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# Structural analysis - influence lines in planar statically

determinate frames
Petr Řeřicha
September 20, 2012

Contents
1 Extreme live load effects 1

## 4 Influence lines by Muller-Breslau principle 6

5 Recommended practice 7

## 6 Examples of influence lines construction 8

6.1 Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6.2 Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

## 7 Influence lines of member forces in trusses 10

7.1 Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7.2 Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

## 8 Application of the influence lines 13

9 Solved examples 14

## 1 Extreme live load effects

The load carrying capacity of a structure mostly is assessed on the level of cross-section variables – internal
forces and deflections. It is required for every cross-section that the extreme internal forces which any pos-
sible load configuration can bring about are less than the corresponding cross-section strengths. Analogous
conditions apply to deflections and reactions. In assessing the strength of a structure, it is seldom sufficient
to compute reactions and internal forces for a single load case. The most adverse distribution of the live
load has to be found with respect to a given quantity which may be a reaction component, an internal force
at a given cross-section, deflection of a point and further quantities. A load distribution which entails the
1
extreme bending momemt at a section is different from the distribution that invokes the extreme at some
other cross-section. All these extreme effects and corresponding load distributions should be determined
for every important quantity. This is a formidable task even in simple problems, keep in mind that there are
infinitely many cross-sections. Several critical cross-sections and quantities are selected in practice on the
basis of experience and engineering judgment and the extreme load effects are then evaluated just for them.
The set of load cases to be considered also can be very extensive. It may even be a continuous uncountable
can be facilitated by influence lines. Most applications of influence lines occur in bridges and other traffic
structures.

## 2 Purpose and application of influence lines

An influence line always is associated with a definite quantity. In order to distinguish it from the values of
the same quantity in the standard diagrams, the lower case Greek η is prepended to the quantity symbol.
The influence line ηQ(x) of a quantity Q consists of ordinates ηQ(x) defined at positions x along the beam
axes. Variable x is used to parametrize positions where a live load can act. An example of a bridge structure
is shown in figure 1. The live load can act on the roadway slab where the influence lines will be defined.
ηB(x) ηB(x)
ηMa(x)
x ηMa(x) x
1 1

## a,M a(x) B(x) a,M a(x) B(x)

Fig. 1 Definition of influence line. Two ordinates of each of two influence lines are indicated by circles.

Two instances of quantities, bending moment Ma at cross-section a and reaction B are indicated in the
figure. These two quantities represent many others that could be of interest in this example.
The ordinate ηQ(x) is the magnitude of Q when a unit force of a given direction acts at the position x
as an exclusive load. The direction is the same for all positions x. Potentially any direction of the unit force
is possible but a great majority of live loads are vertical downward loads and this is the default direction
of the unit force. Two positions of the unit force are indicated in the figure together with ordinates of two
quantities whose influence functions are being drawn. The dashed curves represent parts of the influence
lines of the two quantities when the unit force travels from its initial position in the left drawing to its
position in the right one. When the unit force travels along the roadway beam functions ηMa (x) and ηB(x)
are obtained – influence lines of the two quatities.
With an influence line known the effect of arbitrary vertical load upon the roadway beam can be evalu-
ated by superposition. Bending moment Ma in the left diagram in figure 2 is

Ma = F ηMa (x)

2
The effect of other concentrated forces is evaluated similarly. The effect of continuous loading is expressed
as an integral effect of the differential substitute force f (x)dx indicated in the right diagram of figure 2:
Z
Ma = f (x) ηMa (x) dx (1)

f(x) dx dx
x F f(x)

a a
ηMa(x) ηMa(x)

## Fig. 2 Evaluation of a bending moment due to a concentrated force and continuous

loading. The influence line is tentative, curved influence lines occur in statically inde-
terminate structures.

