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 PRINCIPLE – Using high tensile strength
steel alloys producing permanent pre-
compression in areas subjected to Tension.
 A portion of tensile stress is counteracted
thereby reducing the cross-sectional area of
the steel reinforcement .
 METHODS :- a) Pretensioning
 PRETENSIONING :- Placing of concrete
around reinforcing tendons that have been
stressed to the desired degree.
 POST-TENSIONING :- Reinforcing tendons
are stretched by jacks whilst keeping them in
serted in voids left pre-hand during curing of
 These spaces are then pumped full of grout to
bond steel tightly to the concrete.


 Post-tensioning- is a method of
reinforcing (strengthening) concrete or other
materials with highstrength steel strands called
 Post-tensioning allows construction that
would otherwise be impossible due to either site
constraints or architectural requirements.
 Requires specialized knowledge and expertise to
fabricate, assemble and install.
 After adequate curing of concrete,
reinforcing tendons (placed in side the voids of the
structure) are tensioned/stretched by jacks on the sides
& grouts filled with appropriate mix.
 Applications – a) Structural members
beams, bridge-deck panels, Roof –Slabs, Concrete
Silos Etc.
 Concrete is very strong in compression but weak in
 This deflection will cause the bottom of the beam to
elongate slightly & cause cracking.
 Steel reinforcing bars (“rebar”) are typically
embedded in the concrete as tensile reinforcement
to limit the crack widths. Rebar is what is called
“passive” reinforcement however; it does not carry
any force until the concrete has already deflected
enough to crack.
 Post-tensioning tendons, on the other hand, are
considered “active” reinforcing.
 Because it is prestressed, the steel is effective as
reinforcement even though the concrete may not be
cracked .
 Post-tensioned structures can be designed to have
minimal deflection and cracking, even under full load.

Post –Tensioned Structure

This innovative form is result of
post tensioning.

 Post-tensioning allows longer clear spans, thinner slabs, fewer
beams and more slender, dramatic elements.
 Thinner slabs mean less concrete is required. It means a lower
overall building height for the same floor-to-floor height.
 Post-tensioning can thus allow a significant reduction in building
weight versus a conventional concrete building with the same
number of floors reducing the foundation load and can be a major
advantage in seismic areas.
 A lower building height can also translate to considerable savings
in mechanical systems and façade costs.
 Another advantage of post-tensioning is that beams Bridge decks
and slabs can be continuous, i.e. a single beam can
run continuously from one end of the building to
the other.
 Reduces occurrence of cracks .
 Freezing & thawing durability is higher than non
prestressed concrete.
 Post-tensioning is the system of choice for parking
structures since it allows a high degree of flexibility
in the column layout, span lengths and ramp
 In areas where there are expansive clays or soils
with low bearing capacity, post-tensioned slabs-on-
ground and mat foundations reduce problems with
cracking and differential settlement.
 Post-tensioning allows bridges to be built to very
demanding geometry requirements, including
complex curves, and significant grade changes.
 Post-tensioning also allows extremely long span
bridges to be constructed without the use of
temporary intermediate supports. This minimizes
the impact on the environment
and avoids disruption to water or road traffic below.
 In stadiums, post-tensioning allows long clear spans
and very creative architecture. \
 Post-tensioning can also be used to produce
virtually crack-free concrete for water-tanks.
 The high tensile strength & precision of placement
gives maximum efficiency in size & weight of
structural members.
 Applications of various prestressed techniques enable quick assembly of
standard units such as bridge members,building frames, bridge decks
providing cost-time savings.
 Since post-tensioned concrete is cast in place at the
CONSTRUCTION job site, there is almost no limit to the shapes that
can be formed.
 In slab-on-ground construction, unbonded tendons
are typically prefabricated at a plant and delivered to
the construction site, ready to install.
 The tendons are laid out in the forms in accordance
with installation drawings that .
 After the concrete is placed and has reached its
strength, usually between 3000 and 3500 psi
(“pounds per square inch”), the tendons are
stressed and anchored.
 The tendons, like rubber bands, want to return to
their original length but are prevented from doing so
by the anchorages.
 The fact the tendons are kept in a permanently
(elongated) state causes a compressive force to
act on the concrete.
 The compression that results from the post-
tensioning counteracts the tensile forces created by
subsequent applied loading (cars, people, the weight
of the beam itself when the shoring is removed).
 This significantly increases the load-carrying
capacity of the concrete.
Limitations of Prestressing prestressing is a possible solution may be the cost of
The limitations of prestressed concrete are few and really providing moulds for runs of limited quantity of small
depend only upon the imagination of the designer and the numbers of non-standard units.
terms of his brief. The only real limitation where
Method of post-tensioning
Tendons Wedges tensioned by

