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serving: recording, broadcast and sound contracting fields

MaGaziNe Soundcraftsmen's Model PM860
Stereo Amplifier


Promoting Your Studio
Guitar Synthesis and MIDI
A Guide to a Home Studio
The All -In -One Electronic Cottage
A few important words
about the new
A-T 40 Series:

Tony Bongiovi Omnidirectional
Power Station Capacitor

"The 4051 is a great mike,

especially for rock. It sounds
fat and you can bang away at it
with a lot of level without a
pad...for a rock studio like the
Power Station that's important. AT4051
When you put it on horns it f as Cardioid
a nice clean sound and it ho ds
the dynamics's just an
excellent sounding mike :'
David Cook Capacitor
Dreamland Studios
"...real nice top end and a
warm bottom end...very ver-
satile. didn't have to pile on a

lot of EQ to capture the air in

the studio...very present, very
natural sounding mikes :'
Jeff Baxter Now it's your turn!
Producer /Artist Compare the new
Milan Bogdon "If I'm not getting what want
I Audio Technica 4) Series against
from another microphone...I've the very best in your studio.
"The S/N ratio is superior to been putting up the 4051 and it Contact your A-T oro sound
some of the other mikes we nearly always does the job:' dealer today.
used. They're bright and clean
so we don't have to push the
EQ. Superb mike...great for
Mack Emerman
Criteria Studio
vocals, overheads, snare,
toms, electric and acoustic "The response is very seems to work well holds the natural tonal qualities
wherever we put it : even at high sound pressure

122 Comme.ce Dride, Stow, OH 44224
Circle 10 on Reader Service Card (2-6)686- 2600FA >(216)688 -3752
January- February 1991 Vol. 25, No.1
serving: recording, broadcast and sound contracting fields


8 Live Sound Reinforcement: Asia -Pacific 1990 by Ed Learned
An engineer's experience on the road and how he solved his
unique difficulties.
17 Breaking Into Concert Sound by Jim Paul
Maryland Sound in Los Angeles interviewed.
23 The Makings of an Engineer by Robyn Gately
Getting good live sound in all circumstances.
31 Audio for the Church by Brent Harshbarger
Digital audio.
33 Lab Report: Soundcraftsmen's PM860 Power Amplifier
by Len Feldman
See page 8 Big power in a smaller box.


38 Problem Solving at International Post by Toby Cohen
NSCA to PAL and back again? A piece of cake.
50 IIi -Fi to High Definition: Five Decades of Magnetic Tape
by Don Rushin
From the Magnetophone to Digital Videotape.


28 Promoting Your Studio: Part I by John Barilla
PR savvy for the engineer/owner.
See page 46 41 to a Home Studio by Bruce Bartlett
A Guide
Everything you need to know to get started.
46 The All-In-One Electronic Cottage by Richard Del Maestro
A prominent artist's setup at home and how much he
depends on it professionally.
55 Musician's Notebook by Mark Maulucci
Guitar synthesis and MIDI.
Maryland Sour.d has an active 2 Calendar
operation in Southern California. 4 Letters
Our contributing edito4 Jim Paul, 6 Department of Correction and more
interviews three employees with 37 New Products
entry into live sound engineering as a
focus. Our photo is of Maryland 59 Index of 1990 Articles
Sound technician Bryan Nemecek as 62 Buyer's Guide: Studio Monitors and Performance Speakers
he works in their setup lab. See page 73 Classified
17 for the full fascinating interview. 74 People, Places, Happenings
basics, the workshop will concentrate
CALENDAR on the present evolving loudspeaker
Syn -Aud -Con has also announced
their 1991 schedule for their 2 -day
audio engineering seminars. The semi-
The UCLA Extension is offering nar schedule is: Jan. 31 -Feb. 1 in Or-
three courses during its winter quarter lando, FL;
that qualify for credit toward its Certif- March 12-13 in Anaheim, CA; and
icate Program in Electronic Music.
March 20-21 in Seattle, WA.
"The Synchronization of Audio,
Video and Film Tèchnology for Musi- For more information, lease call
cians" will be discussed from 7 -10 p.m., (812)995-8212 or FAX (812)995-2110.
Wednesday evenings, from Feb. 13- Editor /Publisher
The Society of Motion Picture and
March 20. Jeff Rona,composer, author Television Engineers 25th Annual Larry Zide
and president of Musical Instrument Television Conference, which will
Digital Interface will conduct the class. focus on the evolutionary flow of tele- Associate Publisher
Fee is $225. vision technology from the past, Elaine Zide
"Electronic Music II: Introduction to through the present, and into the fu-
MIDI" will be taught 7 -10 p.m., ture, will be held Feb. 1-2 at the Westin Senior Editor
Wednesday evenings, Feb. 20 -March Hotel in the Renaissance Center in De-
27 by Lachlan Westfall, president of troit, MI. The conference theme is "A John Barilla
The International MIDI Association. Tèlevision Continuum--1967-2017."
Fee is $175. Concurrent with the conference will Assistant Editor
For more information on other be the Audio Engineering Society's 9th Caryn Shinske
courses, please call (213) 825-9064. International Conference. SMPTE
The 1991 International Monitor and AES registrants will be able to at- Contributing Editors
Awards has issued a Call For Entries. tend sessions offered by both groups
All entries must have been produced or for one registration fee. The theme of Bruce Bartlett
post- produced during the 1990 calen- the AES conference is "'Ièlevision Brian Battles
dar year. Individuals as well as compa- Sound Today and Tomorrow."
nies and corporations may submit Aone -day tutorial on Digital Record- Drew Daniels
entries with no limit to the number of ing for Tèlevision will be held Jan. 31 Robyn Gately
entries from any source. Deadline for also at the Westin Hotel. Presentations
submissions is Jan. 15. will be made by experts from the re- Len Feldman
For more information on categories search, development, and engineering Shelley Herman
or entry forms, please call CeCe sectors of manufacturers, and from ex-
Lazarescu at (212) 629 -3266, or FAX perienced users of digital recorders. Brent Harshbarger
(212) 629 -3265. The price of entries, The tutorial will conclude with oppor-
regardless of length, is $105 for ITS tunities for one -on -one interviews with Randy Hoffner
Members, $135 for Non -ITS Members. the speakers and screenings of recent Jim Paul
Synergetic Audio Concepts will productions made with digital record-
present a Loudspeaker Designer's ers. Graphics & Layout
Workshop from Feb. 7 -9 at the Ra- For more information on any of the Karen Cohn
mada Renaissance Hotel in Atlanta, conferences, please call (914) 761 -1100
GA. After an abbreviated review of the or FAX (914) 761 -3115.
BPA Audit applied for May 1989

db, The Sound Engineering Magazine(ISSN 0011.7145)

is published bhmonthly by Sagamore Publishing Com-
pany Inc. Entire contents copyright 1991 by Sagamore

Sound. Technology. Publishing Company Inc 203 Commack Road, Suite


1010, Commack, NY 11725. Telephone. (516)566 -6530.

db Magazine is published for individuals and firms in
professional audio recording, broadcast audio -visual,
sound reinforcement -contracting, consultants, video rec-

Nobody combines them better than Modular. ording, film sound. etc. Application for subscription
should be made on the subscription form in the rear of
each issue. Subscriptions are $15.00 per year ($28.00
per year outside U S. Possessions, $16.00 per year in
In the 80's, people agreed that Joe's Canada)and payable in U.S funds. Single copies are
Sound & Salami made the best- sounding
speaker cabinets available. Now, Modular
is making those same great products.
MODULAR $3.50 each Editorial, Publishing. and Sales offices are
at 203 Commack Road. Suite 1010 Commack NY
11725. Second Class postage paid at Commack, NY
11725 and an additional mailing office Postmaster:
Form 3579 should be sent to db Magazine, 203 Com-
And, our new products and marketing
programs will bring even more new
customers into your stores.
Technologies mack Road, Suits 1010. Cammack. NY 11725.
Trademarked names are editorially used throughout
this issue. Rather than place a trademark symbol next
to each occurance, we state that these names are used
only in an editorial fashion and to the benefit of the
trademark owner, and that there is no intention of trade-
mark infringement

Circle 13 on Reader Service Card

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I- 20 in ' .1-
Service C.
Free Catalog of
r SOUND recording
p & duplicating
The Editor:
Your November/December issue
contained an extremely useful and
well-written article by Dan Rogers
on the subject of Speaker Angles, and
I would like to compliment you on its
publication. This article, like its pre-
decesso>; contains the type of infor-
mation that is pertinent and timely
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We appreciate receiving articles
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ALBUMS amateur as well as professional. My
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tapes dent, Mackensen Corp.

Call Polyline The Editor:

Thank you for a great magazine. I
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Des Plaines. IL 60016
Corp. have enjoyed and benefitted from
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Circle 14 on Reader Service Card ning sound for a few years and have
much to learn. The articles are full of
valuable information --step -by -step
instructions and diagrams allow me
to see practical applications for
equipment I have yet to experiment
The column "Audio for the Church"
by Brent Harshbarger is very helpful
to me as I desire to increase my busi-
ness selling sound systems to
churches; I want to know as much as
I can to sell and install the most prac-
tical system.
Ed Learned's article "Higher
Ground" in the May/June issue was
great! Learning what the big guys
use and what they prefer helps me
decide what I need. I do not have the

From The Magnetic Head Specialists
opportunity to experiment, so I need
to have the gear and the knowledge
to use it the first time out.
CD Timely Maintenance is Essential. Reconditioned and Aligned Heads will: The experience I have is strength-
RESTORE signal amplitude ENHANCE top end response ened, then expanded on, by your con -
stability REMOVE causes of oxide tributing editors' articles. My thanks
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For the best sound, always rely on the best service. I think it's great! In closing, I again
- - -
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Time Code Kits
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thank you for a great magazine.
Thank you for the time and effort you
give to make this magazine both in-
structive and informative.
Greg Miller
Owner, G.K. Audio
Circle 16 on Reader Service Card
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Circle 17 on Reader Service Card

á' 1990 E.e s Scsten s. Inc. Ittel Green Hills f. s H
Scotts'.a 91146 \II trademarks an
property of their rester tier companies
Department of Correction and Other Things
In the November/December issue on page 61 an important digit got dropped.
The New Products listing of the Aphex Dominator II turned a real bargain into
a seemingly incredible one! TheDominator II has an Aphex list price of
$1,495.00. We left the "1" off. Did Aphex ever get calls!
We left out Packburn Electronics, Inc. from our Buyer's Guide on Noise Re-
duction Equipment. They make a line of noise supressors and are located at P.O.
Box 335, Dewitt, NY 13214. They'll be in next time we do Noise Reduction. Mea

Other Things
Janus, the Roman god that gave January its name is usually depicted with his two faces
looking at the same time ahead to the future and behind to still see the past.
db Magazine has been second to none in presenting the latest technology in a clear manner.
However, we also need to look back at our audio past in a new series called "Historical Per-
spectives" These will be pictures and text, sometimes full articles, sometimes just a picture or
text insertion. These historical perspectives are a part of our past, and it is a pleasure to pres-
ent them. The first of this series is on page 50.

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Circle 26 on Reader Service C7,-.rd

Reinforcement: Asia-Pacific '90

it Y ASSOCIATION WITH THE USIA you might hear compositions by El- two tours. From a mixing perspec-
IVI (United States Information lington, Monk and Jobim at a Char- tive, the "threshold of hearing" re-
Agency) in the 80s was a fruitful one lie Byrd concert, you could also ex- quired by these musical opposites
for all concerned. As disseminator of pect to hear him play Vivaldi and dictated different methods of bal-
American culture to the world, USIA Villa- Lobos. ancing. SPL considerations figured
sponsors a wide variety of artistic The second tour, scheduled for into equipment planning, too: while
programs. Foremost among these mid -fall, featured Wayne Toups & the Charlie Byrd Trio used minimal
are overseas tours by musicians rep- Zydecajun, with whom I'd worked stage monitoring, Wayne Toups/-
resenting the many facets of Ameri- nationally and internationally (see Zydecajun called for a minimum of
can music. Regular readers of db db Magazine, Volume 22, No. 2, five rock-level monitor mixes.
Magazine the past six years may re- pis. 25 -31; No. 3, pgs. 25-30; No. 4, International touring, however,
call my articles about several of these pgs. 27 -32). Wayne is a master of the quite often reduces production con-
tours: I was involved in sound sys- Cajun diatonic accordion. Zydecajun siderations from "what I want" to
tem design and live sound mixing for is a blend of Cajun and Zydeco music "what I can get." If you must have a
12 different USIA-sponsored con- with a healthy dose of rock 'n' roll particular piece of equipment, you'd
cert tours during the last decade. thrown in. The new edition of better bring it with you, remember-
The importance of high -quality Zydecajun rocked harder than ever ing the prohibitive cost of getting it
sound systems and expert sound before-even the Cajun waltzes over there in the first place! Cost fac-
mixing to a successful musical per- were delivered with fire and a touch tors make size and weight considera-
formance is appreciated more today of stinging blues. tions just as important as brand
than ever before. My combination of The two proposed itineraries had preference and production desires. I
professional concert touring tech- some regional symmetry; while each had a weight limitation of 1,000 lbs.
niques and system design, coupled group had exclusive destinations to for the Charlie Byrd system and
with the experience gleaned from 18 tou>; Thailand, Singapore and the 1,250 lbs. for the Toups system.
years of mixing different styles of Philippines were due for visits by Cargo door clearance for the small-
music, conspired to create a new both. Wayne had requested my ser- est commercial airliner we'd see lim-
standard of excellence for USIA vices for his tour already, and as it ited case size to a maximum of 40 in.
touring sound quality and reliability. turned out, only 10 days separated in any two dimensions. I knew that,
The return on my invested efforts the two tours. Gerstein's question to with only a 250 lb. variance, most of
was substantial: I saw the world, me: would I mix sound for both the gear I could carry would have to
worked with some of America's fin- groups, and could I design a sound be applicable to both groups.
est musicians, and got paid for it! We system both groups could use? My last tour of the region, with the
exposed our foreign audiences to Trans -continental airfare for equip- Benny Golson All-Stars in 1987 (see
many memorable performances, ment and personnel was substantial db Magazine, Volume 22, No. 6,
and made many new friends. Little on a tour of this sort; use of the same pgs. 36-42; Volume 23, No. 1, pgs. 44-
wonder that both USIA/Arts Amer- system and operator for both groups 52), proved we could find local PA
ica and I were eager to continue our meant one less fare to pay in each di- systems sufficient for a jazz group,
working relationship into 1990. The rection. What to do during my ten but what about Wayne's highly -am-
new decade began with the most am- days off in Asia was another consid- plified Cajun/Zydeco rock?
bitious USIA touring package I'd eration: my original idea was a re-
ever undertaken. I'd observed a trend towards more
turn to Bangkok after the Byrd tour, high -quality, high -power systems in
Arts America Programmer Bev- enjoying a brief rest before Wayne this area, especially in the major
erly Gerstein called me in early Feb-. Toups/Zydecajun arrived to com- business centers of Singapore, Ma-
ruary, 1990, with news of two pro- mence their tour. After some deliber- nila and Bangkok. Even in provin-
posed tours of the Asia-Pacific ation, Arts America proposed an in- cial towns, a decent caliber MI (mu-
region. The first project, scheduled credible side trip: I would fly to the sical instrument) PA system was
for late summer/early fall, involved Peoples Republic of China for a week usually available. Our logistical con-
guitarist Charlie Byrd and his trio. or so, and conduct a series of semi- straints limited options; we would
Charlie is well -known as both jazz nars on modern sound reinforce- have to take our chances with local
guitarist and exponent of Brazilian ment systems and mixing tech- house PA, which I felt would be ade-
music. Jazz fans remember the "Jazz niques. Two great bands and an quate in most cases. Wayne and his
Samba" album, which Charlie cut in opportunity to visit China? I ac- group accepted the obvious: some
1963 with Stan Getz that led to the cepted the offer immediately. nights would require major compro-
60's bossa -nova craze in the United The disparate nature of the two mises, and they agreed to deal with
States. But Charlie is also an excel- groups was the first thing I dealt whatever it took to make the house
co lent classical guitar playe4 so while with in designing sound for these sound happen.
Get Every Bit
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Circle 22 on Reader
Servia Cud
My sound system rider made artis- Wayne and his group look for ex- cians, I could often get a realistic
tic distinctions between groups very tremely loud monitors, with heavy handle on the quirks of the local
clear, especially with respect to the kick and snare in most mixes along power system. I had total confidence
different SPL power levels required. with vocals; their standard concert that, with proper vigilance, my tour-
I did not want a huge rock PA system rider specifies wedges with at least a ing sound package could withstand
for Charlie Byrd, nor a small, high-fi- single 15 in. woofer and 1 in. these topical fluctuations. However,
delity, tripod -mounted PA system for horn/driver bi- amped. I wasn't sure Wayne Toups/Zydecajun had some
Toups. I also specified preferred if the S -200, with only a 12 in. and a stage equipment, including digital
brands of equipment: believe it or tweeter, passively crossed, could keyboards, that we weren't so sure
not, PA systems by Electro-Voice, handle this type of situation. I about.
JBL, Meyer, Turbosound and Apo- planned to power the S -200s with
gee Sound were available in some of the new Carver PM-1250 amps;
the areas we visited. I elected to aside from the obvious weight ad-
carry a small 16 x 4 x 2 house console vantage, I had the capability of put- Mark Mille; Zydecajun's bass-
and my own effects /system drive ting 325 watts/channel to each S- ist/manager, expressed some con-
rack to lend some consistency in op- 200. I figured this type of power cern about past AC problems he'd
eration to our PA-du-jour situation. should at least get us close; under- encountered in the United States,
Audio for both groups could fit into standing our limitations, the group and things would undoubtedly get
16 channels; my rack contained de- agreed to deal with it. even more dicey overseas. These
vices useful to both groups, although AC power in the region varies be- days, there are several companies
I could (and did) re- configure it tween 220 -240 volts, 50 cycles. Neu- that sell rack-mountable AC outlet
slightly for each specific tour (see trals are very often "dirty," and most strips with surge protection, RFI fil-
Figure 1). of the time equipment grounds are tering, and, in the more expensive
non -existent. I planned on carrying units, AC voltage regulation. I sug-
SOUND FOR THE my trusty multi-tap Variac trans- gested the group invest in one of
former to convert local voltage into these units, and Miller quickly con-
MUSICIANS US standard 120; its capacity of 30 curred.
Musicians must have a comfort- amps would be more than enough for
able, dependable stage environment both groups. Voltage in many areas
if consistent, high -quality perfor- TWO GROUPS,
of Asia, however is far from stable.
mances are desired; I usually request My first few international tours Dlr'JN'ERENT SOUND
that we bring all our stage gear with were great tests for revealing which SYSTEMS
us for that reason. Most musicians brands of equipment could tolerate Charlie Byrd's music called for
prefer to use their own drums, in- voltage swings, and just what their basic reinforcement, with minimal
struments and amplifiers, although "safe" range was. I've carried a VIZ mic'ing, while Toups and company,
there are exceptions (see Chuck power line monitor with me on every looking for the "big" sound, needed
Redd). An on -stage monitor system
was a necessity for Toups, superflu-
tour, This peak-reading AC line at least eleven mica and four DIs.
meter let me monitor the AC volt- The different sonic demands of
ous for Byrd. After some haggling, I age, in real time, during setup and acoustic jazz and amplified rock re-
got Toups to accept only four moni- performance. By ;.3 tching the be- quired the use of flexible, all- purpose
tor mixes. Even so, it was by far the havior of the voltage over time and mies; I decided to use E -V ND 457
most complex monitor setup ever asking questions of local techni- and 457A mies as the basis of my mic
used during my USIA -sponsored
tours. Wayne provided a 16 x 6 mon-
itor console as part of his 1,250 lbs. of Figure 1. The author's console and electronics package configured for
band gear, I covered the rest of the Charlie Byrd.
monitor system, including graphic
EQs, power amplifiers, monitor
speakers and all system cabling in-
cluding monitor splitters.
The monitor cabinets I chose
would have to meet the needs of both
groups, yet not break the bank on
weight. I'd used E -V's S -200 speaker
cabinets at several jazz gigs in the
United States, as house PA speakers
on several USIA tours, and as floor
monitors (using the screw -on tilters)
at a local club with much success. I
was most impressed by their power
handling and smooth frequency re-
sponse. They sounded "warm"
enough to please discriminating
acoustic musicians; the compact size
and plastic cabinet matched my
weight and space parameters.
MIDI Spoken Here

and here...

and here...

here, too.
Fostex offers you by far the most If you own an Atari, or Macin- The Macintosh software works
sophisticated MIDI control in all tosh- computer, you'll make the with Performer and Master Tracks
of the most popular recording for- most of MIDI control with Midi - Pro. The Atari software works
mats. Remoter- -a Fostex Desk Acces- with Master Tracks Pro and Dr.
sory. In addition to standard tape T's KCS.
Choose either 16 - or 8 - track
transport and monitoring control,
open reel or 4 - track cassette and Steinberg's Cuebase sequencer has
the software will let you select a device driver for the MTC -1 and
Fostex lets you use MIDI com-
tracks, locate and loop among ten
mands to control the recorder via 8330 built-in, so you don't need
cue points, automatically punch -in/ Midi Remote software with it.
the MTC -1.
out, set zone limits, display MIDI
It simply plugs into the R8 or 280 time code and generate SMPTE As with all computer interfacing
and provides a bridge between code (all 4 formats). certain restrictions apply. So
SMPTE time code and MIDI time check the details at your local
code. For the G -16, the MTC -1 is Fostex Dealer or call Fostex.
on the optional Model 8330 plug - No other tape recorder company
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Circle 23 on Reader Service Card

complement. These are great vocal
miss, with excellent gain-before-
feedback. I'd also used them as tom -
tom, high -hat and overhead mies on
drums; reed and brass mies; and for
acoustic stringed instruments like
piano, violin, mandolin and guitar.
The 457 line features the tightest
pickup pattern of any E -V ND mie,
an advantage for loud stage environ-
ments. It's also the most sensitive
hypercardioid dynamic mie on the
market, with an excellent "reach"
for distant sound sources, a quality I
felt I'd need for Charlie Byrd. I in-
cluded an E -V RE -20 and several
Shure SM -58 and SM -57 mies for
specific needs like kick drum, snare
and the mic'ing of instrument am-


Mixing a jazz trio isn't difficult
all you have to do is listen. This

maxim sounds simple, but it seems Figure 2. The stage layout for Charlie Byrd.
to be incomprehensible to 99 percent
of my peers. The simple fact is the
music will dictate not only the bal- cians (see Figure 3). The guitar lie exaggerated his moves with the
ance, but the volume required for re- sounded fantastic; Charlie was very guitar cord to insure I'd see them;
inforcement. I've lost count of jazz happy with the S -200 cabinet as gui- with this kind of co-operation, we
concerts ruined by soundpeople with tar monitor. Surprisingly, his never had a single missed cue or loud
rock/pop sensibilities: when you just pickup/preamp system was fairly
sit and listen to a trio, are kick and close to the "real thing" so, with I used a 457A, with a windblast fil-
snare the most important instru- Charlie's blessing, I took a DI ter, on a boom stand as Charlie's
ments? And what about overall straight off the guitar for house am- vocal mic for announcements and
level -in an era of amplified music, plification. To prevent noise, I had to occasional singing. At some point
how loud is loud enough? Assume the keep the guitar channel muted until during each performance, Charlie
obvious: music performed softly and after he plugged in; at the end of each would dismiss the group and play
introspectively should be presented performance, muting it again a split several classical guitar pieces solo. I
in the same manner. Dynamics are second before he unplugged it. Char- encouraged him to use the vocal mic
extremely important to a trio; the
group, not the soundperson, should
dictate when things are loud and Figure 3. Charlie and Joe Byrd.
when they are not. The very nature
of Charlie's chosen instrument, and
how the group dealt with their over-
all sound, made the concept of pre-
sentation very clear (see Figure 2).
Charlie Byrd played a Takamine
Electro Classic acoustic guitar, using
Savarez nylon strings. He played
classical style: he stabilized the gui-
tar against his right knee and chest,
elevating it on a raised left knee via a
foot stand. Charlie's guitar incorpo-
rated a built-in pickup with its own
preamp, which required an internal
9 -volt battery. He carried a Walter
Woods 2-channel amplifier for guitar
amplification, using one of my S -200
cabinets as his guitar speaker. We
placed this behind him, aiming it
slightly across the stage to direct
some of the sound at the other musi-
Sound Reinforcement!
MAL 1:1611=

"...extensive listening to the Soundcraftsmen 900X2 revealed this

amplifier would be as at home in the most discriminating
audiophile's listening room as it would be in a demanding sound
reinforcement environment." -db Magazine
Power Output / 1 kHz
4 ohms 675 watts 700 watts
8 ohms 375 watts 400 watts
2 ohms 900 watts Not Measured
8 ohms mono (bridged) 1350 watts Confirmed
Rated THD 0.05% 0.03% (see text)
Frequency Response 20 Hz to 20 kHz +/-0.1 dB (See text)
S/N (re: 1 Watt) N/A -78 dB
S/N (re: rated output) -105 dB -106 dB
Slew Rate 50 V /usec Confirmed
Input Sensitivity,Rated Output 1.22 V 1.20 V
Weight 59 lbs. Confirmed
Dimensions (WxHxD, inches) 19x5.25x16.5

The 900X2 includes the following features: Built -in power-line conditioning. Zero delay /zero phase
shift negative feedback loop 7 -stage turn -on delay Switchable signal compressor Drives a 70 Volt
line without a step -up transformer. For a copy of the complete review of the 900X2 or any of the other
Soundcraftsmen products, use the Reader Service Card, Call, Write or Fax us.
International distributorship inquiries welcomed.

2200 S.
RITCHEY, SANTA ANA, (:A 92705 PHONE 714 -556-6191 FAX 714 -662-0750
Circle 24 on Reader Service Card
as a guitar mic during these seg- was most concerned about keeping extension speaker. With Charlie on
ments, so we had the option of a con- the level of the drums more in line the opposite side of the stage, Redd
trasting guitar sound for contrasting with the volume of Charlie's slightly couldn't hear the guitar properly at
musical styles. This involved a quick amplified guitar. our normal volume. The extension
change in channel EQ and level from Redd used brushes about 60 per- speaker solved this problem without
vocal to guitar, we also killed the gui- cent of the time, and when he played the need for added level off the gui-
tar amp. I had the option of also with sticks he would only open up for tar amp, something which would
using the DI; unless I needed extra flourishes at the end of songs or dur- have made Charlie uncomfortable.
gain to compensate for a weak sys- ing his drum solos. There were sev-
tem, I never did. The mic, with a eral concerts where I didn't even mic
touch of reverb, sounded gorgeous. the drums, due to the small size of a
Charlie's beautiful tone and sensi- venue or its lively acoustic proper- ZYDECAJUN
tive playing during these solos never ties. When the kit was mic'd, I kept it Wayne and I became friends dur-
failed to enrapture the audience; vol- simple. An E -V RE-20 was used on ing our first USIA tour together in
ume was so tasteful you could hear the bass drum, positioned just even 1987; I'd stayed in touch with him
the audience sigh. with the front head (if there was a during the past three years, mixing
Bassist Joe Byrd played an Ova- hole cut in it), or a few inches off the several of his appearances at the
tion hollow body electric bass with a front head (if there was no hole). I al- New Orleans Jazz and Heritage fes-
fretless, short-scale neck; he used ways placed the mic off-center to in- tival and other spot dates. Zydecajun
D'Addario 1/2-round strings. Joe es- sure better pickup of the drum's progressed from a local Louisiana at-
chewed the hassles of traveling with even harmonics. A Shure SM -58 traction to a national touring club
an amp by requesting that one be handled the snare; I positioned it act with a major label (Polygram) re-
provided for him at each concert. A slightly parallel to the rim of the cording contract during this time.
Polytone Mini Brute was his pre- snare so I could get some of the high - The "Blast From The Bayou" album
ferred choice, but I didn't expect hat sound as well. Two E-V ND -457 attracted even more attention, lead-
we'd find one too often in Asia. Our mies were positioned as overheads; if ing to a spot as opening act on the
audio rider requested an amp with venue acoustics were unusually ab- Carol King "City Streets" tour and
50 -75 watts power preferably with a sorptive, I would cheat one of these the inclusion of a song on the "Steel
built -in speaker instead ofa separate slightly forward over the rack toms, Magnolias" movie soundtrack. The
component system. Joe preferred a the other slightly over the floor tom. group's latest Polygram recording,
smaller speaker like a 10 in. or 12 in., "Fish Out OfWater" is scheduled for
for a more concise sound. A 15 in. release in early 1991.
woofer was the largest he'd accept; STAGE MONITORS
Wayne's music was heavily ampli-
18 in. woofers were deemed unac- Ask a group to play without moni- fied; it had the urgency and power to
ceptable. When he did use a 15 in. tor speakers these days? Musicians compete for the attention of pop
speaker, he wanted all frequencies and production people will question music fans. The group was most con-
below 100 hz attenuated at least 4 your sanity. In the rush to embrace cerned about preserving this power:
dB, using amplifier tone controls. I technology, many of us forgot that from their perspective, Zydecajun
quickly discovered that Joe played simplicity can be functional and was a rock band with Cajuns in it,
softly, with respect to both amp vol- beautiful. Charlie's trio used no and it had to be mixed as such.
ume and touch on the strings. An in- monitors, electing to do it the "old - Wayne was particularly interested in
strument -level DI wouldn't give me fashioned" way for reasons that a heavy drum sound, and the music
the kind of gain I needed, so I used a made a lot of sense to me: since stage included many unison lines between
preamp- output DI off our bass amp. volume was so quiet, it wasn't a accordion, guitar and keys that de-
question of competing levels, but one manded careful voicing. The group's
Drummer Chuck Redd decided to of group dynamics. The guys set up approach required the extensive use
carry only certain "personal" parts physically close to each other on of reverb and delay effects; outboard
of his drum kit. These were a 1960s stage so they could hear each other. limiting of the vocals, accordions,
era Slingerland 14 in. x 5 1 in. We spent part of each sound check
bass and keyboards was desirable.
chrome snare drum and stand; drum adjusting the level of bass and drums The electronics package for Toups
stool; Drum Workshop bass drum to compliment guitar level. Since would have to be substantially
pedal (chain and sprocket type); high Redd played mostly with brushes, beefed up to meet these needs.
hat stand; and cymbals, including drum level on stage was usually com-
Zildjian New Beat high hats, an 18 fortable; however in some horribly
in. K. Zildjian medium ride with riv- reverberant halls, Redd was advised THE ACCORDION
ets, a 20 in. new K. Zildjian medium to "lay back" on how hard he played How many rock/pop bands are
ride, and an 18 in. Istanbul thin the drums. It was a distinct pleasure fronted by full-time accordion play-
crash. The bass drum, tom -toms and to work with musicians who were ac- ers? This band had a great one:
cymbal stands for each concert were tually willing to adapt their stage Wayne is considered by most Cajun
procured locally. Our audio rider volume to venue conditions, in the musicologists to be the finest player
made very general references to interest of good sound, without cop- of his generation. Wayne learned to
overall kit makeup; the only specific ping an attitude. play the diatonic accordion at tradi-
request on individual drum size was At large venues or halls with dead tional Cajun dances, studying with
the bass drum be no larger than 22 acoustics, we sometimes positioned his father and other traditional
in. in diameter. Redd wasn't looking another S -200 next to Redd; this was Cajun musicians playing acoustic
for a massive kick sound; in fact, he powered by Charlie's amp as a guitar music. His development of Zyde-
cajun, while based on this traditional
Cajun music, resulted in the creation
of an amplified Cajun fusion music,
more accessible to a younger genera-
tion raised on rock 'n' roll. The inclu- DRUMS MIKE FURCII

