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Meaning of Motivation

Motivation is concerned with the "why" of behavior, the reason people do things.

Human motivation is an inner state that activates or moves a person toward a goal. It
includes all those inner striving conditions describing as wishes, desires and drives.

Work motivation refers to person expending effort toward the accomplishment of a goal
considered worthwhile by the organization.

Self-Interest is the Ultimate Motivator.

Motivating Others by Setting High Expectations

Pygmalion Effects

According to Greek Mythology, Pygmalion was a sculptor and King of Cyprus who carved
an ivory statue of maiden and fell in love with the statue. The statue was soon brought to life in
response to his prayer.

In Pygmalion Effects, people perform according to expectations of them, particularly with

respect to superior-subordinate relationships.

Pygmalion effect is that you may be able to convert an undermotivated person into a high
producer by the simple method of believing he or she can improve.

Motivation through Behavior Modification

Behavior Modification - changing behavior by rewarding the right responses and/or

ignoring the wrong responses. It is a form of operant conditioning.

Behavior Modification Focuses on Behavior and Its Consequences

A program of behavior modification is concerned with the actual job of behavior of an

employee and the consequences of that behavior. This is based on the two principles:

1. Law of Effect - behavior that leads to a positive consequence for the individual tends to be
repeated , while behavior that leads to a negative consequence tends not to be repeated.

2. Environmental Determinism - the doctrine of behaviorism stating that our past history of
reinforcement determines, or causes, our present behavior.
Rules for Using Positive Reinforcement

1. Focus on the Positive Aspects of JOB perfomance.

2. State clearly What Behavior will lead to a Reward.

3. Use Appropriate Rewards.

4. Administer Rewards Intermittenly.

5. Vary the size of the Reward with the Size of the Accomplishment.

6. Avoid "Jelly Bean" Motivation.

7. Administer Rewards Shortly After they are Deserved.

8. People have to be told what they are doing wrong.

9. Change Rewards Periodically.

Using Money to Motivate People

MONEY is a powerful motivator.

Rosabeth Moss Kanter recommends that people who develop new products should receive
ENTREPRENEURIAL PAY, a share in the profits accruing from the new product.

Richard E. Kopelman reviewed all the systematic studies of the use of money in motivating people
toward high productivity. "There is no more effective way to improve productivity than by
financial incentives."

1. Money is a good motivator when you need it badly enough.

2. A financial Incentive Tends to be an Effective Motivator when it can change your Lifestyle.

Lump-sum merit increase is a system which an employee receives a single payment above the base
salary for having performed in the previous pay period.

3. Money motivates you when your compensation is related to your performance.

Gainsharing program is a profit sharing plan in which employees are allowed to participate
financially in the productivity gains they have achieved.

4. You may find money to be a valuable reinforcer if you are tense and anxious about your lack of
Motivation through Recognition

Another old-fashioned motivator, giving people recognition for good performance or

loyalty to the organization, is also of interest now. To maximize the power of recognition, it should
suit the preferences of individual.

Recognition Symbols

Example of a symbol that the company will be recognized is the company logo. A report by two
human resource professionals shows that when the symbol is “fashioned in gold and set with
diamonds and other jewels to code years of service, it becomes the central focus of any award

The second element in the program is an attractive accessory that carries the symbol. Among these
items are jewelry, pocket, knives, pens, and key chains.

Motivating Others through the work itself

Intrinsic Motivation – motivation stemming from a person’s belief about the extent to which an
activity can satisfy his or her needs for competence and self-determination.

Intrinsic Motivation Theory

According to the theory of intrinsic motivation, individuals are active agents rather than
passive recipients of environmental forces.

Intrinsic motivation may increase when people perceive that they perform task s for
themselves rather than for an external reward.

Job Enrichment

It refers to making a job more motivational and satisfying by adding variety and
responsibility. A job is considered enriched to the extent that it demands more of an individual’s
talents and capabilities.

The Flow Experience – a feeling of total absorption in the task at hand often leading to reduction in

Motivation through Employee Participation

1. Goal Setting
2. Participation in Technical Suggestions
3. Decision making abput out Administrative Matters
4. Participation in setting Working Hours.
Motivation through Competition

To increase your motivation, some organization will put you in competition against
other employees.

Good and Bad form of Competitiveness

Two forms of Competitiveness

1. Healthy – striving to get ahead in business in order to gain such rewards as more
money, benefits, and status .
2. Unhealthy – striving to get ahead for its own sake, in order to feels like a superior
a. You need to advance and reach higher levels in order to protect your self-esteem.
b. You feel good only if you achieve rank and status.

Motivation through Fear and Punishment


Some managers in successful organizations manage by fear, but motivation through fear is
less effective strategy in the long run than appealing to the dignity and self-worth of individuals.

Psychological Sabotage – deliberate behavior that interferes with the achievement of company
goals, taking such forms as complaining and absenteeism.


Punishment is the negative consequence one receives as a result of some behavior or activity.

Punishment is still important in maintaining discipline in work setting. Employees should

recognize that negative consequences will be forthcoming from certain kinds of counterproductive
behavior such as poor performance, fighting on the job, and excessive absenteeism.

Motivating Yourself

Techniques for motivating yourself

1. Set Goals for yourself .

2. Identify and seek out your motivators.

3. Get feedback on your performance.

4. Apply behavior modification to yourself.

5. Increase your expectancies.

6. Raise your level of self-expectation.

Positive Mental Attitude - expecting to succeed in a given undertaking.