Influence lines serve two basic purposes and usually are used in corresponding two steps,

• to determine live loads positions resulting in extreme effects (mind that different positions may result
for different quantities)

## • to evaluate the extreme effects.

An illustrative problem is presented in figure 3. The task is to determine maximum Mc for any location of
the force and uniform load. The first question naturally is where to place the uniform load and the point
force.
P The uniform load f potentially may be placed anywhere on any length
f (or lengths). This sort of live load is specified in all building codes and
represents an arbitrarily distributed live load of a given intensity. Need-
c less to say, the load locations indicated in figure 3 are just tentative. Cor-
rect locations could certainly be determined by ’trial and error’ method
Fig. 3 Purpose of influence lines
in this simple example. However, with regard to the practical importance
– sample problem
of the task, a systematic approach is desirable.
The task can be solved by means of the influence line of Mc , denoted by ηMc . It is assumed that the influ-
ence line used in figure 4 had been constructed as shown in figure 6.

3
P
f

## C It is apparent that the most effective position of P is at C and the uniform

A B D
x
C
load should stretch from A to B. The other (negative) extreme value Mc
x is obtained when P is positioned at D and f from B to D. Both load
ηM C (x)
positions are shown in figure 4. The example is trivial enough and could
have been solved without the aid of the influence line. A more difficult
max MC task follows when the uniform load has a fixed length and intensity and
its position remains variable (this is the case of an exclusive vehicle train
min MC
which appears in all bridge building codes). Then the task can hardly be
solved without the influence line. The effect of such load is obtained
by the integral (1) which equals in this case the shaded area under the
influence line in the bottom diagram of figure 4. Even with the aid of the
influence line it is not trivial to detect the most effective position of the
Fig. 4 Influence line and its ap-
plication

Once the most effective distribution of the loads has been determined the extrem values of the respective
quantity can be calculated

• either solving the structure for the given distribution of loads (now known)

## 3 Construction of influence lines

The basic method of influence lines construction follows from their definition – for any given quantity line
a unit force of the given (usually vertical) direction is moved along the structure and values of the quantity
for each position of the force constitute the influence line. This might be difficult when taken literally –
infinitely many positions of the unit force are to be considered. The influence line is thus developed in form
of a function of the unit force position x.

4
x
1

A B The reaction Ay is
l l−x
Ay =
ηA y l
1 for any position of the unit force. Similarly
x
B=
l
ηB
1 These functions define the two respective influence lines
shown in the figure.
Fig. 5 Influence lines by definition.

The influence line of a bending moment at a given cross-section is more complicated. In the example the
influence line ηMC consists of two functions valid in different parts of the beam.
ξ
x
1

## A C B When the force moves between A and C

l
x
MC = B (l − ξ) = (l − ξ) 0<x<ξ
η MC l
1 ξ(1−ξ)/ l whereas
1−x
MC = A ξ = ξ ξ<x
l
is valid when the force is beynd C.
Fig. 6 Influence line for the bending mo-
ment at a general cross-section by defini-
tion.

Influence lines might become substantially more complicated in complex frames. They all share a very use-
ful common feature, however. As the recent example demonstrates, they consist of straight lines exclusively.
This the consequence of the fact that they are developed from equilibrium equations which are always linear.
No other than linear functions can emerge from such equations. This feature is confirmed below through the
application of the principle of virtual displacements (PVd). The argument suggests that the feature may not
be valid in other than statically determinate structures when other than equilibrium equations are necessary
to solve for reactions and internal forces. Indeed, a important statement is valid:

Rule 3.1 Influence lines consist of straight lines in statically determinate structures.

The statement makes the construction of the influence lines substantially easier since the ordinates need just
be computed at the ends of intervals with linear variation.

5
4 Influence lines by Muller-Breslau principle
Principle of virtual displacements (PVd) is very suitable for the evaluation of various load cases in a single
statically determinate structure. Moving unit force in fact produces a continuous set of loading cases and
the associated evaluations of the quantity in question can conveniently be carried out by the PVd.

x x’
1 δuΙx
δuΙ −δφII
δuΙy The unit force may act anywhere upon the horizontal pro-
δuy C II B oII jection of the structure in the next demonstration example in
δu figure 7. The task is to construct the influence line ηCx of
δφ I the horizontal component Cx of the internal reaction C. The

h
I virtual displacement is developed in the standard way with
A rotation centers oI and oII . The relationship of the virtual
rotations is determined from the condition that the vertical
oI a b displacements of both rigid parts are the same at C and equal
ηCx
−x/a δuIy = δuII
y = δφI a = −δφII b

