation is
2 −3s
s {q} + 5 {q} = e .
s
Solving for {q} we obtain
 
2 2 1 2 1
{q} = e−3s = · − · e−3s .
s(s + 5) 5 s 5 s+5
Thus
2 2
q(t) = (t − 3) − e−5(t−3) (t − 3).
5 5
74. The differential equation is
dq
+ 10q = 30et − 30et (t − 1.5).
10
dt
The Laplace transform of this equation is
3 3e1.5 −1.5s
s {q} − q0 + {q} = − e .
s − 1 s − 1.5
Solving for {q} we obtain
   
3 1 3 1 −2/5 2/5
{q} = q0 − · + · 3e1.5 + e−1.55 .
2 s+1 2 s−1 s+1 s − 1.5
Thus    
3 3 6
q(t) = q0 − e−t + et + e1.5 e−(t−1.5) − e1.5(t−1.5) (t − 1.5).
2 2 5

75. (a) The differential equation is


   
di 3π 3π
+ 10i = sin t + cos t − t− , i(0) = 0.
dt 2 2
The Laplace transform of this equation is
1 se−3πs/2
s {i} + 10 {i} = + .
s2 + 1 s2 + 1

182
Exercises 4.3

Solving for {i} we obtain


1 s
{i} = + 2 e−3πs/2
(s2
+ 1)(s + 10) (s + 1)(s + 10)
   
1 1 s 10 1 −10 10s 1
= − 2 + 2 + + 2 + 2 e−3πs/2 .
101 s + 10 s + 1 s + 1 101 s + 10 s + 1 s + 1
Thus
1  −10t 
i(t) = e − cos t + 10 sin t
101
      
1 3π 3π 3π
+ −10e−10(t−3π/2) + 10 cos t − + sin t − t− .
101 2 2 2
(b) i
0.2

t
1 2 3 4 5 6
-0.2
The maximum value of i(t) is approximately 0.1 at t = 1.7, the minimum is approximately −0.1 at 4.7.

76. (a) The differential equation is


dq 1
50 + q = E0 [ (t − 1) − (t − 3)], q(0) = 0
dt 0.01
or
dq
50 + 100q = E0 [ (t − 1) − (t − 3)], q(0) = 0.
dt
The Laplace transform of this equation is
 
1 −s 1 −3s
50s {q} + 100 {q} = E0 e − e .
s s
Solving for {q} we obtain
       
E0 e−s e−3s E0 1 1 1 1 1 1
{q} = − = − e−s − − e−3s .
50 s(s + 2) s(s + 2) 50 2 s s + 2 2 s s+2
Thus
E0    
q(t) = 1 − e−2(t−1) (t − 1) − 1 − e−2(t−3) (t − 3) .
100
(b) q

t
1 2 3 4 5 6
The maximum value of q(t) is approximately 1 at t = 3.

77. The differential equation is


d4 y
= w0 [1 − (x − L/2)].
EI
dx4
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y  (0) = 0 we obtain
w0 1  
s4 {y} − sy  (0) − y  (0) = 1 − e−Ls/2 .
EI s

183
Exercises 4.3

Letting y  (0) = c1 and y  (0) = c2 we have


c1 c2 w0 1  
{y} = 3
+ 4+ 5
1 − e−Ls/2
s s EI s
so that
 4  
1 1 1 w0 L L
2 3
y(x) = c1 x + c2 x + x4 − x − x− .
2 6 24 EI 2 2
To find c1 and c2 we compute

 2  
 1 w0 L L
y (x) = c1 + c2 x + x − x−
2
x−
2 EI 2 2
and     
w0 L L
y  (x) = c2 + x− x− x− .
EI 2 2
Then y  (L) = y  (L) = 0 yields the system

 2
1 w0 L 3 w0 L2
c1 + c2 L + L −
2
= c1 + c2 L + =0
2 EI 2 8 EI
 
w0 L 1 w0 L
c2 + = c2 + = 0.
EI 2 2 EI
Solving for c1 and c2 we obtain c1 = 18 w0 L2 /EI and c2 = − 12 w0 L/EI. Thus
 4  
w0 1 2 2 1 1 4 1 L L
y(x) = L x − Lx + x − 3
x− x− .
EI 16 12 24 24 2 2

78. The differential equation is


d4 y
EI = w0 [ (x − L/3) − (x − 2L/3)].
dx4
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y  (0) = 0 we obtain
w0 1  −Ls/3 
s4 {y} − sy  (0) − y  (0) = e − e−2Ls/3 .
EI s
Letting y  (0) = c1 and y  (0) = c2 we have
c1 c2 w0 1  −Ls/3 
{y} = 3 + 4 + 5
e − e−2Ls/3
s s EI s
so that
 4    4  
1 1 1 w0 L L 2L 2L
2
y(x) = c1 x + c2 x + 3
x− x− − x− x− .
2 6 24 EI 3 3 3 3
To find c1 and c2 we compute

 2    2  
1 w0 L L 2L 2L
y  (x) = c1 + c2 x + x− x− − x− x−
2 EI 3 3 3 3
and        
w0 L L 2L 2L
y  (x) = c2 + x− x− − x− x− .
EI 3 3 3 3
Then y  (L) = y  (L) = 0 yields the system

   2
2
1 w0 2L L 1 w0 L2
c1 + c2 L + − = c1 + c2 L + =0
2 EI 3 3 6 EI
 
w0 2L L 1 w0 L
c2 + − = c2 + = 0.
EI 3 3 3 EI

184
Exercises 4.3

Solving for c1 and c2 we obtain c1 = 16 w0 L2 /EI and c2 = − 13 w0 L/EI. Thus



 4    4  
w0 1 2 2 1 1 L L 2L 2L
y(x) = L x − Lx + 3
x− x− − x− x− .
EI 12 18 24 3 3 3 3

79. The differential equation is


    
d4 y 2w0 L L L
EI = − x + x − x− .
dx4 L 2 2 2
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y  (0) = 0 we obtain
 
  2w0 L 1 1 −Ls/2
s4
{y} − sy (0) − y (0) = − + 2e .
EIL 2s s2 s
Letting y  (0) = c1 and y  (0) = c2 we have
 
c1 c2 2w0 L 1 1 −Ls/2
{y} = + + − + e
s3 s4 EIL 2s5 s6 s6
so that     
1 1 2w0 L 4 1 5 1 L L
2 3
y(x) = c1 x + c2 x + x − x + x− x−
2 6 EIL 48 120 120 2 2

 5  
1 1 w0 5L 4 L L
= c1 x2 + c2 x3 + x − x5 + x − x− .
2 6 60EIL 2 2 2
To find c1 and c2 we compute

 3  
 w0 L L
y (x) = c1 + c2 x + 30Lx2 − 20x3 + 20 x − x−
60EIL 2 2

and
 2  
 w0 L L
y (x) = c2 + 60Lx − 60x + 60 x −
2
x− .
60EIL 2 2
Then y  (L) = y  (L) = 0 yields the system
 
w0 5 3 5w0 L2
c1 + c2 L + 30L − 20L + L = c1 + c2 L +
3 3
=0
60EIL 2 24EI
w0 w0 L
c2 + [60L2 − 60L2 + 15L2 ] = c2 + = 0.
60EIL 4EI
Solving for c1 and c2 we obtain c1 = w0 L2 /24EI and c2 = −w0 L/4EI. Thus

 5  
w0 L2 2 w0 L w0 5L 4 L L
y(x) = x − + x −x + x−
5
x− .
48EI 24EI 60EIL 2 2 2

80. The differential equation is


d4 y
EI= w0 [1 − (x − L/2)].
dx4
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y  (0) = 0 we obtain
w0 1  
s4 {y} − sy  (0) − y  (0) = 1 − e−Ls/2 .
EI s
Letting y  (0) = c1 and y  (0) = c2 we have
c1 c2 w0 1  −Ls/2

