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ZABfM 89 (1969) Heft 718, b i t e 206-300 295

[I] E. Reissner and H. F. Sagoci, Forced torsional oscillations of elastic half-space. Journ. App. Phys.,
Vol. 16 (1944),p. 652.
[Z] I. N. Sneddon, Note on a boundary value problem of Reissner and Sagoci. Journ. App. Phys., Vol. 18,
(1947),p. 130.
[3] Y i - Y u a n Yu, Torsion of semi-infinite body and a large thick plate. Quart. Journ. of Mech. App. Math.,
Vol. 7 (1954),p. 287.
[4] J. H.Michell, The uniform torsion end flexure of incomplete tores with applications to helical springs.
Proc. Lond. Math. SOC.,Vol. 31 (1900),p. 130.
[5] I. N. Sneddon, Fourier Transforms, 1st. Ed., McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., p. 60 (1951).
[6] K.E. Bullen, An Introduction to theory of Seismology (1947).
hnuskripteingang: 1. 8. 1958
Anschrift .-Prof. S. B. Dutt, M. Sc. Department of General Science,
The Calcutta Technical School, 110, S. N. Banerjee Road, Calcutta 13 (India)

Poiseuille and Couette flow of non-Newtonian fluids

By James Serrin
Vor einigen Jahren fand R i v l i n einige exakte Losungen der Bewegungsgleichungen einer nicht-
Newtonschen Ffkaigkeit, die den wohlbekannten Losungen der N a v i e r - S t o k e s s c h e n aleichungen ent-
sprechen, welche von P o i a e u i l l e und Couette angegeben wurden. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die
physikalische Bedeutung der R i v l inschen Losungen geklart und eine Methode zur Bestimmung dea Koeffi-
zienten der Querviskositat vorgeschlagen. Ferner wird gezeigt, wie aich gewkae Experimente von M e r r i n g t o n
und W e i s s e n b e r g auf arund der Resultate dieser Arbeit erklaren lassen.
Some years ago R i v l i n discovered several exact solutions of the equations of motion of a non-Newtonian
fluid, corresponding to the well-known P o i s e u i l l e and Couette solutions of the N a v i e r - S t o k e s equationa.
I n this paper the physical nature of Rivlin’s solutions is clarified, and a method is proposed for determining
the value of the cross-viscosity coefficient. I n addition, it is shown how certain experiments of M e r r i n g t o n
and W e i s s e n b e r g can be exppbined by means of the results of the paper.
I1 y a quelquea annkes que R i v l i n a trouvd quelques solutions exactea des kquations de mouvement pour
un liquide mn-N e w t o n , eolutions qui correspondent aux solutions bien connues des dquationa de N a v i e r -
S t o kee indiqudee par P o i s e u i l l e et Couette. Dana i’article prksent la signification physique de la solution
de R i v l i n est dclairke, et une mkthode pour la dktermination du coefficient de la viscositd trawersale mi?
propoake. E n outre, il est ddmontrd comment certaina mpkriments de M e r r i n g t o n et W e i s s e n b e r g
peuvent etre expliquda sur la baae des rdsultats‘ de cet article.
II Hy3Ta AJIH J’paBHeHIIR HaBbe-CTOHCa. B HaCTOfIIUefi pa6ol.e BhlIRCHfIeTCfI @i3EiYeCKIIfi
xapawrep pememZt P m n m a II npeanoraeTca Meyon ~ J I RonpAeneHm ~ H ~ V ~ HKO~@@II- M R
UHeHTa nonepesaofi B I I ~ K O C T ~ HpoMe
. Tor0 noKaamaeTcR, KaK HeKoTopHe O ~ H T MMeppmr-
TOHa II Beficce~BepraMOrYT 6hlTb 06ffCHeHbII I p M nomoq~lpe3yJIbTaTOB HaCTORWefi pa6OTbl.
The theory of non-Newtonian fluids is based on a stress-deformation relation of the form
T=al+/ID+yDZ.. . . . . . . . . . . . * (1)J
where T is the stress tensor, D is the rate-of-deformation tensor, and a, b, y are certain scalar
coefficients1). We shall be concerned here with incompressible fluids, so th a t OL is identified as
the negative of the dynamic pressure, a = -p . The coefficients b and y are assumed to be known
functions of the scalar invariants of D and of the thermodynamic state of the fluid. That is
= p (11, 111; T ) , y = y (11,111; T ) ,
where 11, I11 denote respectively the sum of the principal minors of D, and the determinant of D,
and T is the fluid temperature.
The fluid motion is governed by the familiar C a u c h y law
... ........
in which v is the velocity vector and f is the gravitational force, f = - g k. Some years ago
R i v l i n ([2], [3]) discovered several exact solutions of equations (l), (2), corresponding to cer-
tain well-known solutions of the N a v i e r - S t o k e s equations. We are interested here in two of
these exact solutions, namely those corresponding to P o i s e u i l l e and C o u e t t e flow: our pur-
pose is t o clarify the physical nature of these solutions, and especially to point out their similar-
ities and differences with the classical solutions. Some steps in this direction have already been
taken by C. TruesdelP), but the present analysis seems to be more complete.
I ) The reader unfamiliar with the subject of non-Newtonian fluids will find adequate references and
background material in the extensive monograph of C. T r u e s d e l l [5], or in [4], $3 68-60, 65.
2, [5], $72. This work is, in fact, the inspiration for the present paper.
296 J. S e r r i n , Poiseuille end Couette flow of non-Newtonian fluids