## Fig. 7 Virtual displacement to determine

Cx

The virtual work expressions become for the variable position x of the unit force between hinges A and C
x
δw = −δuy 1 − Cx h δφI = 0, δuy = x δφI , ηCx (x) = − for 0 < x < a
h
and for the position between C and B

x0 a
δuy = −x0 δφII , ηCx (x0 ) = − for b > x0 > 0
bh
Variable x does not denote the location of the cross-section! Instead it denotes the location of the vertical
unit loading force. It is important to note that δuy (positive upwards) has a simple graphical meaning – it is
the vertical component of the virtual displacement vector δ~u. Several vectors δ~u are shown in figure 7 for
several points on the beam AC. The shape of the influence line diagram ηCx is determined by the variation
of this vertical component – it is proportional to the distance x. In many cases the shape is relatively easy
to guess and then it remains to compute the correct factor for full definiteness of the influence line.
The previous argument also confirms that the influence lines consist of straight lines since any compo-
nent of the virtual displacement vector always is proportional to the distance of the loading point from the
respective rotation center.
Influence lines for other directions of the unit force can be derived from the known virtual displacement
δ~u by projection on the respective direction. This is rather exceptional in practice, however. Nevertheless,
the above considerations can be contained in a verbal rule which a slight extension of the Müller-Breslau
principle:

6
Rule 4.1 Ordinates of the influence line of a given quantity are the components of the displacement vector
of the deflected structure when the constraint conjugate to the quantity is released and unit conjugate
displacement is imposed. Components in a given direction apply to the live load in the same direction

5 Recommended practice
A combination of the basic methods is recommended in practice. The shape of the influence line is detected
by the PVd. As a matter of fact, this step means looking up the rotation centers of the individual rigid
parts. In the course of this step, the straight parts of the influence line are determined and their continuity,
breaks and possible discontinuities resolved. The relationships among rotation angles need not be detected
as a rule. It then remains to determine a single multiplication factor of the line. This is best done when
an ordinate of the influence line is determined ’by definition’ i.e. locating the unit force at some point and
solving for the quantity value in this specific load case. The ordinate of the influence line is thus obtained at
the current force position which determines the factor. The solution for specific locations of the unit force
should be carried out more than once to check up.
e
a E b c
The continuous beam in figure 8 is an example of this influ-
A l/2 l/2
B C D ence lines construction. All rotation centers lie on the axis of
ηA the beam since horizontal displacements are restrained in the
1 whole structure. But for exceptions the centers coincide with
the support points. The exceptions are obvious – when the
influence line of a reaction is developed the support point of
ηB that reaction must move. This invokes the chain of rotations
1
of adjacent members as illustrated in figure 8. The magni-
tude of these rotations is best determined when the unit force
is located upon the respective support (position a upon A in
ηC 1 case of ηA). This determines the ordinate 1 of the influence
line. Analogous construction applies to reactions B and C.
ηVBA The unit ordinates in these lines are obtained when unit force
1 stands in positions b and c respectively. Keep in mind that
ηME l/4 for each influence line just one of the indicated positions of
the unit forces is used, in other words, there is always just
one unit force acting in each load case to be considered. The
top diagram in the figure with four indicated locations is not
a load case! It shows the positions of the unit force in four
Fig. 8 Influence lines for a continuous different load cases.
beam.

Influence lines of other quantities than vertical reactions have the rotations centers above supports. The in-
fluence line of shear force VBA requires relative vertical displacement at cross-section BA. The shape of the
line is determined by this fact. Remember that the slopes in intervals AB and BC must be the same since
the relative rotation of these two parts is restrained at section BA. The ordinate of the line is determined
for unit force located infinitely close left from cross-section BA (the location cannot be graphically distin-
7
guished from position b). Relative rotation of parts AE and EB must be imposed to invoke the influence
line of bending moment ME . The rotation centers above supports entail the line shape. The ordinate at E is
best obtained when the location e of the unit force is used. Solution of the structure for this load case yields
A = 1/2, B = 1/2 and other reactions vanish. The ordinate ME = l/4 is obtained.