{y} = + + 1 − e
s3 s4 EI s5

185
Exercises 4.3

so that
 4  
1 1 1 w0 L L
2 3
y(x) = c1 x + c2 x + x − x−
4
x− .
2 6 24 EI 2 2
To find c1 and c2 we compute

 2  
 1 w0 L L
y (x) = c1 + c2 x + x − x−
2
x− .
2 EI 2 2

Then y(L) = y  (L) = 0 yields the system



 4
1 1 1 w0 L 1 1 5w0
2 3
c1 L + c2 L + L −
4
= c1 L2 + c2 L3 + L4 = 0
2 6 24 EI 2 2 6 128EI

 2
1 w0 L 3w0 2
c1 + c2 L + L −
2
= c1 + c2 L + L = 0.
2 EI 2 8EI
9
Solving for c1 and c2 we obtain c1 = 128 w0 L2 /EI and c2 = − 128
57
w0 L/EI. Thus
 4  
w0 9 2 2 19 1 4 1 L L
y(x) = L x − Lx + x −
3
x− x− .
EI 256 256 24 24 2 2

81. From Theorem 4.6 we have {tekti } = 1/(s − ki)2 . Then, using Euler’s formula,

{tekti } = {t cos kt + it sin kt} = {t cos kt} + i {t sin kt}


1 (s + ki) 2
s −k 2 2
2ks
= = 2 = 2 +i 2 .
(s − ki)2 2
(s + k ) 2 2
(s + k )2 (s + k 2 )2
Equating real and imaginary parts we have
s2 − k 2 2ks
{t cos kt} = and {t sin kt} = .
(s2 + k 2 )2 (s2 + k 2 )2

82. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


s
s2 {x} + ω 2 {x} = .
s2 + ω 2
Solving for {x} we obtain {x} = s/(s2 + ω 2 )2 . Thus x = (1/2ω)t sin ωt.

Exercises 4.4
 
d s s2 − 4
1. {t cos 2t} = − 2
= 2
ds s +4 (s2 + 4)
 
d 3 6s
2. {t sinh 3t} = − =
ds s2 − 9 (s − 9)
2 2

 
d2 1 6s2 + 2
3. {t2 sinh t} = 2 =
ds s2 − 1 (s2 − 1)
3

     
d2 s d 1 − s2 2s s2 − 3
4. {t cos t} = 2
2
= = 3
ds s2 + 1 ds (s2 + 1)2 (s2 + 1)
 
 2t  d 6 12(s − 2)
5. te sin 6t = − =
ds (s − 2) + 36
2
[(s − 2)2 + 36]
2

186
Exercises 4.4

 
  d s+3 (s + 3)2 − 9
6. te−3t cos 3t = − 2
= 2
ds (s + 3) + 9 [(s + 3)2 + 9]
  1 3! 6
7. 1 ∗ t3 = = 5
s s4 s
2  2
8. t ∗ tet = 3
s (s − 1)2
 −t t  s−1
9. e ∗ e cos t =
(s + 1) [(s − 1)2 + 1]
 2t  1
10. e ∗ sin t =
(s − 2)(s2 + 1)
 t 
1 1
11. eτ dτ = {et } =
0 s s(s − 1)
 t 
1 s 1
12. cos τ dτ = {cos t} = 2 + 1)
= 2
0 s s(s s +1
 t 
1  −t  1 s+1 s+1
13. e−τ cos τ dτ = e cos t = 2+1
= 2 + 2s + 2)
0 s s (s + 1) s (s
 t   
1 1 d 1 1 −2s 2
14. τ sin τ dτ = {t sin t} = − =− =
s s ds s2+1 s (s 2 + 1)2 (s2 + 1)2
0
 t 
1
15. τe t−τ
dτ = {t} {et } = 2
0 s (s − 1)
 t 
s
16. sin τ cos(t − τ ) dτ = {sin t} {cos t} = 2
2
(s + 1)
0
  t   t   
d d 1 1 3s2 + 1
17. t sin τ dτ = − sin τ dτ = − 2
= 2
0 ds 0 ds s s + 1 s2 (s2 + 1)
  t    t   
−τ d −τ d 1 1 3s + 1
18. t τ e dτ = − t τ e dτ = − 2
= 2
0 ds 0 ds s (s + 1) s (s + 1)3
     t
1 1/(s − 1)
19. (a) = = eτ dτ = et − 1
s(s − 1) s 0
     t
1 1/s(s − 1)
(b) = = (eτ − 1)dτ = et − t − 1
s2 (s − 1) s 0
     t
1 1/s2 (s − 1) 1
(c) = = (eτ − τ − 1)dτ = et − t2 − t − 1
s3 (s − 1) s 0 2
20. (a) The result in (4) is {F (s)G(s)} = f ∗ g, so identify
2k 3 4s
F (s) = and G(s) = .
(s2 + k 2 )2 s2 + k 2
Then
f (t) = sin kt − kt cos kt and g(t) = 4 cos kt
so    t
8k 3 s
= {F (s)G(s)} = f ∗ g = 4 f (τ )g(t − τ )dt
(s2 + k 2 )2 0
 t
=4 (sin kτ − kτ cos kτ ) cos k(t − τ )dτ.
0

187
Exercises 4.4

Using a CAS to evaluate the integral we get


 
8k 3 s
= t sin kt − kt2 cos kt.
(s2 + k 2 )3

(b) Observe from part (a) that


  8k 3 s
t(sin kt − kt cos kt) = ,
(s2 + k 2 )3
 
and from Theorem 4.8 that tf (t) = −F  (s). We saw in (5) that {sin kt−kt cos kt} = 2k 3 /(s2 +k 2 )2 ,
so
  d 2k 3 8k 3 s
t(sin kt − kt cos kt) = − 2 2 2
= 2 .
ds (s + k ) (s + k 2 )3
   
1 d 1 1 1 1 
21. f (t) = − [ln(s − 3) − ln(s + 1)] = − − = − e3t − e−t
t ds t s−3 s+1 t
   
1 d   2    1 2s 2s 1
22. f (t) = − ln s + 1 − ln s2 + 4 =− 2
− 2 2
= − (2 cos t − 2 cos 2t)
t ds t s +1 s +2 t
 a  2a 
1 (1 − e−as )2 1 − e−as
23. {f (t)} = −2as
e−st dt − e−st dt = −2as
=
1−e 0 a s(1 − e ) s(1 + e−as )
 a
1 1
24. {f (t)} = e−st dt =
1 − e−2as 0 s(1 + e−as )
 b  
1 a −st a 1 1
25. {f (t)} = te dt = −
1 − e−bs 0 b s bs ebs − 1
 1  2 
1 −st −st 1 − e−s
26. {f (t)} = −2s
te dt + (2 − t)e dt = 2
1−e 0 1 s (1 − e−2s )
 π
1 −st 1 eπs/2 + e−πs/2 1 πs
27. {f (t)} = −πs
e sin t dt = · = 2 coth
1−e 0
2
s +1 e πs/2 −e −πs/2 s +1 2
 π
1 1 1
28. {f (t)} = −2πs
e−st sin t dt = 2 ·
1−e 0 s + 1 1 − e−πs
29. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
2s
s {y} + {y} = .
(s2 + 1)2
Solving for {y} we obtain
2s 1 1 1 1 1 s 1 s
{y} = =− − + + + 2 .
(s + 1)(s2 + 1)2 2 s + 1 2 s2 + 1 2 s2 + 1 (s2 + 1)2 (s + 1)2
Thus
1 1 1 1 1
y(t) = − e−t − sin t + cos t + (sin t − t cos t) + t sin t
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
= − e−t + cos t − t cos t + t sin t.
2 2 2 2
30. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
2(s − 1)
s {y} − {y} = .
((s2 − 1)2 + 1)2

188
Exercises 4.4

Solving for {y} we obtain


2
{y} = .
((s − 1)2 + 1)2
Thus
y = et sin t − tet cos t.

31. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is


s
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) + 9 {y} = .
s2 +9
Letting y(0) = 2 and y  (0) = 5 and solving for {y} we obtain
2s + 5s + 19s − 45
3 2
2s 5 s
{y} = = 2 + + .
(s2 + 9)2 s + 9 s2 + 9 (s2 + 9)2
Thus
5 1
y = 2 cos 3t + sin 3t + t sin 3t.
3 6
32. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
1
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) + {y} = .
s2 + 1
Solving for {y} we obtain
s3 − s2 + s s 1 1
{y} = 2 2
= 2 − 2 + 2 .
(s + 1) s + 1 s + 1 (s + 1)2
Thus
1 1
y = cos t − sin t − t cos t.
2 2
33. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) + 16 {y} = {cos 4t − cos 4t (t − π)}

or
s
(s2 + 16) {y} = 1 + − e−πs {cos 4(t + π)}
s2 + 16
s
=1+ 2 − e−πs {cos 4t}
s + 16
s s
=1+ 2 − e−πs .
s + 16 s2 + 16
Thus
1 s s
{y} = + − 2 e−πs
s2 + 16 (s2 + 16)2 (s + 16)2
and
1 1 1
y= sin 4t + t sin 4t − (t − π) sin 4(t − π) (t − π).
4 8 8
34. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
  π  π 
s2 {y} − sy(0) − y  (0) + {y} = 1− t− + sin t t−
2 2
1 1 −πs/2   π 
or (s2 + 1) {y} = s + − e + e−πs/2 sin t +
s s 2
1 1
= s + − e−πs/2 + e−πs/2 {cos t}
s s
1 1 −πs/2 s
=s+ − e + 2 e−πs/2 .
s s s +1

189
Exercises 4.4

Thus
s 1 1 s
{y} = + − e−πs/2 + 2 e−πs/2
s2 2 2
+ 1 s(s + 1) s(s + 1) (s + 1)2
 
s 1 s 1 s s
= 2 + − 2 − − 2 e−πs/2 + 2 e−πs/2
s +1 s s +1 s s +1 (s + 1)2
 
1 1 s s
= − − 2 e−πs/2 + 2 e−πs/2
s s s +1 (s + 1)2
and   π  π 1  π  π  π
y = 1 − 1 − cos t − t− + t− sin t − t−
2 2 2 2 2 2
 π 1  π  π
= 1 − (1 − sin t) t− + t− cos t t− .
2 2 2 2
35. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is
1 2s
s2 {y} + {y} = + .
(s2 + 1) (s2 + 1)2
Thus
1 2s
{y} = + 2
(s2 + 1)2 (s + 1)3
and, using Problem 20,
1 1
y= (sin t − t cos t) + (t sin t − t2 cos t).
2 4
36. (a)
y

0.5

t
1 2 3 4 5 6
-0.5

-1

(b)
y

4
2
t
1 2 3 4 5 6
-2
-4

37. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

{f } + {t} {f } = {t}.
1
Solving for {f } we obtain {f } = . Thus, f (t) = sin t.
s2 + 1
38. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

{f } = {2t} − 4 {sin t} {f }.

190
Exercises 4.4

Solving for {f } we obtain



2s2 + 2 2 1 8 5
{f } = 2 2 = 2
+ √ 2 .
s (s + 5) 5 s 5 5 s +5
Thus
2 8 √
f (t) = t + √ sin 5 t.
5 5 5

39. The Laplace transform of the given equation is


 
{f } = tet + {t} {f }.

Solving for {f } we obtain


s2 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1
{f } = = + + − .
(s − 1) (s + 1)
3 8 s − 1 4 (s − 1)2 4 (s − 1)3 8 s+1
Thus
1 t 3 t 1 2 t 1 −t
f (t) = e + te + t e − e
8 4 4 8
40. The Laplace transform of the given equation is
 
{f } + 2 {cos t} {f } = 4 e−t + {sin t}.

Solving for {f } we obtain


4s2 + s + 5 4 7 2
{f } = = − +4 .
(s + 1)3 s + 1 (s + 1)2 (s + 1)3
Thus
f (t) = 4e−t − 7te−t + 4t2 e−t .

41. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

{f } + {1} {f } = {1}.
1
Solving for {f } we obtain {f } = . Thus, f (t) = e−t .
s+1
42. The Laplace transform of the given equation is
 
{f } = {cos t} + e−t {f }.

Solving for {f } we obtain


s 1
{f } = + .
s2 + 1 s2 + 1
Thus
f (t) = cos t + sin t.

43. The Laplace transform of the given equation is


8
{f } = {1} + {t} − {t3 } {f }.
3
Solving for {f } we obtain
s2 (s + 1) s3 s2
{f } = 4
= 4 + 4 .
s + 16 s + 16 s + 16
Thus
√ √ 1 √ √ √ √
f (t) = cos 2 t cosh 2 t + √ (sin 2 t cosh 2 t + cos 2 t sinh 2 t).
2 2

191
Exercises 4.4

44. The Laplace transform of the given equation is


 
{t} − 2 {f } = et − e−t {f }.

Solving for {f } we obtain


s2 − 1 1 1 1 3!
{f } = = − .
2s4 2 s2 12 s4
Thus
1 1
f (t) = t − t3 .
2 12
45. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

s {y} − y(0) = {1} − {sin t} − {1} {y}.

Solving for {f } we obtain


s3 − s2 + s 1 1 2s
{y} = = 2 + .
s(s2 + 1)2 s + 1 2 (s2 + 1)2
Thus
1
y = sin t − t sin t.
2
46. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

s {y} − y(0) + 6 {y} + 9 {1} {y} = {1}.


1
Solving for {f } we obtain {y} = . Thus, y = te−3t .
(s + 3)2

47. The differential equation is i


30

di 1 t   20
0.1 + 3i + i(τ )dτ = 100 (t − 1) − (t − 2)
dt 0.05 0 10
or 
di t   0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 t
+ 30i + 200 i(τ )dτ = 1000 (t − 1) − (t − 2) , -10
st 0
-20
where i(0) = 0. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is -30

200 1000 −s
s {i} − y(0) + 30 {i} + {i} = (e − e−2s ).
s s
Solving for {i} we obtain
 
1000e−s − 1000e−2s 100 100
{i} = = − (e−s − e−2s ).
s2 + 30s + 200 s + 10 s + 20
Thus
   
i(t) = 100 e−10(t−1) − e−20(t−1) (t − 1) − 100 e−10(t−2) − e−20(t−2) (t − 2).

192
Exercises 4.4

48. The differential equation is i


 2
di 1 t  
0.005 + i + i(τ )dτ = 100 t − (t − 1) (t − 1)
dt 0.02 0 1.5
or 
di t   1
+ 200i + 10,000 i(τ )dτ = 20,000 t − (t − 1) (t − 1) ,
st 0 0.5

where i(0) = 0. The Laplace transform of the differential equation is 0.5 1 1.5 2 t
 
10,000 1 1
s {i} + 200 {i} + {i} = 20,000 2 − 2 e−s .
s s s
Solving for {i} we obtain
 
20,000 −s 2 2 200
{i} = (1 − e ) = − − (1 − e−s ).
s(s + 100)2 s s + 100 (s + 100)2
Thus

i(t) = 2 − 2e−100t − 200te−100t − 2 (t − 1) + 2e−100(t−1) (t − 1) + 200(t − 1)e−100(t−1) (t − 1).

