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A Conspectus on Electric Vehicle in India

Conference Paper · October 2016

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Parth hemendra Pandya


Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya Engineering College
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A Conspectus on Electric Vehicle in India
1). Parth Hemendra Pandya 2). Shivani Ashish Dimke

 (FCEV). The fundamental thought of the electric vehicle


Abstract-- Alarming circumstance of global warming is to lessen the motor size and power for fuel utilization
boost on the earth generated awareness that, time has and meet the vital vitality from the without carbon vitality
come to quick track and catalyzes cleaner, greener urban sources like energy components. Battery is the main
mobility and this can be a lightning-bar towards an fundamental problem in BEV. Subsequently, BEV is for
essential change which is as of now seeing development the most part reasonable for little electric vehicle for
in electric vehicles worldwide and government strategies short range, low speed group transportation, in this
activating speculations by significant vehicle manner requires just littler battery size. HEV can address
organizations. India is one of the significant markets for purchasers' issue and has included esteem however
vehicle industry yet at the same time it is far from this
cost is the real issue.
idea. This paper discusses various aspects of electrical
vehicles in record with Indian market, its issues, support,
inspiration and future scope. 2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CARBON EMISSION AT
GLOBAL LEVEL

Index Terms-- emission, urbanization, vehicle, In order to study the climatic impact of an electric
government, scope. vehicles we need to take into consideration the
emissions due to vehicle manufacture, CO2 emissions
from fuel combustion in power plant, CO2, N2O and CH4
1. INTRODUCTION emissions from fuel extraction, transportation,
processing, distribution and storage, emissions that arise
U RBANIZATION has caused many effects in people’s
life which has made human dependent on vehicles.
producing electricity that is lost in transmission and
distribution.
As a result, the density of vehicles in city areas is
increasing day by day. Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen Oxides Electric vehicle result in more assembling emanations
and Carbon Monoxide are the exhaust pollutants emitted than customary petrol vehicles, and have diminished
by Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) when fuel like lifetime mileage, which implies per kilometer driven their
petrol or diesel are used. These pollutants cause several assembling emissions are more noteworthy. In this area
problems like heart diseases, lung disorders, irritation in we have looked at emanations brought about by utilizing
different parts of body, blood pressure etc. These electric vehicles as a part of various nations taking into
pollutants also cause harm to animal species. The account their principle power source.
environmental pollution caused by ICE vehicles like acid Table 1
rains, ozone layer depletion, air and noise pollutions will Comparison of carbon dioxide emission in different types
affect the habitat not to live life peacefully. of vehicles.

Driving atmosphere doomsayers assert that worldwide


gas emanations need to decline to 60% beneath the
present levels by 2050 if people are to evade calamitous
environmental change. Electric vehicles (EV) may
include battery electric vehicles (BEV), hybrid electric
vehicle (HEV) and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle

1. Parth Hemendra Pandya is a B.E. 3RD Level Student,


Department of Civil Engineering, Birla Vishvakarma
Mahavidyalaya, India.
(E-mail: parthpandya304@gmail.com)
2. Shivani Ashish Dimke is a B.E. 3RD Level Student, Department
of Civil Engineering, Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya, India.
(E-mail: shivanidimke96@gmail.com).
4. INDIAN SCENARIO OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES
COUNTRY POWER ELECTRIC PETROL CAR DIESEL CAR
SOURCE VEHICLE EMISSIONS EMISSIONS
EMISSIONS EQUIVALENT EQUIVALENT In India two wheeler vehicles are majorly seen on
(g CO2e/km) (kmpl) (kmpl) roads compared to four wheeler vehicles as 2W are
more time and fuel efficient and ICE driven. Other than
INDIA COAL 370 8 10 the special occasions like marriage ceremony or family
gathering, use of 4W is very low. After china, India is the
UNITED HEAVY 202 17 19 second largest 2W market and will remain the preferable
STATES FOSSIL choice of transport till 2035.

