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# THERMODYNAMICS-1

(MIDTERM)

Submitted to:
Engr. Elmer N. Mantala

Submitted by:
Apple Mae M. Delantar
BSEE-3B_E2
LESSON 1: Introduction and Basic Concepts
This chapter is the introduction and basic concepts of thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics is the science of heat, work and other related properties. It is the basic
science that deals with energy. The principle of thermodynamics are summarized in the form
of laws: known as the zeroth law which deals with thermal equilibrium that provides a means
of measuring temperature, the first law of thermodynamics which deals with the conservation
of energy and introduces the concept of internal energy, the second law of thermodynamics
which deals with the limits of the conversion of heat into work and provides the yardstick to
measure the performance of various process.

## Thermodynamic System is a device or combination of devices containing a quantity of

matter that is being studied. This system is divided into three divisions: the closed system or
control mass, which the mass is not allowed to passed the boundaries and energy can cross,
second, the open system or control volume, which the mass and energy are allowed to passed
the boundaries, and lastly, the isolated system. The mass-dependent properties of a system are
called extensive properties and the others intensive properties. Density is mass per unit
volume, specific volume is volume per unit mass or the reciprocal of density, specific weight
is weight per unit volume for homogeneous materials, and specific gravity is the ratio of
density.

Pressure is the intensity of force. The pressure below atmospheric pressure is called
vacuum pressure, the pressure relative to absolute vacuum is called absolute pressure, and
the difference between the absolute pressure and the local atmospheric pressure is called the
gage pressure. The pressure at a point in a fluid has the same magnitude in all directions.
Pascal’s principle states that the pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure
throughout by the same amount.

## Temperature is the indication of hotness and coldness. Absolute temperature is the

temperature measured from absolute zero and absolute zero temperature is the temperature at
which all molecular motion ceases.

*EXAMPLE*
LESSON 5: First law of Thermodynamics

## The first law of thermodynamics is essentially an expression of the conservation of

energy principle, also called the energy balance. The general mass and energy balances for
any system undergoing any process can be expressed as total energy equals to the difference
of internal energy and output energy.

The conversion of energy from one form to another is often associated with adverse
effects on the environment, and environmental impact should be an important consideration
in the conversion and utilization of energy.
*EXAMPLE*
LESSON 3: Pure Substance

## Pure substance is a substance that has a fixed chemical composition throughout. A

pure substance exists in different phases depending on its energy level. These three phases
are the solid, liquid, and gas. During a phase-change process, the temperature and pressure of
a pure substance are dependent properties. At a given pressure, a substance changes phase at
a fixed temperature, called the saturation temperature. Likewise, at a given temperature, the
pressure at which a substance changes phase is called the saturation pressure. The
relationship between saturation pressure and saturation temperature is that the higher the
pressure, the higher the saturation temperature. During a boiling process, both the liquid and
the vapour phases coexist in equilibrium, and under this condition the liquid is called
saturated liquid and the vapour is called saturated vapour. When the vapour is at temperature
greater than the saturation temperature, it is called superheated vapour. Saturation is a
condition in which a mixture of vapour and liquid can exist together at a given temperature
and pressure.

The state beyond which there is no distinct vaporization process is called the critical
point. At supercritical pressures, a substance gradually and uniformly expands from the liquid
to vapour phase. All three phases of a substance coexist in equilibrium at states along the
triple point. Latent heat is the amount of energy absorbed or released during phase-change
process. Latent heat of fusion is the amount of energy absorbed during melting. Latent heat of
vaporization is the amount of energy absorbed during vaporization. Real gases exhibit ideal-
gas behaviour at relatively low pressures and high temperatures.

*EXAMPLES*
LESSON 4: Work and Heat

Work is the transference of energy that is produced by the motion of the point of
application of a force. Work is also called a path function, no work done if the volume does
not change. It’s very important to remember the sign convention: the work done by or
produced by a system is positive (+), and the work done on or applied to a system is negative
(-). The most common form of mechanical work is the boundary work, which is the work
associated with the expansion and compression of substances. On a P-V diagram, the area
under the process curve represents the boundary work for a quasi-equilibrium process.

The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by
one degree is called the specific heat at constant volume Cv for a constant-volume process
and the specific heat at constant pressure Cp for a constant pressure process. Flow Energy is
the work done in pushing a fluid across a boundary.

## Heat is an energy crossing a system’s boundary because of a temperature difference

between the system and the surroundings. The heat transferred to a system is positive and the
heat transferred from the system is negative. Adiabatic Process is a process which there is no
heat transfer. It is also convenient to call the heat transfer per unit mass as specific heat
transfer. Heat transfer is the transport of energy due to a temperature difference between
different amounts of matter. It is classified into three: the conduction, the convection, and the
*EXAMPLE*
LESSON 2: Ideal Gas

Boyle’s law states that at constant temperature, the volume of a gas is inversely
proportional to its absolute pressure. In constant volume, Charle’s law states that if the
volume is constant, the pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature, and if the
pressure is constant, the volume is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

There are different processes of gasses: the isometric process or isochoric process is a
constant volume process, the isobaric process is a constant pressure process, the isothermal
process is a constant temperature process, the isentropic process is a reversible adiabatic or
constant entropy process, and polytropic process is the general thermodynamic process which
describe by exponent.
*EXAMPLE*