49. The differential equation is i


di 1
+ i = E(t),
dt
0.5
where i(0) = 0. The Laplace transform of this equation is
t
1 2 3 4
s {i} + {i} = {E(t)}.
-0.5
From Problem 23 we have
-1
1 − e−s
{E(t)} = .
s(1 + e−s )
Thus
1 − e−s
(s + 1) {i} =
s(1 + e−s )
and
1 − e−s 1 − e−s 1
{i} = −s
=
s(s + 1)(1 + e ) s(s + 1) 1 + e−s
 
1 1
= − (1 − e−s )(1 − e−s + e−2s − e−3s + e−4s − · · · )
s s+1
 
1 1
= − (1 − 2e−s + 2e−2s − 2e−3s + 2e−4s − · · · ).
s s+1
Therefore  
i(t) = 1 − 2 (t − 1) + 2 (t − 2) − 2 (t − 3) + 2 (t − 4) − · · ·

− e−t + 2e−(t−1) (t − 1) − 2e−(t−2) (t − 2)

+ 2e−(t−3) (t − 3) − 2e−(t−4) (t − 4) + · · ·

!  
= 1 − e−t + 2 (−1)n 1 − e−(t−n) (t − n).
n=1

193
Exercises 4.4

50. The differential equation is i


di 1
+ i = E(t),
dt 0.5
where i(0) = 0. The Laplace transform of this equation is
t
1 2 3 4
s {i} + {i} = {E(t)}.
-0.5
From Problem 25 we have -1
 
1 1 1 1 1 1
{E(t)} = − = 2− .
s s es − 1 s s es − 1
Thus
1 1 1
(s + 1) {i} = −
s2 s es − 1
and
1 1 1
{i} = −
s2 (s + 1) s(s + 1) es − 1
   
1 1 1 1 1 1
= − + − −
s2 s s+1 s s + 1 es − 1
   
1 1 1 1 1  −s 
= 2
− + − − e + e−2s + e−3s + e−4s − · · · .
s s s+1 s s+1
Therefore    
i(t) = t − 1 + e−t ) − (1 − e−(t−1) (t − 1) − 1 − e−(t−2) (t − 2)
   
− 1 − e−(t−3) (t − 3) − 1 − e−(t−4) (t − 4) − · · ·

!
 −t
  
= t−1+e − 1 − e−(t−n) (t − n).
n=1

51. The differential equation is x + 2x + 10x = 20f (t), where f (t) is the meander function with a = π. Using the
initial conditions x(0) = x (0) = 0 and taking the Laplace transform we obtain

20 1
(s2 + 2s + 10) {x(t)} = (1 − e−πs )
s 1 + e−πs
20
= (1 − e−πs )(1 − e−πs + e−2πs − e−3πs + · · ·)
s
20
= (1 − 2e−πs + 2e−2πs − 2e−3πs + · · ·)
s

20 40 !
= + (−1)n e−nπs .
s s n=1

Then
!∞
20 40
{x(t)} = + (−1)n e−nπs
s(s2 + 2s + 10) s(s2 + 2s + 10) n=1

!  
2 2s + 4 4 4s + 8
= − 2 + (−1)n − 2 e−nπs
s s + 2s + 10 n=1 s s + 2s + 10
!∞  
2 2(s + 1) + 2 n 1 (s + 1) + 1
= − + 4 (−1) − e−nπs
s (s + 1)2 + 9 n=1
s (s + 1)2+9

194
Exercises 4.4

and   
!∞
−t 1 −t
x(t) = 2 1 − e cos 3t − e sin 3t + 4 (−1) 1 − e−(t−nπ) cos 3(t − nπ)
n
3 n=1

1 −(t−nπ)
− e sin 3(t − nπ) (t − nπ).
3
The graph of x(t) on the interval [0, 2π) is shown below.

π 2π t

−3

52. The differential equation is x + 2x + x = 5f (t), where f (t) is the square wave function with a = π. Using the
initial conditions x(0) = x (0) = 0 and taking the Laplace transform, we obtain
5 1 5
(s2 + 2s + 1) {x(t)} = −πs
= (1 − e−πs + e−2πs − e−3πs + e−4πs − · · ·)
s 1+e s
!∞
5
= (−1)n e−nπs .
s n=0

Then  
!∞ !∞
5 n −nπs 1 1 1
{x(t)} = (−1) e =5 (−1)n
− − e−nπs
s(s + 1)2 n=0 n=0
s s + 1 (s + 1)2

and

!
x(t) = 5 (−1)n (1 − e−(t−nπ) − (t − nπ)e−(t−nπ) ) (t − nπ).
n=0

The graph of x(t) on the interval [0, 4π) is shown below.


x

t
2π 4π

−5

53. Let u = t − τ so that du = dτ and


 t  0
f ∗g = f (τ )g(t − τ ) dτ = − f (t − u)g(u)du = g ∗ f.
0 t
 t  t  t
54. f ∗ (g + h) = f (τ )[g(t − τ ) + h(t − τ )] dτ = f (τ )g(t − τ ) dτ + f (τ )h(t − τ ) dτ
0 0 0
 t
= f (τ )[g(t − τ ) + h(t − τ )] dτ = f ∗ g + f ∗ h
0

195
Exercises 4.4

55. (a) The output for the first three lines of the program are

9y[t] + 6y  [t] + y  [t] == t sin[t]


2s
1 − 2s + 9Y + s2 Y + 6(−2 + sY ) ==
(1 + s2 )2
 
−11 − 4s − 22s2 − 4s3 − 11s4 − 2s5
Y →−
(1 + s2 )2 (9 + 6s + s2 )
The fourth line is the same as the third line with Y → removed. The final line of output shows a solution
involving complex coefficients of eit and e−it . To get the solution in more standard form write the last line
as two lines:
euler = {Eˆ(I t) -> Cos[t] + I Sin[t], Eˆ(-I t) -> Cos[t] - I Sin[t]}
InverseLaplaceTransform[Y,s,t]/.euler//Expand
We see that the solution is
 
487 247 1
y(t) = + t e−3t + (13 cos t − 15t cos t − 9 sin t + 20t sin t) .
250 50 250

(b) The solution is



1 1 √ 3/5 −t/2 √
y(t) = et − e−t/2 cos 15 t − e sin 15 t.
6 6 6
(c) The solution is

q(t) = 1 − cos t + (6 − 6 cos t) (t − 3π) − (4 + 4 cos t) (t − π).


q

t
−5 π 3π

Exercises 4.5
1. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields
1 −2s
{y} = e
s−3
so that
y = e3(t−2) (t − 2).

2. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields


2 e−s
{y} = +
s+1 s+1
so that
y = 2e−t + e−(t−1) (t − 1).

3. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields


1  
{y} = 1 + e−2πs
s2 + 1

196
Exercises 4.5

so that
y = sin t + sin t (t − 2π).

4. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields


1 4
{y} = 2
e−2πs
4 s + 16
so that
1
y= sin 4(t − 2π) (t − 2π).
4
5. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields
1  −πs/2 
{y} = 2 e + e−3πs/2
s +1
so that
    
π  π 3π 3π
y = sin t − t− + sin t − t−
2 2 2 2
 π  π
= − cos t t− + cos t t− .
2 2
6. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields
s 1
{y} = + 2 (e−2πs + e−4πs )
s2 +1 s +1
so that
y = cos t + sin t[ (t − 2π) + (t − 4π)].

7. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields


 
1 −s 1 1 1 1
{y} = 2 (1 + e ) = − (1 + e−s )
s + 2s 2 s 2 s+2
so that  
1 1 −2t 1 1 −2(t−1)
y= − e + − e (t − 1).
2 2 2 2
8. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields
 
s+1 1 −2s 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 −2s
{y} = + e = − − + − e
s2 (s − 2) s(s − 2) 4 s − 2 4 s 2 s2 2 s−2 2 s
so that  
3 2t 3 1 1 1
y= e − − t + e2(t−2) − (t − 2).
4 4 2 2 2
9. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields
1
{y} = e−2πs
(s + 2)2 + 1
so that
y = e−2(t−2π) sin t (t − 2π).

10. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields


1
{y} = e−s
(s + 1)2
so that
y = (t − 1)e−(t−1) (t − 1).

197
Exercises 4.5

11. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields


4+s e−πs + e−3πs
{y} = +
s2 + 4s + 13 s2 + 4s + 13
2 3 s+2 1 3  −πs 
= 2 2
+ 2 2
+ 2 2
e + e−3πs
3 (s + 2) + 3 (s + 2) + 3 3 (s + 2) + 3
so that
2 −2t 1
y= e sin 3t + e−2t cos 3t + e−2(t−π) sin 3(t − π) (t − π)
3 3
1 −2(t−3π)
+ e sin 3(t − 3π) (t − 3π).
3
12. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields
1 e−2s + e−4s
{y} = +
(s − 1) (s − 6) (s − 1)(s − 6)
2

 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  −2s 
=− − + + − + e + e−4s
25 s − 1 5 (s − 1)2 25 s − 6 5 s−1 5 s−6
so that  
1 t 1 t 1 6t 1 t−2 1 6(t−2)
y = − e − te + e + − e + e (t − 2)
25 5 25 5 5
 
1 1
+ − et−4 + e6(t−4) (t − 4).
5 5
13. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields
1 2  1 3!  1 P0 3! −Ls/2
{y} = y (0) + y (0) + e
2 s3 6 s4 6 EI s4
so that  3  
1  1 1 P0 L L
y= y (0)x2 + y  (0)x3 + X− x− .
2 6 6 EI 2 2
Using y  (L) = 0 and y  (L) = 0 we obtain
 3  
1 P0 L 2 1 P0 3 1 P0 L L
y= x − x + x− x−
4 EI 6 EI 6 EI 2 2
  

 P0 L x2 − 1 x3 , 0 ≤ x < L

 EI 4 6 2
=
 P0 L  


2
1 L L
 x− , ≤ x ≤ L.
4EI 2 12 2
14. From Problem 13 we know that
 3  
1  1 1 P0 L L
y= y (0)x2 + y  (0)x3 + X− x− .
2 6 6 EI 2 2
Using y(L) = 0 and y  (L) = 0 we obtain
 3  
1 P0 L 2 1 P0 3 1 P0 L L
y= x − x + x− x−
16 EI 12 EI 6 EI 2 2
  


P0 L 2 1
x − x3 , 0≤x<
L

 EI 16 12 2
=
     3

 P L 2 1 1 P0 L L
 0 x − x3 + x− , ≤ x ≤ L.
EI 16 12 6 EI 2 2

198
Exercises 4.6

15. The Laplace transform of the differential equation yields


1
{y} =
s2 + ω 2
so that y(t) = sin ωt. Note that y  (0) = 1, even though the initial condition was y  (0) = 0.

Exercises 4.6
1. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
s {x} = − {x} + {y}
s {y} − 1 = 2 {x}

1 1 1 1 1
so that {x} = = −
(s − 1)(s + 2) 3 s−1 3 s+2
1 2 2 1 1 1
and {y} = + = + .
s s(s − 1)(s + 2) 3 s−1 3 s+2

1 t 1 −2t 2 t 1 −2t
Then x= e − e and y = e + e .
3 3 3 3
2. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
1
s {x} − 1 = 2 {y} +
s−1
1
s {y} − 1 = 8 {x} − 2
s

s3 + 7s2 − s + 1 1 1 8 1 173 1 53 1
so that {y} = = − + −
s(s − 1)(s2 − 16) 16 s 15 s − 1 96 s − 4 160 s + 4
1 8 173 4t 53 −4t
and y= − et + e − e .
16 15 96 160
1  1 1 1 173 4t 53 −4t
Then x= y + t = t − et + e + e .
8 8 8 15 192 320
3. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
s {x} + 1 = {x} − 2 {y}
s {y} − 2 = 5 {x} − {y}

−s − 5 s 5 3
so that {x} = =− 2 −
s2 + 9 s + 9 3 s2 + 9
5
and x = − cos 3t − sin 3t.
3
1 1 7
Then y= x − x = 2 cos 3t − sin 3t.
2 2 3
4. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
1
(s + 3) {x} + s {y} =
s
1
(s − 1) {x} + (s − 1) {y} =
s−1

199
Exercises 4.6

5s − 1 1 1 1 1 4 1
so that {y} = =− + +
3s(s − 1)2 3 s 3 s − 1 3 (s − 1)2
1 − 2s 1 1 1 1 1 1
and {x} = = − − .
3s(s − 1)2 3 s 3 s − 1 3 (s − 1)2

1 1 t 1 t 1 1 4
Then x= − e − te and y = − + et + tet .
3 3 3 3 3 3
5. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
1
(2s − 2) {x} + s {y} =
s
2
(s − 3) {x} + (s − 3) {y} =
s

−s − 3 1 1 5 1 2
so that {x} = =− + −
s(s − 2)(s − 3) 2 s 2 s−2 s−3
3s − 1 1 1 5 1 8 1
and {y} = =− − + .
s(s − 2)(s − 3) 6 s 2 s−2 3 s−3

1 5 1 5 8
Then x = − + e2t − 2e3t and y = − − e2t + e3t .
2 2 6 2 3
6. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
(s + 1) {x} − (s − 1) {y} = −1
s {x} + (s + 2) {y} = 1

s + 1/2 s + 1/2
so that {y} = = √
s2 + s + 1 (s + 1/2)2 + ( 3/2)2
−3/2 −3/2
and {x} = = √ .
s2 +s+1 (s + 1/2)2 + ( 3/2)2
√ √
−t/2 3 −t/2 3
Then y=e cos t and x = e sin t.
2 2
7. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
(s2 + 1) {x} − {y} = −2
− {x} + (s + 1)
2
{y} = 1

−2s2 − 1 1 1 3 1
so that {x} = =− 2 −
s4 + 2s2 2 s 2 s2 + 2
1 3 √
and x = − t − √ sin 2 t.
2 2 2

1 3 √
Then y = x + x = − t + √ sin 2 t.
2 2 2
8. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
(s + 1) {x} + {y} = 1
4 {x} − (s + 1) {y} = 1

200
Exercises 4.6

s+2 s+1 1 2
so that {x} = = +
s2 + 2s + 5 2
(s + 1) + 22 2 (s + 1)2 + 22
−s + 3 s+1 2
and {y} = =− +2 .
s2 + 2s + 5 (s + 1)2 + 22 (s + 1)2 + 22

1
Then x = e−t cos 2t + e−t sin 2t and y = −e−t cos 2t + 2e−t sin 2t.
2
9. Adding the equations and then subtracting them gives
d2 x 1
= t2 + 2t
dt2 2
d2 y 1
= t2 − 2t.
dt2 2
Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
1 1 4! 1 3!
and {x} = 8 + 5
+
s 24 s 3 s4
1 4! 1 3!
{y} = −
24 s5 3 s4