sion of Zydeco and rock/pop ele- KICK RE 20

ments into this music, however, MONITOR SYSTEM

placed new demands on the musi- CONSOLE. EO,

cian and the accordion. The notes AMPS

available on a diatonic accordion are

limited, so the instrument can only
be played in certain keys. Modula-
tion of key within a song, a typical
rock/pop device, required the use of KEYBOARDS
several accordions during a single RICK LAGNEAUK
Wayne inspired the creation of FREDDIE PATE VOCALNd51A OR SM SA
specialized diatonic accordions, de- X

signed and built by Randy Falcon, a

noted accordion manufacturer from
Louisiana, to help alleviate this prob-
lem. These instruments could be
played in two different keys, by AUDENCE

changing a set of stops on the top of O DENOTED MONITOR . Mot

the accordion. Wayne no longer

needed to switch in mid -song; he
used C/D and E/F Falcon accordions
on our tour. Both accordions incorpo-
rated a mounted Shure SM -98 mid
coupled with a Samson Broadcast
Concert Series wireless transmitter. Figure 4. Stage layout for Wayne Toups.
Both transmitters used the same fre-
quency. Since only one was turned on
at a time, a single DI off the receiver isolate the guitar sound onstage: the Kurzweil handled piano and
handled both accordions. The wire- since the amp didn't bleed into the string sounds.
less gave Wayne the freedom to per- house, I didn't have a problem with
form the way he'd always wanted; stage guitar levels interfering with
the mix. Pate was also able to hear AC CONCERNS
the dynamic Toups cut quite a figure
dancing, spinning, and running all what he needed without the need for AC power for the keys was an area
over the stage and, quite often, into excessive volume. This really helped of some concern: a Furman AR-117S
the audience! I used an E -V ND- in reverberant halls. Another E-V voltage regulator was used on the
457A for his vocal, without a blast fil- ND -457A was used for Pate's back- keyboard in an attempt to minimize
ter, positioned downstage center (see ing vocals, this time with a blast fil- the effects of voltage fluctuations on
Figure 4). There were a few occa- ter. The guitar amp was mic'd with a the temperamental keyboards. For
sions, where we used a different pair of Shure SM -57 mica Y'd to- house amplification, I used an indi-
monitor system or had to cut back on gether into a single channel. I placed vidual DI off each keyboard output,
ours, when I used an SM -58 as his these mica right up against the grille so I'd have some flexibility in dealing
vocal mid. cloth of the amp, pointing just off- with the differing levels and tones of
center of the dome of each speaker. each instrument. I incorporated a
dbx 166 2-channel limiter /gate, in-
THE GUITAR Rick Lagneaux, the band's key- serted on the keyboard inputs of my
boardist, was also a significant con- house console, so I could better con-
Guitarist Freddie Pate played a tributor in another area: he wrote or
Robin Rival Series guitar, using trol Lagneaux' keyboard levels,
co-wrote many of the group's origi- which changed radically from song
Dean Markley medium -gauge nal compositions. Lagneaux used
strings; this was run through an- to song. He also handled the major
Kurzweil K-1000 and Ensoniq VFX share of backing vocals in the group.
other Samson Concert Series wire- keyboards; these were amplified via
less rig. For effects, he used a DOD I used an ND -457A with windblast
a Peavey KB -300 amplifier. filter here as well, mounting the mic
FX90 delay, DOD compressor, Pro-
Co Rat and D'Armand volume pedal. His keyboard position was down- on a boom stand mounted as an at-
Freddie's amp, a Peavey 400 stereo stage left; we placed his amp behind tachment to Lagneaux' keyboard
guitar amp, was placed downstage him on a case lid, angling it slightly stand.
right, elevated to ear level on a case to cover the center stage area. We Miller played a Peavey Dyna Bass,
lid, firing across the stage. We found took the same approach here as with using GHS Boomer medium-light
this enabled everyone to hear the Pate's rig, and achieved the same strings. He also used a Samson wire-
guitar off the amp; we didn't need positive results. The VFX was used less on his bass; the receiver was
much in the monitors. It also helped exclusively for organ sounds, while mounted in the bass rack, which also o-
housed his Peavey Alpha bass amp,
Wayne's accordion receiver and the
Furman voltage regulator. The
Alpha Bass powered a Peavey 1516
speaker enclosure, which contained
a 15 in. and two 8 in. woofers, pas-
sively crossed. This speaker was
placed on top of the rack, elevating it
slightly so Miller could hear it better.
A built -in xlr line output off the
Alpha Bass had fed the house mix.
Drummer Mike Burch played a
basic Pearl set, with assorted hard-
ware from several different manu-
facturers: a 22 in. x 16 in. bass drum
with Camco chain pedal; 14 in. x 3
1/l in. brass piccolo snare with Tama
snare stand; 12 in. x 10 in. mounted
tom; and 16 in. x 16 in. floor tom. He
carried a standard high hat stand,
using Paiste Colorsound 5 high-hats,
and also used a second set of 14 in. Figure 5. Drummer Mike Burch. Note the placement of mies on the tom -
Zildjian Quickbeat high-hats, tonr.
mounted on the bass drum via a
closed hat attachment. two of these were then run into an S- the two cabinet mixes, 325 through
The cymbal compliment was an 8 200 stereo active EQ box. This box the singles. The high power output
in. Zildjian EFX splash cymbal, 18 provided electronic compensation carried the day; after our first sound
in. Zildjian medium crash cymbal, 16 for the S -200 cabinets, resulting in check, everyone raved about "the
in. Zildjian medium crash cymbal extended bass response and a slight level we can get out of those tiny
and 20 in. Paiste 3000 ride cymbal. increase in gain. I elected to assign plastic boxes!" Despite the varied re-
For the kick, we used an E -V RE- these two mixes to Wayne, Burch quirements of each musician , the S-
20, positioned just inside the front and Miller, as those were the mixes 200 cabinets proved capable of satis-
head hole, off center. The snare was which required the most "weighty" fying everyone's needs; I could
tight mic'd off the upper rim with a kick drum. breathe a little easier.
Shure SM -58. The high -hat got an E- Two Carver PM -1250 stereo am- In the next issue, after a discussion
V ND -457A; the rack and floor one plifiers provided four channels/ of mixing techniques for the two
ND -457 each. These were placed mixes of monitor power (see Figure groups, we'll cover both tours on a
just over the rim of each respective 6). [ used six E -V S -200 cabinets for country by country basis. We'll visit
tom and angled downwards at a our monitor system: two for Wayne, Thailand, Singapore and the Philip-
sharp angle in an attempt to reduce two for Miller and Burch, and one pines with both groups; Indonesia,
bleed from the snare (see Figure 5). each for Pate and Lagneaux; the Malaysia, South Korea, Sri Lanka,
Burch's vocal mic was another Carvers could put 650 watts through New Zealand and Fiji individually. iati
ND -457A, with a blast filter. We used
a special mie cable for this that had a
rotary on /off switch at the male end. Figure 6. Wayne Toup, bassist Mark Miller, and drummer Mike Burch.
Burch could turn his vocal mie on The monitor system is at the back left.
and off as needed; I never had to
worry about missinga cue, and drum
bleed through an open vocal mie was
greatly reduced.
The group included a Peavey MD
Monitor console, 16 x 6, as part of
their band gear; this was the heart of
our on -stage monitor system. I pro-
rn vided 16 channels of monitor Y-s;
these provided a parallel split of our
ca stage channels to both the monitor
L desk and the stage box via a Switch-
cu craft in-line connector and a 4 ft.
` male XLR extension. I used two
co Yamaha 2031 stereo graphic equal-
E izers to provide four channels of EQ;

Breaking into Concert

Sound: Getting in the
Door at Maryland Sound
Every industry has its movers and shakers, pillars of industry which shape and change the course
ofevents. In computers it's the seemingly omnipresent IBM and the ubiquitous Apple Computer
Corp. Professional sports has the Los Angeles Takers basketball dynasty of the 80s, and the San
Francisco 49ers, going for four Super Bowls in a row.

HE CONCERT SOUND FIELD IS NO EX- tomer service must be the number strengthening his position in the in-
I ception to this rule, with power one priority of a sound reinforce- dustry. He made many contacts and
companies like Clair Brothers and ment company, founded his com- enriched existing relationships with
ShowCo, their huge mega -systems pany on the precept of quality. He other sound mixers.
covering the largest touring entou- committed his company to three im- The 1980s was a period of rapid
rages in the world. portant concepts. The first was to growth for Maryland Sound and saw
It is also true, however, that there never compromise the sound of a the acquisition of several medium-
are smaller companies in each of concert system. This meant a great sized sound companies complete
these industries which come along deal of research and extra labor to in- with equipment and clientele. The
and make a big splash with an amaz- sure that only the highest quality biggest turning point of this period
ing product or service. The home components and engineering were came when Maryland Sound ac-
computer market, for example, was used in his systems. The second con- quired Northwest Audio, out of Port-
nearly cornered by the lowly Com- cept was that each and every em- land, OR. This provided the com-
modore 64 during the 80s. The ployee, from the secretary to the pany with headline acts such as the
Houston Rockets shocked the Lak- front -of-house mixer; is important to Eagles, Neil Young, and Crosby,
ers with elimination in the 1986 the company and is in essence an Stills and Nash.
NBA playoffs. And in sound rein- ambassador to the world for Mary- Around 1983, Goldstein began to
forcement, there is Maryland Sound land Sound. The third concept was to do permanent installations on the
Inc., a bright, efficient and well- have the right people in place, with East Coast under the leadership of
managed sound company with a rep- the skills and experience to do each Will Perry, another Maryland Sound
utation for 100 percent customer job right the first time. engineer. These smaller installations
satisfaction, a long client list of These three concepts still perme- were the forerunners of the large in-
major superstars, and a bit of an ate each and every job for which stallations at venues like the Greek
image as an upstart underdog. Maryland Sound is contracted, Theatre in Los Angeles and Univer-
In this third and final installment whether it be a permanent installa- sal Studios in Florida. Today; Mary-
of our series on breaking into live tion such as the Universal Amphi- land Sound is at the forefront of the
sound, we will spend the afternoon theatre, or a large touring system permanent installation field, with
at the West Coast operation of Mary- like Pink Floyd or Neil Diamond major contracts in theme parks and
land Sound, learning about the might require. The outstanding clientele worldwide.
company's history and getting the quality of Maryland Sound systems
inside story from Michael Stahl, gen- is well-documented and the loyalty In late 1988, Maryland Sound
eral manager of Maryland Sound and satisfaction of their employees is made two extremely important ac-
West Coast. We will then visit with obvious from all the smiling faces quisitions. The first purchase was
two of MSI's employees, Stephen one encounters upon entering the the assets of the bankrupt Stanal
Zelenka, concert production man- unassuming red brick building in Sound, whose client list included
ager; and Carla Hixson, a relative North Hollywood, far from its more Neil Diamond. Industry interest in
newcomer who is moving up fast, humble beginnings. Stanal was high, and included such
sound companies as ElectroTech
and one of the few women active in and Clair Brothers, but Maryland
concert sound. The mid to late 70s was a busy time
for the young company with tour Sound prevailed. This acquisition
dates and reinforcement jobs. Ac- was a big boost to its West Coast op-
THE COMPANY quiring his first major account, eration. The second acquisition was
Maryland Sound was founded in Frankie Vali and the Four Seasons, the purchase of Audio Techniques,
1970 by Robert Goldstein, a former during this period, Goldstein con- which was providing sound for the
employee of Clair Brothers. Goldst- centrated on client retention, build- group Chicago. Audio Techniques
ein, a man who believes that cus- ing his inventory of equipment and had developed an excellent propri-
In 1990, Maryland Sound contin-
ues to be a major force in the sound
reinforcement industry. Reviews of
the sound quality of Maryland
Sound systems have been extremely
positive and several concert review-
ers stated it was the "best they have
heard." This stands as a testament
to the commitment to quality that
drives this company.


Stahl began his career at about the
same time Maryland Sound was get-
ting started. After graduating with a
degree in Political Science, Stahl
started his own 8 track recording
studio and a small sound reinforce-
Figure 1. Maryland Sound technician Bryan Neniecek performing a con- ment company. His system consisted
sole modification. of 16 Perkins boxes and a variety of
16 horns per side, with a 16 channel
etary sound system and this equip- cabinets stacked to the ceiling; thou- Tascam console. He did some work
ment and technology became the sands of watts of power; every con- at this time for Stan Miller of Stanal
sole property of Maryland Sound, ceivable microphone; and a very Sound and for Clair Brothers. When
which continues to expand on it. well- equipped lab, where all incom- the fuel crisis of 1972 hit, Stahl was
A quick tour of the facility revealed ing equipment is thoroughly checked unable to get the fuel for his trucks
stacks of high-tech sound equipment out. Even major modifications to the and was practically put out of busi-
of every var_ety: Digital reverbs consoles can be and often are per- ness. He decided to look into work-
from $300 units to top -of- the -line formed here in this high -tech won- ing for someone else and was imme-
$5,000 units; hundreds of speaker derland. diately hired by Clair Brothers, who


f vouc rather mic than mess arc t.nd with a bunt- of outboard boxes,
we sLggest a serious cok atthe new v1 -3700 Series from Tascam.
The M3700 Series is a Frofessicn3I .quality mixirg console with a per-

fect rnemori of its fader setti igs. A console whose automation isn't a pain
in the pots. And NAtrose under $14,003 suggested retai price isn't either.
Ours isthe onli automated console that providesyou with both C
snapshot automaton (to recall any pre-set evels or switch positions stored
as "sGnes ") and drEmic automation (to recall levels and switch positions
locked to real -time I.xations)
The M -3700 also-features an on ooard disk drive SMPTE timecode
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. °

43 34J TEAC &,.e. Inc. 77BTe1grpl Montebello. CA 3064) :13/726-0303.
also purchased much of his equip-
ment. Figure 2. Carla
Stahl remained at Clair for the Hixson demon-
next 12 years, rising rapidly through strates that she can
keep up with the
the ranks, to mix shows like the
Beach Boys, Chicago, Queen, KISS best of them.
and finally ending his career at Clair
in 1984 on a triumphant note with
the ten-month -long Jackson's Vic-
tory Tour. After many years on the
road, and in particular the extremely
arduous Victory tout he was some-
what disenchanted with the life of a
touring engineer and his position at
Clair Brothers. Stahl felt it was time
for a change, so he said his goodbyes
to Clair Brothers and the rigors of
the road. After a brief stint with
Mountain Productions who staged
the Victory Tou4 Stahl moved to Los
Angeles to seek employment as a
"non-touring" sound engineer.
To Stahl's surprise and chagrin,
the only job offers forthcoming were
to go back out on the road. This was
contrary to the purpose of his coming
to Los Angeles, so he turned down all
offers. A point of irony in his story is by Maryland Sound and whose as- This led him to a three year stint in
that he unsuccessfully applied at sets Stahl now controls. the construction field where his skill
both Stanal Sound and Audio Tech- Finally, out of necessity, he began as a crew manager served him well,
niques, both of which were acquired to look for employment elsewhere. but the audio engineering story

Circle 18 on Reader Sev.ce Card
decide if this was something he
Figure 3. Michael wanted to pursue, and he let several
Stahl makes a months go by. While Stahl was in
point to the author Boston during a family illness,
about getting into Bonamy called to urge him to call
the concert sound Goldstein, and he did. Goldstein sug-
field. gested they meet and talk about the
West Coast position-which they
did. He was favorably impressed and
persuaded Stahl to take the position
as the new West Coast manager of
Maryland Sound.
A most interesting and ironic point
of Stahl's rise to the top is that years
before, as a mixer on the road, he met
Goldstein at a show where both were
mixing for different acts, and now
years late; Goldstein was in the posi-
tion to offer Stahl an incredible ca-
reer opportunity. This underlines the
concept that one should never burn
bridges, because one never knows
where a person or band will end up.
Remember that bands like U2 and
The Beatles were once opening
bands for someone else.

being written here, might have Studio's Screen Test Theatre, as well THE STAFF
ended there. as doing occasional shows at the The saying goes that a chain is only
When an old friend, Leo Bonamy, Amphitheatre. as strong as its weakest link. So, too,
former production manager for Chi- It was this work and Stahl's con- a company is known by the employ-
cago, became production manager tinuing contact with Bonamy that ees it has. This is one area where
at the Universal Amphitheatre, he opened the door to Maryland Sound. Maryland Sound really shines. The
called on Stahl to do some work for Bonamy told Stahl that Goldstein company seems to have a deep com-
the Universal Studios Tour. Stahl was looking for a West Coast man- mitment to fairness towards each
soon found himself working part- ager and recommended that Stahl employee and a real respect not only
time as stage manager at Universal apply. It took some time for Stahl to for their skills and abilities, but re-
spect also for who they are as people.
During the course of the afternoon,
Figure 4. Stephen we were able to speak with several
Zelenko stressing Maryland Sound employees about
the importance of their history and feelings about the
bringing enthusi- company.
asm to the
Carla Hixson is a new face on the
pro sound scene. Only 23, she is very
excited to be involved with Maryland
Sound. Hixson started her career in
her home town by running sound for
small local bands in Illinois, and
began to develop an interest in sound
and electronics. This led her to at-
tend a technical trade school in Ari-
zona to study electronics. Upon
graduation, she put together a re-
sume of her education and experi-
ence and sent it to several large
sound reinforcement companies.
"Maryland Sound responded
within a week," Hixson said. "Mi-
chael Stahl called me in Arizona and
asked me to FAX a copy of my re-
sume out to Los Angeles." Because of attain that goal. No reason whatso- office," he said. "When I finally got
time constraints, however, the posi- ever" to see him as he was leaving for the
tion she applied for was filled by day, he hired me on guts alone!"
someone else, but Stahl encouraged STEPHEN: BRINGING Zelenka's career also had some ele-
her to stay in touch. ments of luck which helped him rise
"I made a follow-up phone call
even faster. He was asked to assist on
about a week or two later and Mike Stephen Zelenka is the person re- a production of The Who's rock
said that they were looking for some- sponsible for getting new acts onto opera "Tommy," and consequently
one to work out here in the lab. He the Maryland Sound bandwagon. met Pete Townshend. Because of
wanted to fly me out that day!" she His career began as a bass player in technical problems, Zelenka and
said. Maryland Sound eventually did his native London. After buying him- Townshend had to work closely to-
fly Hixson out to Los Angeles for a self a top quality bass rig, he found gether and Zelenka's natural enthu-
week -long trial run which gave her that others wanted to rent his equip- siasm for the job impressed
the opportunity to be evaluated ment. Tagging along on the more in- Townshend so much, he hired
`under fire', and to meet the other teresting rentals, he made many Zelenka to run his private sound
Maryland Sound staffers. "About a contacts in the music business. Fi- company.
week after I got back, and after they nally, he purchased equipment from Zelenka's career now spans over
interviewed several other people, a band called Gentle Giant and be- fourteen years and has included
they called me back and offered me came friendly with the band. He was tours with major world -class acts
the job. I accepted," she said smiling. soon offered a job as third man on the such as The Who, Bob Seger, and
PA, and with his acceptance, Deep Purple. He was employed at
Hixson worked for a year in the lab Zelenka's career in concert sound Stanal Sound when it was acquired
fixing, tweaking and learning the was launched. by Maryland Sound and stayed to
equipment from the inside out, but take a less road -oriented position as
had her sights set on eventually production manager. He now finds
doing mixing for shows. "I figured Ithink one of the things himself in the position to give input
that knowing how to fix equipment look for the most is on hirings and firings.
would help me in the long run," she enthusiasm. If someone has
said. "If I go on tour and something SUGGESTIONS TO THE
breaks down, it's one less thing I enthusiasm for the job, that
would have to send back if I can fix it is very infectious and UP AND COMING
there." represents the company When the subject of getting in the
After Hixson's year as a lab -tech, door for aspiring engineers and
very well to others. sound people came up, each of the
Stahl talked to Geep Parke; shop
foreman and equipment manager, three had some good input about at-
and they decided to give her the titude, education and getting
Early in his career; Zelenka was started.
chance to move up. Now she is work- given the nickname Zoomy' by his
ing in the shop and doing set -up for
` Important Attributes of Be-
peers because of the way he worked. ginning Sound People
smaller shows. Hixson is closer than "Sometimes I was like a wild man,
ever to her coveted mixing position. Michael Stahl: The three most im-
trying to do three things at once and portant things I look for in a new em-
There are not a large number of running around at top speed, so they ployee are attitude, attitude and atti-
women active in live sound, and Hix- started to call me Zoomy," he said. tude! I would rather train a total
son responded to a question about "It helped me get more done and the beginner with a great attitude than
being female in a male- dominated name still sticks today!" As he grew some know-it -all who's impossible to
industry, as well as the attitudes she in knowledge, his determination to work with. We are a team. We work
has had to cope with. "It's never been move into the upper echelons of con- together toward the same goal. If a
`You can't do this because you are a cert sound also grew, but he found person doesn't want to be a team
female', but it's an attitude that you the desire easier to come by than the player; then get off the team.
sense," Hixson said. "The men will next job. Stephen Zelenka: I think one of the
brush you aside or select other men "I wrote letters of introduction and things I look for the most is enthusi-
to do certain jobs, as if all you could sent them all around. Unfortunately, asm. If someone has enthusiasm for
do is wrap mic cables or some simple overa period of time, I got no positive the job, that is very infectious and
job." When asked how she handles responses," he said. "The main com- represents the company very well to
the situation, she smiled and said, "I plaint was that I did not have enough others.
try to be assertive and sort of stay in experience. That old catch -22!" Not Michael Stahl: If you want to make
their face. I'm not naturally an ag- being a quitter; Zelenka laughingly it, you've got to be where it's happen-
gressive person, but to make it out related a story where his determina- ing. That means you might need to
there you've got to be!" tion and creativity finally landed relocate to Los Angeles, New York,
Asked what her goals are, Hixson him a job with a major touring com- etc. Also, never lose the attitude of
was quick to respond. "I want to go pany which was doing sound for Rod learning your craft. If you are flying
out on the road. I want to be the Stewart. 20,000 pounds of equipment over
front -of-house mixer for a major "I got in by being persistent and patrons heads, it better beperfect the
tour!" gutsy. I literally crawled in under a first time!
A smiling Stahl quickly added, receptionist's desk, and waited all Stephen Zelenka: I would suggest
"And I see no reason why she can't day outside the hiring person's latching on to a local band that has a
future and mixing for them. Also, Carla Hixson: It was my interest in Michael Stahl: I'm a firm believer
you can get a job in club where tour- electronics that led me to ITT Trade in education, but it's important to re-
ing acts come through and be as School in Arizona to study it. This member that a degree in audio won't
helpful as you can. They might need was one of the things that interested necessarily get you a job. There are
someone and they will remember Mike on my resume. That knowl- many other attributes I look for in a
you ifyou are very helpful. edge has helped me a lot in the lab candidate but education will never
On Education in the Audio and out in the field. hurt you. You never stop learning.
Field Stephen Zelenka: If someone
comes in here and says he's put in
four years at say, Berklee School of
Music and now he knows everything,
I'm really put off by that.

I don't buy the line that

women can't do the job

because of the lifting or
The shape of pure sound living arrangements

It's a catch -22 that experience

has always harn little
C)mmunit y's phihawgshy a
often counts more than education,
1 unconventiomal. achieving transparently high Iva et,
of pure rund ecinimically

F'sr thine
and efficiently.

prepared to listen the shape oft annum

because how do you get experience if
no one will hire you?
mound can influence their design approach. and for
tF:tne brave enough to invest in what they hear. the
On Women Getting Into Audio
rewards are clear. Carla Hixson: If you are a woman,
Show expanding their market Community has don't get discouraged. There are
devela aped the definitive compact enclosure. places you can work and people who
The new 145220. Supreme projection (rim a i way will hire you. If I can make it, so can
system that has precise time alignment. other women!
Tapavnhlal. the 115220 can he Mown easily and Michael Stahl: I don't buy the line
that women can't do the job because
The him loaded waselront coherent design utilisas
Iwo double spider. ferrolluid ousted, eight inch
of the lifting or living arrangements.
%curers. The midrange is Community's exclusive I believe that is used as an excuse for
two inch exil driver and the high frequency is
provided by a smamth sounding efficient one inch
not hiring women. One of the best
exit compression driver. engineers I ever worked with was
Complementary pnxlucts are the \'1152I0 sthwamfrr Cathy Sander who was my second on
enclosure enabling powerful mien) cluster arrays no
he built, and the 22(1 System Controller providing
the Chicago tour. Cathy caused far
ekctronic ennwwer al 112111, and dynamic less problems than the men, and al-
equalisation using the unique hU elllkmse'"
ways found a way to get every job
Community's RS220
The shape of pure sound As the clock was showing nearly
2:00 p.m., it was obvious the Mary-
land Sound staffers were gearing up
for another night's show. The trucks
were being loaded, and the air was
charged with excited anticipation.
These people obviously love their
job, and it was with a bit of lingering
regret that I shook hands all around,
said my goodbyes, and prepared to
leave. As I watched Maryland
Sound's busy loading dock fade in
the rear view mirror, I couldn't help
333 East Firth Street feel a bit of envy for Carla, Stephen,
Commuñify Chester, PA 19013 Michael and all the gang there. It
Tel. (2151876-3400 was obvious from their smiles and
ISM( /NM Xll N1)1111 VN
COMMUNITY LIGHT 8 SOUND. INC. FAX 1215) 874 -0190 anticipation that as my day's work
drew to a close, the excitement of
their day was just beginning! Elli

Circle 25 on Reader Service Card

The Makings of an Engineer
The following interview with Randy Weinholtz took place at the author's home outside Princeton,
NJ. The interview, conducted over a two -day period, gives insight into both the difficulties ofget-
ting started in this business and traveling on the road.

