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Update 35

DRAFTING MANUAL

Section K4.16

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1.0 GENERAL

This document provides design standards for the use of pipe threads applied throughout industry. Although most of the detail standards for thread configurations and methods of measurement are a part of the referenced documents (see par. 2), the basic elements are provided in this standard. This document applies to the use of regular pipe threads in any areas of design where pipe threads may be required. Dryseal types of threads used in the automotive, refrigeration, and hydraulics fields are also included.

2.0 REFERENCES

American National Standards Institute, Straight Pipe Threads for Free-fitting Mechanical Joints, Standard B2. 1; and Dryseal Pipe Threads, Standard B2.2.

3.0 TYPES OF PIPE THREADS

3.1 TAPER PIPE THREAD (NTP) - American Standard

taper pipe thread is abbreviated NTP. This type of thread is broadly used in designs by many industries. This piping comes in various wall thicknesses or strengths that are identified, for example, as schedule 40, schedule 60, etc. The most common wall thickness used is schedule 40. The outside diameter remains constant, while the inside diameter varies with the strengths of the pipe required. The outside diameter of the pipe is also known as the nominal pipe size and is generally produced in wrought steel and other materials (i.e., brass, etc.).

3.2 SPECIFICATIONS FOR TAPER PIPE THREADS

3.2.1. Form of Thread - The angle between the sides of the

thread is 60 degrees when measured on an axial plane and the line bisecting this angle is perpendicular to the axis. The depth of the sharp V thread, H, is

H = 0.8660p.

The basic maximum depth of the truncated thread, h (see Fig. 1), is based on factors entering into the manufacture of cutting tools and the making of tight joints,

h = 0.800p.

3.2.2 Crest and Root - The crest and root of pipe threads are

truncated a minimum of 0.033p.

The maximum depth of truncation for the crest and root of these pipe threads is shown in Table 1.

The sketches at the head of Table 1 (internal thread and external thread) giving sectional views of this standard thread form, represent the truncated thread form by a straight line. However, when closely examined, the crest and root of commercially manufactured pipe threads appear slightly rounded. It is intended that the pipe threads of products be acceptable when crest and root of the tools or chasers lie within the limits set up in Table 1. Note that the crests and roots of the external and internal threads may be truncated either parallel to the taper or parallel to the axis.

INTERNAL
ROOT
CREST
P (PITCH)
h
ROOT
H=0.8660p
30˚
30˚
60˚
EXTERNAL
90˚
AXIS
Figure 1. Basic Form of American Standard Taper Pipe

3.2.3 PITCH - The pitch is the distance from a point on a

screw thread to a corresponding point on the next thread measured parallel to the axis (see Fig. 1):

Pitch in inches (p) =

1

Threads per inch (n)

.

3.2.4 Taper of Thread - The taper of the thread is 1 in 16, or

0.75 inch per foot measured on the diameter and along the axis.

3.2.5 Diameter of Thread - The basic pitch diameters of the

taper thread are determined by the following formulas based on the outside diameter of the pipe and the pitch of the thread:

E 0 = D - (0.050D + 1.1)

1

n

,

E l = E 0 + 0.0625 L l ,

Section K4.16

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DRAFTING MANUAL

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Table 1 Limits on Crest and Root of American Standard External and Internal Taper Pipe Threads

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Threads Depth Sharp V Depth Pipe Thread Truncation Tolerance on Equivalent Width of Flat Tolerance on Equiv. per Thread h Trunca- Width of Inch H Max Min Minimum Maximum tion Minimum Maximum Flat Inches Inches Inches Formula Inches Formula Inches Inches Formula Inches Formula Inches Inches 27” 0.03208 0.02963 0.02496 0.033p 0.0012 0.096p 0.0036 0.0024 0.038p 0.0014 0.111p 0.0041 0.0027 18 0.04811 0.04444 0.03833 0.033p 0.0018 0.088p 0.0049 0.0031 0.039p 0.0021 0.102p 0.0057 0.0036 14 0.06186 0.05714 0.05071 0.033p 0.0024 0.078p 0.0056 0.0032 0.038p 0.0027 0.090p 0.0064 0.0037 11 1 / 2 0.07531 0.06957 0.06261 0.033p 0.0029 0.073p 0.0063 0.0034 0.038p 0.0033 0.064p 0.0073 0.0040 8 0.10825 0.10000 0.9275 0.033p 0.0041 0.062p 0.0078 0.0037 0.038p 0.0048 0.072p 0.0090 0.0042
MINIMUM
TRUNCATION
ROOT
MAXIMUM
TRUNCATION
H
MINIMUM
TRUNCATION
MAX.
h
MAXIMUM
TRUNCATION
CREST
CREST
CREST
MAXIMUM
TRUNCATION
MINIMUM
TRUNCATION
MAXIMUM
TRUNCATION
ROOT
MINIMUM
TRUNCATION