1 4 1 3 1 4 1 3
so that x=8+ t + t and y = t − t .
24 3 24 3
10. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
6
(s − 4) {x} + s3 {y} =
s2 +1
(s + 2) {x} − 2s3 {y} = 0

4 4 1 4 s 8 1
so that {x} = = − −
(s − 2)(s + 1)
2 5 s − 2 5 s + 1 5 s2 + 1
2

2s + 4 1 2 2 1 1 6 s 8 1
and {y} = = − 2 −2 3 + − + .
s3 (s − 2)(s + 1)
2 s s s 5 s − 2 5 s + 1 5 s2 + 1
2

4 2t 4 8
Then x= e − cos t − sin t
5 5 5
1 6 8
and y = 1 − 2t − 2t2 + e2t − cos t + sin t.
5 5 5
11. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
s2 {x} + 3(s + 1) {y} = 2
1
s2 {x} + 3 {y} =
(s + 1)2

2s + 1 1 1 1 2 1
so that {x} = − = + 2+ − .
s3 (s + 1) s s 2 s3 s+1

1
Then x = 1 + t + t2 − e−t
2
1 −t 1  1 1 1
and y= te − x = te−t + e−t − .
3 3 3 3 3

201
Exercises 4.6

12. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives


2e−s
(s − 4) {x} + 2 {y} =
s
1 e−s
−3 {x} + (s + 1) {y} = +
2 s

−1/2 1
so that {x} = + e−s
(s − 1)(s − 2) (s − 1)(s − 2)
   
1 1 1 1 1 1
= − + e−s − +
2 s−1 2 s−2 s−1 s−2

e−s s/4 − 1 −s/2 + 2


and {y} = + + e−s
s (s − 1)(s − 2) (s − 1)(s − 2)
 
3 1 1 1 −s 1 3 1 1
= − +e − + .
4 s−1 2 s−2 s 2 s−1 s−2

1 t 1 2t  t−1
Then x= e − e + −e + e2(t−1) (t − 1)
2 2
 
3 1 3
and y = et − e2t + 1 − et−1 + e2(t−1) (t − 1).
4 2 2

13. The system is


x1 = −3x1 + 2(x2 − x1 )
x2 = −2(x2 − x1 )
x1 (0) = 0
x1 (0) = 1
x2 (0) = 1
x2 (0) = 0.
Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
(s2 + 5) {x1 } − 2 {x2 } = 1
−2 {x1 } + (s + 2)
2
{x2 } = s

s2 + 2s + 2 2 s 1 1 2 s 4 6
so that {x1 } = 4 = + − + √
s + 7s2 + 6 5 s2 + 1 5 s2 + 1 5 s2 + 6 5 6 s2 + 6

s3 + 5s + 2 4 s 2 1 1 s 2 6
and {x2 } = 2 = + + − √ .
(s + 1)(s2 + 6) 5 s2 + 1 5 s2 + 1 5 s2 + 6 5 6 s2 + 6

2 1 2 √ 4 √
Then x1 = cos t + sin t − cos 6 t + √ sin 6 t
5 5 5 5 6
4 2 1 √ 2 √
and x2 = cos t + sin t + cos 6 t − √ sin 6 t.
5 5 5 5 6
14. In this system x1 and x2 represent displacements of masses m1 and m2 from their equilibrium positions. Since
the net forces acting on m1 and m2 are

−k1 x1 + k2 (x2 − x1 ) and − k2 (x2 − x1 ) − k3 x2 ,

202
Exercises 4.6

respectively, Newton’s second law of motion gives


m1 x1 = −k1 x1 + k2 (x2 − x1 )
m2 x2 = −k2 (x2 − x1 ) − k3 x2 .
Using k1 = k2 = k3 = 1, m1 = m2 = 1, x1 (0) = 0, x1 (0) = −1, x2 (0) = 0, and x2 (0) = 1, and taking the
Laplace transform of the system, we obtain
(2 + s2 ) {x1 } − {x2 } = −1
{x1 } − (2 + s ) 2
{x2 } = −1

1 1
so that {x1 } = − and {x2 } = .
s2 +3 s2 +3

1 √ 1 √
Then x1 = − √ sin 3 t and x2 = √ sin 3 t.
3 3

15. (a) By Kirchoff’s first law we have i1 = i2 +i3 . By Kirchoff’s second law, on each loop we have E(t) = Ri1 +L1 i2
and E(t) = Ri1 + L2 i3 or L1 i2 + Ri2 + Ri3 = E(t) and L2 i3 + Ri2 + Ri3 = E(t).
(b) Taking the Laplace transform of the system
0.01i2 + 5i2 + 5i3 = 100
0.0125i3 + 5i2 + 5i3 = 100

10,000
gives (s + 500) {i2 } + 500 {i3 } =
s
8,000
400 {i2 } + (s + 400) {i3 } =
s

8,000 80 1 80 1
so that {i3 } = = − .
s2 + 900s 9 s 9 s + 900
Then
80 80 −900t 100 100 −900t
i3 = − e and i2 = 20 − 0.0025i3 − i3 = − e .
9 9 9 9
(c) i1 = i2 + i3 = 20 − 20e−900t
16. (a) Taking the Laplace transform of the system
i2 + i3 + 10i2 = 120 − 120 (t − 2)
−10i2 + 5i3 + 5i3 = 0

120  
gives (s + 10) {i2 } + s {i3 } = 1 − e−2s
s
−10s {i2 } + 5(s + 1) {i3 } = 0

so that
 
120(s + 1)  −2s
 48 60 12  
{i2 } = 2
1 − e = − + 1 − e−2s
(3s + 11s + 10)s s + 5/3 s + 2 s
and  
240  −2s
 240 240  
{i3 } = 2
1 − e = − 1 − e−2s .
3s + 11s + 10 s + 5/3 s + 2

203
Exercises 4.6


Then i2 = 12 + 48e−5t/3 − 60e−2t − 12 + 48e−5(t−2)/3 − 60e−2(t−2) (t − 2)

and i3 = 240e−5t/3 − 240e−2t − 240e−5(t−2)/3 − 240e−2(t−2) (t − 2).

(b) i1 = i2 + i3 = 12 + 288e−5t/3 − 300e−2t − 12 + 288e−5(t−2)/3 − 300e−2(t−2) (t − 2)
17. Taking the Laplace transform of the system
i2 + 11i2 + 6i3 = 50 sin t
i3 + 6i2 + 6i3 = 50 sin t

50
gives (s + 11) {i2 } + 6 {i3 } =
s2
+1
50
6 {i2 } + (s + 6) {i3 } = 2
s +1
so that
50s 20 1 375 1 145 s 85 1
{i2 } = =− + + + .
(s + 2)(s + 15)(s2 + 1) 13 s + 2 1469 s + 15 113 s2 + 1 113 s2 + 1
20 −2t 375 −15t 145 85
Then i2 = − e + e + cos t + sin t
13 1469 113 113
25 1 11 30 −2t 250 −15t 280 810
and i3 = sin t − i2 − i2 = e + e − cos t + sin t.
3 6 6 13 1469 113 113
18. Taking the Laplace transform of the system
0.5i1 + 50i2 = 60
0.005i2 + i2 − i1 = 0

120
gives s {i1 } + 100 {i2 } =
s
−200 {i1 } + (s + 200) {i2 } = 0
so that
24,000 6 1 6 s + 100 6 100
{i2 } = = − − .
s(s2 + 200s + 20,000) 5 s 5 (s + 100)2 + 1002 5 (s + 100)2 + 1002
6 6 −100t 6
Then i2 = − e cos 100t − e−100t sin 100t
5 5 5
6 6 −100t
and i1 = 0.005i2 + i2 = − e cos 100t.
5 5
19. Taking the Laplace transform of the system
2i1 + 50i2 = 60
0.005i2 + i2 − i1 = 0