Finally, we observe that e q u a t i o n (12) o f f e r s a n e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e t e r -

m i ne a n e x p e r i m e n t a l v a l u e f o r t h e c o e f f i c i e n t y i n a s e c o n d o r d e r t h e o r y . This
statement will be expanded in the work below.

1. Poiseuille flow
In cylindrical polar coordinates ( F , 0,z ) we seek, following R i v l i n , a solution of equations
(1) and (2) of the form
v, = v, = 0 , v, = w = W(F), O S F S U . .
* (3).
. . . . . .
This corresponds to steady laminar flow down a straight pipe of diameter 2 a. For such a motion
the deformation tensor D takes the form

and therefore
0 0 0 0
T = - p l + - P w21’ k
: i)+iyw’.!s ; :),
where P i:
= /3 - - w ’ ~0;
, T =
1 B(F, T ) , y
ration, C a u c h y s law reduces simply to @ f
= y(r,
T). Since the motion (3) has zero accele-
d i v T = 0. Moreover, using the techniques of
tensor analysis3), one finds that the covariant component of div T is given by

where xl= F , x, = 0,x3 = z. The equations of motion thus become

in which the @-dependence of all quantities is taken zero. Equations (5) can be integrated pro-
vided that @ and y do not depend on the temperature, or if the temperature is assumed to be a
function of r alone. Indeed in this case one finds the following unique solution of (5),
p=(C-pg)z+f(r), Pw’ = C F . . . . . . . . . . * (6)l
where C is an arbitrary constant, and

The second equation of (6) is a differential equation for the velocity w(r), to be solved subject
t o the boundary condition w(a) = 0, (i. e., adherence a t the pipe wall). Due to the fact that p
will in general involve w’,the solution of this differential equation may be difficult to obtain
To complete the solution, we observe that the stress components are given by

and that the total mass flux illis

where in the last equality we have used the boundary condition w(a) = 0. Notice, in particular,
that the normal stress E on the pipe wall varies linearly along the length of the pipe, exactly as
in the classical solution.
3) The reader is assumed to have an elementary knowledge of this subject in order to derive
equation (5).
J, S e r r i n , Poiseuille and Couette flow of non-Newtonian fluids 297

Q u a d r a t i c d e p e n d e n c e . In the special case where the components of T depend a t