RG: How did you get started Philadelphia in July of '87. Three tening and reacting to what's going
in this business? days of three stages, 12 bands a day on on-stage. I have encountered
RW: Well, I started as a roadie for with an audience of 25,000 per day. many people who feel that once a
the band "Bing" in 1980, basically Since then, some of the people I've mix is together, that the band should
setting up guitar amps, learning how worked with include Duran Duran, provide the dynamics and provide
to set up guitars and drums and David Bromberg, The Lettermen, the level changes. I disagree. A band
being the general go -fer. You know, Judy Collins, Arlo Guthrie, the Dead may know what changes they need
go-fer this, go-fer that. Then I be- Kennedys, Peabo Bryson, Budfest to play properly, but they have no
came an apprentice at (Modular (Washington D.C.), Cinderella, way of knowing what might be nec-
Technologies in Morrisville, PA) Savoy Browne, Dr. John, etc. essary to make the music happen for
starting in early '81, January or Feb- RG: If you have a choice, the audience.
ruary. After spending several
months learning about sound, I
which do you prefer -to mix Building a good mix is like con-
House or monitors? struction. It's important to realize
started working with a band called RW: I definitely prefer to mix that a live mix must be based upon a
Room" in May '81 basically House, if I have a choice, mainly be- solid foundation of Bass & Drums.
doing the club scer-e with a cover cause the House mixer controls the The vocals are the first thing in the
band using a small PA from Modular. whole situation. If you are having an mix, but the rhythm section is the
Then I got my first real experience "ON" night, and the band is too, foundation on which you are build-
when I was third man for Sammy then it can be a great experience. ing. The instruments in the band
Davis Jr. for a string of shows in May RG: What has been your favor- come next, and the effects (reverb,
'82. Then it was back to the clubs and ite House experience? echo, etc.) are the highlights or
occasional 'real' shows until I. RW: I don't know that I could sin- bright colors you paint on a house. It
worked my first Festival, the New gle any one out as the best-there doesn't matter how brightly you
York City Bluegrass Festival in June have been too many great ones. I paint the house if you never built a
of '84. There I did monitors, a 16x4 could tell you that I try to avoid being good foundation.
mix (16 mic inputs and 4 outputs for House man at Festivals because I RG: You obviously understand
4 different mixes at different loca- don't like babysitting other engi- and enjoy mixing House, but
tions on the stage). neers. what about Monitors?
My next major step forward was RG: What about Studio experi- RW Well, actually, I mix monitors
the Silver Cloud Folk Fest in August ence? quite a bit. I like it too, mainly be-
of '84. This was where I first used RW I certainly don't have any, and cause it's a spontaneous thing.
24x8 monitors. It was also the site of I'm not sure I really want any, be- You're right there on stage with the
a tremendous rainstorm before Arlo cause the studio seems like a really band, so you can really get caught up
Guthrie's set. The rain and lighten- boring place to be. I'm not sure I in the energy of the thing. A good
ing caused havoc, and put the pres- want to be there when Take #33 is monitor mixer can help the band put
sure on, allowing me to prove my going down. I have noticed that very on a much better show.
ability under fire. The storm passed few studio engineers have a good feel RG: What's your favorite mon-
and we got Arlo on within the 20 for how it should sound 'Live'. itor experience?
minute allotted stage change. It There's a certain feeling that has to RW: I would have to say Festivals,
turned into a gorgeous clear moonlit be there when you're dealing with a because of the variety of the acts. If
night, with Arlo playing an incredi- band on- stage. The Kick Drum they are organized well, Festivals
ble set at a site less than 15 miles should shake your leg, the instru- can be a hell of a good time. That's
from Woodstock, NY on the 18th an- ments should be in your face, etc. the key to Festivals, good organiza-
niversary of the event. I'm an active mixer. By that I mean tion. It is absolutely paramount that
The next big step was the first Fes- that I feel your hands should be on you clearly organize your stage and
tival I ran myself- "Rockarama" in the board. You should always be lis- monitor system before you ever ar-
rive at the concert site. If you take RW: Limiters and EQs are really a work even better. If when you turn it
the time to get riders and talk to the problem on the road. It's amazing on your system does not already
bands, you can save yourself a lot of how little is really understood about sound reasonably good, then you
headaches at the show. the advantages and disadvantages need to examine the parts of the sys-
RG: What about your recent of these two devices. In most cases, tems to find the problem. For in-
experiences on the road? How both units are used entirely too stance, are the crossover points rea-
have the systems been that much. sonable? It doesn't make a whole lot
you've encountered? A little bit of limiting (3 to 6 dB) at of sense to cross over from 18- to 12
RW: Well, on this last "A Flock of a high ratio (6:1 or higher) can en- inch speakers at 800 cycles; this
Seagulls" tour, I was given every- able a small PA to seem as loud as a should be done in the range of 150 to
thing from a poor passive 3-way sys- system with no limiting that is four 250 cycles. In addition, there must
tem to a nice Meyer system. I was times larger. However, 6 dB of limit- be adequate power for each of the
amazed as I traveled throughout the ing is about as far as you can go with- speakers. Also, the speakers must all
country and Canada at how many out the limiter starting to remove be in phase with each other and
people have good equipment that whole sections of the sound. For ex- hopefully aligned. Most importantly,
was poorly set up. Fortunately, a lot ample, a mix that has a lot of kick the various speakers must be prop-
of club soundmen appreciated my drum will be helped by some limit- erly balanced -the volume controls
help in setting up proper gain struc- ing, because that will even out the for the lows, mida and highs should
ture. Of everything I've observed, volume of the Kick; however once be set so that you hear enough of
gain structure is the single most mis- you start limiting your mix heavily each before you ever touch the EQ.
understood aspect of running a (more than 6 dB), you will notice Choosing the right microphone is
sound system. that the instruments and vocals important, too. You're never going to
seem to disappear ( "duck ") every get the right sound if the chosen mic
I was taught that the signals time the kick hits the limiter. is noted for its great highs and you
should be kept as 'hot' (close to 0 dB) need lows out of it. I know that you
as possible until the last possible Over the years, I've learned that a
little bit of limiting goes a long way. A use AKG 451 microphones with
stage. This means that even if your Judy Collins because of the super-
main output is going to be running at ratio of 6:1 or higher is useful for PA
protection, but when you are looking highs it brings out in her vocal,
-20 dB, you want to keep the input whereas, when I'm out with The
gains and submasters reading as to keep various instruments from
getting too loud, then a few dB of Lettermen, I use Shure SM -87s be-
close to 0 as you can without over- cause of the lower midrange 'meat'
loading. Of course this requires a
limiting at 2:1 or 3:1 will sometimes
help your mix. Vocals, Horns and in their vocals. So, mic selection can
console that has plenty of headroom, save you a lot of unnecessary EQing.
preferably +24 dB. It's also impor- Bass guitar can be especially helped
by this. Personally, I really like to Additionally, improper impedance
tant to patch things like EQs and matching can cause a great PA to
limiters in their proper place instead gate the kick drum, and then let the
PA limit it so that it's always out sound like tinny garbage. So, it's im-
of just 'daisy- chaining' them onto portant to know about anything that
the output of the console. front in the mix.
RG: And what about EQs? will affect the 'color' of your sound.
One thing I have really noticed RW: Equalization is always a tough RG: What about actually using
that has changed in the club scene is thing. The first problem is that there graphic and parametric EQs?
that most people now fuse their is no total agreement on what RW: Well, these days most para-
speakers instead of just hoping that sounds good; some people like to metric EQs are on the input channel
the limiter or underpowered ampli- hear things a little brighter than oth- of our board for adjusting the sound
fier will provide enough protection ers, some like low -end you can 'feel', of the input. Graphic EQs, on the
for the precious drivers. so we're in a situation where per- other hand, tend to be used to either
A really disconcerting thing about sonal preference enters heavily into fix the sound of the PA or get rid of
any club tour is how many clubs put the picture. In addition, the type of feedback. You are the person who
the mixing booth in a very bad place. act is a determining factor, too. first taught me how not to use an EQ.
Bad sightlines and poor acoustics Heavy Metal acts obviously require In fact, I know a few soundmen who
can put a soundman in a position more bass than MOR (middle of the are still in awe of the fact that you
where he mixes too loud or too road) acts that are more dependent can do a three-day Festival without
bassy/trebly simply because he can- on their vocals. ever touching an EQ.
not get an accurate picture of what The most important factors in RG: Well, (author blushes)
the audience hears. A couple of ex- using an EQ are memorizing which there are some advantages to
amples are the Cotton Club in At- faders affect which frequencies properly setting up your sys-
lanta, GA, where the sound booth is (learned only through great tem...
in a poor place acoustically, while at amounts of time playing with the RW: Yes, well, I feel well -taught.
Tranca's in Malibu Beach, CA, faders), and learning how not to use But, what I see out on the road is
someone had the idea that the sound EQ. equalizers that are often in the shape
booth should be 'out of the way', so RG: Considering this is a sub- of a giant U.
they put it in the balcony. ject that I have discussed for RG: The infamous U-EQ.
RG: You mentioned the use of years with you and other sound- RW: Exactly. As we have both
limiters and EQs; as you trav- men, please elaborate. proved, this is the result of either an
eled, how well did people make RW: The goal of using EQ is to improperly set -up system, or the re-
N use of these devices? make something that works well sult of a massively over -EQed PA.
The concept of not utilizing more would have to say that despite the the lawn.
than 1/3 of the faders on a graphic is minor changes, it still ranks as one of RG: What are the most inputs
just not adhered to by enough people. the best halls in the world. Although you've ever used?
I also encounter many systems those are two of the best sounding
that are severely hampered by the venues in the world, my personal RW: Forty inputs is the most I've
taking of the first two or three faders preference for venues to mix in has ever actually used, although I've had
and turning them completely off to be outdoor venues with or without boards with more inputs. I specific-
The explanation is usually that this roofs such as the Mann Music Center ally like the DDA Q- Series, TAC
eliminates Bass overexcursion, or in Philadelphia, or the Greek Thea- Scorpion and Harrison, but my fa-
gets rid of the rumble, but these tre in Los Angeles. Of course, venues vorite, without a doubt, would have
problems are much better fixed in with roofs (or sheds) have to have to be the ATI Paragon. I was very im-
other ways. delay stacks for the people sitting on pressed by the quality of the sound.
RG: Moving on to a different
subject, I know most of the read-
ers work in clubs or smaller en-
vironments, but what about
band volumes?
RW: Band volumes can be a prob-
lem sometimes, so you have to learn
to mix against it. The only solution is
often to just drop the instruments
that are too loud out of the mix; what
we call 'mixing against the instru-
ments.' However it is extremely im- SO WELL PUT
portant to get away from the sound
booth and listen to the sound else- TOGETHER,
where. Often what is a problem
where you are is not a problem else-
where. So get around in a club the Sony F series uni- directional dynamic mi-
first few minutes. crophones are built to be stage and road tough.
And even if they go down, they never have to go
out Because the mic capsule simply plugs into
Although I have a preference the handle, no soldering necessary. For the per-
former, these mics deliver plenty of punch for
for the Academy of Music in stage use while the shock mounted design
Philadelphia because of my virtually eliminates handling noise. To find out
familiarity with it, I would more call l -800- 635 -SONY
also have to mention
Carnegie Hall in New York. ANYONE CAN TAKE
Of course, it's important to have a
system powerful enough to get up
and over the band, but at the same
time always realize that being too
loud can result in your never work-
ing somewhere again. On the club
circuit, having a good relationship
with the owner and patrons is your
source of work, so don't destroy it by
being too loud. Therefore, it becomes
crucial that everyone in the band re-
alize that volume can destroy the MODELS F -720 and F -730
band's reputation as quickly as bad Samarium cobalt magnet Built -in pop protection Durable on
playing or choice of material. and off switch Wide frequency response XLR connector F-720
RG: Let's talk about some of is uni -directional F-730 is super -cardiod Black matte finish
your favorites here. First of all,
do you have a favorite venue?
RW: Several, actually. Although I
have a preference for the Academy of SONY Sony Co m NCJINXIS Products Canpeny
3 Paragon Dn,,. Montvale, NJ 07645
0,990 Sony Corporation 01America Sony ise registered uedemark of Sony

Music in Philadelphia because of my P R O F E S S I O N A L A U D I O

familiarity with it, I would also have

to mention Carnegie Hall in New
York. Despite some peoples' opinion
that the 'old' Carnegie was better, I N
RG: Did you ever encounter using many different systems, I find
any nightmares out on the road? Everything that could have the Yamaha units are probably the
gone wrong did. On the way easiest to get around on.
RW: I encountered one console in RG: Have you found that you
San Francisco that had just NOT to the gig one of our people, have some favorite acts after
been maintained. This brings up the Beep, said, "I'll bet that guy's the last 10 years?
most important aspect of sound sys- stealing that tire out of that
tems-maintenance. If you don't fix RW: Well, after seeing this much
and replace, it can become impossi- car." great music, there have to be some
ble to achieve decent results. Even pretty unforgettable experiences
connections that remain plugged in and acts. There's a rock guitarist in
for years should be unplugged, The problem with some of the pro- Trenton, NJ, I go see no matter what
cleaned and eye-balled every once in cessor-based systems I've encoun- band he's in, Ernie White. He always
a while. This console had originally tered is that although they sound has something to say, either on his
been decent, but was now noisy and great at moderate volumes as soon guitar or through his songs. I really
the cause of many headaches when I as you hit them hard, the deep bass like Wynton Marsalis when we work
came through the club on the Flock gets swept away. So far, Modular with him, though I'd like to see
of Seagulls tour. Technologies is only available in the Harry Connick, Jr. Additionally, I
States, and as far as I know, Brock is think the Neville Brothers and Dr.
only available in Canada. John are great. The Righteous
RG: What about speaker sys- RG: What about favorite ef- Brothers put on a show that was very
tems? fects? impressive.
RW: Well, you are aware of my RW: Well, if you are familiar with
preference for Modular's speaker the act and using the same system all A large part of survival in this busi-
systems, but there's also a manufac- the time, there are several multi -ef- ness is personality, how genuinely
turer in Canada who makes a very fect units that are very nice. ART nice are you to work with? The con -
fine product, Brock. Both systems and Alesis each make nice units. sumate master was Sammy Davis,
employ many of the same design Lexicon equipment usually sounds Jr. I don't know how he was all the
goals, resulting in a very clear - excellent, but they're not very flexi- time, but when we worked with him
sounding system that 'rocks' when ble without their control units. When at Modular, I know every single engi-
you need it to. traveling throughout the country neer was impressed.

Sony's ECM -MS5 stereo microphone puts high quality
stereo miking from a single point within your reach.
Incorporating Sony's MS (Mid -Side) capsule technology, the
MS5 brings true stereo imaging to your recordings. Coupled
to Sony's TCD -D 10 PRO portable DAT recorder, the MS5
provides digital sampling results of startling clarity and realism.
To find out more call I -800-635-SONY.

.. ECM -MS5
Three matched condenser capsule MS design
Light weight: 7.6 oz.
Six position adjustable directivity (0 -127 degrees)
Accepts 12 -48V external power
Optional DC -MS5 DC power supply allows 20 hour
operation on a single AA alkaline battery

Low -cut roll off switch Sony Communications Products Company
3 Paragon Dove, Montvale, NJ 07605
01990 Sony Corporation of America. Sony rs a registered trademark of Sony
RG: What was the worst gig pret it. This means everything from asked to turn something down? It is
you ever worked? taking all criticism (positive or nega- rare, so it's an educated guess.
RW: You should know, you got me tive) with a grain ofsalt, to being able One of our monitor engineers actu-
into it! Lillo Thomas was in a small to interpret the artist's request in ally went through this exchange
club in Brooklyn, NY. We were given French. with a band from Senegal this past
directions from the band, told it was Even an interpreter can screw you summer.
a 6 o'clock show and that there were up. How do you react when you are
no stairs. Additionally, there was asked "Please turn the fish in the Finally, be open -minded to advice.
supposed to be a load -crew, no open- box ?" You turn (up) the Bass (fish) in
I've encountered a decent number of
ing acts and dinner. the monitor speaker (box). engineers over the years who have
Everything that could have gone shared information with me. You
wrong did. On the way to the gig one How do you know to turn the fish just never know where the next
of our people, Beep, said, "I'll bet up? How often has a musician ever great idea is coming from.
that guy's stealing that tire out of
that car." Well, the directions were
backward, every left was supposed to
be a right, every right a left. When we
turned around, sure enough, there's
this guy on the side of the road yell-
ing, "Tire, $5.00!" This was most
certainly an omen.
I could never fit all of the little sto-
ries that make a show a nightmare,
but some headlines include: when we
got there, there was a flight of 20 mil-
lion thin stairs with two 18 -foot
trucks to unload, and a load -in crew
that was unwilling to work and
never showed up for load -out. The
show finally started at 2:45 a.m. he demands of digital moni-
with the first of three opening acts, toring have driven many 'old
and we finally started load -out at 6
a.m. -up the stairs with no crew, no
standby" coaxial speakers to

dinner and 36 total feet of truck to

load. Anything worse than that I've
Q bits. Instead of singing the

blues, more and more studios are

blocked out of my mind. replacing their blues with Gauss


The Gauss coaxials were

How do you react when you
designed neutral so they wouldn't
are asked "Please turn the
color the music. The cosh horn and
fish in the box ?" You turn
time coherent design eliminate the
(up) the Bass (fish) in the need for time correction and greatly
monitor speaker (box). reduce fatigue. The carefully
matched drivers require little or no

RG: Lastly, what makes a good E0, provide the widest possible fre-

engineer? quency response and 200 watts of

RW: Well, I could go on for hours, power handling (400 peak) without
but ability to listen is of paramount self -destructing.
importance. But this is not just the
For more information on how
ability to hear the different parts of
the music-it's also the ability to lis- you can bring your old coax systems

ten to what's said to you and inter- up to the digital 90's, see your

authorized Gauss dealer, or call us


We need you. gauss.....

a MARK IV company

9130 Glenoaks Blvd.

Sun Valley, CA 91352

lipAmerican Heart
(213) 875 -1900
Association Fax: (818) 767-4479 1990 Gauss
Circle 19 on Reader Service Card

Promoting Your Studio: Part I

Let's speak frankly. The new year apocalyptic undertones of the Mid- Hence, the overhead is much lower,
is upon us, and recording studios dle Eastern conflict, but these are and the market more circumscribed.
(both large and small) are bracing factors beyond our reach. The up- While there are some exceptions,
for an extremely competitive period shot is that a dark cloud is hovering realistically, electronic cottages are
in the months ahead. Sure, there is right now, but it will not stay forever. not big contenders for major label re-
still money to be made and somebody Eventually (if history does indeed re- cording budgets or glitzy advertising
will be making it, but will it be you? peat itself) the cloud will disappear, clients. This is not to say they don't
Many studios are now feeling the and when the sun of economic pros- turn out hit records or national com-
leading edge of a recession. Some perity again shows its face, it will be a mercials, for they do; but the main
will survive and perhaps even pros- brand new ball game. draw is for independently financed
per, but others will, undoubtedly, fail. How can a studio make it in these masters, demos, regional commer-
Economists can give us a list of uncertain times? There are no pat cials, a/v projects and the whole pa-
causes: runaway government spend- answers here, but one thing is obvi- rade of "wanna -be" songwriters and
ing, mounting consumer debt or the ous: the competition for pieces of an vocalists seeking an affordable rep -
increasingly smaller pie is going to be resentation of their musical con-
stiff. Studios will either become mo- cepts. Most of these clients are inter-
tivated to succeed or simply fall by ested solely in sonic value per dollar;

Ready the wayside, and it seems to me that

the effective use of promotional tools
is going to be a key factor in survival.
they will not pay extra for cushy fur-
niture or an attractive receptionist.
Whether your target market is the
to Rack Let me state out front that I am not
offering this advice as a person who
mid -sized ad agency, the indepen-
dent record producer, or the young
optugargam has already cornered the recording
market, but rather as one who is
songwrite>; the point that must be
transmitted in any promotional
The ARX Sixgate: 6 pro quality gates in a vying for a share, just like you. So campaign is simply this: value.
single rack space. Key inputs and Detector let's examine the arsenal of promo-
loop inserts. List $649
tional tools available to a studio PROMOTIONAL
All promotional efforts fit into two
The ARX Quadcomp: 4 pro quality comp/ DEFINING YOUR basic categories: thing you pay for
limiters in a single rack space. Detector MARKET
loop inserts and stereo link. List $799
(otherwise known as advertising),
It should be clear that and things you get for free (other-
electronic cottageers have wise known as public relations).
a unique profile in contrast to the There can actually be a lot of cross-
The ARX DI -6: a 6 channel active DI box and larger professional studio. This re- pollination between these two cate-
line mixer in a single rack space. Ground quires unique strategies. Promo- gories, but it is nonetheless a useful
lifts, headphone out. A real problem
tional techniques that work for distinction. For example, public rela-

solver. List $549
tions is a relatively cost -free pursuit,

larger studios are not always appli-
For more information, call Algis Renkus cable. The electronic cottage (as de- unless of course, you hire a profes-
at fined in this magazine), while capa- sional PR person; then, PR can cost
ble of turning out professional as much as advertising. Still, the
broadcast quality products, is typi- kind of promotion you get from PR
cally more specialized in scope, fur- can be different than that achieved
Systems nished with much less expensive
equipment than the larger pro shops,
through advertising. Both angles
must therefore be covered.
PO Box 842, Silverado CA 92676 -0842 occupies a much smaller space, and Besides the out -of- pocket costs,
Phone 714 -649 2346 Fax 714 -649 3064 in general, does not focus on the posh what is the major difference between
amenities which are often expected. advertising and public relations?
Circle 15 on Reader Service Card
Well, advertising can get you in the erally take up space in magazines carefully crafted a few phrases de-
public eye right away. If you can af- and newspapers. They are some- scribing the essence of your service
ford to buy advertising, you can
pretty well say anything you want
about the service you offer and peo-
times sold by the fraction of the page
they occupy (such as V8, V4, page)
or more commonly, by the column -
(your niche in the market place), you
should review a few more points be-
fore laying out your ad. First, re-
ple will know of your claims very inch (how many standard columns member to leave ample white space.
quickly. This could possibly translate wide by how many inches long). People today have the attention span
into some immediate business. The of a fruit fly; they will not spend a
downside is this: if you stop advertis- Large professional studios have
traditionally favored big space ads whole lot of time trying to read a
ing, the general public will forget cluttered ad. Second, get to the heart
about you quickly. because they convey an aura of suc-
cess and of course, cater to the vani- of the matter in your copy. What is it
Public relations, on the other hand, you do best? Trying to be everything
is slow, but enduring. It builds an ties of their well- heeled clients.
Don't forget that big studios with big to everybody is not credible. A few
opinion in the public eye of precisely well -placed words will motivate peo-
what your business is. This dissemi- investments have to spend big bucks
on advertising in order to attract the ple; a confused parade of boastings
nation of information must occur will probably saturate readers'
steadily over time, and results in an big clients. I'm sure you've all seen
the blown -out full color vanity ads in minds and turn them off. Third,
image that will not quickly fade choose the journal you advertise in
away. Consistent, good PR speaks a Billboard magazine saying some-
thing like this (to cite a fanciful, but carefully. It; for example, you are
message of assurance to a potential going after the singer/songwriter
client. It says, "this is a reliable stu- nonetheless typical example):
"Thank You Elvis Presley For Let- type, why advertise in a publication
dio" or a "hot studio" or whatever it that appeals primarily to rock 'n' roll
is the audience wants to hear in ting Chartbuster Studios Make
Hound Dog The Biggest Hit Of The bands? If they call you, they will
order to give you their trust. probably be disappointed unless you
Year." This kind of approach will
Even if you know very little about probably not work for you, since no have the space to do live music effi-
advertising and public relations, it's modern -day Elvis has recorded at ciently, whereas the singer/song-
easy to see from the above descrip- your studio. Scaling down the ap- writer will be only too happy to care-
tions the clear benefits of both types proach by thanking the local hero of fully program his song one track at a
of promotion. and how they can most the bar band circuit for recording at time.
effectively be used in conjunction your studio doesn't quite cut it ei- To capture this audience, it might
with each other. To out some flesh on ther. be beneficial to search out more spe-
these general descriptions, we will cific avenues for reaching your mar-
now look at some specific types of ad- Another approach big studios use ket, such as the newsletters from
vertising and PR that are appropri- to good advantage is the equipment local songwriters' associations. Fi-
ate for promoting a recording studio sell: a sizeable ad positively glutted nally, once you decide on a particular
business. with the names of top shelf equip- journal, carefully monitor the place-
ment manufacturers (i.e. Neumann, ment of your space ad on the given
TYPES OF AKG, Lexicon, UREI and so on). You page. If there are lots of similar -
probably can't do that without looking ads on the page, figure out a
ADVERTISING sounding stupid either and the bot- way to make yours look different. A
For the purposes of this article, the tom line is this: as an electronic cot- good graphic artist can be of im-
discussion of advertising will be lim- tage, you are selling a service, not an mense assistance here.
ited to print advertising, rather than equipment list. People will come to
broadcast advertising. Why? Not you because they can relax and per-
only are radio and television ads ex- form uninhibited in a relaxed atmo- CLASSIFIED ADS
pensive, but no one has found a way sphere, and get a good product at an According to many market re-
to use them for studio promotion affordable price. That is probably searchers, the classified ad is one the
without smacking of hucksterism. what your ad should focus on. most cost -effective ways of promot-
TV and radio have great emotional ing a well- defined service. These ads
impact, but fall short when it comes To craft an effective ad, you must are little, but powerful. They don't
to transmitting hard information. define your audience and be able to draw a lot of attention to them-
Studios generally have found a more motivate them to give you a try. A selves, but they do sort of weed out
conservative print ad to be most ef- friend of mine (Jim Becher of Ariel the casual reader. Usually, people
fective. Music Design) has a yellow page ad that pour through classifieds are se-
that claims he renders "The Most riously shopping for something, and
There are three types of ads: space Complete Songwriter Service Avail-
ads, classifieds and direct mail-all will respond to an ad that strikes a
able." Young songwriters searching resonant chord. Beyond this, classi-
of which can be effective vehicles for a good studio and producer will
when properly targeted. Let's exam- fied ads are amazingly affordable
undoubtedly call him to see if his compared to space ads; you can actu-
ine some of the factors involved in claim is true. Such a simple ad has
deciding which type of print adver- ally afford to experiment with your
resulted in more business than any format over a period of time, and
tising might work best for your stu- of his more elaborate ads in the local
dio. once you begin to get results, you can
music and entertainment newspa- undoubtedly afford to keep the ad in
pers. print forever.
The point is that in a space ad, sim- The trick, of course, is writing an
These are the box-like ads that lit- plicity works best. After you have ad that doesn't make you sound like co
a huckster selling snake oil reme- DIRECT MAIL compile a list yourself from personal
dies. We've all chuckled at the type of references or perhaps purchase a
I've become a great fan of direct roster from a local organization (like
classifieds from some out -of-state mail advertising over the past few
mail order production company that an advertising club or a songwriters'
years for one reason: I know it guild). This is the tricky part. Once
offers to "put music to your song lyr- works, because it works on me. I've
ics for only $60 a song." When you you've compiled a viable list you can
been induced to buy numerous items add to it, update it and keep ham-
use the classifieds, it's important to and services, donate to some worthy
distance yourself from that kind of mering away at the same central
charities, get involved in political ac- core of potential clients until they
disreputable advertising. You must tivism-all because of some letters
assume your audience will pursue yell "uncle" and give you a shot at
somebody sent me. There's so much their next project. All you need, to do
you if given a legitimate opportunity, more you can say in a letter than in
so don't resort to hyperbole. a direct mail campaign, is a PC and a
either a space ad or classified ad. You program that will allow you to com-
Suppose your goal was to market a
can really open up and make a total pile a list and print it out as labels.
musical soundtrack production ser- case for the product or service you Obviously, finding the right adver-
vice to ad agencies who do industrial are trying to sell. When marketing tising format requires a bit of experi-
and corporate audio visual presenta-
the intimacy of a small studio or pro- mentation and a few dollars to in-
duction company, this can be an ex- vest. Still, advertising can be what
tions. First, you must select a trade
cellent way to go. makes the difference between a stu-
journal which services your potential
audience. Then, you must write a There is, of course, one major pro- dio that is well -booked, and one
classified ad that will encourage viso: you need to develop an accurate that's stalled in its tracks. The ques-
them to contact you. Perhaps you mailing list of the audience you are tion we must constantly answer is
can offer to send a free brochure of attempting to reach. Your research this: can we afford not to advertise?
your services and a rate card to those needs to be current and scrupulously Advertising-especially in today's
who request it, or for a nominal targeted, else you will throw your market-needs to be seen as part of
charge, a short sample cassette of money away in postage and enve- our equipment; it's almost as funda-
your work. Let's face it, anyone who lopes. Going to a commercial mailing mental as studio monitors.
takes the time to write you a note or list company may not be the best
send you $3.00 for a sample cagcPtte thing to do; it is expensive and may In the next issue, we'll concentrate
is likely to be seriously looking for a not be narrowly focused enough for a on the kind of promotion you can get
new vendor for the kind of services studio doing local or regional busi- for free: public relations for the
you provide. ness. It is probably best to gradually smaller studio.

1991 Editorial
The Professional Electronic Cottage.
Winter NAMM Show issue.
GUIDE: Speakers: Performance & Monitor.
The Broadcast Picture in the U.S.- Applications of the Electronic Cottage
to broadcast.
NAB show issue.
GUIDE: Consoles and Mixers.
Audio in Houses of Worship/Sound Reinforcement In Fixed Venues.
NSCA show issue.
GUIDE: Power Amplifiers.
Concert Sound -Producing it and/or Recording it.
Summer NAMM show issue.
GUIDE: Tape, Tape Recorders and Accessories, Microphones.

The Recording Studio What's happening, what's ahead for the 90s.
AES in N.Y. Show issue.
GUIDE: Signal Processing Equipment, Part I.(delays, reverbs,
crossovers, equalizers.)
The World of Post -Production -Television and Film. SMPTE Show issue.
GUIDE: Signal Processing Equipment, Part II, (noise gates,
noise reduction, limiters, compressors), Spectrum Analyzers.

0101010101000001 audio, or digital, is this issue's topic.