D = basic outside diameter of pipe,

E 0 = pitch diameter of thread at end of pipe,

E l = pitch diameter of thread at the gauging notch or large end of internal thread, and

L 1 = normal engagement by hand between external and internal threads.

3.2.6 Length of Thread - The basic length of the effective

external taper thread, L 2 , is determined by the following

formula based on the outside diameter of the pipe and the pitch of the thread:

L 2 = (0.80 D + 6.8)

1

n

,

where D = basic outside diameter of pipe.

This formula determines directly the length of effective thread, which includes two usable threads that are slightly imperfect at the crest.

Other select data are given in Table 2.

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Section K4.16

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April 1989*

Table 2 Basic Dimensions of American Standard Taper Pipe Threads (NTP)

 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Wrench Make-up Length for Over-all Depth Increase Basic Vanish Length Nominal Perfect External Threads of in Diam. Minor Nominal Internal thread Threads External Thread per Diam. at Pipe Thread Thread Small End Size Length L 3 Diam E 3 V L 4 L 5 E 5 h 0.0625 n of Pipe K 9 In. Thds In. In. Thds In. In. In. In. In. In. 1 /16 0.1111 3 0.26424 0.1285 3.47 0.3896 0.1870 0.28287 0.02963 0.00231 0.2416 1 /8 0.1111 3 0.35656 0.1285 3.47 0.3924 0.1898 0.37537 0.02563 0.00231 0.3339 1 /4 0.1667 3 0.46697 0.1928 3.47 0.5946 0.2907 0.49556 0.04444 0.00347 0.4329 /8 3 0.1667 3 0.60160 0.1928 3.47 0.6006 0.2967 0.63056 0.04444 0.00347 0.5676 1 /2 0.2143 3 0.74504 0.2478 3.47 0.7815 0.3909 0.78286 0.05714 0.00446 0.7013 /4 3 0.2143 3 0.95429 0.2478 3.47 0.7935 0.4029 0.99286 0.05714 0.00446 0.9105 1 0.2609 3 1.19733 0.3017 3.47 0.9845 0.5088 1.24543 0.06957 0.00543 1.1441 1 1 /4 0.2609 3 1.54083 0.3017 3.47 1.0085 0.5329 1.59043 0.06957 0.00543 1.4876 1 1 /2 0.2609 3 1.77978 0.3017 3.47 1.0252 0.5496 1.83043 0.06957 0.00543 1.7265 2 0.2609 3 2.25272 0.3017 3.47 1.0582 0.5826 2.30543 0.06957 0.00543 2.1995 2 1 /2 0.2500 2 2.70391 0.4337 3.47 1.5712 0.8875 2.77500 0.l00000 0.00781 2.6195 3 0.2500 2 3.32500 0.4337 3.47 1.6337 0.9500 3.40000 0.l00000 0.00781 3.2406 3 1 /2 0.2500 2 3.82188 0.4337 3.47 1.6837 l.0000 3.90000 0.l00000 0.00781 3.7375 4 0.2500 2 4.31875 0.4337 3.47 1.7337 1.0500 4.40000 0.l00000 0.00781 4.2344
L 4
V
L 2
(IMPERFECT
TO CHAMFER
L 5
2 P
ON DIE)
L 3
L 1
1 IN 16 MEASURED
ON DIAMETER
D
E 3
E 0
E 1 E 5
E 2

3.2.7 Engagement between External and Internal Taper

Threads - The normal length of engagement between external and internal taper threads when screwed together by hand is shown in column 6 of Table 2. This length is controlled by the construction and use of gauges.