## 6 Examples of influence lines construction

Various combinations of the two basic methods are used in practice. It is best illustrated in examples. The
examples are limited to vertical live load moving along the horizontal girders of the respective frame as
indicated by the unit force positions in the frames schemes. The reader is recommended to try to extend
the influence lines to other parts of the frame on his (her) own. Extension to other than vertical live load
also is recommendable. Commented examples suggest some ideas how the influence lines can efficiently
be constructed. Section 9 offers further exercise.

6.1 Example 1

C d
I II
4

## A The influence lines are constructed for a vertical force moving

B
4 4 4 4 along the horizontal beam. For the line ηAx the ifluence line
ηAx must have two straight parts (there are two rigid members) which
1/2 connect at C. It is then sufficient to position the unit force at the
three locations shown in the drawing and calculate Ax for these
three load cases. Remember that the two side positions of the
unit force allow for trivial solutions – the force ray goes directly
through the external hinge so that all reactions vanish except Ay
ηCy or By respectively. Two trivial null ordinates of the influence line
are thus detected. The central position represents a nontrivial
1/2 load case whose solution yields Ax = 1/2.
1/2 Line ηCY consists of two straight parts again but they discon-
nect at C in vertical direction. Four positions shown are then
necessary to construct the line. The two central positions dif-
ηMd −2 −2 fer by infinitesimal shift of the unit force. The asociated load
case is the central position solved already above. Exclusively Cy
changes with the shift. Line ηMd has three straight parts since
member II must be broken at d to allow for relative rotation at
this point. The positions of unit force to determine necessary
values of Md are shown.
Fig. 9 Influence lines for a three-hinge
arch.

Note that just two nontrivial load cases need actually be solved (central position and the rightmost position).

8
The positions of the unit force shown in the example are not the unique possible ones. It is also recommeded
to position the force in more than the necessary number of locations for checking.

6.2 Example 2

## D Influence line for the reaction D in the link consists of two

5
1
straight lines since the unit force travels along two rigid parts.
C5 E 5B These two straight lines remain continuous at C. Trivial null or-
A5 5 dinates are obtained at points A and B where the unit force goes
ηD directly into the respective support and no other reactions or in-
−1 ternal forces occur in the structure. The ordinate at C must be
ηM ED computed, preferably by solving the structure for this position of
the unit force:
ηM EC −5 1.25

−2.5 D
3.75 1
ηM EB I II

C
0.25
ηVEC
−0.75
II C 0.5 · 10 + D · 5 = 0 D = −1

The influence line for MED also consists of two straight lines. It
Fig. 10 A frame structure and several influ- can be derived from ηD easily when it is realized that MED =
ence lines. D · 5 when there is no loading between points D and E.

Line ηMEB consists of three straight lines since the release of the rotational constraint at cross-section EB
renders three rigid parts along the unit force track. Besides trivial ordinates at A and B, two nontrivial
ordinates are to be computed, for instance at C and E. This makes two load cases to be solved. One can be
saved, however, when the respective virtual displacement is imagined:

Parts I and II remain connected and rotate as a single rigid part which
II implies that the ηMEB is straight from A to E. The ordinate of ηMEB at C
II II III follows from the load case shown above:

MEB = B · 5 = 2.5
Fig. 11 Virtual displacement to
determine ηMEB .

Line ηMEC consists of three straight lines and two nontrivial load cases are to be considered again. This
is left to the reader for exercise. Another ’trick’ can be demonstrated on this influence line. The moment
equilibrium of the joint E reads

9
MED MEB + MED − MEC = 0
MEC MEB for any location of the unit force. Line ηMEC can thus be obtained as the sum of the
E
lines MEB and MED .
This concept can be extended in the sense that a new influence line can often be obtained as a linear com-
bination of several already known lines. The factors of the linear combination follow from suitable equilib-
rium conditions. In the above instance the factors are 1 for both MEB and MED .

## 7 Influence lines of member forces in trusses

There is no principal difference in the construction of the influence lines for frames and trusses and the same
methods are used. The nature of the task suggests that the method of sections is usually preferred when
it comes to determine a member force in the basic method (’by definition’) or in the combined methods.
Influence lines are frequently required in trusses with at least one chord straight and horizontal. Most
railway bridges were built in the past with planar trusses as the main load bearing systems. When deciding
on the straight parts of the influence line in the combined methods one should recall that there are usually
just two or three rigid substructures after the constraint has been released in the PVd method.

