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Rev 2 April 2013

Appendix 5
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2013

Training
Macroscopic

A5-3
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Rev 2 April 2013
Appendix 5
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2013

Training Macro 1

Welding process used MMA (SMAW)

1
10 2

8 4

5
7
6

A5-4
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Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

These questions to be used with training macro 1

1 What is the indication at position 1 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Slag inclusions.
b Porosity.
c Excessive grain size.
d Tungsten inclusions.
e Accept.
f Reject.

2 The area identified at position 2 is the?

a Fusion zone.
b Fusion boundary.
c Toe of the weld.
d Undercut.

3 The area identified at position 3 is the?

a Fusion boundary.
b Acid marks.
c Polished area.
d Heat affected zone.

4 What is the indication at position 4 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Lack of inter-run fusion.


b Fusion boundary.
c Lack of sidewall fusion.
d Linear crack.
e Accept.
f Reject.

5 What is the indication at position 5 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Gas cavity.
b Lack of sidewall fusion.
c Slag trapped at the toes of the weld.
d Lack of inter-run fusion and slag.
e Accept.
f Reject.

A5-5
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Rev 2 April 2013
Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

6 What is the indication at position 6 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Slag inclusion.
b Lack of root fusion.
c Lack of root penetration.
d Burn-through.
e Accept.
f Reject.

7 What is the indication at position 7 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Lack of inter-run fusion.


b Lack of sidewall fusion.
c Crack.
d Porosity in the root.
e Accept.
f Reject.

8 What is the indication at position 8 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Lamellar tearing.
b Hydrogen cracks.
c Laminations.
d Stress cracks.
e Accept.
f Reject.

9 What is the indication at position 9 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Overlap.
b Toe of the weld with good transition.
c Toe of the weld with poor transition.
d Undercut at the toe of the weld.
e Accept.
f Reject.

10 Which term best describes this welded joint?

a Square edge butt joint.


b Double V butt joint.
c Single V butt joint.
d T butt fillet weld.

A5-6
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Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

Training Macro 2

Welding process used MMA (SMAW)

2
10

8 4

6
7

A5-7
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Rev 2 April 2013
Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

These questions to be used with training macro 2

1 What is the indication at position 1 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Poor toe blend.


b Undercut.
c Lack of fusion.
d Underfill.
e Accept.
f Reject.

2 What is the indication at position 2 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Undercut.
b Poor toe blend.
c Underfill.
d Lack of sidewall fusion.
e Accept.
f Reject.

3 What is the indication at position 3 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Lamellar tearing.
b Corrosion crack.
c Hydrogen crack.
d Lamination.
e Accept.
f Reject.

4 What is the indication at position 4 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Lack of inter-run fusion.


b Lack of sidewall fusion and slag.
c Weld boundary.
d Lack of sidewall fusion and silicon.
e Accept.
f Reject.

A5-8
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Rev 2 April 2013
Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

5 What is the indication at position 5 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Toe crack.
b Hydrogen crack.
c Overlap.
d Lamellar tear.
e Accept.
f Reject.

6 What is the indication at position 6 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Spatter.
b Lap.
c Overlap.
d Hydrogen crack.
e Accept.
f Reject.

7 What is the indication at position 7 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Gas cavity.
b Silicon inclusion.
c Slag inclusion.
d Copper inclusion.
e Accept.
f Reject.

8 The area identified at position 8 is referred to as the?

a Heat affected zone.


b Fusion boundary.
c Fusion zone.
d Polished area.

9 The area identified at position 9 is referred to as the?

a Heat affected zone.


b Fusion boundary.
c Fusion zone.
d Polished area.

A5-9
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Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

10 What is the indication at position 10 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Slag line.
b Overlap.
c Lamination.
d Lamellar tear.
e Accept.
f Reject.

A5-10
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Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

Training Macro 3

Welding process used MIG/MAG (GMAW)

10
9

2
8

7 4

6 5

A5-11
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Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

These questions to be used with training macro 3

1 What is the indication at position 1 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Linear crack.
b Overspill.
c Overlap.
d Lamination.
e Accept.
f Reject .

2 What is the indication at position 2 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Saw marks.
b Lamellar tear.
c Segregation bands.
d Laminations.
e Accept.
f Reject.

3 What is the indication at position 3 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Mechanical damage.
b Lap.
c Arc strike.
d Lamellar tear.
e Accept.
f Reject.

4 What is the indication at position 4 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Lack of sidewall fusion and slag.


b Hydrogen crack.
c Lack of sidewall fusion and gas cavity.
d Linear sidewall crack.
e Accept.
f Reject.

A5-12
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Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

5 What is the indication at position 5 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Slag.
b Silicon.
c Spatter.
d Copper.
e Accept.
f Reject.

6 What is the indication at position 6 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Overlap.
b Crack.
c Incomplete root penetration.
d Incomplete root fusion.
e Accept.
f Reject.

7 What is the indication at position 7 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Transverse crack.
b Transverse hydrogen crack.
c Lack of inter-run fusion.
d Shrinkage crack.
e Accept.
f Reject.

8 What is the indication at position 8 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Lack of inter-run fusion.


b Crack.
c Linear slag line.
d Lack of sidewall fusion.
e Accept.
f Reject.