Digital is where audio, video and that song are called cue points. What dium. I would put my working copy
communications will be in the fu- this means is if you want to play the on a DAT machine (tape). For this
ture. Digital audio, video and com- entire song, the director would only reason, DAT machines are a natural
munication, in general, are already select track 32 and play it until end- for a church because they come
in digital format, but you need to ing, while for rehearsal purposes, the available with recording tape stan-
know the basics of digital audio so director would choose the track for dard in 46, 90 and 120 minutes, with
you won't be left behind. the particular section of the song to no need to "turn" the tape over.
Digital audio is all around us: in be practiced.
telephone answering machines, There are disadvantages, however, DIGITAL AUDIO
voice-mail boxes, camcorders, and to being able to cue each section. If
you want to play the song that is on After audio is converted from ana-
yes, even our churches. CD players
track 32 and then play it on track 1 log to digital, it's digital data, the
are already being used by many
churches for choral and other ac- via the CD player's memory selec- same data used in your computer.
tion, the CD would only play the sec- Suppose you plug a microphone into
companiment tracks, while Chris- a DAT machine; the mic takes the
tian recording artists are including tion attached to cue number 32
(which, in this case, is also the song acoustic sound and changes it into
DAT (digital audio tape) machines
on their riders for concerts. number), and then play song num- an electrical AC voltage 4.which is
ber 1, while only playing that section still analog). It then goes into an ana-
Word Music Inc., one of the leading log- to-digital converter which
music producers for the Christian attached to cue point number 1. This
is a perfect case for a DAT machine changes the analog AC voltage into
market, plans to increase their CD digital data. Therefore, the DAT ma-
accompaniment tracks for their cho- with digital outputs because you can
record the two songs in the order you chine is not recording analog audio,
ral music by 76 percent, this year but data.
over last. The advantage is increased want, much the same way you would
change the order from an LP to cas- Because the audio is now data, you
sound quality; the clarity and defini- can do various things with it and vir-
tion of the music can't be touched by sette. The exception is you can trans-
fer the information out of the CD tually never lose any quality in the
analog media in mass duplication. audio as you would with analog du-
player's digital outputs and go into
There are additional advantages the DAT machine's digital inputs plication. With an analog signal, you
as well. For example, Word Music while losing no sound quality. have to process the sound by going
Inc. has added a feature to their cho- through another circuit which in-
ral CDs that allows the choir director creases noise and otherwise de-
to cue the music at different sec- grades the signal. With digital, you
tions. Suppose the choir starts with a This brings us to my favorite change the data, or the arrangement
verse and has trouble going into the way of using digital audio of the bits of data, but not the audio ,V
chorus. The director can instantly go relating to church signal itself. 7
back to the start of the chorus with a worship -putting the analog This brings us to my favorite way
few key strokes of the CD player.
This is accomplished by noting each
section of the song with its own track
to digital converter on a
of using digital audio relating to
church worship putting the analog
to digital converter on a computer,
numbe4 and it is also marked in the having the computer record the ser-
music. Consequently, the verse vice, editing the program material
would be track 32, the chorus track Personally, I would buy my accom- on the computer and storing it on a T
33. In this case, the song is track 32; paniment tracks on CD because it is DAT machine (which will be your 1
track 33 and other track numbers in a much better long-term storage me- master for duplication). By using a co
computer for editing, you can actu- ison, WI. IED manufactures turnkey the same color on the computer
ally see the audio on the computer computer-based systems, including screen, and the computer system
screen (providing you have the ap- automatic mic mixers, processing will automatically change the con-
propriate software), and have the equipment and amplifiers that can figuration of the inputs and outputs
ability to edit out a word, noise, or run the audio for a complete facility to make all mic jacks in the com-
any unwanted sound while leaving in one- or two-track frames in a sin- bined rooms active within that con-
the program material you want in- gle location. Intelix provides similar figuration. If you were to combine
tact. If you make a mistake, simply control and interfaces with your ev- rooms 1 and 2, then all mic jacks in
undo the edit and start over. eryday off-the -shelf equipment. IED both rooms will be active, and no
interfaces with non -IED equipment matter which room the mic is
DSPs via the PA-422 serial computer in- plugged into, it will play through the
terface, making it useable with other speakers in both rooms.
Digital audio and video capabilities equipment besides IED.
are moving faster and faster every The IED system can combine
day, due to the development of DSPs Intelix' system, MIND (Master In- rooms and turn on or offany input or
(Digital Signal Processors). DSPs let tegrated Network Device) Control output at any time in the future. If
you purchase a card for your com- System, is used as a central informa- the pastor decides he wants to hold a
puter to make it a complete multi- tion and control center for the facili- conference in rooms 1 and 2 on July
track recorder, editor and editing ties manager. These systems include 6, 1995, the audio person can set the
system for just a little more money audio, video, HVAC, fire, security time and date in the computer and
than a similar analog system. It's and computers that can be operated program it to turn all mic inputs off
even less expensive if you use the by a single computer from the facili- except mic input No. 6, combining
computer for accounting or other ties manager's office. This enables the rest of the audio. In four years,
functions, when not recording. You him, for example, to select a room to the system will automatically com-
would now have the all -in -one work- be used for a meeting and have the bine the amps and speakers in rooms
station-office by day, recording sth- heat and audio systems turned on for 1 and 2 while turning on mic No. 6.
dio by night. use 30 minutes before the actual The mic will be raised or lowered, de-
meeting starts. pending on how loud the pastor talks
Our next topic is digital control. into the mic, and the output will get
With money for community centers ... its best feature is that it louder or softer depending on how
diminishing, churches are becoming loud or soft the room is at any partic-
more than a place to worship by add- can provide precision ular time during the conference. If
ing education, health and recep- automatic system operation the pastor tells a joke and the audi-
tion/dining facilities to their prop- without an operator, without ence laughs, the sound system will
erty. As the facilities grow, the raise the level in that room only,
someone plugging in a mic while the level of the system will go
demand for audio becomes greater.
This presents problems, such as hav- at the time of the conference. down accordingly after the laughter
ing people that are dedicated, or dies down.
have the time, to operate the differ-
IED has introduced a system
ent sound systems. I know from ex- named UDAPS (Universal Digital
perience that churches use their fa- An advantage to this type of sys-
Audio Processing System) which is tem is that conferences can occur si-
cilities simultaneously from capable of taking up to 504 inputs,
Wednesday night on through Sun- multaneously, but its best feature is
changing the mic or line from analog that it can provide precision auto-
day. This creates a second problem as
to digital, and then processing each matic system operation without an
this requires multiple sound sys-
input, such as EQ and digital delay, operator without someone plugging
tems, which can be very costly, be- with a different setting to any or all
sides having someone to make sure in a mic at the time of the confer-
of the 504 outputs in groups of eight. ence. The IED system also has an
they are set up and running properly. LED's turnkey audio systems enable
When dealing with volunteer labor alarm that sounds when a compo-
you to combine rooms, automatically nent of the system fails, and it will
who have other jobs and families, the
mix mic and line inputs, and raise tell you exactly what failed, thus
time needed to be devoted to the and lower the output level according
systems can add up to virtu - eliminating down time for trouble-
ally that of a second full -time job.
to the ambient noise level of the shooting.
room(s) being combined. The com-
puter screen IED provides will dis-
INTEGRATED SOUND play an architectural layout of the More systems like IED and Intelix
0) SYSTEMS facility, and show the status of each will come about in the next few
room. years, so if you are planning a new
facility, it would be worthwhile to

'g The answer; however, is within

g reach -using integrated sound sys-
tems with digital control. There are
v two companies making great head-
For example, suppose you have
four rooms next to each other, di-
vided by some sort of folding walls,
find out which of these systems
would be optimum for your church.
Systems like these can only be found
way into these types of systems: IED each room with its own color. The either at electronic systems compa-
co of Louisville, KY, and Intelix of Mad- rooms you want to "combine" will be nies or with sound contractors. 9I:


Soundcraftsmen's Model PM860

Stereo Amplifier


MODEL P14680

GENERAL INFORMATION (300 watts per channel using 4 ohm loads) provided by a
If you have always thought of Soundcraftsmen as a single amplifier. The use of a pair of amplifiers in this
maker of solidly- built, well -designed but somewhat mode will also require a stereo bridging adaptor
bulky power amplifiers, you'll be in for a surprise when (Soundcraftsmen Model AB -1) available for under $90.
you see (and lift) their new Model PM860. Oh, it's still
solidly built and, from a circuit point of view, extremely When two amplifiers are used this way, in bridged
well -designed, but it is one of the most compact amplifi- mode, each amplifier delivers 600 watts into 8 ohm loads
ers for its power rating that we have ever seen. The which is perfectly matched to a 70 volt distribution line
PM860 is so small, in fact, that Soundcraftsmen is pro- without the need fora matching transformer. Of course,
moting the idea of using two of them, side by side, in their two units mounted in this adaptor can also be used as
available PCX-2 rack- mount, should you require more four 300-watt basic amplifiers in such applications as bi-
than the 200 watts-plus per channel into 8 ohm loads amping, multi -channel systems, etc.





1. Frequency response of the amplifier.



Figure 2(A). Harmonic distortion plus noise versus
frequency at rated output of 205 watts /channel, 8 -0

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10 100 1k 10k 100k 8
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Figure 2(B). Harmonic distortion plus noise versus Figure 3(A). Harmonic distortion plus noise versus
frequency at rated output of 300 watts /channel, 4 -0 power output per channel (8-0 loads). Best curve is 1
loads. kHz, next best power is 20 kHz, lowest power before
clipping is 20 kHz.

In our tests, however only a single stereo amplifier was As for the electrical features of the PM860, the output
evaluated. It stood only 5- 2inches high, was 8-1/2 inches devices are power MOSFETS in a fully complementary
wide and 13 inches deep. It is this configuration that al- circuit design. An aluminum heatsink utilizes a special
lows the use of two units, side by side, without exceeding multidirectional surface area designed for maximum
the limits of a standard 19-inch rack panel. Had we heat dissipation. Cooling is provided by a fan that is gov-
wanted to mount this single amplifier in a rack, this, too, erned by thermal sensors built into the transformer out-
would have been possible, using Soundcraftsmen's PCX- put stages and other sensitive areas of the amplifier.
1 rack -mounting kit available for under $50. The ampli- During normal operation, the two-speed fan is very
fier itself weighs a mere 20 pounds. quiet, switching to its higher speed (and more audible op-
eration) only during extreme demands such as those im-
posed when the amplifier ran at full rated output for
some of our tests.
Unlike most high -powered amplifiers, the PM860 em-
Unlike most high -powered ploys a fully regulated power supply. That means that
full power is available even under low voltage conditions.
amplifiers, the PM860 em- Rated power was available from this amplifier even
ploys a fully regulated power when line voltage dropped to slightly more than 100
supply. That means that full volts. At this low voltage supply level many other ampli-
fiers would provide as little as one -half to two-thirds of
power is available even their rated power output. The Soundcraftsmen PM860
under low voltage conditions. does not employ current-limiting, a design approach
that, in some amplifiers, causes distortion even as clip-
Figure 3(B). Harmonic distortion plus noise versus Figure 4(A). A spectrum analysis of a 1 kHz signal at
power output per channel (4-W loads). Best curve is 1 205 watts /channel output. (8-0 loads.)
kHz, next best power is 20 kHz, lowest power before
clipping is 20 kHz.





Fi Flinn'
cqi 0.0 3.00k 6.00k 9.00k 21.0k
12 Ok 15 Ok 16 Ok 24 Ok 27.0k 30.0k
0.0 -50.00
Ap Ap


-70.00 T\
-80.00 / IS
-60.00 -90.00 % 1,

V, ,, -._ -


IT r I^ InIMITir I ?n I7111r1nr PVT', -120.0

-120.0 -130.0
0.0 3.00k 6.001 9.001 12 Ok 15 Ok 16.0k 21.0k 24 Ok 27 Ot 30 Ok 30 100 it 10k 20k

Figure 4(B). A spectrum analysis of a 1 kHz signal Figure 5. A spectrum analysis of residual noise at 1-
at 300 watts /channel output. (4 -Q loads.) watt reference level.

ping is approached. The clipping indicators on the front harmonic distortion plus noise (THD +N), measured
panel of this amplifier are waveform sensitive, and illu-
minate only when actual waveform distortion occurs
in other words, only under conditions of true clipping.
- 0.022 percent for the left channel and 0.013 percent for
the right channel. At 20 kHz, THD + N increased to 0.05
percent and was identical for both channels.
The measurements were repeated for 4-ohm loads,
CONTROL AND PANEL LAYOUT this time with input regulated to maintain a constant
The only user control found on the front panel of the rated 300 watts per channel. Mid - frequency THD +
PM860 is an on/off power switch. Nearby is a green noise was substantially the same as before, as shown in
power indicator light. Further to the right are separate Figure 2B, but THD + N at 20 kHz increased to slightly
red clipping indicator lights, one for each channel. A over 0.1 percent. Figures 3A and 3B were plotted for
major portion of the amplifier's rear panel is devoted to THD + noise versus power output for frequencies of 1
the air intake area of the built-in two-speed cooling fan. kHz (lowest curve in the graphs), 20 Hz (middle curve in
Alongside this area are two pairs of color -coded 5-way each graph) and 20 kHz (uppermost curve in Figures 3A
binding posts for connection of speaker cables, while fur- or 3B), and good correlation was noted between these re-
ther to one side are 1/4 -inch phone jacks used for the un- sults and those of Figures 2A and 2B as rated power lev-
balanced inputs to the amplifier. No provision has been els were reached. At low output levels, the increase in
made for balanced input connections. THD + noise is largely a function of residual noise
which, relative to lower output, appears to be a greater

Anyone who maintains that In order to separate the THD from the residual noise,
there is no audible difference we employed the FFT spectrum analysis function of our
audio test system to examine the actual harmonic com-
between amplifiers having ponents produced at rated output. Results are shown in
the same power rating would Figure 4A for 8 -ohm loads (with 205 watts delivered by
each channel) and in Figure 4B for 4 -ohm loads (with
do well to audition the 300 watts per channel delivered to the loads). The signif-
Soundcraftsmen PM86O icant harmonic components generated by the amplifier
against competitive amplifi- are all more than 80 dB below rated output for the 8-ohm
condition, and calculating actual harmonic distortion
ers. contributed by the second, third, fifth and seventh har-
monic component yields a true overall THD figure (ex-
clusive of noise contributions) of only 0.0082 percent! In
LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS the e.s a of 4-ohm load conditions, the net actual THD
While Soundcraftsmen specifies the frequency re- (exclusive of noise) calculated from the most significant
sponse of this amplifier only from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz, harmonic contributions was only 0.0122 percent.
our sample did much better than that. It was virtually Overall SMPTE -IM distortion at rated powe>; with 8-
flat down to 10 Hz (the limit of our signal generating ohm loads, measured only 0.022 percent for one channel
equipment) and was down 1 dB at 58 kHz and less than 3 and 0.013 percent for the opposite channel. Signal -to-
dB at 100 kHz. Frequency response test results are noise was measured first, relative to 1 watt output, in ac-
shown in Figure 1. We measured distortion at rated out- cordance with the standards of measurement developed
put versus frequency for both 8 -ohm and 4-ohm load con- by the Electronic Industries Association. Using that
ditions. For the 8-ohm load tests, input was regulated so method, A-weighted S/N was 78.03 dB for one channel
as to maintain a constant 205 watts per channel output and 75.2 dB for the other channel. To obtain closer corre-
(both channels driven) into resistive 8 -ohm loads. Re- lation with the figures published by Soundcraftsmen, we
sults are plotted in Figure 2A. At mid - frequencies, total also measured S/N with respect to the full rated output of r
the amplifier (205 watts per channel into 8-ohm loads). any we've heard from so- called audiophile stereo ampli-
Under those conditions, we measured an A- weighted fiers. During normal use, which extended for several
signal -to -noise ratio of 101.7 dB for one channel and 100 hours of listening, the internal fan's high speed was
dB for the opposite channel. Input sensitivity for 1 watt never invoked, nor did the clipping indicators illuminate.
output into 8 ohm loads was 91 millivolts. That trans- The loudspeakers we used were not the most efficient,
lates to an input requirement of 1.3 volts for rated output but the high power rating of the amplifier (and its ability
of 205 watts per channel. A summary of the to drive impedances even lower than 4 ohms) enabled it
manufacturer's published specifications and, where ap- to deliver sound levels that were louder than I would
plicable, our measurements, appears in the Vital Statis- have expected from such a small sized, lightweight am-
tics table at the end of this report. plifier.

CONCLUSIONS Perhaps even more amazing than its small size and
Anyone who maintains that there is no audible differ- light weight is the very "small" suggested price for this
ence between amplifiers having the same power rating amplifier. At $599 it is as much as $400 less than some of
would do well to audition the Soundcraftsmen PM860 the more expensive competition in the same power out-
against competitive amplifiers. Sound was as clean as put class. crib



Power Output /Channel

Stereo, 8 ohms 205 Watts 205 Watts
Stereo, 4 ohms 300 Watts 300 Watts
Mono, 8 ohms 600 Watts N/A
Mono, 4 ohms 900 Watts N/A
THD, 20 Hz to 20 kHz 0.05% 0.012% (1 kHz)
IM Distortion 0.05% 0.022%
Frequency Response, ±0.1 dB 20 Hz to 20 kHz Confirmed
Hum and Noise -105 dB -100 dB
Rise Time 2.2 microseconds N/A
Input for 1 Watt Out N/A 91 mV
Input for rated output N/A 1.3 V
Dimensions (HxWxD, inches) 5 -1/4 X 8 -1/2 X 13 Confirmed
Weight 20 lbs. Confirmed
Price: $599.00.

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Packaged in a male -female inline-
XLR tube, the AC -10 requires 12-
48V phantom power for operation. A
two-position slide- switch selects be-
tween the two curves. Both curves
conform to the appropriate national
and international standards. A-
weighting filters are usually used to
make a sound level meter approxi-
mate the sensitivity characteristics
of the human ear at 70 dB SPL. The
C- weighting curve approximates the
ear's sensitivity at high SPL's. Typi-
cally, A- weighting is used for noise-
annoyance studies, but is now the
standard for most noise -survey
work, regardless of SPL.
Manufacturer: AudioControl
Price: $44.00
Circle 70 on Reader Service Card

The DMC1000 has fourteen input
channels (8 mono, 3 stereo) and eight
monitor input channels which can be
mixed onto the stereo bus. All chan-
nel parameters are automated. This
includes real -time automation of
EQ pan, aux sends and buss assign-
ments. The on -board time-code ref-
erenced computerstores its automa-
tion data to an internal 3.5 in. floppy
disc drive. Additionally, static
" scenes "of all console parameters
maybe stored onto a ram card and in-
stantly recalled. A flexible equalizer
with a "virtual" control section is in-
cluded. The DMC' 000 offers 4 bands
of fully -parametric equalization
with identical frequency range (20
Hz -20 kHz) on all four bands. Bands
1 and 4 are switchable for either peak
or shelf, while bands 2 and 3 are
"peak." High and low pass filters are
also provided. Each channel's equal-
ization response curve may be dis-
played graphically on the LED
Manufacturer: Yamaha
Corporation ofAmerica Circle 71 on Reader Service Card
Price: Under $32,000

Problem -Solving at
International Post
"The people who are interested in selling programs overseas are interested in selling programs
overseas. They're not as interested in producing them or becoming technically involved with them.
They want them to be what their clients want them to be, obviously. But I think they feel very, very
comfortable injust sending us the elements and saying `Go do it.' We do, too. We solve problems for
a lot ofpeople without them knowing that there are problems to solve. "-Rob Schuman, general
manager, International Post.

WITH FILM AND VIDEO'S GLOBAL IM- can do jobs rolling in both facilities machine at 25 frames/second or an
pact expanding dramatically, simultaneously," Schuman says. NTSC machine going at 29.97 or 30
United States distributors and over- Housed in the audio suite is a control frames/second. So, let's say I'm
seas producers and broadcasters panel for a Grass Valley 128 x 128 doing an audio layback for a film
alike are inundated with material to routing switcher, which, said Schu- that's been transferred to 1 in. PAL
be modified for international distri- man, allows the audio engineer or 1 in. NTSC. Without changing the
bution. Such inundation has proven "control of anything in the house." time code, I'm able to take the audio
to be a lucrative venture to an indus- He adds that the system had to be from the mag dubber and lay it back
try- established company with the in- flexible because the entire house to something that's running at a dif-
sight and foresight to position itself runs in PAL and in NTSC. "One day, ferent frame rate."
within that market and fill the void. Scott (Delaney, chief audio engineer)
Several years ago, according to may be laying audio from V4 in. to
Schuman, the staff at Northvale, NTSC, and another day, he may be A CASE STUDY
N.J. -based Audio Plus Video Interna-
tional, Inc. (APVI), a leader in inter-
national videotape services, recog-
laying audio from a mag dubber in
35mm to a PAL 1 -in. tape or PAL
Betacam. Whatever format or stan-
Delaney admits that the work he
does "is a case study in itself
namely because we get a lot of tapes
nized the demand for much more dard our clients want, we've got," that come from different origins.
sophisticated work to be done for in- Schuman said. People come to us because we're able
ternational clients, rather than "a The basic thrust of the work is to solve a lot of problems," he says.
straightforward 'Here's a videotape, mixed frame-rate synchronization. "We get things from all over the
convert it to PAL, make a bunch of Delaney, an Institute of Audio Re- place, and (other facilities) just
dubs and ship it overseas, "' says search graduate whose background haven't been able to lock them up. I
Schuman. "So they installed a film spans both engineering and MIDI mean, (other employees) just
chain (because there was a lot of programming, explains his position. haven't had any success with them.
film -to -PAL work to be done) and "There's nothing magical about Many times we'll sit there wonder-
planned to build a much more so- what I do. When doing a layback, I ing 'What has happened to this tape
phisticated facility," he said. As a re- remix the audio M & E tracks from that has caused it not to run at the
sult, International Post was born mags, and EQ when necessary," he speed it's supposed to ? "' According
last June. The facility provides a said. to Delaney, there could be many fac-
broad range of international services Delaney is currently working on tors involved, one example being dif-
for clients, including multi- standard the Old Captain Midnight shows for ferent conversion rates.
editing, film -to -tape transfers, the Museum of Broadcasting in New "The fact of the matter is," he says,
multi- lingual audio laybacks and York City by taking those optical "that there are so many things I get
voice-overs. tracks and laying them down to PAL that are out of the ordinary in terms
With parent company APVI (one of 1 in. or NTSC 1 in.. He explains that of lock-up and synchronization."
fourteen independent companies he's basically doing an audio layback Working with a Soundmaster syn-
owned by Video Services Corp.) situ- from different sources to yet another chronizer (the heart of the Interna-
ated right across the street, Interna- source. tional Post Audio Suite), Delaney
tional Post's operations are con- "It can be any frame rate, basically. says he's often able to use some of the
nected to the facility via fiber optic We can lock up a mag dubber," he algorithms he's worked out over the
lines going both ways, "so that we says, "at 25 frames/second, to a PAL past few months in order to "deter-
16.35mm film mag dubbers with
16mm and 35mm optical heads.
Other equipment in the Audio Suite
are JBL monitors. "I usually listen
off of the smaller near -field moni-
tors, simply because I'm a low-level
listenei" Delaney explains. The
suite is also equipped with Dolby A
and SR. "Rather than put Dolby
carts on our videotape machines,"
says Schuman, "we have outboard
Dolby encoders and decoders. So
while Scott's working on different
projects, we can patch right through
and encode or decode Dolby from
other rooms."

"Basically," concludes
Delaney, "we're saving them
money, in the fact thatthey
can do one conversion, and I
Figure 1. The audio suite.
can then lay back audio from
all sorts of different
mine what frame rate I can use to which enables me to fit things into a sources."
lock something up. It's a correction certain time -slot, such as a 30 -sec-
factor I've been able to put together, ond commercial, for example. Say
just for the Soundmaster. we have edited three seconds off. I'll
be able to take my material, run it The smaller monitors are driven
SPECIFIC MACROS through the Lexicon, and make it all by a Symetrix amplifier while the
happen within that time frame. l is a larger monitors are driven by a
"The Soundmaster enables me to Yamaha amplifier. There is also a
make specific macros so I can per- real handy tool."
Also included in the equipment Soundcraft Delta 200 board. Euri
form many operations with just one parametric equalizers, dbx single -
keystroke. That's been very help- configuration is an Otari Vi in. 4-
track ATR with center -track time edit noise reduction, Aphex aural ex-
ful," Delaney said. "We also have a citers and dbx DSRs are housed in a
Lexicon time-compressor-expander code and pilot tone, as well as
"modular-type" rack along with a
dbx 900B system. Electro-Voice RE-
Figure 2. The edit room. 20 microphones are used in the an-
nounce booth, which can accommo-
date up to two announcers. Such a
setup is ideally- suited to the type of
work that infiltrates the suite.
"ESPN was in here the other day,
and we were working on the Davis
Cup Classic," Delaney said. "We had
(ESPN Commentators) Kim Prince
and Cliff Drysdale doing the over-
dubs. In this particular case, I had a
number of source tapes in NTSC,
and we were doing (the tapes) for
both PAL and NTSC. What I did was
lock up three audio machines to-
gether and mix the audio while they
were doing the overdubs. So we'd
have background sounds from the
tournament and things that the um-
pire would sax while mixing in what
Kim and Cliff were saying. We get a
big demand for this type of relay
stuff; from people like ESPN, ABC,
the Museum of Broadcasting and w
Viacom. co
converting 20 to 30 hours of raw
footage to NTSC to edit over here."
Crucial to International Post's suc-
cess has been the ability to be of full
service to clients -and clients' cli-
ents-over time. Schuman notes the
concern that clients have about get-
ting their product out and getting
their clients (the people they've sold
the program[s] to) the best quality
they can, for the least amount of
"We've had a number of people
come out and supervise the first
audio session with us," says Schu-
man. "And after they see what we
can do, the rest of our work is unsu-
pervised. We'll send our trucks into
the city, pick up what we need, work
on it and give it back, or work on it
and send it overseas. As long as our
clients' clients are happy, we're
Figure 3.The film -to-tape suite. International Post takes several
steps to expedite service that runs
smoothly and efficiently. One is the
VSC- operated courier service which
enables APVI free pick-up and deliv-
"Basically," concludes Delaney, do random -access editing," Delaney ery service into midtown Manhattan
"we're saving them money, in the said. every day. Another is APVI General
fact that they can do one conversion, Schuman remarked that there are Manager Andre Macaluso's travel
and I can then lay back audio from three markets that International overseas (he's conversant in French,
all sorts of different sources." Past is aiming for in the quest for Spanish and Italian) to get feedback
business -the first being current from broadcasters abroad and find
APVI clients, many of whom are the out what they really want "because
FOREIGN LANGUAGES major distributors of American pro- they're our clients' clients, the 'final'
Delaney works on an abundance of gramming out of New York-that is, people, so-to- speak," says Schuman.
foreign language re-lays, "especially anyone doing international distribu- "And they know that if they have a
for Viacom. They have a lot of tion. problem with a tape, and they see an
French material that they ship over APVI label on it, they'll sometimes
to France, and then that which goes The second market is comprised of call us directly instead of taking the
up to Canada. The French Canadi- producers overseas who need a usual route which would be to call a
ans understand English," he muses, United States -based post production distributor and say, 'I have a
"but they just like to see it in house able to operate in PAL. "This is problem', at which point the distrib-
French!" On a more general note, he sort-of a new concept here," reflects utor would call us and say 'I have a
points out that a lot of M & E tracks Schuman. "There is a tendency, if problem.' And by the time the tape
have come through International you're shooting in a foreign country, gets back here and we get to analyze
Post's doors, already worked on by to take all of your raw material back it and figure out what it is, weeks
companies in the United States and to your home base and edit there. have gone by. We can speak their lan-
Canada, that the French have not But we're finding that it's actually guage, find out what they need, and
been too happy with. "They need a cheaper," he says, "to shoot and edit then go back to our client and say
little punching up," Delaney says, here in PAL -to finish the programs 'This is what they need, this is what
"so we've been looking to purchase and then send them overseas." you'll have to give us," he said.
equipment to lay in sound effects With a master's degree in radio
and add music." To that end, The third target area is the corpo- and television from Syracuse Uni-
Delaney has recently gathered up a rate market. "As more corporations versity and an M.B.A. from New
group of equipment that will be become multi -national, they now York University, Schuman says his
needed, "and some of the bigwigs at have to use conversions. In some training and field experience (in
VSC and APVI are shopping the idea cases," Schuman says, "we're actu- video operations and on -air promo-
around in France at the moment." ally re- editing things for their inter- tions production management) has
He adds that International Post will national distribution and converting sharpened his expertise in "three
also add to the Soundmaster equip- them to PAL, as opposed to what areas-people, equipment and
ment with what they hope will be the used to have to be done, which was to money -which is what you need to
o purchase of a Syncram 2-track digi- edit overseas and spend a fortune on run a facility these days. It's a unique
tal recorder, which will "enable us to hotels and everything else, while opportunity"

A Guide
to a Home Studio
IT'S EVERY MUSICIAN'S DREAM -SETTING 4 -TRACK RECORDER-MIXER Dolby B or dbx noise reduction, pitch
up a home recording system that This is a small, portable unit com- control and 1 -7/8 inches per second
has good -quality sound, yet is afford- bining a mixer with a multi -track tape speed. You'll see one of three
able. With today's easy.-to-use sound cassette recorder. You plug mica and types of equalization: none, bass and
tools, you can do just that. This arti- electric musical instruments into the treble, or overall graphic. You can re-
cle is a guide to equipment for a mixer, which amplifies their signals cord one or two tracks at a time,
home studio: what it does, and what and routes them to tape tracks. The building up to four tracks for later
you get at different price levels. multi -track cassette recorder can re- mixdown to 2-track stereo. For ex-
We'll focus on tape recording cord up to 4 tracks, each with a dif- ample, you might first record a key-
equipment, rather than MIDI re- ferent instrument on it. After re- board part on one track, then add
cording equipment (synths, sam- cording the tracks, mix or combine bass, drums and vocals one at a time
plers, sequencers and drum ma- them to 2-channel stereo and record on the remaining tracks.
chines). MIDI users should find this the mix on a separate 2-track re- In units costing between $500 and
information useful, as a MIDI home corder. The recording made on that $1,000, typical features include two-
studio requires most of the equip- machine is the final product. to-six mic inputs, bass and treble EQ,
ment mentioned here. Recorder- mixers currently on the one or two effects sends, dbx or
market are made by Fostex, Tascam, Dolby C noise reduction and 3-3/4 ips
Although tape recorders are avail- tape speed in most models. Some
able with 8, 16 and 24 tracks or AMR, Yamaha, Vestax, Altai and
Sansui. Their prices range from have a dedicated sync track for syn-
more, most musicians start with a 4- chronizing the multi -track tape to
track system. The following equip- $339 to $2,500 suggested retail.
MIDI instruments; some also have
ment is used in a 4 -track home stu- an autolocate feature. You can re-
dio. cord up to four tracks at a time.
You might prefer to master
A 4-track cassette recorder -
on a 2 -track open -reel Recorder -mixers costing between
mixer $1,000 and $2,500 offer 4-to -8 mic
A 2-track recorder to record the recorder. Open -reel is the inputs (perhaps with XLR-type bal-
final mix (usually a cassette deck preferred master-tape anced inputs for less hum), sweep-
from a stereo system) format for commercial able (semi -parametric) EQ, one or
Microphones record and tape duplication. two effects sends, dbx or Dolby C
noise reduction and 3 -3 ips tape
Mic stands speed. Most units have a sync track
A monitoring system (two speak-
As prices increase, you get cleaner,
and some have an autolocate fea-
ers and a power amplifier, or ture. One model (the Sansui WS -X1)
crisper sound and more features. If even has a built -in 2 -track cassette
headphones) you don't understand the features
deck for recording the final mix.
Effects (reverb, delay, compres- offered in recorder- mixers, please
sion, etc.) see the sidebar for more informa- At any price range, all 4- trackers
tion. permit overdubbing and bouncing
*Cables tracks. Most allow punch -ins.
You should expect different fea-
Blank tape, optional rack and tures for different price ranges. In Some blank cassette tape is needed
patch bay (miscellaneous goodies). recorder - mixers costing under $500, with your recorder-mixer. Brand -
Let's look more closely at each of you can expect two mic inputs, either name metal or chrome tape is rec-
these components. no effects send or one effects send, ommended for best sound quality.
The number of mica and mie in-
MICROPHONE EFFECTS SPEAKERS, puts needed depends on the instru-
UUUUUo0000 ments you want to record. If you
G C 00000 U C want to mie a drum set, you might
POWER AMPLIFIER need 8 miss and 8 mie inputs. You
would mix those 8 mies to one or two
tracks. On the other hand, if you use
a drum machine, you might need
ELEC. INST only one good mie for vocals and
00 O aooaao
CASSETTE DECK acoustic instruments. You can use
one mie on several different instru-
00000 00 00 ments and vocals if you overdub
MIXER them one at a time.