 Prestressed concrete, invented by Eugene
Frevssinet in 1928 is a method for overcoming
concrete’’s natural weakness in tension . It can
be used to produce beams , floors or bridges
with a longer span than is practical with
ordinary reinforced concrete.
 It can be accomplished in three ways:
pretensioned concrete, and bonded or
unbonded. Pre-tensioned concrete
 Pre-tensioned concrete is cast around already
tensioned tendons.
 This method produces a good bond between the
tendon and concrete, which both protects the tendon
from corrosion and allows for direct transfer of tension.
 The cured concrete adheres and bonds to the bars
and when the tension is released it is transferred to the
concrete as compression by static friction.
 However, it requires stout anchoring points between
which the tendon is to be stretched and the tendons
are usually in a straight line.
 Thus, most pretensioned concrete elements are prefabricated in a factory and must be transported
to the construction site, which limits their size.
 Pre-tensioned elements may be balcony elements, lintels , floor slabs, beams or foundation piles.
Bonded post-tensioned concrete
 Bonded post-tensioned concrete is the descriptive term for a
method of applying compression after pouring concrete and
the curing process (in situ).
 The concrete is cast around a plastic, steel or aluminium
curved duct, to follow the area where otherwise tension
would occur in the concrete element.
 A set of tendons are fished through the duct and the
concrete is poured. Once the concrete has hardened, the
tendons are tensioned by hydraulic jacks.
 When the tendons have stretched sufficiently, according to
the design specifications they are wedged in position and
maintain tension after the jacks are removed, transferring
pressure to the concrete.
 The duct is then grouted to protect the tendons from corrosion.

This method is commonly used to create monolithic slabs for DECK STEEL LAYING
house construction in locations where expansive soils create
problems for the typical perimeter foundation.
 All stresses from seasonal expansion and contraction of the
underlying soil are taken into the entire tensioned slab, which
supports the building without significant flexure. Post-stressing is
also used in the construction of various bridges.
 The advantages of this system over unbonded post-tensioning

are :
 Large reduction in traditional reinforcement
requirements as tendons cannot destress in accidents.
 Tendons can be easily 'weaved' allowing a
more efficient design approach.
 Higher ultimate strength due to bond
generated between the strand and concrete.
 No long term issues with maintaining the
integrity of the anchor/dead end.
Unbonded post-tensioned
 Unbonded post-tensioned concrete differs
from bonded post-tensioning by providing
each individual cable permanent freedom of
movement relative to the concrete.
 To achieve this, each individual tendon is
coated with a grease (generally lithium
based) and covered by a plastic sheathing
formed in an extrusion process.
 The transfer of tension to the concrete is
achieved by the steel cable acting against
steel anchors in the perimeter of the slab.
 The main disadvantage over bonded posttensioning is
the fact that a cable can destress itself and burst out of
the slab if damaged (such as during repair on the
slab). The advantages of this system over bonded
post-tensioning are:

External Prestressing
 This refers to the case where prestressing tendons are
placed outside the concrete section and the prestressing
force is transferred to a structural member through end
anchorages or deviators. Advantages of external
prestressing include the possibility of monitoring and
replacing tendons, ease in concreting and hence better
concrete quality and the use of narrower webs. External
prestressing is being increasingly used in the construction
of new bridges and is a primary method for the
strengthening and rehabilitation of existing structures.
 At NUS, a three-year project on the application of external
prestressing in structural strengthening has been
completed, and this has resulted in design charts being
developed for such applications. Works were also carried
out on the use of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP)
reinforcement as external tendons in both simply
supported and continuous beams.
APPLICATIONS “trays” 30-ft. above a waterfall. Previous efforts failed to permanently
address excessive deflections of the cantilever and repair the cracks.
• Fallingwater is comprised of a series of concrete
After a thorough design review, the owner and engineer selected an
external post-tensioning solution for its durability, aesthetics was placed beneath the main level terrace.
and structural unobtrusiveness.
• Construction plans called for strengthening of three
support girders spanning in the north-south direction with
multistrand post-tensioning tendons consisting of multiple
0.5” diameter strands.
• Thirteen strand tendons were placed on each side of
two girders. One 10-strand tendon was placed on the
western side of the third girder (access on the eastern side
of this girder was not available). Eight monostrand tendons,
0.6” diameter, were slated for the east-west direction.
•The monostrand tendons were stressed in the east-west
direction and then the multistrand tendons were stressed in the
north-south direction and grouted with a high quality, low-bleed
cementitious grout mixture.
•VSL’s scope of work also included welding steel cover plates,
attaching structural steel channels, injecting epoxy grout,
doweling reinforced cast in place concrete blocks and the
installation of near surface mounted carbon fiber rods.
Challenged with maintaining Fallingwater’s original setting,
furnishings and artwork, the project was successfully
completed in six months.
The lower and upper terraces
cantilever over the stream below. The
temporary structural steel shoring
Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater Mill Run, Pennsylvania
 Cline Avenue Bridge Gary, Indiana
 The Cline Avenue Bridge (SR 912) is a predominately cast-in-place post-
tensioned structure located in Gary, Indiana. The bridge mainline is over
6,000 LF, has two adjacent segments nearly 35 feet wide each, and
contains four connecting ramps. An inspection and analysis team was
assembled to perform a thorough investigation of the bridge. The team
concentrated on the existing post-tensioning system and interior and
exterior concrete cracks. The engineer retained VSL to assist with the
inspection of the tendons.
 VSL approached the Cline Avenue project with a guideline that outlines a
statistically sound method of sampling the tendons. A statistical sample pool
(which consisted of the mainline structure and the ramps) was defined by
referencing the American National Standard Institute’s (ANSI) guideline
“Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspection by Attributes as published
by the American Society for Quality Control (1993).”  The probable void
locations throughout the structure’s mainline segments and ramps were
initially identified by VSL to appropriately distribute the sampling population.
Such areas consisted of high points, areas approaching and leaving the
high points, and couplers.
 Using non-destructive Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and field layout
drawings, VSL located existing post-tensioning tendons. Once the layout
was performed, specific tendons throughout the bridge and ramp structures
were sampled by drilling into the duct and exposing the tendon for visual
inspection. The use of a borescope allowed for detailed visual inspection of
the tendon and also captured video footage to share with the owner and the
engineer. After review of each inspection, VSL placed epoxy in the
borescope hole to protect the tendons from air and moisture intrusion.
When voids were encountered, the project team observed and documented
the condition of the strand based on the PCI Journal guideline, “Evaluation
of Degree of Rusting on Prestressed Concrete Strand.” VSL used vacuum
grouting technology to fill the void, thereby protecting the previously
exposed strand.
 The tendon inspection data was analyzed with other findings (such as crack survey findings) to determine what type of rehabilitation