most quadratically on the components of D, it can be seen th a t @ and y must depend, a t most,
on the fluid temperature. Supposing in fact that /3 and y are constant, integration of (6) yields
the familiar formula
w = - ( r 2 - a2), (/3 = 2 p ) . . . . . . . . . . . * (8)
while from (7). . follows
-ntec a4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * (9).
Since y does not appear in these formulas, it is clear th a t standard viscocity or velocity measure-
ments will not indicate the presence or absence of non-linear viscosity in a fluid.
The effect of y is felt, however, in a n o n - u n i f o r m d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r e s s u r e a c r o s s
a s e c t i o n of t h e p ip e. To investigate this effect in detail, we may suppose the fluid to issue
from the pipe into an atmosphere a t pressure po, the latter exerting a force on the output cross-
section in the amount n a2 po. Since @ and y are constant, the stress components are given by
rr = Z.? = (e g- C) z- 2 y D2 r 2 - Const. . . . . . . . . . (lo),
where D = C/8 p , and the following force balance holds a t the exit section (taken to be z = 0 ) ,
n a 2 p o = - n J E d(r2) = n y D2 a4
+ n a2 Const.
Using this equation to eliminate the Const. from (lo), we obtain
E=Z=((eg-C)z+ y D 2 (a 2 -2 r2 )-p o . . . . . . . . . (11).
Let P be the force per unit area which the fluid exerts on the pipe walls; that is, P = - G
evaluated a t r = a. In virtue of (9) and (11) we have then
p-pp*-" - ( ; y-
f++y). . . . . . . . . . . . . (12),

where p; = po -e g z and T = %lJl/n a2 e = volume of flow per second per unit cross section area.
Formula (12) may serve as the theoretical explanation of an interesting experimental
phenomenon discovered by M e r r i n g t o n [l], namely the tendency for a fluid stream to swell a t
the exit section of a viscometer. Indeed, according to (12) we have
P - p o = (I'/a)2y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * (13)
a t the exit section, indicating th at excess pressure in the fluid can be caused simply by a posi-
t i v e coefficient y. Formula (13) implies, moreover, th a t the swelling should be emphasized by
high flux and small pipe radius, a fact actually observed by M e r r i n g t o n .
An experimental verification of (12) could easily be secured by measuring the variation of
P - po a l o n g t h e l e n g t h of t h e p ip e , for various values of T.By plotting ( a / T ) 2(P -p!)
against the pipe length z, one should then obtain a series of straight lines, each intercepting the
axis z = 0 a t the fixed height y ; moreover, from the slope of these lines one can read off the
coefficient of viscosity p. The internal consistency of the theory is immediately decidable from
the range of values of p and y which are experimentally obtained for various values of I'. To
the author's knowledge, the required experiments have not yet been performed.

2. Continuation
The conclusion th at the fluid stream should tend to swell a t the exit section of a pipe can
also be derived without the assumption that /?and y are constant. Indeed, in the general case
let us write

rr =Z = (e g - C) z - (C/2)2j y B-2 r dr - Const. . . . . . . . (lo)'.

Then the following force balance holds a t the exit section,
n a 2 p o = - n j zz d(r2) = --n
(C/2)zJ y8-2r.3 dr
+ -n a2 Const.

where a straightforward integration by parts was used in deriving the final equality. Using this
equation to eliminate the Const. in (10)' leads to the formula
r r a
298 5. Serrin, Poiseuille and Couette flow of non-Newtonian fluids

and finally

. . . . . . . . . . . . (13)'

a t the exit section. Thus w h e t h e r o r n o t and y are constants, t h e fluid stream

will t e n d t o swell if y > 0.
Now let denote as before the volume of flow per second per unit cross section area. Then
I' = %/n a2 e = C a-2 j p-' r3 dr ,
and so by the C a u c h y inequality (assuming y > 0)

Combining this inequality with (13)' yields the interesting result

) ~ y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (13)".
P - p o 2 ( T / u Min
Inequality (13)" not only exhibits a remarkable similarity t o formula (13), but also shows as
before that the swelling should be emphasized by high flux and small pipe radius.

3. Couette flow
Again using cylindrical polar coordinates, we seek a solution of (l), (2) of the form
u, = u, = 0 , u, = r w(r) . . . . . . . . . . . . (14).
In this case

D=J-(.".~ o
r co'
0 ").
0 D2=+(0 0
r2 w'2 0
r2w'2 :),

(using physical cornyonenls), and p = Iy (- 1

, 7')
r2 w ' ~ 0; = B(r, 7') , y = y(r, 7'). With the
help of (4)the equations of motion are easily reduced to the following systeiii,

Assuming that fl and y do not involve I' explicitly, or else th a t 1' is a function of r alone, these
equations have the integral
p=-~yz+f(r), r 3 B w ' = C . . . . . . . . . . . (15),
where C is an arbitrary constant and