7.1 Example 1
A rather typical example is considered here for illustration. Influence lines of axial forces in truss members
b, c, d are to be determined for the force travelling along the upper chord. The rigid substructures subject
to virtual rotations are shaded in the inserted small schemes of the truss, separately for each influence line
and the associated virtual displacement. The positions of the unit force are indicated above each influence
line that have been used to compute the respective ordinates and the computation course is outlined in the
attached notes.

10
C
c

1
d
A B
b
4x1 Unit forces are placed at the two positions shown and the
associated axial forces Nc are determined by the section
√ method. The appropriate cut is outlined in the structure
2/2 = 0.707 diagram. It is apparent that the force Nc is zero for both
ηNc
limit positions of the unit force above supports (these two
positions are not shown.

− 2/4 = −0.354
Besides the two positions above supports, just one posi-
tion of the unit force is necessary since both rigid parts
may not move relatively at C. The axial force Nc is best
ηNb 3/4 determined by the section method using the same section
as before.

The axial force for the indicated position of the unit force
can be determined by joint equilibrium or by the section
method again. For the latter case, the section is shown in
3/4 the structure diagram.
ηNd

## Fig. 12 Truss and influence lines for live load

upon the lower chord

The combination of the PVd and the standard equilibrium equations is flexible and offers space for
invention. In the next example the live load acts along the lower chord of the truss.

11
7.2 Example 2
6
Two rigid substructures result when constraint N2,3

2
5 4 is released. They are shown in figure 14 in their
displaced positions after the virtual displacement

2
1 3 has been imposed. Arrows show the displacement
2 8x2 vectors of two points of the lower chord. Vertical
ηN 23 components of the vectors are the ordinates of the
influence line ηN2,3 . The triangle shape of the line
can be detected.
0000
1111
00o
11 0
1
ηN 24 oI,II 1111
0000
00
11
0000
1111 0
1
0
1
0000000000000
1111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
0000
1111
II
o II 1
0
0000000000000
1111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111 0
1
0000000000000
1111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111 0
1
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111 0
1
0000000000000
1111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111 0
1
0000000000000
1111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
I II 0
1
0
1
0000000000000
1111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111 0
1
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111 0
1
ηN 45 00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111 0
1
o N 0
1
I 23

## Fig. 14 Virtual displacement to determine the

Fig. 13 Truss and influence lines for live load upon
shape of N2,3
the lower chord

It remains to determine an ordinate. A specific load case is considered for this purpose:
6
The equilibrium equation of the section method is
5 4 applied to determine N2.3 after external reactions
1 2 3
0
1
0.75 0
1
0
1
1 0.2500
11 II 6 : 0.25 · 12 − N2,3 4 = 0 N2,3 = 0.75

## Fig. 15 The load case to determine an ordinate of N2,4

The rigid substructures that arise when constraint N2,4 is released are shown with their respective virtual
displacements.
oII Standard rules for the rotation centers allow for the
000000000
111111111 00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111 determination of oI,III when simple truss II is per-
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111 00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
II11111111111111111111111111111
5 111111111
000000000 00000000000000000000000000000 ceived as a link between rigid parts I and III. The
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111 00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
III
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
000000000 11111111111111111111111111111
111111111 00000000000000000000000000000
4 centers oI and oI,III coincide, however, and give
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111 00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
000000000 11111111111111111111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
I thus no clue to oIII . On the other hand, their coin-
111111111 00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
oI = oI,III 2 3 11 cidence implies that δφIII = 0 whatever the loca-
00
tion of oIII is. Part III does not move at all and
the virtual displacement consists of the rotations of
Fig. 16 Virtual displacements to determine N2,4 parts I and II as indicated in figure 16.
The shape of ηN2,4 follows from the virtual displacement in the above figure. Member force N2,4 needs
now be determined for some specific position of the unit force. It is advantageous to recall the load case
already used – unit force at joint 2 in figure 15. The section cutting through members 5,6, 5,4, 2,4, 2,3
12
can be adopted to compute N2,4 (recall that N2,3 is already known so that just three unknown member
forces remain in the section. Independent solution for N2,4 follows directly from the virtual displacement
in figure 6: √ √
δw = −1 · 4 δφI + N2,4 · 2 2δφI − N2,4 · 2 2δφI = 0 N2,4 = 0.707
The influence line in figure 13 is thus obtained. The same sequence of steps could be used to determine
ηN4,5 .
oII
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111 The corresponding virtual displacement pattern is
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
5 000000000
111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
000000000
111111111
shown in figure 17. The shape of the line is appar-
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
III
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000 11111111111111111111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000
4
000000000
111111111 ent and the ordinate at joint 2 is readily obtained
111111111 00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
000000000
111111111
II
000000000
111111111
000000000 11111111111111111111111111111
I
111111111 00000000000000000000000000000
000000000
111111111 from the equilibrium of joint 4 in the direction 2-4.
00000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111
oI = oI,III 2 3 11
00 √ √
N4,5 2/2 + N2,4 = 0 N4,5 = N2,4 2