was required. VSL’s goal to establish a statistically sound sample of physically inspected tendons that provided
valid data as to the current state of the existing PT system was accomplishedGrouting of void using VSL’s specialized vacuum grouting equipment
 85th Street Bridge Valley Center, Kansas
 The 85th Street North Bridge is a seven span post-tensioned
haunched slab bridge with a typical span of 26 meters for the
middle five spans, and 20 meters at the ends. This 170 meter
long bridge accommodates two lanes of traffic reaching over the
Wichita Valley Center Floodway. VSL post-tensioning systems
utilized for this project include 5-19 longitudinal tendons as well
as 6-4 transverse tendons.
 Post-tensioned haunched slab bridges are noted for ease of
construction. Once the geometry of the bridge falsework has
been obtained, prefabricated spacer frames are set into place.
The spacer frames serve as templates for profiling the
longitudinal post-tensioning tendons and aid in the placement of
the remaining conventional reinforcement. Transverse tendons
maintain mid-depth placement along the geometry of the
haunched slab and provide the minimum precompression over
the length of the structure.
 The fi nished product has several advantages over
conventionally reinforced concrete. Dead loads are balanced by
the use of longitudinal post-tensioning reducing the sustained
loading and associated creep. Corrosion resistance is increased
due to the encapsulation of the posttensioning reinforcement.
Through the use of transverse post-tensioning, added
compression improves the longevity of the structure by adding
resistance to de-icing methods such as salt and magnesium
chloride. Post-tensioned haunched slab bridges allow for a larger
span to depth ratio than that of conventionally reinforced
haunched slab bridges. The labor and material savings on mild
reinforcement is another clear advantage to using post-
tensioning for this Overlooking the 85th Street Bridge prior to concrete placement application.
Colorado Convention Center
Denver, Colorado
 The Colorado Convention Center Expansion
project is a 1.4 million square foot expansion of the existing facility. This was a multi-level project, which included a 1,000-car
attached parking garage.
 The garage above the street was constructed using precast tees and columns with a cast-inplace topping slab. In order to
maintain regular spacing for the columns in the precast section of the garage and still maintain an unobstructed path for the
road and light rail, large post-tensioned transfer girders were required to support several of the columns above. The transfer
girders allowed for the placement of columns required for the precast design despite the restricted column locations at the
street level.
 Post-tensioning the transfer girders resulted in smaller dimensions than a conventional reinforced concrete design, an
important factor given the girders are over 7 feet high and up to 7 feet wide and a larger section would not fit within the
space constraints of the building. The girders could not be stressed until after the precast garage was fully erected and the
topping slab poured on the truck dock. Temporary columns were placed under the girders to support the load until stressing.
 The effective post-tensioning force required for the beams ranged from 2176 to 5457 kips. A multistrand bonded system was
 The Seward Silo project involved the post-tensioning of three
interconnected ash silos that are part of the Seward Re-
Powering Project in Seward, Pennsylvania. The overall project
involved the construction of a new, state-of-the-art 208 MW
power plant designed to burn low-grade coal that can not be
burned in ordinary coal plants. This is a design-build project
with Drake-Fluor Daniel as the owner/construction manager
until the completed plant is turned over to Reliant Energy, the
ultimate owner.
 T.E. Ibberson Company was contracted to build three 187’-6”
tall, interconnected, in-line silos; two 82’-4” diameter fly ash
silos and one 64’-8” diameter bed ash silo. The silos were built
using the slip-form method of construction and are believed to
be the first interconnected silos in the world built using post-
tensioning as the primary circumferential reinforcement.
 VSL’s work was performed from November 2003 through
February 2004, during the second coldest winter on record
locally. Significant snowfall and subzero temperatures made
progress challenging, yet with a strong focus on safety, both
cold-related and otherwise, the job was completed with no
incidents. The job required close coordination between the
various trades working in close proximity and constant
communication between parties working above and below
VSL’s work locations to phase the work to avoid having
personnel under an active work zone.
 The strand installation, stressing and grouting operations were
completed successfully, with cold-weather grouting made
possible through a variety of heating methods.
Seward Silo