60
gives 2s {i1 } + 50 {i2 } =
s
−200 {i1 } + (s + 200) {i2 } = 0
6,000
so that {i2 } =
s(s2 + 200s + 5,000)
√ √
6 1 6 s + 100 6 2 50 2
= − √ − √ .
5 s 5 (s + 100)2 − (50 2 )2 5 (s + 100)2 − (50 2 )2

204
Exercises 4.6


6 6 −100t √ 6 2 −100t √
Then i2 = − e cosh 50 2 t − e sinh 50 2 t
5 5 5

6 6 √ 9 2 −100t √
and i1 = 0.005i2 + i2 = − e−100t cosh 50 2 t − e sinh 50 2 t.
5 5 10
20. (a) Using Kirchoff’s first law we write i1 = i2 + i3 . Since i2 = dq/dt we have i1 − i3 = dq/dt. Using Kirchoff’s
second law and summing the voltage drops across the shorter loop gives
1
E(t) = iR1 + q, (1)
C
1 1
so that i1 = E(t) − q.
R1 R1 C

dq 1 1
Then = i1 − i3 = E(t) − q − i3
dt R1 R1 C

dq 1
and R1+ q + R1 i3 = E(t).
dt C
Summing the voltage drops across the longer loop gives
di3
E(t) = i1 R1 + L + R2 i3 .
dt
Combining this with (1) we obtain
di3 1
i1 R1 + L + R2 i3 = i1 R1 + q
dt C
di3 1
or L + R2 i3 − q = 0.
dt C
(b) Using L = R1 = R2 = C = 1, E(t) = 50e−t (t − 1) = 50e−1 e−(t−1) (t − 1), q(0) = i3 (0) = 0, and taking
the Laplace transform of the system we obtain
50e−1 −s
(s + 1) {q} + {i3 } = e
s+1
(s + 1) {i3 } − {q} = 0,

50e−1 e−s
so that {q} =
(s + 1)2 + 1

and q(t) = 50e−1 e−(t−1) sin(t − 1) (t − 1) = 50e−t sin(t − 1) (t − 1).

21. (a) Taking the Laplace transform of the system


4θ1 + θ2 + 8θ1 = 0
θ1 + θ2 + 2θ2 = 0
 
gives 4 s2 + 2 {θ1 } + s2 {θ2 } = 3s
 
s 2
{θ1 } + s2 + 2 {θ2 } = 0
  
so that 3s2 + 4 s2 + 4 {θ2 } = −3s3

1 s 3 s
or {θ2 } = − .
2 s2 + 4/3 2 s2 + 4

205
Exercises 4.6

1 2 3
Then θ2 = cos √ t − cos 2t and θ1 = −θ2 − 2θ2
2 3 2

1 2 3
so that θ1 = cos √ t + cos 2t.
4 3 4

(b) θ1 θ2
2 2
1 1

3π 6π t 3π 6π t
−1 −1
−2 −2

Mass m2 has extreme displacements of greater magnitude. Mass m1 first passes through its equilibrium
position at about t = 0.87, and mass m2 first passes through its equilibrium position at about t = 0.66.
√ √
The motion of the pendulums is not periodic since cos 2t/ 3 has period 3 π, cos 2t has period π, and the

ratio of these periods is 3 , which is not a rational number.

θ2
(c) The Lissajous curve is plotted for 0 ≤ t ≤ 30.
2

θ1
-1-0.5 0.5 1

-1

-2

(d) t=0 t=1 t=2


t θ1 θ2
1 -0.2111 0.8263
2 -0.6585 0.6438
3 0.4830 -1.9145
4 -0.1325 0.1715
5 -0.4111 1.6951
6 0.8327 -0.8662
7 0.0458 -0.3186
t=3 t=4 8 -0.9639 0.9452
t=5
9 0.3534 -1.2741
10 0.4370 -0.3502

206
Chapter 4 Review Exercises

t=6 t=7 t=8 t=9 t=10

(e) Using a CAS to solve θ1 (t) = θ2 (t) we see that θ1 = θ2 (so that the double pendulum t=0.75
is straight out) when t is about 0.75 seconds.

(f ) To make a movie of the pendulum it is necessary to locate the mass in the plane as a function of time.
Suppose that the upper arm is attached to the origin and that the equilibrium position lies along the
negative y-axis. Then mass m1 is at (x, (t), y1 (t)) and mass m2 is at (x2 (t), y2 (t)), where

x1 (t) = 16 sin θ1 (t) and y1 (t) = −16 cos θ1 (t)

and
x2 (t) = x1 (t) + 16 sin θ2 (t) and y2 (t) = y1 (t) − 16 cos θ2 (t).
A reasonable movie can be constructed by letting t range from 0 to 10 in increments of 0.1 seconds.

Chapter 4 Review Exercises


 1  ∞
−st 1 2
1. {f (t)} = te dt + (2 − t)e−st dt = 2
− 2 e−s
0 1 s s
 4
1  −2s 
2. {f (t)} = e−st dt = e − e−4s
2 s
3. False; consider f (t) = t−1/2 .

4. False, since f (t) = (et )10 = e10t .

5. True, since lims→∞ F (s) = 1 = 0. (See Theorem 4.5 in the text.)

6. False; consider f (t) = 1 and g(t) = 1.


  1
7. e−7t =
s+7
 −7t  1
8. te =
(s + 7)2
2
9. {sin 2t} =
s2 + 4
 −3t  2
10. e sin 2t =
(s + 3)2 + 4
 
d 2 4s
11. {t sin 2t} = − = 2
ds s2 + 4 (s + 4)2

207
Chapter 4 Review Exercises

2
12. {sin 2t (t − π)} = {sin 2(t − π) (t − π)} = e−πs
s2 +4
  
20 1 5! 1
13. = = t5
s6 6 s6 6
   
1 1 1 1
14. = = et/3
3s − 1 3 s − 1/3 3
   
1 1 2 1
15. = = t2 e5t
(s − 5)3 2 (s − 5)3 2
    √
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 √
16. = − √ √ + √ √ = − √ e− 5 t + √ e 5 t
s −5
2
5 s+ 5 5 s− 5 5 5
   
s s−5 5 2 5
17. = + = e5t cos 2t + e5t sin 2t
s2 − 10s + 29 (s − 5)2 + 22 2 (s − 5)2 + 22 2
 
1 −5s
18. e = (t − 5) (t − 5)
s2
   
s + π −s s −s π −s
19. e = e + e
s2 + π 2 s2 + π 2 s2 + π 2
= cos π(t − 1) (t − 1) + sin π(t − 1) (t − 1)
   
1 1 L nπ/L 1 nπ
20. = 2 = sin t
L2 s2 + n2 π 2 L nπ s2 + (n2 π 2 )/L2 Lnπ L
 −5t 
21. e exists for s > −5.
  d
22. te8t f (t) = − F (s − 8).
ds
23. {eat f (t − k) (t − k)} = e−ks {ea(t+k) f (t)} = e−ks eak {eat f (t)} = e−k(s−a) F (s − a)
 t 
1 F (s − a)
24. eaτ f (τ ) dτ = {eat f (t)} = , whereas
0 s s
  t   t  
 F (s)  F (s − a)
eat f (τ ) dτ = f (τ ) dτ  =  = .
0 0 s→s−a s s→s−a s−a
25. f (t) (t − t0 )
26. f (t) − f (t) (t − t0 )
27. f (t − t0 ) (t − t0 )
28. f (t) − f (t) (t − t0 ) + f (t) (t − t1 )