## Fig. 17 Virtual displacements to determine N4,5

It is worth mentioning that the influence line ηN 4, 5 could also be obtained as a linear combination of the
known ones (a simple multiple of a single one in this case) with the aid of the last equation.

## 8 Application of the influence lines

The principal benefit of influence lines is the easy detection of load distributions which lead to extreme
values of the respective quantities. A uniform continuous loading can be considered in the last example of
truss which can be distributed arbitrarily on the upper chord. Without influence line it is not evident which
distribution renders the extreme member force Nc .

c
The shape of the influence line clearly defines the indicated
4 minimum Nc . The values of the extremes can be obtained
ηNc : 0.33 0.66 f by integration analogous to equation (1)
111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111 1
Z
f max Nc = f ηNc (x)dx = f 0.707 · 2.66 = f 0.942
00000000000000
11111111111111 a 2
00000000000000 0.707
11111111111111 Z
1
−0.354 min Nc = f ηNc (x)dx = −f 0.354 · 1.33 = −f 0.236
b 2
a b
The extremes could also be computed by solving the truss for
Fig. 18 Extreme member force in the diag-
onal

13
9 Solved examples
3
2 4

1
1

3
1
C

3
1 5

3
A D C E B D E
4x3 h g

4
ηN 0.5 A B
C,3 4x4
ηAx 1
ηN3,4
1
ηA y

ηM
−0.79 ηB x
D 1.125
−0.43 −0.57
By=−B x

ηM g
0.625 −0.75
ηVDC 0.25 ηM h −0.71 −0.95

ηN −0.375 −1.66
D,2
0.35 ηVh
−0.35
−0.5 ηNh
ηV 0.375 −0.21
DA
−0.91 −1.41 ηND
−0.625 −0.25 −1

14
8 9 10
11

1
5 6 7

1
A E B h C F G D
3x4 8 3x4 3 4
1.5 1 2
ηB 1 5x1
−0.5
1.0 ηN 7,11 0.284
ηVBC 0.5
−0.5 −0.284
ηM B 0.7
ηN7,3
−4 0.1
2 ηM h 2 −0.2
−2 −2 ηN 3,4 0.3
ηM D
−4 0.3
ηN7,10
−0.1
ηN 4,11 0.5

15
D h ΙΙ E III G
C Ι A B A D h E

10
1 8 1 g
4 4 10 4 4 C
B
ηA 4x10

1 A
−1.41
ηB 2
ηB

−1.41
ηC x 1
ηMh
−1
0.9 −1
0.9 ηC y
ηVh
−0.1 ηNg
1
ηNh
−1 η
ηM g 1.41

−0.415
Part II of the above frame is statically in- ηNh 1
ternally indeterminate and internal forces
cannot be determined inside the small rect- 5 −1

## angle with two internal hinges. Outside of ηM h

it, however, all forces can be determined
from the equilibrium conditions.

−1 −4 1 2 −1 2 4

II

D
C
4x2

−2

I E 1
B
A Ax Ay=B= NEA VEA M EA VEC M EC NEC
2
16