The most useful mics for
Figure 1. A typical 4-track home studio from input to output. home recording are
probably the cardioid
Use the tape suggested by the cas- A direct box or guitar cord picks up condenser and cardioid
sette-deck manufacturer. a very clean sound, which may be un- dynamic.
desirable for electric guitar. If you
STEREO CASSETTE want to pick up the distortion of the
Let's take a minute to explain mie
DECK guitar amp, use a mie instead, or try
a direct box that plugs into the exter- types and characteristics. There are
Here's another major part of your nal speaker jack on your guitar amp. three basic types of mies for record-
home studio. You connect this deck It will pick up the amp distortion and ing: condenser; ribbon and moving
externally to your recorder -mixer. filter it (reduce the treble) to make it coil (usually called dynamic).
The stereo cassette deck records sound more like a guitar speaker. The condenser mic is commonly
your final stereo mix of the four tape used on cymbals, acoustic instru-
tracks. You'll still have your 4 -track ments and studio vocals. The dy-
tape, which could be remixed at a MICS namic mie is typically used on drums
later date. Good cassette decks cost Although synthesizers and direct and electric- guitar amps, while the
about $200 and up. boxes have reduced the need for ribbon mie is delicate and should not
You might prefer to master on a 2- mica, you'll still want some to record be used in a kick drum, but usually
track open -reel recorder. Open -reel vocals and acoustic instruments. provides a warm, smooth sound.
is the preferred master -tape format The condenser mie requires a bat-
Good mica are essential for quality
for commercial record and tape du- tery or phantom power to operate. A
sound; you get what you pay for. If
plication. Compared to a cassette you can experiment with various phantom power supply is a circuit
deck, the open -reel deck costs much that supplies DC powering to con-
types of mies, you'll find big differ-
more, but has higher sound quality ences in fidelity among them. Qual- denser mies, using the same cable
and permits editing. Editing is the ity mica are made by AMR, AKG, wires the audio signal uses. Phan-
cutting and splicing of recording Audio Technica, Audix, Beyer Con- tom power is built into more- sophis-
tape to remove unwanted noises, to neaut Audio Devices, Countryman, ticated recorder- mixers. The mie
change the sequence of songs, or to Crown, Electro-Voice, Fostex, Neu- simply plugs into the mixer to re-
combine parts of two or more differ- mann, Sanken, Schoeps, Sennheiser, ceive power.
ent takes. Shure, Sony, Teac, Toa and Yamaha. Mies also come in different polar
patterns or directional pickup pat-
Two mies costing at least $100 terns: omnidirectional, unidirec-
DIRECT BOX each are recommended. Although tional (cardioid), or bidirectional. An
This is a useful accessory for re- $100 may seem like a lot of money omnidirectional (omni) mie picks up
corder- mixers with balanced XLR- for a mie, you can't skimp here and sound equally well from all around.
type mie inputs. A direct box is a expect to get quality sound. Any dis- A cardioid mie rejects sound from
small device that connects between tortion or weird tone quality in the the rear; room acoustics and sound
an electric instrument (guitar, bass, mie may be difficult or impossible to from other instruments, resulting in
synth) and a mixer mie input which remove later on. It's false economy a tighter, dearer sound. A bidirec-
lets you record electric instruments to use a cheap mie. tional mie picks up from the front
directly into your mixer without a You may be able to borrow some and rear, but rejects sound approach-
mie. You can buy a direct box for as good mies, or use the ones you nor- ing the sides of the mie.
little as $50. mally use for P.A. Your ears will tell The most useful mies for home re-
Most 4- trackers have 1/4 -inch you if the fidelity is adequate for your cording are probably the cardioid
phone jacks for inputs. In this case, purpose. Some people are happy to condenser and cardioid dynamic.
simply use a short guitar cord be- get any sound on tape, while others You can make realistic recordings of
tween your instrument and mixer settle for nothing less than profes- a wide variety of instruments with
input. sional sound quality. these mies. Also consider a minia-
ture omnidirectional condenser mic;
you can record a drum set with just
two or three of these. Another popu-
lar mic for grand piano is a boundary
mic, such as one of the Crown PZM
series. You tape it to the underside of
the raised lid.
For best sound quality, get a mic
with a wide, smooth frequency re-
sponse. This is the range of frequen-
cies a mic reproduces at an equal
level (within a tolerance, such as ±3
dB). Listed below are three quality
levels of frequency response:
80 Hz to 12 kHz is good;
60 Hz to 15 kHz is very good;
40 Hz to 20 kHz is excellent.
Studio vocals and acoustic instru-
ments often sound best if the mic has
a flat response ( ±3 dB variation or
less). If the mic is meant to record
drums or electric- guitar amps, the Figure 2. The Tascam Porta Two is a practical all-in -one mixer/recorder.
response can have a "presence
peak ": a rise in the frequency re-
sponse around 5 kHz. This is a sug- headphone jacks for this purpose. If It's normally used as an automatic
gestion, not a rule. If a mic sounds you want to overdub several people volume control for vocals. A com-
good to you on a particular instru- at once, headphones are needed for pressor keeps the vocal track at a
ment or voice, use it. all. For example, if you're overdubb- more -even volume, making it easier
ing three harmony vocalists, each to hear throughout a mix. Home-stu-
MONITOR SYSTEM one needs headphones to hear pre- dio units start around $125.
This lets you hear what you're re- viously recorded tracks to sing with. A multi- effects processor com-
cording and mixing. You can use a To connect all these headphones, you bines several effects in a single box.
pair of high- quality headphones, or a could build a headphone junction These effects can be heard one at a
pair of loudspeakers and a power box: an aluminum or plastic box con- time or several at once. You can even
amp. The speakers should be accu- taining several headphone jacks. customize the sounds by pushing
rate, high-fidelity types, costing at These are wired to a cable coming buttons to change the presets. Some
least $100 each. Your home stereo from your mixer's headphonejack. examples are the Yamaha SPX1000,
might be good enough to serve as a Alesis Quadraverb and Digitech 128
monitor system. EFFECTS Plus.
Now we come to the fun little
A speaker cable goes boxes. Effects such as reverberation, CABLES
delay and chorus can add sonic ex- Once you have all this hardware,
between your power amp citement to a recording. They are cables are needed to carry signals
and each loudspeaker. This produced by devices called signal from one component to another.
cable is zip cord or lamp processors. Four types of cables are mic cables,
cord, 12 to 16 gauge The most essential effect is rever- guitar cords, patch cords and
beration, a slow decay of sound such speaker cables.
as you hear just after you shout in an A mic cable is usually 2-conductor-
Two typical studio -quality monitor empty gymnasium ( "HELLO -O -O- shielded, which means it has two
speakers suitable for home use are o-o-o..."). Reverberation adds a sense wires to carry the signal, surrounded
the Yamaha NS -10M and the Digital of space-it can put your music in a by a fine-wire cylinder or shield that
Designs LS 161. These are close-field concert hall, a small club, or a cathe- reduces hum pickup. On one end of
monitors, which you place about dral. This effect is usually produced the cable is a connector that plugs
three feet apart and three feet from by a digital reverb unit, available for into the mic, usually a female XLR-
you to reduce the influence of room $200 and up. One example is the Ale - type. On the other end is either a V4-
acoustics. Also available are powered sis Microverb II. inch phone plug or a male XLR -type
mini -speakers with built -in amps. Another popular effect is echo, a connector that plugs into your mixer.
Mini -speakers lack deep bass but repetition of a sound ( "Hello hello Rather than running several mic
take up little room. hello "). It's made by a de ay unit, cables to your recorder -mixes; you
If you're recording only yourself, which also provides other effects might consider using a snake: a box
one set of headphones is enough, but such as chorus, doubling and flang- with multiple mic connectors, all
if you're recording another musi- ing. wired to a thick multiconductor
cian, you both need headphones. Still another signal processor is a cable. A snake is especially conve-
Many recorder -mixers have two compressor, such as made by dbx. nient if you're running long cables to
stereo for monitoring and cassette
mastering, and you borrowed some
mic stands from your sound -rein-
forcement system.
A personal studio
4 -track recorder -mixer$449
2 mics ($100 each) $200
Total $649
(Optional effects add $200 or

If your band has simple

instrumentation, you might
even be able to record
commercial tapes and

This budget system can be used to

document your ideas, work out mu-
sical arrangements, or to play your
song ideas to your band. It's good
enough to make audition tapes for
club owners and music publishers,
but not good enough to make a demo
tape to send to a record company.
If you want to learn the basics of
multi -track recording without
spending a lot, this is the way to go.
A good- quality 4 -track studio
4 -track recorder -mixer $840
4 miss ($150 each) $600
1 digital reverb $200
Figure 3. The Foster R8 gives you a full eight- tracks on quarter -inch Total $1,640
open reel. This setup is good enough to make
audition tapes for club owners and
music publishers, but is not quite
recording equipment in a separate metal enclosure with mounting good enough to make demos to send
room. holes for equipment. You also may to record companies (although some
A guitar cord is made of 1- conduc- want to install apatch panel or patch would disagree).
tor- shielded cable with a 1/4-inch bay: a group of connectors wired to A high -quality 4-track studio
phone plug on each end. You use it to equipment inputs and outputs. 4 -track recorder -mixer $1,500
record instruments direct: the elec- Using a patch panel and patch cords, 4 miss ($250 each) $1,000
tric guita4 electric bass, synthesizer you can change equipment connec- 4 headphones (for overdubs) $160
and drum machine. tions easily. You also can bypass or 1 multi-effects processor $400
Patch cords connect your recorder - patch around defective equipment. Total $3,060
mixer to external devices: an effects Miscellaneous equipment for your This system is good enough to
unit, stereo cassette deck and power home studio includes a power outlet make demo recordings to send to re-
amp. A patch cord is made of 1 -con- strip, masking tape and a pen to cord companies. If your band has
ductor- shielded cable with either a label inputs and cables, head- clean-
1/4 -inch phone plug or an RCA phono
simple instrumentation, you might
ing fluid and cotton swabs to clean even be able to record commercial
connector on each end. A stereo the tape heads, and paper and pencil tapes and albums.
patch cord is two patch cords joined to keep track of what you're doing. All the prices given above are sug-
gested list price; you can save money
A speaker cable goes between your THREE STUDIO SETUPS by shopping for discounts. Consider
power amp and each loudspeaker.
Now that we've gone over the nec- buying used equipment, too.
This cable is zip cord or lamp cord, 12 essary equipment, we're ready to
to 16 gauge. As we've seen, putting together a
combine it into a complete recording high -quality home recording system
system. Let's put together three dif- needn't cost much. There's always
RACK PATCH PANEL ferent home studios, each at a differ- better equipment being produced at
vv nalYou might want to mount your sig- ent level of price and sophistication. lower prices. That dream of owning
processors in a rack, a wooden or We'll assume you're using your home your own studio is within reach.
Overdubbing: All 4- trackers which lets you continuously vary the that you marked "000" on the tape
have this feature. While listening to frequency you want to adjust. This counter. It's convenient for repeated
tracks you've already recorded, play type of EQ offers the most control practices of mixes or overdubs. No
along with them and record a new over the tone quality of each instru- more searching for the right spot on
part on an unused track. For exam- ment you're recording. tape! Elaborate machines can move
ple, suppose you already recorded Effects loop (aux loop): This is a between two memorized points, say,
bass and drums, andyou want to add set of connectors for hooking up an at the beginning and end of an over-
guitar. You listen to a headphone mix external effects unit, such as a re- dubbed section.
of the bass track, drum track and verb or delay device. Effects add a Solenoid switches: When you
your guitar signal. While the bass professional polish to your produc- push one of your tape -motion con-
and drum tracks play, you play your tions. trols, the action can be either me-
guitar along with them, and record The effects loop includes a send chanical or solenoid operated. Sole-
the guitar on an unused track. section and a receive section. The noid switching is gentler to the tape,
Simultaneous recording on all send section is a row of aux -send and often includes logic which pro-
tracks: This is especially useful for knobs and an aux -send connector on tects the tape from rapid changes in
recording a live performance. Not all your mixer that controls the signal tape motion.
units permit this. you send to the effects device. The re-
Punch -in/out: This function is ceive or return connectors in your XI.R. -type balanced inputs:
used to correct mistakes. As the tape mixer receive the processed signal These mic input connectors look like
plays, punch into record mode just back from your effects unit. Inside three small holes arranged in trian-
before the mistake, play a new cor- your mixer; the processed signal (say, gle. If your mixer has such an input,
rect part which is recorded and reverb) combines with your stereo you can run long mic cables without
punch out of record mode when mix to enhance the sound. picking up hum. This type of connec-
you're done. Most recorder -mixers tor is found only in high -end units.
accept a footswitch so you can Most recorder- mixers use 1/4 -inch
punch -in with your foot while play- Any track on any multi -:rack phone jacks for mic inputs, which is
ingyour instrument. recorder can record the sync adequate for small studios.
Bouncing tracks: When bounc- tone, but a dedicated sync Insert jacks (access jacks):
ing tracks, mix two or three tracks These connectors let you plug in a
together and record the result on an track has its own input compressor (or other signal proces-
unused track. You can then erase the connector for the sync tone, sor) in line with an input signal.
original tracks, freeing them for re- and allows noise reduction They make it easy to modify the
cording more instruments. In this sound of a single instrument or
way, you can record up to nine tracks to be switched off for
vocal. Only the more-expensive
with a 4 -track machine. more -reliable recording of units have this feature.
Tape speed: This is the rate at the tone.
which tape moves past the re- Sync track: This is a track (usu-
cord/playback head. Two speeds are ally track 4) used to record a sync
available: 1-7/i3 inches- per -second If your recorder -mixer has no ef- tone from a MIDI sequencer. The
(ips) and 3-3 ips. On machines run- fects sends (aux sends), you can still tone synchronizes tape tracks with
ning at 1 -7/s ips, you can play stan- record music, but without any ef- sequencer tracks. In this way, you
dard commercial cassettes, but re- fects. It will sound rather dead and could have your sequencer play syn-
cordings made at 3-314 ips sound plain. A unit with one effects send thesized bass, drums and key-
more crisp and clear than those lets you add one type of effect; a unit boards, while your multi -track cas-
made at 1 -7/s ips. with two effects sends lets you add sette deck plays vocals and acoustic
Pitch control: This adjusts the two for even more sonic interest. A instruments-all in sync.
tape speed up or down slightly so you stereo return lets you hear effects in This is a great way to get extra
can match the pitch of recorded stereo, if your effects device is a ste- tracks for not much money. Plus,
tracks to the pitch of new instru- reo unit. when you do your mixdown, all the
ments to be recorded. Some recorder -mixers have digital synth tracks play "live" (from the
EQ (equalization): This means reverb built in, so you don't need to synth outputs) rather than from
"tone control." The simplest units buy an external reverb unit. tape. The result is a cleaner- sound-
have no equalization; you're stuck Noise reduction: This circuit re- ing mix.
with the sound you get from your duces tape hiss, a rushing sound like
mies. Others have a single 3 -band wind in trees. Dolby C and dbx work Any track on any multi -track re-
graphic equalizer:: sliding controls best; Dolby B is less effective, but all corder can record the sync tone, but a
that affect bass, midrange and tre- help you make clean, noise-free re- dedicated sync track has its own
ble. Most inexpensive units include a cordings. input connector for the sync tone,
bass and treble control, one set per Autolocate: Also called memory and allows noise reduction to be
input. Fancier recorder -mixers have rewind or return-to -zero. With this switched off for more- reliable re-
sweepable or semiparametric EQ, feature, the tape rewinds to a point cording of the tone. FI

The All- In-One

Electronic Cottage
In the January/February 1989 issue of db Magazine, Corey Davidson interviewed Richard Del
Maestro about his work in the article "The Electronic Cottage Moves Upscale. "Here is an update
by the composer about his activities and experiences.

HE REASON I SET UP A RECORDING significant time with that equip- desk never failed me, but it's a fan-
1 studio was to have a facility for ment has elapsed.) tastic console, benefiting from much
my personal use. The projects I do, In my case, because of its perfor- of the technology developed for some
whether they are albums, jingles or mance, I opted for a machine that is of Trident's largest consoles. It's a
post-production, are handled, at too heavy to move easily (the Tascam substantial tool for the engineer, al-
least primarily, at my facility. I can do MS 16). Had I opted fora lighter an- lowing for the producer's creativity,
better work for clients for five main alog machine, like those using a nar- and the audio quality is excellent. If
reasons: 1) I can work on the project rower format tape, it would be easier you're thinking of going with a new
at any time; 2) I have total familiar- to take my work to another facility, console, check out the manufactur-
ity with the equipment; 3) my set- by just lugging the machine there, ers of Trident Audio's caliber before
tings in the studio stay as I leave but the quality would suffer with settling for a lesser mixing console.
them (zero set -up and breakdown that kind of machine. It's a double -
time); 4) I am able to acquire the edged sword for the smaller studio.
equipment that best serves my A GREAT ENGINEER
My advice to anyone building a
needs; and 5) I can afford to work as new project studio is to either go with Much has been said about the lack
long as necessary (or as I feel in- a 24 -track 2 in. (perhaps still the op- of human contact we producer/stu-
spired to) without watching the timal choice), or get a SMPTE sync- dio owners experience by doing ev-
clock. able DAT machine, so you can do erything. This can be a problem. For-
transfers between your non- compat- tunately, the first policy I established
was that I would never do my own
INTERACTIVITY ible machine and the world of out-
mixes, and I have been strict with
side studios while remaining in sync.
Having a 16 -track 1 in. 30 ips ma- myself about this.
chine (a non -standard format), It will be interesting to see the devel-
opments in portable digital multi- I'm fortunate to have found an en-
means that interfacing my studio track units over the next few years. gineer as excellent as the man I've
with a larger studio takes more en- worked with for over three years,
ergy than if I had a 24 -track 2 in. Mike Harris. It's worth sharing my
machine, and I could just grab a reel BUYING QUALITY experience with him, because it
and go. When I built my studio, the Another point I feel is worth con- serves to show what a contribution
consultant I worked with never sidering: When I built this studio, I the right engineer can make in this
mentioned this point of interfacing wanted to be able to grow into my context.
with other studios; in fact, he down- console, so I purchased a Trident Se- I'm in relative seclusion in this
played it. ries 65 desk, and I'm really glad I did. electronic cottage, since I spend an
(Even three years ago, the prolifer- I've got many years of excellent ser- enormous amount of time working
ation of this kind of facility was not vice to look forward to on a desk still on projects. The ambiance in my
what it is today. The experience of being manufactured (better than space is very quiet and focused, and
pro audio consultants with this kind feeling unhappy because of a com- it would be very easy for that kind of
of facility had not really matured yet, promise on the quality of your desk, psychic space to be violated by an in-
so it was hard to get much better ad- and replacing it after just a few sensitive engineer. Even my wife
vice than I got at the time. In fact, years). Barbara is not allowed to sing else-
the field is still maturing, because so I often see articles on producers where in the house when I'm work-
much depends on the kind of equip- with fairly large project studios and ing. (That's a lot to ask a singe; and
ment available, and the collective mediocre desks, and it always sur- bless her heart that she actually puts
feedback that can only occur after prises me. Not only has the Trident up with this.)
Figure 1. The author sits among his many creative tools.

Who needs an engineer with no un- no competition or sense of disap- have grown to understand more
derstanding of your personal space pointment that I have to anticipate about the dynamics of promoting an
to come in and make you wish you or endure. Harris is a great engineer, artist and the nitty-gritty ofbringing
were alone again? Enter my engi- and because of it, I find our working an album to market than I could
neer. I remember reading an inter- relationship to be very inspiring. have ever imagined. I've also made
view with Roger Nichols (if memory Which brings me to my point: hav- good friends, including Larry and
serves me) ir. which he said that a ing a fine engineer here works at Elaine Zide at db Magazine and
great engineer is not just a good tech- both ends of the project. It not only Davidson (who not only heads Da-
nician, but also a good person with adds greatly to the final prodLCt, but vidson Electronics, the top music
humility and a willingness to serve it gets me out of that project studio electronics repair firm on Long Is-
the producer instead of his own ego. rut in advance, by setting up my ex- land, but has also privately tutored
When I found that article, I said, pectations about how the project will me via long distance telephone calls
"Hey Mike, look at this article-it's ultimately turn out. I cannot over- on how to properly demagnetize the
about you." He said, "You're being emphasize what a difference it multi -track heads-now there's a
too generous, thanks anyway, makes to have the right engineer, es- true friend!).
though." Just goes to show you how pecially in such an intimate setting.
the real McCoy responds! GETTING AIRPLAY
Harris comes in and quietly works
on the mix. I like to leave him com- The head of the department In 1988, I released my new age
pletely alone and let him do his own that handles royalties told album Language of the Heart. Since
mix first, and when he's done, he the article about me in db
me, to my utter amazement, Magazine, Language of the Heart
calls me back in. Here are my rea-
sons: that my first check was has been on more than 1500 radio
higher than the royalty stations here, in Europe and Japan.
1) He's great; I've lost count of the number of sta-
2) he learns the music fastest that checks of some artists who tions, but the ASCAP checks keep
way; get to the top 100 of coming in. In fact, my first check was
3) he gets a chance to express him- Billboard's country chart! so high I called ASCAP (in a state of
self artistically and experiment; shock) to thank them for doing such
4) he inspires me either by showing a great job of monitoring the air-
me something I didn't imagine I'd Of course, it is important to know waves. After all, new age instru-
want to use or by creating a contrast you've got someone whose engineer- mental music is not exactly the easi-
I don't want to use, thereby cement- ing technique is excellent. In my est thing to identify on a radio log!
ing my original vision in place; and case, I confirmed my opinion about What do you think the ASCAP moni-
5) he is as willing to let go of his Harris (keep your eye on this rsing tors refer to, the gong that happens
ideas and let me produce, as he is to star) with Bernie Grundman at a at 02:53 in the music?
try out his own mix. mastering session for Language of The head of the department that
If I tell him to change the whole the Heart. handles royalties told me, to my
mix and start oveiì rather than mak- utter amazement, that my first
ing me feel guilty for asking for what EXPANSION RECORDS check was higher than the royalty
I want, he is right there, making me Having a record company has been checks of some artists who get to the
feel I can have what I want. There is an incredible learning experience. I top 100 of Billboard's country chart!
He seemed even more surprised There are several record compa- mentation, not just in sounds, but in
than me. The radio play has been tre- nies interested in picking up my next form itself.
mendous, despite the fact that I album, and I must say the publicity
didn't have the budget of a Windham and airplay will do me a lot of good in OTHER PROJECTS
Hill (the premier new age music the long run. There's nothing like
label) to get me there. However, having a track record. For that gain Some of the other projects I've
doing all that radio promotion my- alone, I'd have to say my record com- been doing include composing and
self has taken its toll; it was very pany venture has been worthwhile. producing "The Incredible Land of
draining to work the phones for Wow!" an instrumental children's
months to the exclusion of producing album. I wrote it in the spirit of the
THE NEXT ALBUM Disney Studios tradition of composi-
I am currently working on another tion (very orchestral), and it was
new age instrumental album, and quite enjoyable to do. Unfortunately,
DISTRIBUTION this time I'm using more percussion. the executives who commissioned
In addition to promoting the The Language of the Heart album is the work never released it.
album, I had to create the machine to quite contrapuntal, so the melodic I produced the title track on an
make sales, and I realized that build- focus is somewhat softer than it album called Coming Home by song-
ing a record company is like building could be. Nevertheless, it has exhib- writer Dennis Gersten. The assign-
a locomotive; if you've got cars to ited tremendous longevity (on the ment was interesting because the
pull, it's worth the expense. Without air at some major stations for three song is based on Pachelbel's canon
a large roster of artists, a record years now). I have often heard from and I think we succeeded in making
company is like a locomotive without fans that they listen to the album it inspiring rather than trite (a dan-
a payload. It's not economical to es- over and over and always hear some- ger with music that widely per-
tablish distribution with the large in- thing new. Perhaps that counter- formed). I tried not to violate the in-
dustry record distributors unless you point has been a key factor in keep- tegrity of the original piece by
can give them a line of products. ing it interesting to radio as well. Pachelbel, while arranging and mix-
It takes an enormous amount of ing the orchestrations so it wouldn't
money to manufacture and ship compete with the vocal line.
thousands of CDs and cassettes (not One of the more inspiring One of the more inspiring projects
to mention the promotional copies projects I've done recently, I've done recently, for the prestigious
and posters) even on just one title. Reuben H. Fleet Space Theater in
Imagine my chagrin when those for the prestigious Reuben
San Diego, is the story of the Voyager
thousands of copies didn't produce a H. Fleet Space Theater in
2 Spacecraft. I really enjoyed work-
cent for months on end. And that's San Diego, is the story of the ing with Writer/Producer Dennis
how it works; unless you can afford Voyager 2 Spacecraft. Mammana and the talented staff,
to front a lot of product, and wait, the who are responsible for the Space
lack of cash flow can kill you. Theater's national reputation for in-
Lastly, you must have your major My new goal is to establish a novation in their field. They have
distribution channels already open. greater melodic focus on my next promised, however, not to continue
(I only had new age distributors on album, so at the very least, I expect to innovating time schedules like the
line at release time.) In my case, it down play the use of counterpoint. I one they gave me for this project;
was the astounding airplay that con- also want to experiment with much they needed fifteen minutes of music
vinced the big distributors to pick me more percussion, as may be obvious and gave me seventy -two hours to do
up. Coordinating a radio hit with re- by the working title of my next re- it start to finish. It would have been
tail distribution to get it on the lease, which I'll probably call "Wag- much harder to pull off without my
shelves simultaneously was impossi- nerian Samba." own facility.
ble. The distributors took too long to The new age sound has been im- Even though I probably slept three
decide, and they missed the peak of pressive in its ability to not only grow hours during those four days, having
my airplay. By the time the song was in popularity, but to appear in every- my bedroom at hand for a nap, and
in the stores, it had been released for thing from car commercials to fea-
almost a year. Now that the major the kitchen at hand for a meal, was
stores (like Tower Records and
ture films. I believe it will continue as great. Of course, those cold showers
a distinctly identified style for a long were the best help of all. And when I
Wherehouse) no longer stock it, we time, perhaps another twenty to did finally finish, the theater's Engi-
get many letters from people who thirty years. In fact, the more speed
say `I've searched and searched for neef John Young, was kind enough
and stress our society picks up, the to meet me at the facility at 4 a.m. so
your album, and I finally called the more I expect new age music to grow he could mix the final music into the
radio station that plays it to get your in its relevance and acceptance. Of sound track in time for the Press to
address. How can I get it?' It has course, it will evolve and grow, and view it later that morning. Whew!
been really frustrating. its content will deepen and broaden Most recently I produced an album
with time. of devotional music for the Sathya
STICKING TO MUSIC I am particularly excited about Sai Baba organization. There were
Now that I know what I've been producers using more dreamy and some interesting problems, however.
missing, I've decided to stick to experimental sounds and styles. To a We recorded thirty songs over an
music and let the people who have al- certain extent I feel we can thank eighteen hour period, deciding the
ways aspired to own a record com- new age music for inspiring the best songs would be used for two al-
pany do that end of the business. movement towards more experi- bums. The songs were sung in a
leader- response fashion, and we with a tempo map while syncing to that's a subject that deserves a sepa-
didn't have individual mics and SMPTE. rate discussion.
enough headphones for each of the
20 musicians who participated. In
order to coordinate the music, the Soon, I believe, we'll see the FRIENDLY USER
lead vocalist was in the same room as larger studios interfacing The advent of the large number of
the response group. regularly with the many project studios is inspiring a wonder-
On top of that, we had finger cym- ful new dialogue in our industry. As
bals, a tambourine and an Indian project studios that are musicians are getting more intimate
drum (mridungam). Naturally, Har- cropping up. It's the next with equipment, technicians are re-
ris was there to save the day, but sep- logical revolution in our ceiving better and more musical
aration was still quite difficult to feedback. There is a greater part-
maintain. The lead vocal retakes industry. nership developing between those
were quite a challenge. Due to the who produce and manage the hard-
original lead vocalists bleeding ware and those who create and pro-
through on the other mies in the THE FUTURE duce the music.
room, the original takes could never One of my future goals is to do
more charity work. I've contacted a Until now it was the tech's job to
quite be lost. find language that musicians could
good number of charities, offering to
After that was done, I then decided contribute original music, a narrator relate to, but now it's becoming a
to sweeten it with synths, and at the and the recording time for their na- two -way street (user friendly meets
time, Performer was not yet able to tional PSAs or for important docu- friendly user).
sync its wonderful tap tempo feature mentaries. I've been quite amazed at Soon, I believe, we'll see the larger
with SMPTE, so I had to play every- the lack of response to my offer thus studios interfacing regularly with
thing live. Because these musicians far. The only one to take me up on the many project studios that are
were not all pros, this was a fairly this was The Red Cross for the Ar- cropping up. It's the next logical rev-
loose production rhythmically, and it menian Earthquake tragedy (I pro- olution in our industry. Things like
was tough to anticipate their unin- duced a spot narrated by my father, portable digital multi -tracks and
tentional rubato during the sweeten- actor Bill Del Maestro). multi -user interfaces like New En-
ing sessions, in order to stay reason- I'm also experimenting with gland Digital's MultiArc all seem to
ably in sync with the music. I am Performer's new soft -console mix- be leading us towards establishing a
pleased with how the album turned ing features for my next album. It's a basis for such a practice. When that
out in spite of everything, and look challenge to use those powerful fea- collaboration becomes the norm, the
forward to doing the next album tures to control dynamics via MIDI excitement will be unstoppable and
using the new sync feature that now without impinging on my engineer's everyone will benefit. What a fu-
allows Performer to be programmed important job -doing the mix. But ture!

Richard Del Maestro can be reached at Expansion Records, P.O. Box 996, Cardiff by the Sea, CA
92007 or (619)944 -3456.

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you could start
your day over?

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-Srrtedln -An y,p
ItiJ-444404" DON RUSHIN

Hi -Fi to High Definition:

Five Decades Of Magnetic Tape
The place: London, England. The date: Sunday, Feb. 25, 1940. Twilight comes early to London at
that time ofyear, and on this particular Sunday, it mixed with fog and smoke from thousands of
fireplaces to wrap those unlucky enough to be out ofdoors.