 Bicycle wheel as we know it today - each is
associated with an application of prestressing to a
structural system.
 The first and most obvious is the tensioned spokes
- the rider's weight is carried from the forks to the
ground not by hanging off the top spokes, but by
reducing the pretension in the lower spokes - only
a couple of spokes are carrying the load at any
one time.
 The second is the pneumatic tyre, where the
compressive load is carried to the ground by
reducing the tension in the sidewall. The air
pressure in the tyre does not change when the
load is applied.
 The final prestressing system is the tyre cord, which is shorter than the perimeter of the rim. The cord is
thus in tension, holding the tyre on the rim, which enables the pretension in the sidewalls to be reacted

 T6Z-08 Air Powered Grout Pump
 Pumps cement grout only, no sand. 32 Gallon Mixing Tank.
Mixes up to 2 sacks of material at once and allows for grout
to be pumped during mixing or mixed without pumping.
Approximate size 50" long
30.5" high
52" wide

Weight 560 lbs.

Production Rate 8 gallons per minute

at 150 psi

 Colloidal Grout Plant

 The heavy duty, high volume Colloidal Grout Plant is favored for precision post-tension grouting. The unit features a high
speed shear mixer that thoroughly wets each particle and discharges the mixed material into a 13 cubic foot capacity
agitating holding tank. A direct coupled progressing cavity pump delivers slurries at a rate of up to 20 gpm and pressures of
up to 261 psi. The unit easily mixes and pumps slurries of Portland cement, fly ash, bentonite, and lime flour. All controls are
conveniently located on the operator platform for easy one-man control.
Pump 31.6 progressing
Pump Type cavity

variable up to 20
Output/Pressure gpm, 261 psi

Colloidal Mixer 13.0 CF with bottom

Mix Tank clean out

Mixing Pump diffusertype
13.0 paddle
Holding Tank agitating

Drive Power Air 300 CFM, 100 psi

Physical 96" L x 60" W x 63"

Specifications Dimensions H
Weight 1800-2800 lbs.
 T7Z Hydraulic Jacks
 Used for testing and pre-stressing anchor bolts. Available
with up to 5-1/8" center hole. Unit comes with ram, pump,
gauge, hoses, jack stand, high strength coupling, high
strength test rod, plate, hex nut and knocker wrench.
Calibrations are available upon request.
 Note: Jack pull rods should have a higher capacity than the
anchor rod.
T80 Post-Tensioning Jacks

With the T80 series the enclosed bearing housing

contains a geared socket drive to tighten the bolt hex
nut during tensioning. Test jack housing will
accommodate up to a 9” deep pocket.
T80 Post-
 T8Z-18 Hydraulic Torque Wrench

Length Height Weight

ft./lbs. 11.11" 4.49"
lbs. (7.6
(773 kg/M) (279 mm) (114 kg)
8,000 ft.lbs. 24.95  The hydraulic torque wrench is used for tensioning anchors in tight
12.57" 5.09"
(1,006 lbs. (11.3 fitting locations where it would be difficult to use an hydraulic jack. The
kg/M) (319 kg) (129 kg) wrench is
recommended for use when setting the large diameter Spin-Lock
anchors. The torque wrenches are light weight and can achieve a
maximum of 8,000 ft-lbs. Torque Tensioning charts Williams
products can be found here.

 T8Z Torque Wrench

 For applying torque to the anchor bolt when

setting the anchor. Torque Tensioning
charts Williams products can be found
Bolt Square Capacity
Diameter Drive Size (ft. lbs.)
*1/2"-1" 3/4" 0-500
1/2"-1" 3/4" 0-600
*1-1/8"-2" 1" 0-1,000
T8Z-04 Torque Multiplier (4:1)
For use with T8Z Torque Wrench. Other sizes available

Square Square Maximu

Size Drive Drive m
Input Output Torque

GA 186 1" 1-1/2"
(ft. lbs.)
T1Z & T2Z Long Fitting Tool Adapters
For driving hex nuts and setting tools, typically
with our Spin-Lock anchor systems. Works
with torque wrench or impact gun. Available
with 1" or 1-1/2" square drive.
Please specify square drive for 2Z
Regular Socket T1Z Deep Socket compatability with your equipment.

K3F-26 Long Fitting Wrench Adapter

For applying torque to recessed anchor nuts that are under tension when using
hydraulic jacks. Available in all anchor sizes.

Corrosion Protection
Methods of Corrosion Protection
Can be
Corrosion Abrasion Relative
Typical applied to
Protection Resistance Cost Lead Time accessories ?
Type (4=best) (4=highest)

Hot Dip
Galvanizing 4 3-4 mils 2 2-4 weeks yes
Coating 1 7-12 mils 1 2-3 weeks yes

Pre-Grouted 3 2", 3" or 4" 3 2 weeks no

Bars tubing
Polyethylene 2 23-25 mils 1 2-4 weeks no
Inhibiting 2 N.A. 2 2-4 weeks yes