The only stress component whose value is affected by y is 22, as the reader can easily check.
Q u a d r a t i c d e p e n d e n c e . Setting /3 = constant, and y = constant, as before, integration
of (15) yields the velocity distribution
u = r w = A r-l+ B r , ( A = - C / 2 p ) . . . . . . . . . (161,
exactly as in the classical C o u e t t e flow. A difference arises in the stress component Z, which
now takes the form
= ~ q z - A ~ y r - ~e 1 - ( A + B r2)2 dr .
zz = - p
To investigate the effect of y on the motion, we suppose the flow to take place between two
concentric rotating cylinders, with the u p p e r f l u i d s u r f a c e b e i n g l e f t o p e n t o t h e a t m o -
s p h e r e . We shall be interested in the shape of this free surface. Now C o u e t t e flow involves a
J. Serrin, Poiseuille and Couette flow of non-Newtonianfluids 299
non-vanishing stress component T,,, so that (16) can only approximate the actual flow under
consideration; nevertheless, as long as the free surface remains relatively horizontal (i. e. a t rela-
tively low speeds of rotation) the discrepancy should not be serious. Assuming, then, that the free
surface remains nearly horizontal, its locus is given by Z = constant, and its slope satisfies

We shall consider two cases in detail: (I) The inner cylinder (r = rl) remains a t rest, and (11) the
outer cylinder (r = r2) remains a t rest. The constants A and B for these cases are easily deter-
mined, and in particular we find th at
- (rlrd2 in Case I ,
Q =
(rlrz)z [-
in Case I1 .
When y = 0, the slope in Case I varies from 0 a t the inner cylinder to a positive value a t the
outer cylinder, while in Case I1 i t varies from a positive value at the inner cylinder to 0 a t the
outer cylinder. When y > 0 these slopes are obviously decreased somewhat. This leads to the
following general conclusions :

la 16 ?C
Fig. 1. Typical fluid cross sections in Co u e t t e flow of & non-Newtonianfluid
1 a. The inner e y 1 i n d e r at rest. 1b. The outer cylinder at rest, and I, > 2m. l c . The outer cylinder at rest, and r1 < 2 y z
Case I. W h e n y > 0 t h e f l u i d will t e n d t o c l i m b t h e i n n e r c y l i n d e r , a n d
will g e n e r a l l y a l s o c l i m b t h e o u t e r c y l i n d e r , u n le s s y i s v e r y l a r g e ( F i g . l a ) .
Case 11. T h e f l u i d will t e n d t o f a l l s l i g h t l y a t t h e o u t e r c y l i n d e r . A t t h e
i n n e r c y l i n d e r t h e f l u i d will r i s e o r f a l l a c c o r d i n g a s t h e q u a n t i t y
4 y - e [(I +
0) r1I2 0 = - (r1/r$,

is g r e a t e r o r less t h a n zero (Fig. l b , c). In the important case (rl < r2)this leads t o the
criterion: t h e f l u i d will t e n d t o c l i m b t h e i n n e r c y l i n d e r if
r, < 2 r/r/e ......... ...... . (17),
and t o fall away from t h e inner cylinder otherwise.
The above conclusions are derived under several approximating assumptions, the most
important being that the free surface should not greatly vary from the horizontal. This qualifi-
cation should alway be borne in mind, though in all probability the general conclusions remain
valid in a considerably wider range of circumstances. The conclusions above are in general
agreement with certain experiments of W e i s s e n b e r g [6], and very probably furnish the correct
theoretical explanation of his results. So far there has been no experimental check of the in-
equality (17), though this would certainly supply a strong test of the preceding considerations.

This research was supported in part by th e United States Air Force Office of Scientific
Research under Contract A F 49 (638)-262.

[l] A. C. Merrington, Nature, vol. 152 (1943), p. 603.
[Z] R. S. Rivlin, Proc. Royal Society of London, Series A, vol. 193 (1948), p. 260.
[3] R. S. Rivlin, Proc. Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol. 45 (1949), p. 88.
[4] J. Serrin, Mathematical Principles of Clamicd Fluid Mechanics, Handbuch der Physik, vol. 8. Berlin
1959: Springer.
[5] C. Truesdell, J. Rational Mechanics and Analysis, vol. 1 (1952), p. 125.
[S] K. Weissenberg, Nature, vol. 159 (1947), p. 310.
Manuskripteingang: 13.8. 1958
Anschrdft :Prof. Dr. James Serrin,
Institute of Technology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 14 / Minn. (USA)