9 What is the indication at position 9 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Slag inclusion.
b Silicon inclusion.
c Gas cavity.
d Shrinkage defect.
e Accept.
f Reject.

A5-13
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Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

10 What is the indication at position 10 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Porosity.
b Slag inclusion in weld metal.
c Silicon inclusions in weld metal.
d Tungsten inclusions in weld metal.
e Accept.
f Reject.

A5-14
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Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

Training Macro 4

Welding process used MMA (SMAW)

1
2

10

9 7 6
8

A5-15
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Rev 2 April 2013
Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

These questions to be used with training macro 4

1 Which term best describes this welded joint?

a Square edge butt joint.


b Double V butt joint.
c Single V butt joint.
d T butt fillet weld.

2 What is the indication at position 2 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Overlap.
b Toe of the weld with good transition.
c Toe of the weld with poor transition.
d Undercut at the toe of the weld.
e Accept.
f Reject.

3 What is the indication at position 3 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Undercut.
b Poor toe blend.
c Underfill.
d Lack of sidewall fusion.
e Accept.
f Reject.

4 What is the indication at position 4 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Lack of inter-run fusion.


b Lack of sidewall fusion and slag.
c Weld boundary.
d Lack of sidewall fusion and silicon.
e Accept.
f Reject.

5 What is the indication at position 5 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Silicon inclusion.
b Slag inclusion, lack of sidewall fusion and lack of inter-run fusion.
c Gas cavity.
d Gas cavity and lack of sidewall penetration.
e Accept.
f Reject.

A5-16
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Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

6 Which term best describes the area indicated at position 6?

a Shrinkage.
b Linear distortion.
c Short transverse distortion.
d Angular distortion.
e Accept.
f Reject.

7 What is the indication at position 7 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Silicon inclusion.
b Slag inclusion.
c Slag inclusion, lack of inter-run fusion and lack of sidewall fusion.
d Elongated gas pore.
e Accept.
f Reject.

8 What is the indication at position 8 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Crack.
b Lack of inter-run fusion.
c Lack of sidewall fusion.
d Fusion boundary line.
e Accept.
f Reject.

9 The area identified at position 9 is referred to as the?

a Heat affected zone.


b Fusion boundary.
c Fusion zone.
d Polished area.

10 What is the indication at position 10 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Lamellar tearing.
b Hydrogen cracks.
c Laminations.
d Stress cracks.
e Accept.
f Reject.

A5-17
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Rev 2 April 2013
Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

Training Macro 5

Welding process used MMA (SMAW)

2
3

1
4

10

6
9

7
8

A5-18
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Rev 2 April 2013
Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

These questions to be used with training macro 5

1 What is the indication at position 1 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Mechanical damage.
b Lap.
c Arc strike.
d Lamellar tear.
e Accept.
f Reject.

2 What is the indication at position 2 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Lamellar tearing.
b Hydrogen cracks.
c Laminations.
d Stress cracks.
e Accept.
f Reject.

3 What is the indication at position 3 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Undercut.
b Poor toe blend.
c Underfill.
d Lack of sidewall fusion.
e Accept.
f Reject.

4 What is the indication at position 4 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Undercut.
b Poor toe blend.
c Underfill.
d Lack of sidewall fusion.
e Accept.
f Reject.

A5-19
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Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

5 What is the indication at position 5 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Lack of inter-run fusion.


b Fusion boundary.
c Lack of sidewall fusion.
d Linear crack.
e Accept.
f Reject.

6 What is the indication at position 6 and would you accept or reject the indication
to the given acceptance levels?

a Lack of sidewall fusion and slag.


b Hydrogen crack.
c Lack of sidewall fusion and gas cavity.
d Linear sidewall crack.
e Accept.
f Reject.

7 Which term best describes the area indicated at position 7?

a Shrinkage.
b Linear misalignment.
c Short transverse distortion.
d Transition weld set-up.
e Accept.
f Reject.

8 The area identified at position 8 is referred to as the?

a Fusion boundary.
b Acid marks.
c Polished area.
d Heat affected zone.

9 The area identified at position 9 is referred to as the?

a Heat affected zone.


b Fusion boundary.
c Fusion zone.
d Polished area.

10 Which term best describes this welded joint at position 10?

a Square edge butt joint.


b Double V butt joint.
c Single V butt joint.
d T butt fillet weld.

A5-20
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Rev 2 April 2013
Appendix 5 Macro and Micro Visual Inspection
Copyright  TWI Ltd 2012

Training Macro Answer Sheet

Macro 1 Macro 2
1 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 1 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f

2 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 2 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f

3 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 3 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f

4 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 4 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f

5 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 5 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f

6 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 6 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f

7 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 7 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f

8 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 8 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f

9 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f 9 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f

10 10a 10b 10c 10d 10e 10f 10 10a 10b 10c 10d 10e 10f

Macro 3 Macro 4
1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 1 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f
1
2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 2 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f
2
3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 3 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f
3
4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 4 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f
4
5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 5 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f
5
6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 6 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f
6
7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f 7 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f
7
8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f 8 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f
8
9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f 9 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f
9
10a 10b 10c 10d 10e 10f 10 10a 10b 10c 10d 10e 10f
10

Macro 5
1 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f

2 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f

3 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f

4 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f

5 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f

6 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f

7 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f

8 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f

9 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f

10 10a 10b 10c 10d 10e 10f

A5-21
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