3.3 DRYSEAL PIPE THREADS

3.3.1 Dryseal Pressure- Tight Joints. The pipe-thread joints that are to be made up without lubricant or sealer consist of external and internal pipe threads having the same general form and dimension as those of the American Standard regular taper

Section K4.16

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DRAFTING MANUAL

Update 35

pipe thread given in Table 3. However, for a dryseal type of joint, the thread form is truncated to the amount given in Table 4. For tolerances on taper, lead, and angle for dryseal threads, see Table 3.

Table 3 Tolerance on Taper, Lead and Angle Dryseal American Standard Threads on Pipe and Fittings

 Number Limits on Taper at Pitch Line (Inches per Foot) Lead in 30 Deg Nominal of Length of Half Angle Pipe Size Threads Effective Thread of Threads, Deg per Inch Max Min 1 /16 27 25 /32 /32 23 0.0010 1 1 /8 27 25 /32 /32 23 0.0010 1 1 /4 18 25 /32 /32 23 0.0015 1 3 /8 18 25 /32 /32 23 0.0015 1 1 /2 14 25 /32 /32 23 0.0020 1 3 /4 14 25 /32 /32 23 0.0020 1 1 11 1 /2 25 /32 /32 23 0.0025* 3 /4 1 1 /4 11 1 /2 25 /32 /32 23 0.0025* 3 /4 1 1 /2 11 1 /2 25 /32 /32 23 0.0025* 3 /4 2 11 1 /2 25 /32 /32 23 0.0025* 3 /4 2 1 /2 8 25 /32 /32 23 0.0040* 3 /4 3 8 25 /32 /32 23 0.0040* 3 /4

3.3.2 Clearance - There is no clearance permitted between

the external and internal threads. When the joint is completely made up, the flanks and the flats on the internal and external thread are supposed to meet, thus producing a metal-to-metal joint with contact or interference at the crest and root of the mating parts. It is this feature of the thread that eliminates the need for a sealer. When a lubricant is employed, it serves to prevent galling during the makeup of the joint.

The sketches at the head of Table 4 (internal thread and external thread), give a sectional view of this modified thread form. When the crests and roots of the commercially manufac- tured product are examined closely, they will be found to be slightly rounded at the edges. It is intended that the pipe threads of this form on products shall be acceptable when the entire crests and roots lie within the limits of Table 4.

The principal uses for this thread during its development are for refrigerant, marine, automotive, and aircraft fuel- and oil- line fittings; drain and filler plugs; ordnance gas shells; and chemical bombs; etc.

3.3.3 Dryseal Threads - The basic dimensions for dryseal

threads are given in Tables 3 and 5.

Dryseal threads (NPTF) are generally considered to be superior

for strength and seal characteristics. In hard or brittle materials without heavy sections, the internal taper pipe thread reduces the possibility of fracture at assembly.

3.3.4 Dryseal SAE SHORT-Taper Pipe-Thread Series -

This series, designated Dryseal PTF-SAE Short, is derived from the standard NPTF series (see Tables 6 and 7). It applies to external and internal taper pipe threads, except that the full thread length has been shortened by eliminating one thread

from the small end of the external thread. This is an SAE design exclusive for reasons of economy of material and clearance consideration.

3.3.5 PTF-SAE SHORT - External Thread - PTF-SAE

SHORT external thread is sometimes used to limit the depth in

assembly of the small end of the external taper pipe thread. It is

primarily intended for assembly with NPTF or NPSI internal

pipe threads. It is not designed for assembly with PTF-SAE

SHORT or NPSF internal pipe threads, because the thread may not start at extreme tolerance limits of maximum diameters of

external thread and minimum diameters of internal thread.

3.3.6 Dryseal American Standard Fuel Straight Pipe

Thread Series - This series, designated DRYSEAL NPSF, is

applied to internal straight pipe threads only. This type of thread is intended primarily for assembly with NPTF external- taper pipe thread. It is not intended for assembly with PTF-

SAE SHORT or PTF-SPL SHORT.

