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ANALYSIS & DESIGN OF MULTI STOREYED BUILDINGS

V.M.RAJAN,M.E.(Struct),FIE,

Former CE/Civil/TANGEDCO

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Example:

SINGLE BAY SINGLE STOREY FRAME WITH BOTTOM SUPPORT HINGED

Data:

Spacing of frame : 3.50m


Span of frame : 10.50m

Number of bay : One

Number of storey : One

Storey Height : 4.85 m

Intended Use of structure : Control Room Building

Loads to be considered : As per IS 875- 2007 Part 1 & 2

Member Sizes : Column 300 x 400 mm

: Main Beam 300 x 750 mm

: End Beam 230 x 300 mm

: Slab Thickness 125 mm

Concrete Grade : M20

Steel Grade : Fe 415

Support condition : Bottom Hinged.

SBC of soil : 150 KN/m2


Analysis Procedure:

The analysis of hinged base Portal frame is similar to that of fixed base Portal Frame
except that the stiffness of column will be 3EI/L instead of 4EI/L. Also at the bottom of
column, the moment is zero. The column is subjected to Axial load and moment. If the
column is having hinged base, moments varies linearly from zero at hinged base to
maximum at the top for all vertical loads. The design of slab, beam and column are
similar to fixed portal frame. The main difference is we have to design the hinges and
foundation.

The purpose of hinges provided to transmit shear force and permit rotation. High value
in compression is necessary to make the concrete plastic enough to permit required
angular rotation. The high value in compression is obtained by constructing the section
at the hinge and using compressive strength equal to half its ultimate stress. The
length of the hinge shall not be more than twice its least lateral dimension. The slot at
the hinge is filled up with bituminous material. The column main steel is terminated on
each side of the hinged slot and hinged bars are crossed to resist the whole shear force
at the base. The hinged bars are closely bound together by ties or spirals for dissipation
of high stresses.

Moment of Inertia:

I column= 1/12 x300 x 4003 =160,000 cm4 =I

I Tbeam =2x1/12x300x7503 = 13.18 I

Distribution factor:

Joint Member I L Relative stiffness Sum of DF=RSF/Sum


factor RSF
BA I 4.85 ¾ xI/L=
¾ 0.11
B x1/4.85=0.155 1.410
BC 13.18I 10.5 I/L=13.18I/10.50 0.89
=1.255
Total udl on main beam =27.50 KN/m

Fixed end moment = 252.16 KNm.


Beam Design:

Simply supported BM= 27.50 x 10.502/8 -49.20=329.78KNm

Factored moment at end =1.5 x 49.20=73.80 KNm.

Factored moment at mid span =1.5 x329.78 =494.67 KNm

Factored shear force Vu=1.5 x27.50 x1050/2 =216.56 KN.

The beam at mid span is designed as tee beam and at support is designed as
rectangular similar to fixed beam.

Column Design:

Factored axial force in column=216.56 KN

Moment in column at top edge=1.5 x 49.20=77.80KNm.

The column is designed for factored axial load Pu=216.56KN and a max. Bending
moment of Mu=73.80 KNm.
Design of Hinge:

Shear force at hinge A =49.20/4.85 =10.14KN

For hinge action to persist the concrete will be made to reach nearly half its ultimate
stress=0.5 fck so that concrete will become plastic enough to permit small angular
rotation. The reinforcement at the hinge will be crossed to produce the hinge action.
Ultimate axial load at column base =216.56KN
Shear =1.5 x 10.14 =15.21KN

Allowable compressive stress = ½ ultimate stress =1/ x20=10 N/mm2

Width of hinge required =216.56 x 103/300 x 10 =72.19 mm

Let the width may be kept as 100mm with sufficient cover.

Shear at hinge = 15.21 KN

Inclination of bar to vertical =tan-1 30/50=31◦

Ast x sin 31◦ x 415=15.21 x 103

Ast=15.21 x 103/415 x sin 31◦ =71.16 mm2

Provide 4 bars of 12 mm dia. Ast provided = 4 x ∏/4 x 122 =452.16 mm2 > 71.16mm2
Footing design:

Ultimate Load Pu=216.56 KN

Axial working load on column =216.56/1.5= 144.375 KN

Self weight of column 0.30 x 0.40x 4.85x25 =14.55KN

Total load from column =158.925KN say 160KN

Self weight of footing 10% =16KN

Total load on footing = 176KN

Size of footing:

SBC of soil =150KN/m2

Area of footing required =176/150=1.173 m2

Provide size of footing as 1.30 m x 1.20m so that the projection will be equal on both
sides. Also the area provided shall be more than required to take care of effect of
moment.

Bending moment:

Projection of footing from column face=(1.30-0.40)/2= 0.45m

Max. pressure qmax. =( P/A + M/Z)

= {160/1.30x 1.20 }+ {15.20/ (1/6x1.20x 1.302 ) }

=102.56 + 44.97 =147.53 KN/m2 < 150KN/m2

Min. pressure qmin. =( P/A - M/Z)

= {160/1.30x 1.20 }- {15.20/ (1/6x1.20x 1.302 ) }

=102.56 - 44.97 =57.59 KN/m2

Average pressure =q=(147.53+57.59)/2=102.56 KN/m2

Bending moment at X-X =102.56 x 1.20x 0.452/2 =12.46 KNm

Shear stress = 0.25 √fck . Factored BM = 1.5 x 12.46=18.69 KNm

Assume overall depth of footing shall be 300mm and effective depth =250mm
Reinforcement :

K=Mu /bd2 = 18.69 x 106 /1300 x 2502 = 0.25

Referring table 2 of SP 16 pt =0.085% mini. Pt=0.12%

Ast /m width of footing =( 0.12/100) x1000 x 250=300 mm2

Provide 10mm dia bars @ 150mm C/c bothways.


Check for Two way(Punching) shear :
Length of punching influence plane av =400+250=650mm

Width of punching influence plane bv=300+250=550mm

Puching shear force Vpunch =160-102.56 x (0.65 x0.55) =123.33KNc0

Punching shear stress ζpunch=123.33 x 103 /{2 x (650+550) x 250} =0.21 MPa

Permissible shear stress =0.25 √fck=0.25 x √0.20 =1.18MPa > ζpunch

Check for one way shear:


Shear force at a distance d=250mm from face of column

Vu=1.5 x 102.56x 1.20x 0.20=36.92 KN

Actual Shear stress ζv= 36.92 x 103/1200 x250 =0.12 MPa

Actual Pt provided=0.25, permissible shear stress ζc= 0.36 MPa (From table 19 of IS
456-2000) > 0.12 MPa. Hence ok.