INDOORS. IN FRONT OF HUNDREDS OF commercial transmitters in Luxem- for. Whatever the purpose, Wetzel re-
thousands of hearths, Londoners bourg, Belgium and Scandinavia, re- alized that the coating would have to
relaxed with their Sunday newspa- lied on tape for virtually all of its pro- be smooth if it were not to wear out
pers and the wireless. World War II gramming, making it possible to air anything it came in contact with. So
had been a fact of life for nearly six the same concert at the same hour the 3M scientists tried a number of
months, but the first bombs had yet from all of them. British listeners techniques for gluing the particles
to fall. It was the era of the Phoney wondered how it was being done. onto quarter -inch strips of paper
War, when Hitler still believed it pos- eight to ten inches long. As fast as
sible to form an alliance with right - they did so, the samples were mailed
wing forces in Britain and end the
war. THE U.S.A. In 1944, no one in the United
Suddenly, listeners who hadn't Germany, however was not the States had yet made a magnetic tape
tuned their sets quite properly heard only country in which experiments recorder. Wire recorders, using the
the familiar strains of "God Save the with magnetic tape were being con- principals of magnetic recording,
King," and an upper-class English ducted. In September of 1944, the patented in 1898 by Danish tele-
voice announced the inauguration of Minnesota Mining and Manufactur- phone engineer Valdemar Poulson,
the New British Broadcasting Sys- ing Co., St. Paul, known today as 3M, were being used by the U.S. Army
tem. What followed was an evening already producing precision-coated Corp of Engineers and our Allies
of popular and concert music, inter- "Scotch" pressure-sensitive tapes, (these were Armour SO wire record-
spersed with "news" programs de- received a request from the Brush ers with Brush making them under
signed to convince listeners that Development Co. of Cleveland, OH. licence.), but even greater interest
Germany and England shared the The Brush Co. was "interested in ob- was shown by the United States
same interests and ideals in the up- taining tapes coated with an emul- Navy Department, which was using
coming struggle. sion containinga uniform dispersion them to record what they could in-
of ferromagnetic powder." The tercept of German U -Boat radio
The New British Broadcasting Brush Company, under a special messages. Much better quality re-
System probably would have come Navy Department Research Con- cording was needed, and that was
into being anyway, but what really tract which called for a coating of the source of the Navy Department
made it work was magnetic tape. iron powder on very thin backing, research contract with the Brush Co.
Magnetic tape had existed in Ger- was, along with 3M, about to launch
many on an experimental basis since the era of magnetic tape.
1920 and commercially since its in-
Brush agreed to supply the powder
troduction at the Berlin Radio Exhi- if 3M would apply it to a sample strip AT THE WAR'S END
bition in 1935. What made the By the end of the war the Allies
NBBS broadcast remarkable was
of backing so that it could be tested.
The task was handed over to Dr. Wil- were aware of the magnetic recorder
the development by two Reichs- fred Wetzel who was unaware of the developed by German engineers, a
rn Rundfunk-Gesellschaft engineers. recorder that used an iron oxide -
work which had been done in Ger-
Drs.. Otto von Braunmtihl and Wal- powder- coated plastic tape, which
many. One of the first problems he
mter Weber found that by mixing a achieved much better sound quality
very high frequency signal with the faced was that the oxide supplied by
Brush turned out to be nothing more than was possible with phonograph
!, audio signals during recording, the
results were so good it became diffi- than iron, and that once applied to a
paper backing it continued to rust,
disks. A young Signal Corps techni-
cian, Jack Mullin, became part of a
from the live perfor-
ß cult to tell themwhich team assigned to examine materials
mance. NBBS, used captured changing its chemical and magnetic
properties. Another problem was left by the retreating German army
that 3M had no recorder, nor even a and to pick up items of electronic in-
a Don Rushin is the Marketing Di- recording head. Furthur Brush was terest. He found parts of recorders
rector, 3M Audio/Video and Spe- being somewhat secretive about used in the field, and working tape
o0 cialty Products Division what the end product would be used recorders and V/4-inch tapes in the
Figure 1. At a WWII Radio Stuttgart installation, an operator threads a
Magnetophone tape recorder. Photo courtsy The Pavek Museum.

studios of Radio Frankfurt in Bad opment work on the magnetic tape ers, turned their decision towards
Nauheim as well as elsewhere. was to be conducted directly with eventual inclusion of a magnetic
Almost simultaneously, 3M physi- Brush. The previous year's research tape in the 3M tape products line.
cist, chemists and lab technicians had proved costly for 3M and, as yet,
were developing for Brush and the As months added up and scores of
had produced not a cent in revenue experimental magnetic tape con-
Navy, a magnetic -coated tape with a with prospects for any future return
smooth surface and a uniform dis- structions were worked through the
seeming remote. But 3M elected to labs, funding questions became seri-
persion of ferromagnetic powder finance its own research based on ous; 3M considered putting the
that would withstand being drawn the potential for extensive post-war whole project in abeyance since no
over a magnetic head to record clear application.
electromagnetic signals. The goal further orders were forthcoming
At first, 3M management consid- from Brush. Fortunately for 3M,
was to produce a tape for high -fidel-
ered being a contract supplier of fin- and, indeed for today's multi-billion-
ity magnetic recording. By 1945, the
ished product to Brush, and perhaps dollar magnetic recording industry,
first American workable magnetic
tape product came into being.
others. But the prospects of being there were farsighted men in 3M
merely a producer, with huge devel- who, by force of argument and en-
At war's end in August of 1945, the opment costs and growing aware- thusiastic evidence, kept the project
Brush Co. informed 3M that its ness that others were experimenting alive and advancing. 3M physicist
Navy Department contract work with tape and many more beginning Wetzel foresaw a broad magnetic
was finished, and that further devel- to show interest in building record- tape potential in "pulse recording, to
Cn6onylr,s e.'P,lrer
fÌrrfylr^rÍlufn^r .,f/r1

lv,.lz s l lj/ =et


Rul/r -
ZwisrhM /fesse/
HcridrurlCp,, pr

Grunt/Pr, -
y,eper Ga./J app ara lu,


Arelon -RudY9ewrnnun9 -TrocRenga s im KreiJlau/

Figure 2. This coating process for tape was used in Germany as early as 1933.

apply to all kinds of handling." He One of those who heard about the had to be re-recorded two or three
also concluded that since sound demonstration was Frank Healy of times.
could be recorded magnetically, the Bing Crosby Enterprises. Healy be- Accordingly, one day in August,
step to magnetic television pictures lieved that Mullin and his machines 1947, Mullin was called in to record
would be highly practical. He saw might provide the solution to a tick- the first Crosby show of the upcom-
both requiring tape, which had po- lish problems for the singer. In the ing season on his German equip-
tential for much higher signal den- 1940s, all programming, at least on ment, while Healy and McKenzie re-
sity than wire or steel ribbon. the "prestige" networks (NBC, CBS corded it on disc. "The result of the
In January of 1946, 3M learned and the fledgling ABC), was done demonstration was that the Crosby
that Brush was developing a tape re- live. Broadcasters and sponsors alike
corder to show in New York. The
project at the 3M laboratory acceler-
believed that transcribed shows
those recorded in advance on 16-
- people wanted me to stay right there
and go through an editing process, to
make a broadcast out of it. I did, and
ated with binders and backing im- inch discs which revolved at 33 L`3 they saw how easy it was with tape.
provements progressing rapidly. By rpm-sounded inferior and audi- The next thing I knew, I had a job re-
May of 1946, large usable quantities ences would resent their "canned" cording the Bing Crosby Show for
of paper -backed tape were already quality. But Crosby, one of the high- the rest of the season."
being produced. est -rated performers in the NBC sta- The problem was that Mullin had
ble, had insisted on freeing himself only his two rebuilt German record-
from the weekly grind of appearing ers and fifty reels of German record-
THE IRE MEETING live at the microphone. He sat out ing tape for the task-luckily for him
the 1945 -46 season entirely, and by 1947 3M could provide replace-
On May 16, 1946, Jack Mullin was came back only when third- ranked
scheduled as the speaker at the regu- ments with a commercial product on
lar meeting of the San Francisco
chapter of the Institute of Radio En-
ABC promised to let him pre- record
the (now called) Philco Music Hall
but only as long as the ratings re-
- a backing of acetate film rather than
the earlier paper samples they had
gineers, held at the studios of radio mained high.
station KFRC. A demonstration of
the German tape recording equip- To Murdo McKenzie, Healy and HIGHER COERCIVITY
ment had been promised, and the Crosby's technical directo4 that Mullin also faced another prob-
room was packed. Mullin played re- meant recording bits of the show on lem -the 3M tape was incompatible
cordings of an orchestra, vocalists a series of discs, then re- recording with the German machines, which
and a pipe organ that he'd made on from one to another to produce a fin- couldn't handle the tape's higher
some of the tapes he brought back ished show. It was expensive, time - coercivity. Wetzel and his associates
with him, and the reaction was little consuming, and most of all, sounded went back into the lab to come up
to short of a sensation. bad -particularly when one section with a tape which would work on
them, and on the 12 audio recorders what is used today, thus ending his Daylight Saving deadline of 1948, if
Ampex Corp. was rushing to com- sticky -tape -with -talcum routine.) just barely.
plete for the American Broadcasting Very much the same thing hap-
Company. Crosby had been instru- pened at the ABC studios in Chicago VIDEO TAPE
mental in persuading the network to when the network got its first re-
buy the machines, copied from While 1948 was audio tape's year,
corders. When the network signed
Mullin's German originals. off after midnight, a pair of 3M tech- it was also the year when 3M Engi-
It's worth noting that when the nicians got busy checking every neer Bob Herr proposed the idea of
Philco Music Hall aired on the night splice in every tape so they could be
recording pictures as well as sound
of Oct. 1, 1947, it was broadcast from by using a wide tape at a speed of 15
reused the next day. Somehow, they
a 16 -inch disc rather than from the inches per second past a rapidly-ro-
managed to finish just in time for tating head assembly. Nothing much
tape Mullin had recorded in August. sign -on the following day. During the
McKenzie and his crew, after having 22 weeks that went on, the station came of it just then; when Bing
assembled just the show they lost only three minutes of air time Crosby Enterprises' Jack Mullin and
wanted from Mullin's master tape, due to tape or splice failure. A histor- 3M's Wetzel demonstrated the first
put it on a disc for the purpose. After black and white video recordings in
ical footnote-although ABC had
one or two shows, they decided to 1950, it was with a fixed -head brute -
been the first network to embrace
gamble on broadcasting directly force recorder which consumed
recording tape, it was one of the last
from the tape -but just in case the 7,000 feet of tape in 15 minutes.
to put full confidence in it as an ar-
tape should break there was a musi- chival recording medium. When Lee However, videotape really dates
cian standing by in a little studio from April 15, 1956, when the 31st
Harvey Oswald fired at President
ready to go on the air with a piano re- John E Kennedy in Dallas, TX, on annual convention of the National
cital. Association of Radio and Television
Nov 2, 1963, ABC engineers realized
That practice persisted not only at that history was being made. They Broadcasters opened at the Conrad
network studios but also in the stu- dusted off the transcription turnta- Hilton Hotel in Chicago. Ampex
dios of larger stations around the bles and captured all of the events of planned to show its first commercial
video recorder, the VR -1000, which
country for a year or two, until that long weekend on a series of recorded at a head -to -tape velocity of
broadcast engineers discovered that discs. Other networks recorded their
tape simply didn't break. Once ABC 2,000 inches per second and a tape
coverage on tape. It was the last hur-
began to switch to tape, it made two speed of 15 inches per second. 3M
rah of the electrical transcription. had supplied instrumentation tape
copies of each program and started
them simultaneously on two differ- Fear of tape breakage was ever - as the recording medium.
ent playback decks. If one were to present in those early days -not be- The day before the show was to
fail the engineer had only to switch cause it actually did, but because of a open, one of the Ampex staffers de-
to the backup, missing hardly a sylla- history of breakage with some tape cided to try out the new tape. With
ble. forerunners. Even Mullin, who horror; he discovered that it just
knew the medium better than any- wasn't up to the high- frequency de-
body, was never sure how his splices mands of the VR -1000 and placed a
TAPE USE SPREADS would hold up to the high tensions of phone call to Wetzel in St. Paul.
ABC's love affair with magnetic those early recorders. Ampex had been cagey about what
tape soon spread to the other net- kind of machine the tape was to be
works, who planned to use it to facil- In the 1930s, the British Broad- used on, no doubt fearing that 3M
itate the switch from standard to casting Corp. had acquired several might jump into the video recorder
daylight time at the end of April, Blattnerphones, recorders which business on its own. Because Wetzel
1948. It wasn't until Program #27 used ribbons of steel as the recording had been doing his own research on
of the Crosby show that 3M began medium. Editing was done by cut- video tape, he had a pretty good idea
delivering tape, and then in very lim- ting the ribbon with tinsmith's what Ampex was up to. Nonetheless,
ited quantities. Everybody won- shears and soldering it back to- the Ampex engineer, out of despera-
dered whether the tape supplier gether. Ocrs,Gionally the soldered tion, was forced to outline in detail
would be able to meet the April dead- joints would come apart and engi- exactly what the new tape was sup-
line. neers dove for cover as the steel strip posed to do. Could 3M do it-and in
Somehow they did -but just
thrashed about. And one of the prob- time for the debut the following day?
barely. Mullin, in order to make his lems with the paper tape used on the Wetzel thought so, and put a team of
50 reels of German tape last until re-
early Brush Sound mirror recorders technicians on the job. They worked
was that it couldn't stand up to fast through the night, coming up with
inforcements arrived, saved every
braking on the machines. sample after sample.
scrap, every edit, and spliced them
together for reuse. Splicing tape at Gradually, the musicians hired to
the time meant "Scotch" sticky tape stand by lost sinecure, and tran- OFF TO THE AIRPORT
with a dusting of talcum powder. scription turntables began to gather Finally, by 6:00 a.m., they'd pro-
Mullin remembers checking each dust. Tape moved form the control duced a sample that worked, and
splice on a just -broadcast reel, then room to the recording studio, where coated two five- minute reels worth
reassembling the tapes for use again it was to have a profound effect on all of it. But Wetzel had already left for
in the next week. (Mullin also recalls forms of music and on the nation's the airport. Vic Mohrlant, a techni-
that 3M came out, whle the Crosby listening habits. And just as 3M and cal services engineer grabbed the
taping were going on, with true Ampex had met the Crosby and ABC samples and dashed to the airport
splicing tape essentially similar to deadlines, they were able to meet the hoping against hope that Wetzel's
flight had been delayed. For once, it tape; in early runs, two-thirds of American home complete with well -
had not. It was out on the runway those produced had to be thrown appointed kitchen and a color televi-
waiting to take off. Mohrlant dashed away. To keep dirt out and reduce the sion studio, with its own video re-
out onto the tarmac, found a mem- effects of humidity, 3M packed its corder. On July 24, Vice President
ber of the ground crew who had a videotape in sealed transparent Richard Nixon invited Soviet Pre-
pole long enough to reach the cock- polybags. Yet stations and networks, mier Khrushchev to visit it with him.
pit, and persuaded the pilot to stop. used to handling film, asked for a re- Khrushchev found the TV studio fas-
Fastening the package onto the end turn to the foil -lined black paper cinating and readily agreed to step
of the pole, he shouted that it was an wrapping which had been used for before the color camera to make a
emergency package for Dr. Wetzel film instead. Eventually, they few remarks, then see himself
aboard the flight. The pilot, no doubt learned the hard way that when it played back on tape. Nixon joined
concerned about a medical emer- comes to videotape, cleanliness is him and before long the subject had
gency, pulled the pouch off the pole more than just a fetish. turned from lighthearted pleasant-
and passed it back to his passenger. ries to a full -blown debate on the rel-
The video -tape demonstration by ative merits of capitalism and com-
Ampex on April 15 caused the same Once ABC began to switch munism.
kind of sensation that Muffin's IRE to tape, it made two copies
session had ten years earlier. Hard- Oblivious to the red eye winking at
of each program and started them from the front of the camera,
headed engineers and front office
men were on their feet cheering as them simultaneously on two the two progressed to vigorous
they rolled those first two reels. different playback decks. thrust and parry. An Ampex official
Many rushed to the stage to get a in attendance reminded them of the
closer look. And orders for both tape tape, which continued to run.
and recorders piled up. Videotape spread rapidly for trans- Khrushchev, shown how to operate
mission and in delayed broadcasting the controls of the recorde; rewound
of programs. But it was slow to catch the tape and played it back. Nixon
THE FIRST VIDEO persuaded him to agree to let it be
TAPED BROADCAST on in program production and the
shooting of commercials, despite its seen in the United States, but
This time, the honors went to CBS, very obvious advantages and econo- Khrushchev insisted that it be trans-
which bought the first commercial mies. One reason was the editing lated in full and played unedited. To
reel of Scotch 179 videotape. The process which was different than make sure that it got out of the So-
network used it to record Douglas film, and electronic editing still lay a viet Union, Ampex International
Edwards and the News the night of few years in the future. President Philip Gundy rushed back
Nov 30, 1956, for delayed broadcast A more important reason lay in to his hotel with it, wrapped it in a
in the Central, Mountain and Pacific human reactions to the new me- dirty shirt and booked the first flight
time zones. dium. One of the perks in the produc- home.
History was about to repeat itself. tion of some of the more elaborate
All three networks had decided to commercials was the sending of ev- By the time it was broadcast the
make the change -over to Daylight erybody-camera crew, directo; per- next day, American newspapers had
Time on April 28, 1957. Again there formers, account executives, etc., to reported the event as an exchange
was a mad rush to produce enough exotic locales for two or three weeks acrimonious enough to start World
recorders and enough tape to make of shooting. "For many of them, it War III. What the viewers actually
this possible. In fact, by April 28, the represented a mini -vacation, and saw, however, was the two leaders in
networks had no more than 50 use- they didn't want to give it up for two earnest and sometimes animated
able reels among them, each with a or three days' work in a New York discussion, but by no means ready to
price tag of $248.95. studio," one old -timer recalls. An- launch the missiles. The tape has
This time, there was no concern other complaint involved the been hailed as a milestone in com-
among professionals about the possi- sponsor's or client's representative munication as well as an historical
bility of tape breakage-but there at the shooting. He'd always been document in its own right.
were other worries. What would hap- there, but with the appearance of
pen if a reel of the stuff containing an tape he could see results immedi- During the late 1950s and early
important program were placed in a ately. Directors and producers re- 1960s, ad men and program produc-
magnetic field, or stored on top of a sented "outsiders" second- guessing ers learned not only all of the econo-
radiator or warm studio console? them, calling for just one more take. mies possible from shooting on tape,
What effect would it have on union - but a variety of electronic tricks
ized jobs? which simply can't be performed on
What they weren't concerned TAPE IS NOW film. With the launching of high defi-
about, according to some engineers, RECORDING HISTORY nition TV at least for the production
was the effect of dust and dirt. One of Nonetheless, by the summer of of programs, commercials and rock
3M's biggest problems in meeting 1959, video tape had become as ac- videos, technicians will be mastering
the April 28 deadline had been in cepted a part of television as audio a whole new portfolio of techniques
coming up with perfect reels of tape. recording was of radio and the music and stunts as well as adopting what
The smallest scratch, a wayward industry. That summe; the United works from existing formats. One
speck of dust or dirt in the coating, States Information Agency had set thing the history of magnetic tape
microscopic damage to tape edges
were enough to reject a reel of video-
up an exhibition in Moscow which in-
cluded, among other things, a model
teaches us: the more things change,
the more they stay the same. I


Practical Guitar Synthesis

This month's forum is about gui- package all around. It's a multi - "track" faster; while others do not.
tar synthesis. It's here to stay and it's timbral sound module as well, based Personally speaking, I thought they
invaluable because it opens doors on the same L/A (linear arithmetic) made guitar synths so I didn't have
previously shut to guitarists. It's our synthesis as Roland's D -series syn- to learn to play a new instrument.
key to MIDI City and enables us to ths. The GM -70 was a MIDI con- All the various guitar synths have
harness today's technology for our verter and controller only. It was their merits and you should choose
music. necessary to have external sound the one that's right for you. Many
Guitar synthesis has been around sources. I did and still do, so I'm guitarists seem to view the synth as
for well over a decade. Both the Ro- hanging on to it. one big effect. On the surface it
land GR-5000 and the Arp Avatar There are many guitar syn- might seem so; in the hands of a jazz
were introduced in the mid -70s. In thesizers on the market at many player; playing BE BOP lines with a
fact, Roland's pitch to voltage Hex price points. The first thing the pro- horn patch could be quite effective.
pick-up has remained virtually un- spective customer must realize is The finger picker can control an en-
changed to this day. What has that there is no such thing as perfect. tire ensemble with the different
changed though, are the conversion The very attributes that make guitar strings set to different instruments
and sound modules and the advent the wonderfully expressive and indi- and pitches. String velocity (how
of MIDI in all its splendor. MIDI has vidualistic instrument it is also serve hard you pick) can control mixes or
become a universal and sophisti- to render it a less than ideal MIDI layers of tones for staggering effect
cated binary musical language and controller. Unlike a keyboard, it will in a live situation.
what's more, sound technology has not register perfect note on note off The guitar synthesizer allows the
made digital synthesizers, samplers commands. The vibration and pitch player to add the colors he's always
and sequencers affordable to many. variation of the strings, the resonant wanted to his palette of sounds. This
Like many guitarists, I held out for harmonics, characteristics of body in itself is very exciting and was long
years before buying a guitar syn- materials, scale length and actual held exclusively in the domain of the
thesizer. I bought a keyboard synth playing technique are all factors that keyboardist. For authenticity, I'd
first! I tried guitar synths out in enter into this equation. There is no suggest the player approach each
music stores and even took some right or wrong in choosing a guitar sound in the spirit in which it has
home. I remained interested, but synthesizer. You can spend hundreds evolved. The bar chording and fin-
skeptical. I knew I'd recognize the or thousands of dollars. ger- tapping of flutes just doesn't
right one when it came along. make it for me. Then again, that's an
The right one for me was the Ro- PICK YOUR, OWN individual's choice and art is free-
land GM -70 which came out in 1986. Individual preference and budget dom of expression. Undoubtedly, the
We haven't parted since. The beauty requirements hold sway here. There guitarist will come up with sounds
of this piece is that it allows me to use are several different approaches uti- and approaches. Also, many synth
my own guitar while controlling the lized, each with its own set of advan- and sample patches such as piano
many aspects of MIDI. I just attach tages. Various technologies have in- and drums will sound more realistic
the GK-1 pick-up on my Telecaster cluded laser, light, sonar, mechanical and will track faster when plucked
with putty (!) and it works like a and pitch to voltage, among others. instead of strummed.
dream. Many people worry about In addition to Roland, Yamaha, There is another aspect of guitar
having to mar their instrument with Casio and Korg, all have existing synthesis that is just as important as
a synth pick-up installation. A more models. The Casio is self- contained the control of sound-control of
permanent set -up is certainly possi- with the sounds and MIDI imple- MIDI performance data. We can ac-
ble with the screws and springs pro- mentation inside the actual guitar. tually sequence a composition for
vided, but I opted not to put holes in Ibanez, Steppe, Pitchrider, SyntheA- live or studio performance from the
my guitar. I preserve the beauty of xe and a few others have come and guitar controller. I'm not good
my instrument and play the axe of gone. Some guitar controllers have enough on keyboards to be consid-
my choice! been rather unorthodox in their ered a bad player. Other than pro-
The GM -70 has since been discon- shapes and sizes, not to mention gramming percussion and playing
tinued by Roland, being replaced by their string configurations. Some three voice chords, my keyboard
the GR -50 which is probably a better folks take to these because they may chops are virtually nil. Imagine my
past frustration in not only repre- actual picking of the string and its controllers use all B strings) can help
senting keyboard production for a resultant sound from a sound track faster. I take my chances with
manufactures but not being able to source. Glitching is the occurrence of the standard 0.010-0.046 gauge.
utilize this great technology for my undesirable blips and bloops along Again, I want to play my guitar and
music in my studio. I felt like I was on with the notes we intended to play. it's handy to switch from guitar to
the outside looking in, a second class Cleaning up our technique will go far MIDI or blend the two without hav-
citizen. That all changed when I in alleviating this problem. Many of ing to change instruments.
could control MIDI from my guitar. the organic slurs and slides that we For most patches like flute, strings
Now I can write bass lines, horn rock and blues guitarists spent years and brass, tracking is not a problem.
parts and more into my sequencer. I cultivating have no place here. The There can be a noticeable delay in
can edit out mistakes and glitches guitar converter is only interested in patches that have fast attack times
which is one of the great advantages accurate note information. This is like piano and drums. Again, I rec-
of sequencing. I tend to play solos not to say that bending and other ommend plucking instead of pick-
"live" on a recording or in a perfor- techniques won't work. (Speaking of ing. In the case of long scale length
mance with my backing tracks se- bending, save yourself a lot of grief impeding the tracking of bass
quenced. and turn the bender information off sounds and sequencer data, I utilize
when you're sequencing. You can't the trick of playing the bass lines up
THE TECHNICAL SIDE believe how fast you'll run out of past the twelfth fret. The scale
I haven't spent much time on the memory on your sequencer.) length is shorter and it tracks great.
technical side of guitar synthesis. I transpose the pitch down an octave
"Tracking" and "glitching" are the PITCH TO VOLTAGE or two for the notes I want.
buzzwords and phenomena you'll I think pitch to voltage is the most I could never sequence my songs
encounter in this arena. Tracking practical in terms of least dollars in- without my guitar converter. The
refers to how long it takes for the vested and playing adjustment. You longer you wait, the longer you're
synth to sound a note played on the have to deal with the fact that the locked out of MIDI City!
guitar. Depending on the technology thicker the string and the longer the
used, there will always be a certain scale length, the slower the tracking Next time: The Guitarist in the
amount of delay time between the will be. Using thinner strings (some MIDI Studio.