This thread is used in soft or ductile materials that will adjust to the taper of the external thread when properly screwed to- gether. It may be used in hard or brittle materials having heavy sections. It is sometimes used to limit the depth in assembly of the small end of the external taper pipe thread.

3.3.7 Dryseal American Standard Intermediate Straight

Pipe Thread Series - This series, designated DRYSEAL NPSI, applies to internal straight pipe threads only. This type of thread is intended primarily for assembly with PTS-SAE SHORT external-taper pipe thread but will assemble with NPTF external-taper pipe thread. It is used extensively in hard or brittle materials having heavy sections where there is little yield in assembly.

4.0 STRAIGHT PIPE THREADS

4.1 SELECTED TYPES OF STRAIGHT PIPE

THREADS - While external and internal taper pipe threads are recommended for pipe joints in practically every service, there are certain types of joints where straight pipe threads are used to advantage. Several of the most common are (1) TYPE 1 pressure-tight joints with lubricant or sealer for pipe couplings

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Section K4.16

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April 1989*

Table 4 Limits on Crest and Root of American Standard Dryseal Pipe Threads (Pressure-tight Joints without Lubricant or Sealer)

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Depth of Tolerance Number of Sharp V Truncation 3 Tolerance Equivalent Width of Flat on Threads per Thread on Equivalent Truncation Width of Inch H Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Flat Inches Formula Inches Formula Inches Inches Formula Inches Formula Inches Inches 27 Crest 0.03208 0.047p 0.0017 0.094p 0.0035 0.0018 0.054p 0.0020 0.l08p 0.0040 0.0020 Root 0.094p 0.0035 0.140p 0.0052 0.0017 0.108p 0.0040 0.162p 0.0060 0.0020 18 Crest 0.04811 0.047p 0.0026 0.078p 0.0043 0.0017 0.054p 0.0030 0.090p 0.0050 0.0020 Root 0.078p 0.0043 0.109p 0.0061 0.0018 0.090p 0.0050 0.126p 0.0070 0.0020 14 Crest 0.06186 0.036p 0.0026 0.060p 0.0043 0.0017 0.042p 0.0030 0.070p 0.0050 0.0020 Root 0.060p 0.0043 0.085p 0.0061 0.0018 0.070p 0.0050 0.098p 0.0070 0.0020 11 1 /2 Crest Root 0.07531 0.040p 0.0035 0.060p 0.0052 0.0017 0.046p 0.0040 0.069p 0.0060 0.0020 0.060p 0.0052 0.090p 0.0078 0.0026 0.069p 0.0060 0.103p 0.0090 0.0030 8 Crest 010825 0.042p 0.0052 0.055p 0.0069 0.0017 0.048p 0.0060 0.064p 0.0080 0.0020 Root 0.055p 0.0069 0.076p 0.0095 0.0026 0.064p 0.0080 0.088p 0.0110 0.0030
MINIMUM FLAT
MINIMUM FLAT
MINIMUM
MAXIMUM FLAT
MAXIMUM FLAT
TRUNCATION
MAXIMUM
CREST
ROOT
TRUNCATION
WORN
TOOL ARC
WORN TOOL ARC
H
WORN TOOL ARC
WORN TOOL ARC
MAXIMUM
ROOT
CREST
MAXIMUM
TRUNCATION
TRUNCATION
MINIMUM
MAXIMUM FLAT
MINIMUM
TRUNCATION
TRUNCATION
MINIMUM FLAT
MINIMUM FLAT

MINIMUM

TRUNCATION

MAXIMUM

TRUNCATION

MAXIMUM FLAT

(see Tables 8 and 2; taper external, straight internal); and (2) TYPE 2 pressure-tight joints without lubricant or sealer for automotive fuel- and oil-line fittings, drain plugs and filler plugs, etc. (Tables 4 and 9, taper external, straight internal).

4.1.1 Pitch, Angle, and Depth of Thread - The pitch, angle, and depth of thread are the same as the corresponding dimen- sions of the taper pipe thread described in paragraph 3.1.

4.1.2 Diameter of Thread - The basic pitch diameter for both

the external and internal straight pipe thread is equal to the pitch diameter of the American Standard taper pipe thread.