29. f (t) = t − [(t − 1) + 1] (t − 1) + (t − 1) − (t − 4) = t − (t − 1) (t − 1) − (t − 4)


1 1 1
{f (t)} = − 2 e−s − e−4s
s2 s s
 t  1 1 1 −4(s−1)
e f (t) = − e−(s−1) − e
(s − 1)2 (s − 1)2 s−1
30. f (t) = sin t (t − π) − sin t (t − 3π) = − sin(t − π) (t − π) + sin(t − 3π) (t − 3π)
1 1
{f (t)} = − 2 e−πs + 2 e−3πs
s +1 s +1
 t  1 1
e f (t) = − e−π(s−1) + e−3π(s−1)
(s − 1)2 + 1 (s − 1)2 + 1

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Chapter 4 Review Exercises

31. f (t) = 2 − 2 (t − 2) + [(t − 2) + 2] (t − 2) = 2 + (t − 2) (t − 2)


2 1
{f (t)} = + 2 e−2s
s s
 t  2 1
e f (t) = + e−2(s−1)
s − 1 (s − 1)2
32. f (t) = t − t (t − 1) + (2 − t) (t − 1) − (2 − t) (t − 2) = t − 2(t − 1) (t − 1) + (t − 2) (t − 2)
1 2 1
{f (t)} = 2 − 2 e−s + 2 e−2s
s s s
 t  1 2 1
e f (t) = − e−(s−1) + e−2(s−1)
(s − 1)2 (s − 1)2 (s − 1)2
33. Taking the Laplace transform of the differential equation we obtain
5 1 2
{y} = +
(s − 1)2 2 (s − 1)3
so that
1
y = 5tet + t2 et .
2
34. Taking the Laplace transform of the differential equation we obtain
1
{y} =
(s − 1)2 (s2− 8s + 20)
6 1 1 1 6 s−4 5 2
= + − +
169 s − 1 13 (s − 1)2 169 (s − 4) + 2
2 2 338 (s − 4)2 + 22
so that
6 t 1 6 4t 5 4t
y= e + tet − e cos 2t + e sin 2t.
169 13 169 338
35. Taking the Laplace transform of the given differential equation we obtain
s3 + 6s2 + 1 1 2
{y} =2
− 2 e−2s − e−2s
s (s + 1)(s + 5) s (s + 1)(s + 5) s(s + 1)(s + 5)
6 1 1 1 3 1 13 1
=− · + · 2 + · − ·
25 s 5 s 2 s + 1 50 s + 5
 
6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
− − · + · 2+ · − · e−2s
25 s 5 s 4 s + 1 100 s + 5
 
2 1 1 1 1 1
− · − · + · e−2s
5 5 2 s + 1 10 s + 5
so that
6 1 3 −t 13 −5t 4 1
y=− + t2 + e − e − (t − 2) − (t − 2)2 (t − 2)
25 5 2 50 25 5
1 9 −5(t−2)
+ e−(t−2) (t − 2) − e (t − 2).
4 100
36. Taking the Laplace transform of the differential equation we obtain
s3 + 2 2 + 2s + s2 −s
{y} = − e
s3 (s − 5) s3 (s − 5)
 
2 1 2 1 1 2 127 1 37 1 12 1 1 2 37 1
=− − − + − − − − + e−s
125 s 25 s2 5 s3 125 s − 5 125 s 25 s2 5 s3 125 s − 5
so that
 
2 2 1 127 5t 37 12 1 37 5(t−1)
y=− − t − t2 + e − − − (t − 1) − (t − 1)2 + e (t − 1).
125 25 5 125 125 25 5 125

209
Chapter 4 Review Exercises

37. Taking the Laplace transform of the integral equation we obtain


1 1 1 2
{y} = + +
s s2 2 s3
so that
1
y(t) = 1 + t + t2 .
2
38. Taking the Laplace transform of the integral equation we obtain
6 1
( {f })2 = 6 · or {f } = ±6 ·
s4 s2
so that f (t) = ±6t.
39. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
1
s {x} + {y} = +1
s2
4 {x} + s {y} = 2
so that

s2 − 2s + 1 1 1 1 1 9 1
{x} = =− + + .
s(s − 2)(s + 2) 4 s 8 s−2 8 s+2
Then
1 1 9 9 −2t 1 2t
x = − + e2t + e−2t and y = −x + t = e − e + t.
4 8 8 4 4
40. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
1
s2 {x} + s2 {y} =
s−2
1
2s {x} + s2 {y} = −
s−2
so that
2 1 1 1 1 1
{x} = = − +
s(s − 2)2 2 s 2 s − 2 (s − 2)2
and
−s − 2 3 1 1 1 3 1 1
{y} = =− − + − .
s2 (s − 2)2 4 s 2 s2 4 s − 2 (s − 2)2
Then
1 1 2t 3 1 3
x= − e + te2t and y = − − t + e2t − te2t .
2 2 4 2 4
41. The integral equation is
 t
10i + 2 i(τ ) dτ = 2t2 + 2t.
0
Taking the Laplace transform we obtain
 
4 2 s s+2 9 2 45 9 2 9
{i} = 3
+ 2
= 2 =− + 2 + =− + 2 + .
s s 10s + 2 s (5s + 2) s s 5s + 1 s s s + 1/5
Thus
i(t) = −9 + 2t + 9e−t/5 .

42. The differential equation is


1 d2 q dq
2
+ 10 + 100q = 10 − 10 (t − 5).
2 dt dt

210
Chapter 4 Review Exercises

Taking the Laplace transform we obtain


20  
{q} = 1 − e−5s
2(s2 + 20s + 200)
 
1 1 1 s + 10 1 10  
= − 2 2
− 2 2
1 − e−5s
10 s 10 (s + 10) + 10 10 (s + 10) + 10
so that
1 1 1
q(t) = − e−10t cos 10t − e−10t sin 10t
10 10 10
 
1 1 1
− − e−10(t−5) cos 10(t − 5) − e−10(t−5) sin 10(t − 5) (t − 5).
10 10 10

43. Taking the Laplace transform of the given differential equation we obtain
 
2w0 L 4! 1 5! 1 5! c1 2! c2 3!
{y} = · 5− · 6+ · 6 e−sL/2 + · + ·
EIL 48 s 120 s 120 s 2 s3 6 s4
so that
 5  
2w0 L 4 1 5 1 L L c1 c2
y= x − x + x− x− + x2 + x3
EIL 48 120 120 2 2 2 6
where y  (0) = c1 and y  (0) = c2 . Using y  (L) = 0 and y  (L) = 0 we find

c1 = w0 L2 /24EI, c2 = −w0 L/4EI.

Hence
 5  
w0 1 L L2 3 L3 2 1 L L
y= − x5 + x4 − x + x + x− x− .
12EIL 5 2 2 4 5 2 2

44. Taking the Laplace transform of the given differential equation we obtain
c1 2s c2 4 w0 4
{y} = · + · + · e−sπ/2
2 s4 + 4 4 s4 + 4 4EI s4 + 4
so that
c1 c2
y= sin x sinh x + (sin x cosh x − cos x sinh x)
2 4
w0   π  π  π  π  π
+ sin x − cosh x − − cos x − sinh x − x−
4EI 2 2 2 2 2
where y  (0) = c1 and y  (0) = c2 . Using y(π) = 0 and y  (π) = 0 we find
w0 sinh π2 w0 cosh π2
c1 = , c2 = − .
EI sinh π EI sinh π
Hence
w0 sinh π2 w0 cosh π2
y= sin x sinh x − (sin x cosh x − cos x sinh x)
2EI sinh π 4EI sinh π
w0   π  π  π  π  π
+ sin x − cosh x − − cos x − sinh x − x− .
4EI 2 2 2 2 2

211