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SOUND CONTRACTING/ Lab Report: Shure Model 1200 Broadcast Audio: Advanced Tele-
SOUND Power/Mixer Amplifier. Len Feld- vision: What's In It For Audio?
REINFORCEMENT man. March/April 1990, p. 59. Randy Hoffner. January/February
Lab Report: Soundcraftsmen 1990, p. 64.
A New Loews Cinema Sound Sys-
tem. Greg DeTogne. November/De- Model 900X2 Power Amplifier. Len Broadcast Audio: Audio for HDTV:
cember 1990, p. 30. Feldman. May/June 1990, p. 43. The Production System. Randy
A Specialized Synagogue Sound North Forty Music-Truth in Ad- Hoffner. May/June 1990, p. 4.
System. Shelley Herman. May/June vertising. John Barilla. July /August Broadcast Audio: Digital Audio
1990, p. 26. 1990, p. 26. Bit -Rate Reduction. Randy Hoffner.
Audio in the Theater. Ronald Ben- Outdoor Sound Reinforcement for November/December 1990, p. 55.
nett. March/April 1990, p. 44. Symphony Orchestra. Ed Learned. Broadcast Audio: HDTV Video
Audio for the Church. Brent March/April 1990, p. 30. Tape Recorder: A State -of-the -Art
Harshbarger. January/February 1990, Sound Reinforcement in North Af- Audio Recorder as Well. Randy Hoff-
p. 52. rica, Part III. Ed Learned. Janu- ner. July /August 1990, p. 31.
Audio for the Church. Brent ary/February 1990, p. 18. Broadcast Audio: New Zealand:
Harshbarger. September/October 1990, The Sound Contracting Engineer: Home Of The World's Newest Tele-
p.59. Stage Monitor Systems. Robyn vision Network. Randy Hoffner.
Audio for the Church. Brent Gately. May/June 1990, p. 46. March/April 1990, p. 56.
Harshbarger. November/December
1990, p. 48. Speaker Repairs in the Field. Paul Broadcast Audio: Placing Sound in
Audio for the Church: Equaliza- Hugo. January/February 1990, p. 32. the Television Picture-The Old
tion in Church Sound. Brent Tek Text: Speaker Angles II: Cal- Fashioned Way. Randy Hoffner. Sep-
Harshbarger. March/April 1990, p. culating The Ideal Speaker Loca- tember/October 1990, p. 57.
52. tion. Dan Rogers. November/De- Designing a World -Class Radio
Audio for the Church: Multi- track- cember 1990, p. 32. Station. John Barilla. January/Feb-
'ng. Brent Harshbarger. May /June The Creation of a Console. Ty ruary 1990, p. 4.
1990, p. 35. Ford. March /April 1990, p. 41. Grammy Time. Murray R. Allen.
Audio for the Church: Purchasing The Las Vegas Hilton Showroom May /June 1990, p. 38.
A Sound System. Brent Harshbar-
ger. July /August 1990, p. 44.
Audio System. Steven C. Rypka.
March /April 1990, p. 4.
Tek Text: Plotting the PA Angle
A Program. Daniel C. Rogers.
Breaking Into Concert Sound in July/August 1990, p. 14.
L.A. Jim Paul. July /August 1990, p.
The 1989 Newport Jazz Festival.
Larry Zide. March/April 1990, p. 14.
Breaking Into Concert Sound, Troubleshooting: A Step-By -Step THE RECORDING
Part II. Jim Paul. November/Decem- Guide. Ed Learned. July/August
1990, p. 6. ENGINEER
ber 1990, p. 24.
Education in Sound Reinforce- AES Roundup: Cruising The AES
ment. Ronald Bennett. March/April Convention. Jim Paul. Novem-
1990, p. 26.
THE BROADCAST ber/December 1990, p. 52.
Hands On: Crown System 2000 ENGINEER Down Mexico Way. Alan P. Kefauv-
Software For The PC. May/June Ad Ventures. Brian Battles. Janu- er. September/October 1990, p. 6.
1990, p. 55. ary/February 1990, p. 47. Hands On: Proteus II-XR: A Hot
Higher Ground: The Winans- Ad Ventures: Telephone BBSing. New Addition To The Proteus Fam-
Live! Ed Learned. May /June 1990, p. Brian Battles. July/August 1990, p. ily. John Barilla. November /Decem-
16. 34. ber 1990, p. 14.
Lab Report: Aphex Expressor Hot Tips: Using Delay. John Bari - Recording Techniques: Make
Model 651 Compressor/Limiter Len lla. January/February 1990, p. 48. Cleaner Mixes With MIDI Tape
Feldman. November/December 1990, Lab Report: Yamaha MT3X Multi- Sync. Bruce Bartlett. November/De-
P. 38. track Cassette Recorder. Len Feld- cember 1990, p. 44.
Lab Report: ARX Systems EQ 60 man. January/February 1990, p. 59.
1 /3rd Octave Graphic Equalizer. Len Music from an Electronic Cottage. BRIAN BATTLES
Feldman. July /August 1990, p. 40. James Becher. January/February Ad Ventures. Brian Battles. Janu-
Lab Report: Digital Designs Model 1990, p. 39.
LS161 Studio Monitor Loudspeaker ary/February 1990, p. 47.
Musician's Notebook: The Basics. Ad Ventures: Equipment Con-
(Upgraded for 1990). Bruce Bart- Mark Maulucci. November /Decem-
lett. September/October 1990, p. 53. cerns. Brian Battles. May/June
ber 1990, p. 42. 1990, p. 14.
Lab Report: Sony Model MU -R201
2-Channel Digital Reverberator. Recording Techniques: Make Clean- Ad Ventures: Telephone BBSing.
Len Feldman. September/October er Mixes With MIDI Tape Sync. Bruce Brian Battles. July /August 1990, p.
1990, p. 47. Bartlett. November/December 1990, p. 34.
Movie Making in China. Rick
Shriver. May/June 1990, p. 52. LEN FELDMAN
New Sound, New Songs. John Ba- INDEX BY COLUMNIST Lab Report: Aphex Expressor
rilla. May/June 1990, p. 30. Model 651 Compressor/Limiter. Len
Perspectives on Sound Design: An JOHN BARILLA Feldman. November/December 1990,
Interview with John Alberts. John A Tale of Two Cottages. John Bari- p. 38.
Barilla. September/October 1990, p. lla. January/February 1990, p. 54. Lab Report: ARX Systems EQ60
41. Designing a World-Class Radio 1/3rd Octave Graphic Equalizer. Len
Re- creating the Sousa Sound. Station. John Barilla. January/Feb- Feldman. July /August 1990, p. 40.
Larry Zide. November/December ruary 1990, p. 4. Lab Report: Shure Model 1200
1990, p. 8. Hands On: Proteus II -XR: A Hot Power/Mixer Amplifier. Len Feld-
Sound Whiz Frank Serafine on New Addition To The Proteus Fam- man. March/April 1990, p. 59.
The Hunt for Red October. Brad ily. John Barilla. November/Decem- Lab Report: Sony Model MU -R201
Leigh Benjamin. September /Octo- ber 1990, p. 14. 2- Channel Digital Reverberator.
ber 1990, p. 27. Hot Tips: The Art Of Equalization: Len Feldman. September/October
The New Wave of CD Referencing. 1990, p. 47.
Part 1. John Barilla. March/April
Bob Ludwig. July /August 1990, p. 1990, p. 19. Lab Report: Soundcraftsmen
33. Model 900X2 Power Amplifier. Len
The Plant- Post -Production for
Hot Tips: The Art Of Equalization: Feldman. May/June 1990, p. 43.
the 90s. Brad Leigh Benjamin. Sep- Part 2. John Barilla. May/June 1990, Lab Report: Yamaha MT3X Multi-
p. 8.
tember/October 1990, p. 19. track Cassette Recorder. Len Feld-
The 30- second Drum Sound Set- Hot Tips: The Art Of Equalization: man. January/February 1990, p. 59.
up. Malcolm Chisholm. Novem-
Part 3. John Barilla. July/August
ber/December 1990, p. 21. 1990, p. 36.
Hot Tips: Understanding Time
Code Synchronization. John Barilla. The Sound Contacting Engineer:
THE ELECTRONIC September/October 1990, p. 35. Stage Monitor Systems. Robyn
COTTAGE Hot Tips: Using Delay. John Bari- Gately. May/June 1990, p. 46.
A Tale of Two Cottages. John Bari- lla. January/February 1990, p. 48.
lla. January/February 1990, p. 54. New Sound, New Songs. John Ba- BRENT HARSHBARGER
Ad Ventures: Equipment Con- rilla. May/June 1990, p. 30. Audio for the Church. Brent
cerns. Brian Battles. May/June North Forty Music-Truth in Ad- Harshbarger. January/February 1990,
1990, p. 14. vertising. John Barilla. July/August p. 52.
Hot Tips: The Art Of Equalization: 1990, p. 26. Audio for the Church. Brent
Part 1. John Barilla. March/April Perspectives on Sound Design: An Harshbarger. September/October 1990,
1990, p. 19. P. 59.
Interview with John Alberts. John
Hot Tips: The Art Of Equalization: Barilla. September/October 1990, p. Audio for the Church. Brent
Part 2. John Barilla. May/June 1990, 41. Harshbarger. November/December
p. 8. 1990, p. 48.
Hot Tips: The Art Of Equalization: Audio for the Church: Equaliza-
Part 3. John Barilla. July /August BRUCE BARTLETT tion in Church Sound. Brent Harsh -
1990, p. 36. Lab Report: Digital Designs Model barger. March /April 1990, p. 52.
Hot Tips: Understanding Time LS161 Studio Monitor Loudspeaker Audio for the Church: Multi- track-
Code Synchronization. John Barilla. (Upgraded for 1990). Bruce Bart- ing. Brent Harshbarger. May /June
September /October 1990, p. 35. lett. September/October 1990, p. 53. 1990, p. 35.
Audio for the Church: Purchasing Barilla, John. Hot Tips: The Art Of Chisholm, Malcolm. The 30 -Sec-
a Sound System. Brent Harshbarger. Equalization: Part 1. March/April ond Drum Sound Set -up. Novem-
July/August 1990, p. 44. 1990, p. 19. ber/December 1990, p. 21.
Barilla, John. Hot Tips: The Art Of DeTogne, Greg. A New Loews Cin-
RANDY HOFFNER Equalization: Part 2. May /June ema Sound System. November/De-
Broadcast Audio: Advanced Tele- 1990, p. 8. cember 1990, p. 30.
vision: What's In It For Audio? Barilla, John. Hot Tips: The Art Of Feldman, Len. Lab Report: Aphex
Randy Hoffner. January/February Equalization: Part 3. July/August Expressor Model 651 Compres-
1990, p. 64. 1990, p. 36. sor/Limiter. November/December
Broadcast Audio: Audio for HDTV: Barilla, John. Hot Tips: Under- 1990, p. 38.
The Production System. Randy standing Time Code Synchroniza- Feldman, Len. Lab Report: ARX
Hoffner. May/June 1990, p. 4. tion. September/October 1990, p. 35. Systems EQ 60 1 /3rd Octave
Broadcast Audio: Digital Audio Barilla, John. Hot Tips: Using Graphic Equalizer. July/August
Bit -Rate Reduction. Randy Hoffner. Delay. January/February 1990, p. 48. 1990, p. 40.
November/December 1990, p. 55. Barilla, John. New Sound, New Feldman, Len. Lab Report: Shure
Broadcast Audio: HDTV Video Songs. May /June 1990, p. 30. Model 1200 Power/Mixer Amplifier.
Tape Recorder: A State -of-the -Art
Audio Recorder as Well. Randy Hoff- -
Barilla, John. North Forty Music
Truth In Advertising. July /August
March/April 1990, p. 59.
Feldman, Len. Lab Report: Sony
ner. July/August 1990, p. 31.
1990, p. 26. Model MU -R201 2- Channel Stereo
Broadcast Audio: New Zealand: Reverberator. September/October
Home of the World's Newest Televi- Barilla, John. Perspectives on
Sound Design: An Interview with 1990, p. 47.
sion Network. Randy Hoffner.
March/April 1990, p. 56. John Alberts. September/October Feldman, Len. Lab Report: Sound-
Broadcast Audio: Placing Sound in 1990, p.41. craftsmen Model 900X2 Power Am-
the Television Picture -The Old Bartlett, Bruce. Lab Report: Digi- plifier. May/June 1990, p. 43.
Fashioned Way. Randy Hoffner. Sep- tal Designs Model LS161 Studio Feldman, Len. Lab Report:
tember/October 1990, p. 57. Monitor Loudspeaker (Upgraded for Yamaha MT3X Multi -track Cassette
1990). September/October 1990, p. Recorder. January/February 1990, p.
Buyer's Guide: Speaker Systems, Bartlett, Bruce. Recording Tech- Ford, Ty. The Creation of a Con-
Performance and Studio Monitors. niques: Make Cleaner Mixes With sole. March /April 1990, p. 41.
January/February 1990, p. 68. MIDI Tape Sync. November/Decem- Gately, Robyn. The Sound Con-
Buyer's Guide: Power Amplifiers. ber 1990, p. 44. tacting Engineer: Stage Monitor
March /April 1990, p. 67. Battles, Brian. Ad Ventures. Janu- Systems. May/June 1990, p. 46.
Buyer's Guide: Consoles and Mix- ary/February 1990, p. 47. Glasband, Martin. Tek Text:
ers. May/June 1990, p. 59. Battles, Brian. Ad Ventures: Soundly Engineered A/C: The An-
Buyer's Guide: Microphones, Equipment Concerns. May /June swer To Audio Noise. March/April
Tape, Tape Recorders, Tape Acces- 1990, p. 14. 1990, p. 47.
sories. July/August 1990, p. 51. Battles, Brian. Ad Ventures: Tele- Gottinger, Bernd. Book Review:
Buyer's Guide: Signal Process- phone BBSing. July/August 1990, p. Tonmeister Technology. July/August
ing I: Delays, Reverbs, Cross- 34. 1990, p. 46.
overs, Equalizers. September /Oc- Beche4 James. Music from an Harshbarger, Brent. Audio for the
tober 1990, p. 63. Electronic Cottage. January/Febru- Church. January/February 1990, p.
Buyer's Guide: Signal Processing ary 1990, p. 39. 52.
II: Compressors, Limiters, Noise Benjamin, Brad Leigh. Sound Harshbarger, Brent. Audio for the
Gates, Noise Reduction Equipment. Whiz Frank Serafine on The Hunt Church. September /October 1990, p.
November/December 1990, p. 63. for Red October. September/October 59. o.
1990, p. 27. Harshbarger, Brent. Audio for the 0"
Allen, Murray R. Grammy Time. Benjamin, Brad Leigh. The Church. November/December 1990, m
May/June 1990, p. 38. Plant-Post -Production for the 90s. p. 48.
Barilla, John. A Tale of Two Cot - September/October 1990, p. 19. Harshbarger, Brent. Audio for the
tages. January/February 1990, p. 54. Bennett, Ronald. Audio in the The- Church: Equalization in Church
Barilla, John. Designing a World - ater. March/April 1990, p. 44. Sound. March/April 1990, p. 52. v
Class Radio Station. January/Febru- Bennett, Ronald. Education in Harshbarger, Brent. Audio for the c
ary 1990, p. 4. Sound Reinforcement. March/April Church: Multi- tracking. May/June z
Barilla, John. Hands On: Proteus 1990, p. 26. 1990, p. 35.
II -XR: A Hot New Addition To The Buxbaum, Dan. 1990 Winter Harshbarger, Brent. Audio for the E
Proteus Family. November/Decem- NAMM Round -Up. March/April Church: Purchasing a Sound Sys-
ber 1990, p. 14. 1990, p. 74. tem. July /August 1990, p. 44.
Herman, Shelley. A Specialized Hugo, Paul. Speaker Repairs in the Paul, Jim. Breaking Into Concert
Synagogue Sound System. Field. January/February 1990, p. 32. Sound in L.A. July/August 1990, p.
May/June 1990, p. 26. Kefauve4 Alan P. Down Mexico 22.
Herman, Shelley. Guest Editorial. Way. September/October 1990, p. 6. Paul, Jim. Breaking Into Concert
September /October 1990, p. 33. Learned, Ed. Higher Ground: The Sound, Part II. November/Decem-
Hoffner, Randy. Broadcast Audio: Winans -Live! May/June 1990, p. ber 1990, p. 24.
Advanced Television: What's In It 16.
For Audio? January/February 1990, Rogers, Daniel C. Tek Text: Plot-
P. 64.
Learned, Ed. Outdoor Sound Rein- ting the PA Angle--A Program.
Hoffner, Randy. Broadcast Audio: forcement for Symphony Orchestra. July /August 1990, p. 14.
Audio for HDTV The Production March/April 1990, p. 30. Rogers, Daniel C. Tek Text:
System. May/June 1990, p. 4. Learned, Ed. Sound Reinforce- Speaker Angles II: Calculating The
Hoffner, Randy. Broadcast Audio: ment in North Africa, Part III. Janu- Ideal Speaker Location. Novem-
Digital Audio Bit -Rate Reduction. ary/February 1990, p. 18. ber/December 1990, p. 32.
November/December1990, p. 55. Learned, Ed. Troubleshooting: A
Hoffner, Randy. Broadcast Audio: Rypka, Steven C. The Las Vegas
Step -By -Step Guide. July /August Hilton Showroom Audio System.
HDTV Video Tape Recorder: A 1990, p. 6.
State-of-the-Art Audio Recorder as March /April 1990, p. 4.
Ludwig, Bob. The New Wave of CD
Well. July/August 1990, p. 31.
Referencing. July /August 1990, p. Shrivel; Rick. Movie Making in
Hoffner, Randy. Broadcast Audio: 33. China. May/June 1990, p. 52.
New Zealand: Home of the World's
Maulucci, Mark. Musician's Note- Zide, Larry. Re-creating the Sousa
Newest Television Network. Sound. November/December 1990,
March /April 1990, p. 56. book: The Basics. November/De-
Hoffner, Randy. Broadcast Audio: cember 1990, p. 42. P. 8.
Placing Sound in the Television Pic- Paul, Jim. AES Roundup: Cruising Zide, Larry. The 1989 Newport
ture-The Old Fashioned Way. Sep- The AES Convention. Novem- Jazz Festival. March/April 1990, p.
tember /October 1990, p. 57. ber/December 1990, p. 52. 14.

serving: recording, broadcast and sound contracting fields

Buyer's Guide Speaker Systems,

Performance and Studio Monitor
On the pages that follow, you will find a Guide to speakers, both studio monitors and
performance/stage types, each treated separately. The Guide is in chart form and is
immediately followed by manufacturers' adressses.
As usual, be aware that we attemp to contact every manufacturer but not all are prompt
or cooperative enough for our necessary deadlines.

gt °a9 PEP pc
004.04' jO vd5
5'k EP F F\aE 5
053°' f``"\O °JSS\O°pyyO°FP°J0?5° p55,°°P ,v°°w yOk C Ylg,tA 0,0, FI'

M600 26 bn-, black h 60 -20, Full range sound, highly accurate sound
22 reproduction contains famous Altec 604.
SSM black black 16 280 -21k Designed for linear, high power output
epoxy foam 4

AE-3M 16 black black 8 70k -18k 1.10 cone horn 44 same

12.5 epoxy foam
AE-4M 14 buck black 8 55-165k 1 7 cone horn 78 same
14 epoxy foam
AE-6 14 black black 0/8 53 -17k cone horn 78 same
23 epoxy steel
AE-68 14 black black 8/8 53-17k 1 12 cone horn 78 Designed for linear, high power output.
epoxy foam 14

C 3 12 black black 8 75 -20k ',I, cone dome 5k 8.4 $200 00 Has open uncolored sound and low price
e Ash cloth -3 favorite with studios and sound contractors.
CM 20 flack black 8 30-20k 0 cone 2 25 horn 3k 49 5150 DO Ideal as main speaker system in a small room
11 vinyl cloth or console mounted for neadleld listening

CM-10 23.5 black black 0 30 -20k cone 2 25 horn 3k 34.5 $200 00 Ideal as main speaker system in small rooms.
14 vinyl cloth

CM-12 23.5 bloc, black 8 32-20k cone 6 cone 3 5( 44 $350 00 Can generate 112dB in a medium -sized
14.25 vmy vinyl control room.
COMMUNITY LIGHT & SOUND -See our ad on page 22
CSX28M 14 black clack 8 horn 300 $355 00 2 -way 12 in woofer wedge stage monitor
15 cari et steel
CSX38M 17.5 blac.. black 8 60 -18k horn 2500 $411 00 2-way 15 in woofer wedge stage momtor
17.5 cart-fil steel
FR12-2 25.5 pen -e, 8 80-18k 12 cone dome 1 `1 28 All Sentry series monitors
41.9 3
PI100 61 vinyl 8 80-18k cone 15 dome 23.7
38.1 3
FR15.2 72.1 veneer 8 50 -15k 12 cone 90x horn 435
80 3 30
FR200 255 veneer 8 50 -18k cone 1.5 dome 2 Sr Sentry series
41.9 3
FM1502ER 28.7 black B 65 -20k cone 90x horn 72 2
13.8 grille 3 40
FOSTEX -sae our ad on page 11
LS-2 wood optional 12 cone comp horn All custom -made and installed
vereer reference models. Individualft tuned for
each installation
LS -3 wood optional 2-15 cone comp horn same
LS -4 wood opbonn! 2.15 cone comp same
Con- 925 black black 4 120 -20 5 25 cone 75 dome 6k 4 5250.00
trol 625 metal 3
1 563
Con- 1525 black black 4 75-20k 6 5 cone dome 3k 10 5395 00
trol 9.80 metal
5 9
4435 35.75 oiled blue 8 30 -16k 15 cone horn 1k 240 E2,39500
38 walnut fabric 3 (2)
4406 1538 oled blue e 55-20k 6 cone Ti 3k 17 5250 00
9 38 walnut fabric dome
8.5 W
gi d0eN20 ta9

0\ OV GN trP FP

0 0r-yO





4408 17.25 oiled blue 8 50 -20k 8 cone Ti 2 5 26 $325 00
12 walnut fabric dome
4410 23.5 oiled blue 8 45-20k 10 cone .. cone Ti 800 43 $495.00
14.25 walnut fabric dome 45
4412 14.25 oiled blue 8 45-20k 12 cone _ cone Ti 800 47 5750 00
23.5 walnut fabric dome 45
098 15 grey black 4 r 50-16k 8 cone dome 75 dome 800 28.4 $1,400.00 Active, tri- amplified, 2 electronic
10 cloth 2.5 5k X -overs with location dependent
7.25 equalizer. (amps.1 -100W, 2-50W)
096 20.7 gray black 4 7 50 -20k 10 cone 2 dome 75 dome 600 48.4 $2,40000 Active, tn- amplified (3-60W), 2
12.4 cloth 2.5 4k electronic X -overs with location
11.4 dependent equalizer
092 31.5 grey black 4 7 50-17k 10 cone 3 5 cone dome 500 66 $4,500 00 Active, tri- amplified (1 -120W, 2 -60
17.3 cloth 2.5 (2) metal 3k VV), 2 electronic X-overs with lo-
11.8 cation dependent equalizer.
YRS 22.5 black black 8B 16 220 238 3 -way all horn loaded Vertical format.
1000 51 black metal 8M 1.5 One box system.
26 16H
22.5 black black 2222 lbs is unloaded weight. Can
42 metal accept variety of horn and driver comb.
F2 22.5 oia,:1 black
BASS 42 metal 15 235
36 5
833 32 black cloth 8 35-16k 15 red 115 $6,300 00 Ultra-low distortion with high continuous
20 satin/ 3 horn output
14 75 walnut
834 38.5 black cloth System
24.13 satin/ Load 30.16k 18 127 $1,800 00 Subwoofer for 833 system.
20.13 walnut 4R
HD -1 16 Black 32-22K 8 1 silk 51 $4,135.00 Self- powered near field reference monitor
12 satin 40 -20k dome corrected for amplitude and phase accuracy.
16 1
(Biampldied) system
WS- 8 black black 80 -16k 6 full - 6 $12000 Compact full -range, near -field monitor.
A10 12.5 reran metal range Magnetically shielded Accessories opt
8 cone
WS- 6 1 white while 6 80- a 7 cone 5.7 $12000
A10 6.1 black black 16k
9.8 mold metal 5
SM -1 25 oak black 8 37 -20k cone 7 2! horn r ? 100 Biamplified 2 -way studio monitor designed
19.5 black cloth 3 for midfield applications,
18.5 horn and the ability to play at high levels.
SM -2 25 black e 35- 20k 15 cone 7 25 cone horn 190 5 3 -way studio monitor with time offset
19.5 paint 3 4.25 correction
SM -3 38 black 884 27ß01( 15 cone 15 cone horn 103 210 The SM3 is a 3 -way triamplifled studio
36 paint ohms r 2, monitor system for very large control rooms
24 wanting high levels, and extremely low bass.
2706 12 dark black 4 42 -20k 12 cone 2 dome 1 dome 720 48 1825 00 Compact Can be installed on floor
15 1 gray anod 3 5k stands or suspension brackets. High
13.5 nextel alum power dome transducers.
A723 22.9 wal- black 40-20k 12 cone 5 cone dome 300 68 $1850 00 Each crossover has dedicated 100w amp.
12.7 nut cloth 3 27k Useful in small to medium sized listen-
16 ing environments
PBM 11.88 pewter black 8 57-20k 6 5. poly dome 2 6 10 $350 00 High sensitivity and power handling, rear
65 6 gray material 3 cone pair firing tuned Portable, compact-sized
85 enclosure, ferrofluid cooled polyamide dome,
five -year warranty
P8M 15 pewter black 47 -20k 8 poly dome 2 4 18.5 $500.00 High sensitivity and power handling,
8 10 13 gray matent 3 cone pair extended low frequency response.
10.63 Polyamide dome. five -year warranty.
System 15 8 gray steel 55-25k 65 poly dome 3k 28 8 $550.00 8i-wired gold-plated terminals, hard -wired
2 8 8 yMyi mesh 3 cone crossover network, energy control enclosure
System 18.1 black 48 -25k 8 poly horn 2 3lr 26.4 $1,000.00 high sensitivity with high power sensnwity.

System 22 lame black 46-25k 10 poly horn 2 3k 41 9 $1,500.00 full -range point source phase coherent DMT
10 14.3 rated wood 3 cone each Bi -wired gold- plated terminals,
11.4 DMT energy controlling enclosure,
System 254 I9mr black 44 -25k 12 poly horn t bi 57.3 $2,000.00 full -range point source phase coherent DMT.
12 16.5 rased wood 3 cone each Gold plated terminals, hard wired crossover
11 4 controlling enclosure, five -Veer warrant.
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System 33 lamm black B 38 -25k paper 1 horn 1 51 99.2 $3,500.00 full -range point source phase coherent DMT
15 21.6 rated wood 3 cone each Gold- plated terminals, hard wired crossover,
System 17.3 lamr black B 35 -25k 15 paper 1.25 han 250 187 $5,500.00 Energy controlling enclosure,
215 35.7 rated wood 3 cone 1 5k each Point source phase coherent DMT
30.9 15 in. bass driver,crossover network,
ISM-1 43.31 maple black 4 29-20k 2 cone 2 90 650 319 $7500.00 Designed for use in large studio
35.44 16 40 control rooms.
TS.M 2 26 maple black 8 29 -20k 16 cone 2 90 650 205 $5,750 00 System for small control or editing rooms
3144 40
265- 13.8 Tay black e 60 -20k 6 ? cone dome 3k 11.5 1398 00 Magnetically- shielded components, smooth
ME -AV 8.1 poly jersey 3 crossover, wide dispersion pattern.
280- 15.7 gray black 8 60 -20k 7 9 cone dome F 0 dome 1.5k 15.4 $518.00 same
ME 9.3 poly jersey 14k
312- 22.88 gray black
8 50 -20k 11 dge-cone
dome 500 35.7 $869 00 same
ME -AV 13.2 poly 5k
11.6 frame
809 23 8 50-77.5F 12 co- 60 $895 00
16.5 bled 3 axial
13.5 paint
811C 2075 B 70-17.5k 12 co- 110 $1,890.00
26 25 blacF 3 axial
175 peint
813C 3575 8 50-17.5k 12 cone 12 Co- 196 $2,590.00
31 black 3 axial
22 paint
8150 32 8 40 -17.5k 12 cone 12 co- 240 $3,39000
43.5 black (2) axial
21 paint
NSIO 8.5 blet!: black 8 60 -20k 7 sheet 2.4 s09 2k 13.2 $237 50 Industry- standard studio close-field
MS 15 wood cloth formed dome monitors Available for commercial version
NS40 23.5 black black 8 30 -20k 7 sheet 2(1 soft 12 sob 1.2k 37.4 $465.00 Bigger version of the NS1OMS with greater
M 11.5 wood cloth (2) formed dcr,, dome dome Sk low -end response.
S10X 6.12` black black B 65 -20k 4 carb 62 $145 00 Very compact wide range system Handles
9.5 metal fiber up to 150 watts of program material.
S2OX 7.5 black black 8 65 -20k 4 Garb 46 $210.00 Compact dual -driver wide range system.
11.625 metal (2) fiber material
MS101 8.5 black black 10 30 -20k 4 full 49 $125 00 Has mic and two line inputs, volume and
5.8 metal range tone controls.
MS202 8.5 black bleck 20 4 full 88 195.00 Wide range with mic and three line inputs,
11.5 metal range Volume and tone controls.
MS6OS 10.5 EMI black 60 20.20k 8 comp 22 $575 00 Features Active Servo Technology giving
17.5 mater- metal horn high power and extended bass response in
95 gal a compact package.

937 24 black 70-15k 12 cone 49 $950 00 Two-way loudspeaker system- rugged,
18 metal tonst reinforced construction, 150 watts
16.3 direc
M200 17 black black 65 -20k 5 5 cone 3500 17 $400.00 Easy installation in 8 ohm or 70V
95 nylon distributed application Excellent
8.5 for near field monitoring.
554A 9.6 black black 90 -20k 4 cone 3500 4.6 $398.00 Compact, weather-resistant system
7 nylon has versatile omnimount brackets
5.3 included.
M500 33 black black B 46-20k 10 dir. 630 4 $1,398.00 Front mounted components -2-way
26.5 rad vented system.
M400 23 black black 8 80.20k 12 dir 2k 43 $799 00 Compact size with "big" source. 1 in
17.75 rad throat, 150 watt power handling
M300 22 black bleck 8 50.20h 8 cone 3500 35 $550 00 Accurate sound reproduction for
12 studio playback and nearfill
9 applications, with 75 watts power
3X3 4S black black 8L 53-19k 1_` cone horn horn 265 Designed for high power output,
29 epoxy steel 8M tight pattern control, warm musical
22 response and maximum versatility
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AE-1 1025 black black 8 63 -19k 8 cone horn 18 Designed as a foreground music
16 epoxy loam system and for theatrical fill
8 Coat coat applications,
AE-2 32 black black 16 63 -19k 8 cone horn 38 Ideal choice for theatrical and church fill
AE-3 16 black black 8 70 -18k 10 cone horn 40 For front fill speakers
AE.4 23 black black 8 55.16.5k 12 COO* horn 70 for high quality music or speech
14 reproduction.
AE-5 23 black black 8 53-17k 12 cone horn 78 Performs as stand alone unit. Also in-
14 epoxy foam stalled to form large arrays.
16 coat.
AE-10 225 black black 8 38 -120k 15 cone 120 138 Designed for convenient use and easy
32 epoxy foam (2) 'truck pack.' Provides high acoustic
24 coat output.
AE-12 30 black black 8 35 -120k 18 cone 120 160 for large scale sound reinforcement,
44.75 epoxy foam providing very high acoustic output.
225 coat.

W130T 7.25 black black 8 95 -20k 4 cone ferro- 55 5163.33 Thirty watt, indoor /outdoor loudspeak-
4.56 metal metal fluid er system with Integral 70V Tx
4 375 cone
W150T 9 black black 8 75 -20k 525 cone ferro 10 $267.42 Fifty watt, indoor /outdoor loudspeaker
6.31 metal metal fluid system with Integral 70V Tx.
6 56 cone
SE0. 844 2044 oak/ black 8 45 -18k 8 COOL 4 piezo 31 22 $270.83 Tuned port extended bass enclosure;
13.125 black cloth cone 5o watt system.
9.125 vinyl
SEO- 1232 29 black black 8 45 -20k 12 cone 2x piezo 3 5B 45. 5520.83 Tuned port bass reflex enclosure;
10.31 vinyl cloth 5 horn 65 wan coaxial system.
12.5 veneer
402 23.25 mica black 8 90 -16k 4.5 15 8598 00 Designed for high -quality rein-
8.12 foam drivers forcement of voice and music.
80211 13.5 mica black 8 50-16k 31 5978.00 same
20.5 foam
18 poly black 10 -18/ 45 12 150hz 72 $3,111 0 same
22.25 foam steel -3dB
23 25
CARVIN -See our ad on page 6
973 30 gray/ black 8 50 -19k 15 cone 6.5 COM 3 5x horn 400 81 5369 00 Three -way speaker system with biamp
22 black metal 3 4.4v 4k capability; 400 watts
1525 ozite 35
993 47 grey/ black 4 45.19k 15 cone 6.5 COne 3.5x horn 400 148 8649 00 Three-way system with biamp
25 black metal 3 (2) (2) 45x 4k capability (2) woofers. (2)
19.25 ozite 3.5 mlddrivers, (2) tweeters, 600 watts
1331 11 gray/ black 0 1.5.18k (horn) 15 cone horn 2k 46 (horn) $589 00 Two-piece system with biamp capebil-
28 black metal 60 -3k (woofer) 131 (woofer) ity, 100 watt radial horn; 400
19 ozite watt woofer.
SR Com 7 black black 8 100 -20k 5 cone 71 $199 00 For recording, stage or sound contrac-
0.5 polymer 5 ting applications Has cone /dome
7 radiator and edge wound voice coil.
818.1000 18 raw 20 -4k 18 cone 33 $600 00 Handles 1,000 watts. Double rear sus-
frame 5 pension gives greater cone excursion
B15 -600 15 raw B 25.5k 15 cone 30 $540.00 Same design and sound as B18 -1000.
frame 5 Has 600 watts of real power capacity
and extended bass response.
K12 -200e 12 raw 8 40 -6k 12 cone 8.4 $155 00 Speaker is perfect for keyboard and
frame 4 12 cone stage monitoring applications with its
edge -wound voice coil and cambric edge.
SR -1 12 black black 8 60.20k 8 cone 34 $580 00 Excellent sound quality and protection
22 polymer 2 for demanding sound reinforcement or
14.5 stage monitoring applications.
SR -2 28 grey 40 -200k l8 cone 108 $950 00 The subwoofer adds massive low end
23 5 paint punch without sacrificing portabil-
20 ity Available in either 1.000 or 400watts.
SRC -1 1 sp rack gray active 150 9.71 8430 00 Has an intelligent controller which
system provides a crossover between the SR- 1

control and SR -2
SR -3 1025 black black 8 70 -20k 8 cone 201 $320 00 For use where moderate sound levels
13 polymer 4 required. Handles 250 watts with
9.5 SRC -1, 150 watts with SRC-3.
CVX-253 55.5 black black 8 40.18k 15 cone IN horn 10,. horn 800 173 81,800 CO A full -range 3-way system with
24 paint metal 11-11 20 3 3 2k built-in passive crossovers for high
23.875 performance without multi amplification.
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CVX/H1e3 49.5 black 8 40 -18k iB cone horn 10x horn 350 160 $2,000 00 Fully portable using compact single
24 paint 3 3 2k throat folded horn/full range with
24 passive crossover built in.
V-370 36 gray black 0 40 -15k 18 cone 10x horn 1.2k 98 $800 00 Good for on the road or in small
24 carpet cloth 18 and medium clubs. Includes 2
position response equalizer
V-300 32 grey black 8 40 -15k 15 cone 10x horn 1 2k 75 $600.00 Front baffle woofer for greater
24 carpet cloth 15 midbass efficiency and throw /con-
16 trolled coverage.
V-158 29.25 gray black 8 35 -20k 15 core 9x horn 225 horn 2.5k 47 $500 00 A versatile triple action system; has
18.25 carpet cloth 14 5k 15 in woofer with symmetrical
17.375 magnetic field with special anti -
bottom backplale.
MV-15 29.75 grey black 8 32 -16k 15 cone 10 cone 3x horn 150 55 $500 CO Triple application system with vented
19 carper cloth 3 3k 10 in cone midrange features high
17 output and natural sound quality
L-36PE 36 gray 8 30 -30k 18 cone 160 $1,000 00 Has folded horn which packs high
24 carper performance into a compact cabinet;
36 30Hz bass in a free -standing horn format
M-1 14.5 gray black 8 70-16k cone 3x3 horn 25k 36 $375 00 Features an ultra -compact vented
21 carpet cloth enclosure with a 12 in driver
7.5 for non -fatiguing natural midrange.
COMMUNITY LIGHT AND SOUND -See our ad on page 22
CSX70 26.75 black black 4 45 -16k 12 cone 2 comp horn 4000 135 $1,066 00 Three-way passivge system featuring a 4x12
33.5 carpel steel design. max operating level of 132dB.