4.1.3 Taper Pipe Thread for Automotive Parts - American

Standard taper pipe thread for automotive fuel- and oil-line fittings, drain plugs, and filler plugs, etc., should come flush

with the face or with the bottom of the chamfer, if chamfered.

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Table 5 Dryseal American National Standard Taper Pipe Thread (NPTF)

HAND ENGAGEMENT (L 1 ) + L 3
AT MAX. INT. TH'D. P.D.
+ ONE TURN FULL THREAD
L 2 + (3p APPROX)
L 2 + 3.47p
AT MIN. EXT. TH'D
P.D.
L 2 + ONE TURN FULL THREAD
2p(APPROX.)
DIE
CHAMFER
L 2
AND
HAND
L 3 = 3p
(L 1 )
SHOULDER
ENGAGEMENT
CLEARANCE
V
INTERNAL
D
(PIPE)
D
E 3
E 0
E 1
E 2
2

A tolerance of no turns large and one-and-one-half turns small, except that for the 1/8-inch size a tolerance of one-half turn small to 2 turns small is allowed. For the 1/4-inch size, a tolerance of one-half turn large to 1 turn small is allowed.

these classes one or both of the members are considered to be sufficiently ductile to adjust themselves to each other. The resulting joints are recommended for comparatively low pressures only.

4.1.4 Reference Dimensions for Assembled Engagement of Dryseal Pipe Threads - Table 10 provides a convenient reference of approximate distances for assemblage of NPTF and PTF-SAE into various other types of dryseal pipe threads.

4.2 Pressure-tight Joints with Internal Straight Pipe Threads - Pressure-tight joints are sometimes made with internal straight pipe thread and external taper pipe thread. There are two classes of internal straight pipe thread. In both of

4.2.1 Attaching Automobile Fuel- and Oil-Line Fittings -

Automotive fuel- and oil-line fittings are generally attached by

an external dryseal taper pipe thread and a dryseal internal straight pipe thread without lubricant or sealer.

4.2.2 Attaching Automotive and Aircraft Hydraulic Line

Fittings - Automotive and aircraft hydraulic-line fittings, drain plugs, and filler plugs, etc., are joined by two straight machine- screw threads (external and internal) drawn to a shoulder.

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Section K4.16

Page 7

April 1989*

Table 6 Basic Dimensions of Dryseal SAE SHORT External-Taper Pipe Thread (PTF-SAE SHORT, External)

 Size Pitch, p Pitch diameter at end of external thread, L 1 Hand engagement, L 1 Short External basic full thread length, L 2 short Vanish thds, V, plus full thd toler plus shoulder clear- ance, (V +3p/2) Minimum shoulder length, (L 2 short +2 1/2 p) External thread for draw, (L 2 short Internal basic full thread length (L 1 - L 1 short) short +4P) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 in. in. in. thds in. thds in. thds in. thds in. in. thds in. thds 1/16 - 27 1/8 - 27 1/4 - 18 3/8 - 18 0.03704 0.27349 0.160 4.32 0.1230 3.32 0.2241 6.05 0.0926 2.50 0.3167 0.1011 2.73 0.2711 7.32 .03704 .36582 .1615 4.36 .1244 3.36 .2268 6.12 .0926 2.50 .3194 .1024 2.76 .2726 7.36 .05556 .48086 .2278 4.10 .1722 3.10 .3462 6.23 .1389 2.50 .4851 .1740 3.13 .3945 7.10 .05556 .61548 .240 4.32 .1844 3.32 .3522 6.34 .1389 2.50 .4911 .1678 3.02 .4067 7.32 1/2 - 14 3/4 - 14 .07143 .76289 .320 4.48 .2486 3.48 .4623 6.47 .1786 2.50 .6409 .2137 2.99 .5343 7.48 .07143 .97214 .339 4.75 .2676 3.75 .4743 6.64 .1786 2.50 .6528 .2067 2.89 .5533 7.75 1 - 11 1/2 .08696 1.21906 .400 4.60 .3130 3.60 .5958 6.85 .2174 2.50 .8132 .2828 3.25 .6609 7.60 1 1/4 - 11 1/2 .08696 1.56256 .420 4.83 .3330 3.83 .6198 7.13 .2174 2.50 .8372 .2868 3.30 .6809 7.83 1 1/2 - 11 1/2 .08696 1.80152 .420 4.83 .3330 3.83 .6365 7.32 .2174 2.50 .8539 .3035 3.49 .6809 7.83 2 - 11 1/2 .08696 2.27445 .436 5.01 .3490 4.01 .6695 7.70 .2174 2.50 .8869 .3205 3.69 .6969 8.01 2 1/2 - 8 3 - 8 .12500 2.72734 .682 5.46 .5570 4.46 1.0125 8.10 .3125 2.50 1.3250 .4555 3.64 1.0570 8.46 .12500 3.34844 .766 6.13 .6410 5.13 1.0750 8.60 .3125 2.50 1.3875 .4340 3.47 1.1410 9.13
HAND ENGAGEMENT (L 1 SHORT ) + 4p
AT MAX. INT. TH'D. P.D.
+ ONE TURN FULL THREAD
(L 2 SHORT ) + 2
1 P
2
AT MIN. EST. TH'D. P.D.
(L 2 SHORT ) + ONE TURN
DIE CHAMFER AND
SHOULDER CLEARANCE
(L 2 SHORT )
HAND
1
4p
(L 1 SHORT )
1
2
ENGAGEMENT
V
NPSI
INTERMEDIATE INTERNAL STRAIGHT THREAD
PTF-SAE SHORT EXTERNAL TAPER THREAD
E 0 SHORT
E 2
D 2