Methods of Corrosion Protection

Epoxy Coating
Fusion bonded epoxy coating of steel bars to help prevent
corrosion has been successfully employed in many applications
because of the chemical stability of epoxy resins. Epoxy coated
bars and fasteners should be done in accordance with ASTM A775
or ASTM 934. Coating thickness is generally specified between 7
to 12 mils. Epoxy coated bars and components are subject to
damage if dragged on the ground or mishandled. Heavy plates and
nuts are often galvanized even though the bar may be epoxy
coated since they are difficult to protect against abrasion in the
field. Epoxy coating patch kits are often used in the field for
repairing nicked or scratched epoxy surfaces.
Pre-Grouted Bars
Cement Grout filled corrugated polyethylene tubing is often used to
provide an additional barrier against corrosion attack in highly
aggressive soils. These anchors are often referred to as MCP or
Multiple Corrosion Protection anchors. The steel bars are wrapped with
an internal centralizer then placed inside of the polyethylene tube
where they are then factory pre-grouted. When specifying couplings
with MCP ground anchors, verify coupling locations with a Williams
Hot Dip
Zinc serves as a sacrificial metal corroding preferentially to
the steel. Galvanized bars have excellent bond
characteristics to grout or concrete and do not
require as much care in handling as epoxy coated bars.
However, galvanization of anchor rods is more
expensive than epoxy coating and often has greater lead
time. Hot dip galvanizing bars and fasteners should be done
in accordance with ASTM A-153. Typical galvanized coating
thickness for steel bars and components is between 3 and 4
mils. 150 KSI high strength steel bars should always be
mechanically cleaned (never acid washed) to avoid problems associated with hydrogen embrittlement.
Extruded Polyethylene
Williams strand tendons contain an extruded high density
polyethylene sheathing around each individual strand in the
free-stressing portion of the anchorage. The sheathing is
minimum 60 mils thick and applied once the 7-wire strand has
been coated with a corrosion inhibiting compound. Extruded
polyethylene sheathing provides a moisture tight barrier for
corrosion protection and allows the strand to elongate freely
throughout the free-stressing length during the prestressing
Corrosion Inhibiting Wax or Grease with Sheath
Williams corrosion inhibiting compounds can be placed in the
free stressing sleeves, in the end caps, or in the trumpet
areas. Often bars are greased/waxed and PVC is slipped
over the greased/waxed bar prior to shipping. Each are of
an organic compound with either a grease or wax base.
They provide the appropriate polar moisture displacement
and have corrosion inhibiting additives with self-healing
properties. They can be pumped or applied manually.
Corrosion inhibiting compounds stay permanently viscous,
chemically stable and non-reactive with the prestressing
steel, duct materials or grout. Both compounds meet PTI
standards for Corrosion Inhibiting Coating.

Coal Tar Epoxy

Coal tar epoxy has shown to be abrasion resistant,

economical and durable. This product when specified
should meet or exceed the requirements of (a) Corp of
Engineers C-200, C200a and (b) AWWA C-210-92 for
exterior. Typically the thickness is between 8 and 24 mils.
Make sure that the surfaces of the bar are clean and dry
before coating.
 Heat Shrink Tubing
 Heat Shrink Tubing provides a corrosion
protected seal when connecting smooth or
corrugated segments.

Epoxy Coating Patch Kits

Epoxy Coating Patch Kits are available upon request.

Anchor Head Protection

The most important section of a ground anchor that needs adequate corrosion protection is the portion of the anchor
exposed to air/oxygen. This is typically defined as the "anchor head", which
generally consists of a steel bearing plate, a hex nut and washer for a bar
system, or a wedge plate and wedges for a strand system. For permanent
ground anchors it is best to galvanize the hex nut and plates even if the bar is
epoxy coated.
Galvanized components, if scratched during shipping, are less likely to Fiber Reinforced Strand Screw-On cause corrosion
concerns than scratched epoxy coated components. The Nylon Cap End Cap end of the
steel bar protruding out from the hex nut is often protected by the use of a plastic or steel end cap packed
with grease or cement grout. Williams offers several different types of PVC and metal end caps to provide
Steel Tube Welded on Flange with
corrosion protection at otherwise exposed anchor ends.
Threaded Screw Connections
 Field Splice for Bars
 Continuous corrosion protection can even be accomplished for the MCP
Pregrouted anchors manufactured from Williams Form Engineering. To achieve the
equivalent levels of corrosion protection the coupled sections of bar anchors can
be wrapped in a grease impregnated tape that is further protected with heat shrink
sleeving. This scheme is acceptable by most governing agencies and is specified
in the PTI Recommendations for Prestresed Rock and Soil Anchors.