CSX50B 33.5 black. black 8 35.500hz 18 cone horn 12dB 100 $680 00 Compact subwoofer featureal 150Hzh
26.75 carpet steel crossover, dual high pass outputs.
CSX608 33.5 black black 4 35 -800k 11. cone 50hz 150 $1,034 00 Subwoofer operates in 35-800Hz
33.5 carpet metal range of 35 -800Hz Features Hi/Low
22 pass filters and mex operating
level of 132dB
RS325i 24.31 black black 8 60-18k 15 cone 2 Comp. horn 3 .5k 51 $790 00 Compact 3 -way system capable of
18.44 carpet metal handling 400 watts of continuous
14.625 program power in range of 60 -1Bk.
RS327i 32 black black B 45 -18k 15 cone 2 comp. horn 3.5k 89 $077.00 Three -way loudspeaker system
19 carpet metal capable of handling 400 watts of pro-
18.125 gram power in the range of 60 -18k.
RM3251 25.125 black black 8 60.18k 15 cone comp . horn 3.5k 72 $882.00 Three -way stage monitor system
18.75 carpet metal capable of handling 400 watts of
22.625 program power in the rangeof 60 -18k
RS880 49.5 bloc black 8 45 -8k 15 cone comp. comp. 3k 210 $2,16800 Three -way passive full-range horn
30 carpet metal (2) horn-loaded trapezoidal enclosure
225 with rigging hardware option
VBS415 33 brad black 8 25 -200 15 cone comp. 25- 200 $1.491 00 Subwoofer for the RS880 with double
33 carpet metal 50Hz Spider woofers. 131dB operating level
30 and true subwoofer range of 25 -50Hz.
FM- 1202ER 24.3 black 8 75 -20k 1? cone 90x horn 1500 65
19.1 grille 3 40
11 7

SH- 1512ER 31.9 black 8 50 -20k 15 cone 90x horn 1600 75

24.7 grille 3 40
FM1202ER 24.7 screen 8 75 -20k 12
19.1 3
FM1502ER 28.7 screen 8 65.20k 15
13.8 3
SH1512ER 355 screen 8
GAUSS -Seeour ad on page 27
3588 a 40-18k 15 cone horn 1.2k 25 $990 00 Coaxial rated at 200 watts RMS and
a sensitivity of 96dB.
3288 40 -18k 12 cone horn 1.4k 24 $925 00 Coaxial rated at 200 watts RMS
Sensitivity of 91dB
3285 70 -15k 12 cone horn 1.8k 24 $925 00 Coaxial rated at 200watts RMS
compact. high power floor monitor.
TX122 21 qra- black 8 60 -18.5k 12 cone 4x comp. 3k 45 $249 95 Performance speakers metal stacking
16 care'. metal +1 -4dB 10 driver corners, reinforced OSB/plywood con-
16 struction
TX152 24 gran black 8 55.18.5k 15 cone 4x comp 3K 65 $399 95 same
18 carpet metal +1.5dB 10 driver
TX153 28 gras black 8 55 -18.5k 15 cone 8 C0M 4x comp 300Hz88 $54395 same
23 carpet metal *1-4dB 10 driver 3k
TX252 32 gray black 8 55.185k 15 cone 4x comp 1 5k 65 $499 95 Performance speakers direct radiating

25 carpet metal + / -4dB 10 driver metal stacking corners, OSB /plywood a)

17 construction. V
TX452HL 48 gray black 4 45 -18.5k 15 cone 4x comp t 5k 110 $64995 Performance speakers horn loaded
25 carpet metal +1 -4dB 10 driver tow frequency drivers, metal stack-
17 ing corners.
HI18EV 43 gray black 4 40-18.5k 18 cone B cone 4x comp. 300Hz 125 $899.95 Performance speakers Bi- ampable,
26 carpet metal + /-4dB 10 driver 3k horn loaded mid, metal stacking
18 corners.
M152EV 17 black black 8 55 -18.5k 15 cone 4x comp. 3k 56 $499 95 Stege monitor: metal stackng tor-
28 metal + / -5d8 t° driver ners, titanium compression driver
M122HS 21 black black B 60 -185k 12 cone 4x Comp. 3k 30 $24995 Stage monitor metal stacking corner,
16 metal +/ -4d0 10 driver Constant directivity horn.
SR4732 43 fabric black 4 40-20k 12 cone horn 1.2k 135 $1,695.00 Vented Gap Cooling low frequency
25 metal 6k transducers.
584735 36 25 fabric black 8 35-17k 15 cone horn 600Hz92 Pure titanium diaphragm compression
25 metal 2.8k drivers mated to patented JBL Bi-
18 Radial horns
SR4738 43 fabric black 4 30-17k 18 cone 10 horn 600Hz111.5 $ 1,49500 Trapezoidal enclosure design allows
25 metal 2 2k tight clustering of multiple enclosure
18 systems
SR4718 43 fabric black 4 30 -3.3k 18 cone 87 $795 00 Vented Gap Cooling low frequency
25 metal transducers
SR4722 28 fabric black 8 53-17k 12 cone horn 1 2k 57.5 $795 00 Pure titanium diaphragm compression
20 metal drivers mated to patented JBL Bi-
13.5 Radial horns.
SR4725 29.5 fabric black 8 36 -18k 15 cone horn t 1k 78 $995.00 Trapezoidal enclosure design allows
25 metal tight clustering of multiple enclosure
18 systems
MSL-10A 85 black black 40.12k 4x Cone 3x2 horn 700 $35,000 00Provides controlled coherent coverage
41 metal 4 12 comp High acoustical output with low distor-
35 tion.
MSL -3 56.75 black/ black/ 4/8 70 -20k 2x cone comp horn 265 $4,820 00 Rugged, arrayable system capable of
21.25 gray vinyl 4 12 w/ VHF high power with high clarity and coher-
30 carpet metal array once
UPA -1A 22.37 black black 8 60 -16k la cone 1 4 rad 66 $2,490.00 Rugged, arrayable system that is
14 5 steel 4 12 comp horn Compact and versatile. Efficient
14.5 operation with high power, low distortion
UPM -1 18.125 black black 16 70 -20k 2x cone plazo horn 17 $893 00 Ultra compact and lightweight with
6.75 metal 4 5 electric uncompromised sound quality.
7 125
SOU-A 32 black black 40.16k 1x cone comp rad. 110 $5,940 00 Complete system with stereo amplifier
20 steel 3 15 horn S easy to set up or install Subwoofer
14 options include 501, 502, 513.
UM -1A 14 black black 8 60.16k tx cone comp tonst. 66 $2,390 00 Ultra low distortion and efficient high
14 steel 4 12 directiw'v power with ultra flat frequency res-
22.5 ponse Floor monitor.
650 -R2 45 black black/ 4 30.100 2x cone 180 $2,215.00 Subwoofer, high power, low distortion .

30 vinyl 18
22.5 metal
USW-1 21.56 black black 4 40-100 2x cone 115 $1,710.00 Subwoofer, high power, low distortion,
31 steel 15 compact
MODULAR TECHNOLOGIES -See our ad on page 2
RL-153-M 24 gray black ri 40.15k It cone horn piezo 2k 45 $479 00 Rugged handles.
19 carpet metal .1 -3
RL-15-3PA 24 gray black 8 40.15k 15 cone horn piezo 2, 45 $479 00
19 carpet metal +/ -3
RL -12M 19 gray black 8 40.15k 1? cone horn 21. 40 $399 95 Recessed handles, the ultimate
14 carpet metal +1.3 support universal mount comes pre.
14 drilled
RL -12PA 19 grey black 8 40 -15k 12 cone horn 40 $399 95 same
14 carpet metal +/ -3

0138-18 24 gray black 30 -800 18 $369.00 The CBB -18 is for people who need
21 carpet metal earth -shaking bass in a package that
16 Will fit in a sedan
CBB -15 24 gray black 35.1k 15 45 $19.00 Unloaded 15 m cabinet that has porta-
21 carpet metal tabillty. Big bass comes in economy
16 sizes
0 -15 66 gray black 8 25 -800 15 Cone 90 $1,350 00 The 5 -ft -4 -in height is perfect for put-
20 carpet cloth ting Mid -hi cabinets above the
24 audience
1524 36 gray black try- 40 -22k 15 Corti 2 horn 4 1 2/ 120 $1,350 00 Trapezoidal and fully- loaded, the 1524
36 carpet cloth amp (2) c,,r. 5 comes equipped with recessed
22 handles
NCS -221 14 poly PVC r!l5 55 -18k metal metal 3k 13 $249.`_0 Waterproof designs for temporary or
8 ethylene permanent installation
NCS-222 20 poly. PVC 8/16 45 -16k 5 metal metal 5K 16 $349 50 same
12 ester
12 resin
WS-A10 6.12 black/ pert. 8 70 -18k lull 4 75 cala 5.70 $120.00 Features moded resin enclosures for
9 875 white metal range portablee usage and limited outdoor
612 outdoor exposure
WS-ABO 11 12 black/ pert. 65-20k 8 cone comp hOrn 2500 16.5 $280.00 same
17.06 white metal driver
WS -A200 21.93 black, pert 8 70 -20k 8 12 cone comp horn 2500 35 $590.00 same
15.54 white steel driver
WS -A240 21.93 black / pert. B 30 -Xover 12 cone WS- 35 $510 30 same
15 54 white steel SPA
WS -A500 21.93 gray' per. 8 100 -20k 12 cone comp 1600 35.2 $1,300 00 same
15.54 white steel driver
WS-A550 21.93 gray' pert. 8 30 -Xover 12 cone WS-SP2A 36.5 $680.00 same
1554 white steel
C- 1000 17 black black 16 20 -20k 5 0ne 3 tweet 8.8 232 Directional sound column for critical
6.25 critical reinforcement.
C324HP 33 berg beige 100 -20k 5 tweet 16 $330.00 Applications- rugged design, high
625 output and uniform dispersion
115 Int'I. 30.5 blac-r black 8 50-20k 15 cone tweet 1.5V 85 Three -way enclosure, full bandwidth
21.75 carpet nylon black 8k response, back widow and 22A driver
16.75 widow equipped,
118 Intl 36.75 black black 8 40-20k 1ó cone 2 horn tWISt 800- 133 seme
26.625 carpet nylon black 8k
31.875 black black 8 60-16k black horn 800 93 Two-way enclosure, high level passive
23.75 nylon widow crossover; biamp capability, integral
17.125 stand adapter;

SP-4 52.5 black black 4 40-16k 15 black horn 1200 135 Wide range; 2-way enclosure, 22A
25.75 carpet nylon (2) widows driver and dual 15 in. black widow
19.25 drivers,-.
112PS 21.5 black black 6 60.20k 12 horn 1200 46 Two -way enclosure; processor
16.125 carpet nylon capable; high level passive cross-
11 over. biampable; durable carpet
388-S 38.375 blet* black 8 45.20K 15 scorpiofl e cone 1 tweet 220- 161 Three -way full -range enclosure;
36.5 carpet metal speaker Bk durable carpet covering; 8 in. cone
18.25 mid driver;. biamp capability.
CL -1 21.5 black black 4 70.16k 6 2 horn 1200 56 Two -way enclosure, ideal for flying
23.25 cloth (6) installations; mounting hardware
14.75 attach points, biempable
HDH -2 28.875 black black 8 4518k 15 black drivers horn 1200 104 Two -way. processor capable enclo-
22 carpet metal (2) widow (4) sure, manifold component with four
18 125 22A drivers.
WS- 13 black black 8 50-18k 6 120x horn 2k 14 1243 00 Power capacity is 80 watts. Mag-
A70 21 or wht or wht 120 netically shielded, variety of
12 pant cloth mounting options
WS- 14 black black 8 65 -18k 8 60x horn 2.5 16 $280 00 High SPL, compact, stackable. ver
A80 215 or wht or wht 40 iety of mounting options.
12 resin metal
WS- 28 black black 8 70-20k 60x horn 2 5 35 $590 00 125 watt power handling, compact,
A200 20 or wht or wht 40 high SPL, stackable, variety of
16 resin metal mounting options.
WS- 28 black black 8 35 -20k 12 35 $510 00 Subwoofer system requires model
A240 20 rasa grille WS -SP2A electronic crossover
WS- 22 gray metal E 100- cone horn 1 5 40 $1200 00 A mid/high system for use with

A500 10.7 or grille 20k two WS -A550 low -frequency sys-

16 white tems and WS -SP2A crossover
WS- 22 gray
A550 10 7 or metal 8 35- 35 $680 00
16 white grille X -over (D
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2 -18BM 4a gray bleck 4 40 -200 16 cone 200 150
32 carpet steel
PAS 18-3 38 gray black 8 40 -18k 18 cone 10 cone 10 5x horn 30 130 5870 00
24 carpet steel 4k
PAS 15 -2H 24 gray black 8 50 -16k cone 10 5x horn 3k 58 $360 00
19 carpet steel 45
PAS 12-2 16 gray black 8 100-17.5- 12 cone 10.5x horn 3k 38 $320 00
22 carpet steel 4.5
TOC RS -2 24 black black 8 50-17k 15 cone 15 COW 7.25x horn 1k 82 $2,400 04 A full -range 2 -way compact speaker
17 paint steel 4.25 system designed for the professional
19 pro rental company or quality installation.
TOC SW-2 20.5 black black 8 60-17k 15 cone 15 eons 7.25x horn 1k 68 $2.400 00 A full -range 2 -way compact stage
17 paint steel 425 monitor designed for the pro rental
23 Company and large installation.
TOC EB -2 43 black black 4 25-100 2x cone 100 170 $1,600.00 A Compact subwoofer designed to
17 paint steel 15 complement the TOC RS -2/TOC SW -2.
MRS -2 52 gray black 40 low40.15k 15 cone 15 cone 20x horn B00 185 A 3 -way system (when using optional
32 carpet metal 80 high 32 2-18BM) high powered sound
23 reinforcement system
FRS IS1C 20 25 black pert 8 50-17k 15 cone comp. 16k 75 $862 50 Has constant directivity horn
30 carpet metal
FRS121C 24 black pert. 8 60-17k 12 cone comp. 16k 42 $062 50 same
16 carpet metal driver
11 5
FRS151C0 20 25 black pert 8 50-17k 15 cone 2 comp .
1200 80 $1,14750 same
30 carpet metal driver
FRS152CD 48 black pert 4 50-17k 15 cone 2 comp. 1200 123 81,495 00 sarrle
20 carpet steel (2) driver
SMS121C 145 black per. 8 60 -17k 12 cone comp 1600 54 $862 00 same
28 carpet steel driver
SMS121CD 14.5 black pert 8 60 -17k 12 cone comp 1200 58 $1,04250 same
28 carpet metal driver
SMS151C 1525 black pert 0 50.17k 15 cone comp 1600 58 $567 50 same
3325 carpet metal driver
SMS151CD 1525 black pert. 8 50-17k 15 cone comp 1200 62 $1,1475 ?same
3325 driver
SHURE BROTHERS INC. -See our ad on Cover 1V
3200 24 875 black black 8 60.13k 12 cone CD 28 38 1470 00 Matched to Model 1200 Powermixer.
16.625 vinyl metal 5 horn Lightweight and stackable with
12 375 hard-rubber corner protectors
High efficiency and high power
handling capability. Rugged con-
1272 18.25 gray black 16 60 -20k 12 cone dual 2k 32 Attenuator on unit; 30 or 60 degree
22 ozite metal 6 pieno cabinet design; excellent cabinet
165 design.
19 75 onde black 16 60-20k 15 cone 1 1 x dual 2K 38 same
25.25 carpet metal 6 piezo
1228 35 5 gray black 8 45.20k 18 cone 15x horn/ 1 25k 110 Ideal for DJ use, 18 in woofer

255 onde metal 5 6 comp provides lo end punch.

16.125 driver
SPL1292 17 gray black 8 60-20k 12 cone 15x horn/ 1 2k 52 Biampable monitor, 30 or 60 degree
25.25 onde metal 5 6 comp cabinet design, titanium diaphragm
19.5 carpet driver driver. cast frame woofer
'285 17.5 gray black 8 50-20k 15 cone 15x horn/ t 2k, 56 same
28 oZde metal 5 6 comp
195 driver
1211 28 gray black 6 50-20k 15 cone I5x horn/ 25k 66 Includes stand adaptor. SUNN- designed
20 ozite metal 5 6 comp. titanium diaphragm driver.
14 carpet driver
SPL 1225 28.5 gray black 6 50 -20k 15 cone I5x horn 1 25k 74 Trapezoidal cabinettitaniumdiapragmdriver,
2375 one metal 5 6 comp. cast-frame woofer.
19.75 driver
SPL 1226 46.5 gray black 8 38.20k 2n cone 15x horn 1 2k 114 Same as SPL 1225 above.
25.75 ozite metal 5 15 6 comp
19.75 driver
3E'. 29.8 chat black

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$998 00

19.6 gray mesh frame horn 8k,

16 1 jersey
480-SE 32.3 chart black 8 45 -20k '8 cast 37 CD 37 horn 600. 99.2 $1,125 00
22 gray mesh frame horn 8k
17.7 jersey
300 -SD 23.1 gray black h 60-20k 12 cone CD horn/ 3 mov 1k, 463 $61800 Biamplification and bridging
18.1 vinyl metal comp coil 10k connectors, mid-frequency
12.3 driver tweet attenuator.
380 -SD 26.8 gray black 8 50 -20k 15 cone CD horn / 3 mov 1k, 59.5 $674 00 same
19.4 metal comp coil 10k
15.4 driver tweet
1XD- 16 blue pert 8 100 -18k 10 cone soft tweet 26 $665 00 Low frequency enclosure for TXD
520 11 steel dome series.
10 4
TXD. 12 blue pert 8 90 -20k 10 cone slot 45 $1.064 00 Wide dispersion.
530 25 steel 4 tweet
TXD-560 34 blue pert 8 60-18k 15 cone 10 cone slot 250- 931 Compact, wide dispersion.
19 steel tweet 4k
TXD-518 29 pert. 8 45 -250Hz lb cone 82 $9£9 00 Low frequency enclosure for the TXD
21 steel series.


307 Lhü black e 45 -16k carb t 7 comp 1 6k 97 $695 00 New version of the 2 -way stage
Hill 25.2 metal fiber dart monitor Rugged cabinet with horn,
18.2 recessed handles and interlocking corners.
S2115 21 ply black b 50 -16k 15 Garb 1 7 comp 1.6k 77 1695 00 High power-handling and excellent
Hill 23.3 w /blk metal fiber dm low frequency response Rugged
28.2 2 -way system for stage monitoring.
SW11811 30.7 ply black 6 40 -3k e cone 150 90 $575 00 High power subwoofer system.
25.2 w/bleck metal Rugged cabinet with recessed
18.2 handles and interlocking cabinets

S3112MT 15.7 Ph.: black B 50 -20k 2 cone 6s cone 32 bullet 1k/ $49500
12.4 w /olacK metal comp. 8k
25.2 driver
53115HT 30.7 ply black 8 40 -20k 15 carbon 1 / comp ring 1 6k/ $775 00 High power-handling 3 -way system
25.2 wiblack metal fiber driver rad Bk with wide bandwidth.
18.2 horn comp.
M-160 17.9 back black 3 65.19k 10 cone 9x5 horn 4k 33 $459 00 Dual purpose electronic processor
14.6 zits metal 3 to linearize bass response or as
136 stereo crossover with subs.
M-600 195 black black 4 50 -16k 10 cone 9x horn t 8 77 $949 00 same
232 oz4te metal (') 5
MX- 272 back black 45.19K 5 cone 6x horn 21( 66 $869 00 same
401 21.7 o rite metal 13
MX-2000 45 black black 4 50 -t7k 15 cone 11 51 horn slot 1.7,- 175 $1,799 00 Plywood construction, electronic
26 o_ite metal (x2) 165 tweet processor. biampable, transis-
19 tor protection circuit in crossover.
P-8 19 gray black 8 80 -16k cone horn 5k $319 00 Available in all white with truts
0 35
14 onte metal top and side for installation.
P-12 24 gray black 8 70 -16k 12 cone tractrix 8k 46
3 $359 00 Tractrix horn offers even disper-
18 czite metal horn sion regardless of angle or place-
13 ment
P-15 30 gray black 8 50-16k 15 cone tractrix 3 8k 70 $459 00 Wedge -shape cabinets
21 tinte metal horn
HP-150 29 gray black 8 60 -16k cone horn 3 5k 75 $579 00 'M' Roll surround woofers with
21 ozite metal convex dust caps.

Altec Lansing Corporation Gauss Renkus -Heinz

10500 West Reno 9130 Glen Oaks Blvd. 17191 Armstrong Ave.
Oklahoma City, OK 73128 Sun Valley, CA 91352 Irvine, CA 92714

JBL Professional (UREI) IMC (Ross Systems)

Apogee Sound Inc. 8500 Balboa Blvd. 1316 E. Lancaster
1150 Industrial Ave., Suite C Northridge, CA 91329 Fort Worth, TX 76102
Petaluma, CA 94952
Klein & Hummel Shure Brothers Inc.
(Gotham Audio Corp.) 222 Hartrey Ave.
Atlas Soundolier Evanston, IL 60202 -3696
1790 Broadway
1859 Intertech Drive
New York, NY 10019 -1412
Fenton, MO 63026 Studer Revox America Inc.
Martin America 1425 Elm Hill Pike
Bose Corporation 21000 Devonshire St., #205 Nashville, TN 37210
The Mountain Chatsworth, CA 91311 Sunn
Framingham, MA 01701 Meyer Sound Laboratories 1130 Columbia St.
Inc. Brea, CA 92621
Carvin Corporation 2832 San Pablo Ave. Technical Audio Devices
1155 Industrial Ave. Berkeley, CA 94702 2265 East 220 St.
Escondido, CA 92025 Long Beach, CA 90810
Modular Technologies
303 Clymer Ave. TGI North America
Celestion Industries Inc. Morrisville, PA 19067
89 Doug Brown Way
300 Gage Ave., Unit 1
Holliston, MA 01746 New England Audio Kitchener, Ont., Canada N2M
Resource 2C8
Cerwin -Vega 569 Lisbon Road
555 E. Easy St.
Lisbon Falls, ME 04252 TOA Electronics
601 Gateway Blvd., Suite 300
Simi Valley, CA 93065 Panasonic/Ramsa South San Francisco, CA 94080
6550 Katella Ave.
Community Light & Sound Cypress, CA 90049 Turbosound Div. AKG
333 East Fifth St. Acoustics
Chester, PA 19013
Paso Sound Products, Inc. PO Box 1383
14 First St. Pleasant Valley, NY 12569
Pelham, NY 10803
Electro -Voice Yamaha Corporation of
600 Cecil St. Peavey Electronics Corp. America
Buchanan, MI 49107 711 A St. PO Box 6600
Meridian, MS 39301 Buena Park, CA 90622
Fostex Corp. of America Professional Audio Systems Yorkville Sound
15431 Blackburn Ave. 1224 West 252nd St. Witmer Industrial Estate
Norwalk, CA 90650 Harbor City, CA 90710 Niagara Falls, NY 14305


your new or existing small bLsi-
ness. Grants /loans to $500,000.
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Quantity discounts are:
3X -15%; 6X -30%..
Any size, speed. Drama, comedy,
music, variety, adventure, soaps, ALL CLASSIFIEDS
children's, AFRS, big band re- MUST BE PREPAID
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CARDS! If you have replaced your Engineering Magaz ne,
cards with Cat. #280 SR cards, we 203 Commack Road,
will buy them. Please let us know American Heart
how many you have and the asking Suite 1010, Commack,
price. SMART THEATRE SYS- NY 11725.
TEMS, P.O. Box 80361, Atlanta, WE'RE FIGHTING FOP
GA 30341. (800) 45- SMART. YOUR LIFE

The Park Avenue Group has mony and theory, ear training, styles at Conway Recording Studios,
started the new year off right with and analysis and improvisational perhaps Hollywood's most exclusive
the opening of their new audio for concepts. Other courses will be of- music recording and mixing facil-
video post-production facility in fered in synthesis, synthesis pro- ity...Two other Studer A820 24 -track
Memphis, TN. Offerings at this new gramming, synthesis technique and analog recorders with Dolby SR, two
studio will include audio sweetening application of synthesis in today's A810s with center track timecode
for video, spot production, original music. and 961/962 consoles have been
and pre- recorded music, ADR, foley, Plans are underway to form a So- added to a new 44 -foot tractor-trailer
sound effects, voice overs, foreign ciety of Motion Picture and mobile facility dubbed the "Silver
translations and 16/track synchroni- Television Engineers (SMPTE) Truck," which replaces owner David
zation services providing a fully - Japan Section. Maurice French, Hewitt's infamous "Black Truck."
equipped multi -track facility along SMPTE president, noted at the re-
with its marketing support ser- cent 132nd SMPTE Technical Con- Fostex Corp. of America has
vices...Madison Park Productions ference and Equipment Exhibit that announced that Mr. H. Shinohara,
has also announced the opening of its there has been unprecedented inter- president of FCA's parent, Fostex
new studios at historic Longworth national growth of the Society dur- Corp., is now the company's new
Hall in downtown Cincinnati, OH. ing the past 16 months, with the for- president. Y. Abe, former president
Madison Park features two studios mations of local SMPTE Sections in and innovative pioneer in multi-
and a control room with a window to Italy, Scandinavia, Germany and the track recording equipment, will de-
the outside. Services include custom Soviet Union...Beginning this vote his efforts full-time in research
music, audio for video, and voice over month, Blaine Baker, of MPL /- and development at company head-
production...A new Production Divi- PostMasters, Inc., takes over as quarters in Japan.
sion for Soundtracs Plc, manufac- SMPTE president.
turer of audio mixing consoles, has General Cinema Corp., based Lexicon, Inc. has appointed
been opened at a new 20,000 sq. ft. in New York City, has installed Uni- Dick Trainor as vice president of
facility in Glenrothes, Scotland. The versity Sound CS810 -T ceiling loud- operations, where he will be directly
new factory, which will triple capac- speakers in indoor theater lobbies responsible for overseeing all manu-
ity, will be equipped with automated and PA430T paging projectors in facturing, customer service and field
production lines complete with ro- outdoor theater lobbies at theaters service operations of Lexicon's pro-
bots...A former video production across the city. The PA430T is stated fessional and consumer product
house in Australia has undergone a to be the world's only constant direc- lines. Lexicon has also promoted Will
series of enhancements and expan- tivity paging projector. Its constant Eggleston to product development
sion to become the largest and most directivity allows uniform coverage, manager where he will assist in the
sophisticated post- production house fewer horns, higher intelligibility design of new products and enhance-
in the country Apocalyse `The and better articulation. An omnidi- ment of existing product lines, act as
Final Word in Post', formerly rectional swivel hoop system allows a liaison between Lexicon's sales
known as Pro-image Post, is part of easy aiming in any direction...An force and engineers, and support and
the Pro-image Group, Australia's Akai ADAM 24 track digital record- participate in demonstrations and
leading network of post- production ing system has been installed at presentations of Lexicon prod -
facilities. Blank Productions in Stamford, ucts...Frank Bluestein has been
The Musicians Institute will CT. Along with the Yamaha named senior vice president, mar-
offer a new division of the school be- DMP7D digital board, Sound keting, corporate for AME, Inc., the
ginning in March: The Keyboard Tools digital hard disk recording largest full service post-production
Institute of Technology (KIT). and editing and the Lynx Timeline facility in the United States...Jason
The one -year course will be struc- synchronizing system, Blank Pro- Dunaway, former director of engi-
tured in a manner similar to the gui- ductions can now create 100 percent neering, and Jay Nelson, pre-
tar, bass and drum programs with its digital masters. A Studer 24 track/ viously operations manager, were
curriculum augmented to include 16 track also helps Blank Produc- named vice president of Product De-
special instruction in the technical tions provide digital or analog re- velopment and Marketing and vice
aspects of the instrument. The KIT cording...Studer ReVox' recently president of Sales and Operations re-
core curriculum will consist of released D820 -48 48 -track DASH spectively, at Valley International,
n classes in technique, reading, har- Digital Recorder has been installed Inc.
The PVM" 520TN gets down to The extremely high output
where the bottom is ...
it also maintains plus accurate response produces excep-
superior off-axis rejection of other sounds. tionally "natural" performance with the brass
When you mike the kick drum with the 520, and woodwind families.
that's what you get ...
the low frequency It can even do vocals! If you want studio -
fundamental and the snap. accurate vocal reproduction for live situations
The pick -up pattern is cardioid while the with all the crisp edge on top and warmth on
polar response control is maintained to below 100 Hz, which the low end ... then get the low down on the PVM 520TN.
makes it ideal for recording where isolation and separation
are required. Musicians' Edge
Peavey Electronics Corporation 1990 711 A Street 1lcnd :an, MS 39302 -2898 U.5.4 (601) 483 53b5 10ex. ,041 LS 1ax_ 484 42/8

Circe 11 on Reader Service Card
"I've been sold on Beta's superiority since I first tried them.
I use them on vocals, drums, amps, and brass because their
sensitivity and resistance to feedback make them the
perfect fit for the groups I work with. And the Beta 58 Wireless
is the first system I've found that gives my artists the freedom
of a radio mic without sacrificing sound quality"

Paul Dalen, Sound Engineer for David Sanbom and Lisa Stansfield.

Shure Beta Microphones.

Buy Them OnWord Of Mouth Alone.
Before you select a microphone, listen to the leading pros who use the Shure Beta Series on stage. They'll tell you about
the benefits of Shure Beta's advanced transducer design, extraordinary gain- before- feedback, and true supercardioid polar pat-
tern, as well as its outstanding sensitivity and low handling noise. But most important, they'll tell you that nothing beats a
Beta for live performance. And that's not just talk. Try Shure Beta today and get the final word for yourself. Or call us for
more information at 1- 800 -25- SHORE. The Sound Of The professionals®..Worldwide.
Circle 12 on Reader Service Card