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Progressive Era

Negative Effects of Industrialization

● Child Labor
● Long Hours
● Low Pay
● Unsafe Working Conditions
Rise of Organized Labor
● Labor Unions Begin-- The American Federation of Labor (AFL)
● Strikes-- The Homestead Strike (at Carnegie’s steel factory…. Carnegie won, the
strikers and the Union lost, Union labor are set back forty years because people stop
joining Unions)
Progressive Movement Workplace Reforms
● Improve Safety Conditions
● Reduce Work House
● Try to Restrict Child Labor
Progressive Work for Suffrage and Education for Women
● Susan B. Anthony
● Elizabeth Cady Stanton
● 19th Amendment gives women the right to vote
Progressive Work for Temperance
● Temperance people are opposed to making and consuming alcohol
● 18th Amendment will finally prohibit the use of alcoholic beverages

Spanish-American War
● Protection of American Businesses in Cuba (sugar, bananas, coffee)
● Americans wanted to support Cuban rebels gain independence from Spain
● Tension between Spain and the US as a result of the sinking of the USS Maine in
Havana Harbour
● Exaggerated news stories (Yellow Journalism)
● Cuba gained independence from Spain
● The US emerges as a world power
● The US gained possession of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico

The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

● The US has the right to interfere in the economic matters of the other nations in the
● It claimed the United States’ right to exercise international police power

World War I
Causes of WWI
● Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary
Reasons for United States Involvement in WWI
● Inability to remain neutral (we tried… But that was too much to handle)
● German Submarine Warfare: Sinking of the Lusitania
● The US was tied economically and politically to Great Britain
● The Zimmerman Telegram (Germany asks Mexico to join them as a Central Power and
attack the US, and if they won, they would get the southwest as a prize)
President of the US During WWI
● Woodrow Wilson
Major Allied Countries
● British Empire
● France
● Russia
● Serbia
● Belgium
● Later, the United States
Central Powers
● German Empire
● Austro-Hungarian Empire
● Bulgaria
● Ottoman Empire
US Leadership When the War Was Over
● President Wilson prepared a peace plan known as the Fourteen Points. One of those
points was to create the League of Nations, a peacekeeping organization
● The US did not join the League of Nations because the Senate failed to ratify the Treaty
of Versailles

Technology in the Early 20th Century

Results of Improved Transportation Brought About by Affordable Automobiles
● Mobility
● Creation of Jobs
● Growth of Transportation-related industries
● Invention of the airplane
● Use of assembly lines
● Rise of mechanization
● Communication changes
○ Increased use of the telephone
○ Development of the radio and broadcast industry
○ Development of movies
Ways Electrification Changed American Life
● Labor-saving products (washing machines, electric stoves, water pumps)
● Electric lighting
● Entertainment (radio)
● Improved communications

Prohibition was imposed by a Constitutional amendment that made it illegal to manufacture,
transport, and sell alcoholic beverages (the 18th Amendment)
● Speakeasy- a place for people to drink alcoholic beverages
● Bootleggers- made and smuggled alcohol illegally and promoted organized crime
● 21st Amendment- repealed the 18th Amendment

Great Migration North and West

● Jobs for African Americans in the South were scarce and low paying
● African Americans faced discrimination and violence in the South
● African Americans moved to cities in the North and Midwest in search of better
employment opportunities
● African Americans also faced discrimination and violence in the North and Midwest

Important People
● Langston Hughes-- poet
● Louis Armstrong-- trumpet, jazz band leader
● Martha Graham-- created modern dance
● Georgia O’Keeffe-- painted flowers, city scenes, scenes from southwest
● John Steinbeck-- author, wrote about migrant workers, The Grapes of Wrath
● George Gershwin-- composer of American Music
● Jacob Lawrence-- painter of Great Migration
● The Wright Brothers-- airplane
● Bessie Smith-- sang the blues
● Aaron Copland-- classical composer
● “Duke” Ellington-- piano, jazz band leader
● Guglielmo Marconi-- invented radio
● F. Scott Fitzgerald-- author, wrote about jazz age, The Great Gatsby
● Frank Lloyd Wright-- architect
● Henry Ford-- mass produced automobiles on the assembly line
● Thomas Edison-- light bulb, phonograph
● Alexander G. Bell-- telephone