Section K4.16

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April 1989*

DRAFTING MANUAL

Update 35

Table 7 Basic Dimensions of Dryseal SAE SHORT Internal-Taper Pipe Thread (PTF-SAE SHORT, Internal)

Hole depth
Size
Pitch
diameter
at end of
E 1 short
Hand engagement,
Internal basic
for SAE
Pitch, p
L
L 1 short
1
(L 1 short + L 2 )
short
tap
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
in.
in.
in.
thds
in.
thds
in.
thds
in.
1
/ 16 - 27
0.03704
0.27887
0.160
4.32
0.1230
3.32
0.2341
6.32
0.4564
1
/ 8 - 27
.03704
.37129
.1615
4.36
.1244
3.36
.2356
6.36
.4564
1
/ 4 - 18
.05556
.48815
.2278
4.10
.1722
3.10
.3389
6.10
.6722
3
/ 8 - 18
.05556
.62354
.240
4.32
.1844
3.32
.3511
6.32
.6844
1
/ 2 - 14
.07143
.77397
.320
4.48
.2486
3.48
.4629
6.48
.8915
3
/ 4 - 14
.07143
.98441
.339
4.75
.2676
3.75
.4819
6.75
.9105
1
- 11 1 / 2
.08696
1.23320
.400
4.60
.3130
3.60
.5739
6.60
1.0956
1 1 / 4 - 11 1 / 2
.08696
1.57795
.420
4.83
.3330
3.83
.5939
6.83
1.1156
1 1 / 2 - 11 1 / 2
.08696
1.81691
.420
4.83
.3330
3.83
.5939
6.83
1.1156
2
- 11 1 / 2
.08696
2.29084
.436
5.01
.3490
4.01
.6099
7.01
1.1316
2 1 / 2 - 8
.12500
2.75435
.682
5.46
.5570
4.46
.9320
7.46
1.6820
3 - 8
.12500
3.38069
.766
6.13
.6410
5.13
1.0160
8.13
1.7660
HAND ENGAGEMENT (L 1 SHORT ) + L 3
AT MAX. INT. TH'D. P.D.
+ ONE TURN FULL THREAD
HAND
1p
2p
3p MAX.
L 2 = 3p
(L 1 SHORT )
ENGAGEMENT
PTF-SAE SHORT INTERNAL THREAD
E
E
(E 1 SHORT)
3
0

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Section K4.16

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Table 8 Dimensions of Internal Straight Pipe Threads in Pipe Couplings (Pressure-tight Joints with Lubricant or Sealer)

Table 9 Dimensions of Dryseal Internal Straight Pipe (Pressure-tight Joints without Lubricant or Sealer)