JAPAN BROAD 175 21 23 Indian government has released its National Electric
MIX Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020, in 2013 which
aims to deploy 4lakh passenger BEVs. If the above goal
CANADA LIGHT 115 37 41 is achieved then India will restrain importing of 1.2crore
FOSSIL
barrels of oil and will save the entry of 40lakh tones of
CO2 emissions in environment by 2020.
FRANCE LOW 93 52 56
CARBON
India lacks the support for a large domestic market for
EV due to lack of lithium ion reserves. There is no clear
In the above table 1, for the better comprehension we policies supporting the supply growth, batteries
show the electrical vehicle emanations from every nation manufacturing and recycling as the Indian electricity
as far as what might as well be called petrol and diesel supply mix is dominated by coal and fossil fuels.
vehicle, utilizing kilometer per liter as the method for
depiction. Table 2:
Registered EV and population of different country in
In the country like India whose main source of 2013
electricity generation is coal, grid powered electric
vehicles produces almost equal or in some cases more COUNTRY REGISTERED POPULATION
carbon emission than that of petrol or diesel sourced ELECTRIC VEHICLE (In crores)
vehicles. The electric vehicle emission is 370 gCO2e/km STOCK (units)
and to attend the same amount of emission we will
require to use the petrol vehicle with mileage of 8kmpl INDIA 3100 127.7
and that of diesel vehicle as 10kmpl. So the carbon
emission caused by electric vehicle is approximately UNITED 96,602 31.6
three times as compared to most petrol cars used with STATES
mileage of 24kmpl.
JAPAN 30,390 12.7
3. SCALE OF PROBLEMS
CANADA 3,106 3.52
Even with the advancement in the field of electric
vehicles, they are various setbacks compared to internal
combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. The main problem in FRANCE 13954 6.4
the electric vehicle is its battery. The battery life is nearly
about 4-5 years so it requires to be changed frequently According to the statistical data shown in the table 2,
and also its cost is very high. Second drawback of EV is we can conclude that in country like India the population
that its battery needs to be charged frequently as well as is very high but the registered EV stock is less. Whereas
its recharging time is also high (6-8hrs). Due to this its in United States the population is very less in
total operating and maintenance cost increases. comparison to India but the stock of EV registered is
Moreover recharge stations are not easily available in very high. From this we can say that in a highly
developing countries like India whereas in developed populated country like India public awareness about
countries like USA and UK, DC supply stations are environment protection by use of EV or HEV is less.
established at various locations for reducing the Whereas in United States the public is more concerned
drawbacks of charging. about the environment.

A typical electric car costs around 8 to 10 lakhs which For increasing the public awareness, the initial
is approximately 2.5 times higher than an entry level fuel approach of central government of India could be to
efficient car. Also the replacement cost of battery is encourage market players at international level to
about 2 to 3 lakhs which will increase the cost of perform case study for potential locations for the
ownership. development of EV charging infrastructure and electric
vehicle supply equipment. Also for encouragement of [2] C. LeQuéré et al., “Carbon budget 2014”, ESSDD, 6,
EV, the effects on current, transmission and distribution 1-90, 2014
scheme, energy production, density of road traffic, [3] Chan CC., William Yeatman, Global Warming 101:
emission level and space required for parking needs to Costs, The state of the art of electric, hybrid and fuel
be analyzed. Moreover operation and maintenance of cell vehicles, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 95(4);
infrastructure installed should be maintained regularly. 2007.
Instead of direct involvement of government body, [4] Goerdeler, Klynveld, Marwick, Peat, ,"Emerging
private players should be given contracts in order to trends and technologies in the automotive sector-
assure smooth flow of work. Supply chain challenges and opportunities ”by kpmg,
2015.
5. SCOPE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN INDIA [5] Lindsay Wilson, “Shades of Green: Electric Cars”
Carbon Emissions Around the Globe, Shrink That
The market of electric vehicle in India is very less Footprint, 2013
compared to ICE vehicles due to various factors. India [6] National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020,
has only sold only 1% of EVs in the world over last Department of Heavy Industry, Government of India,
decade. It’s mainly due to service lags and high cost 2013.
issues. People in India are more concerned about the [7] National Research Council, “Transitions to
mileage, maintenance free, and durability, immediately Alternative Vehicles and Fuels,” Promoting Low
accessible and service oriented vehicles in the market. Carbon Transport in India by UNEP DTU
Moreover high daily usage of vehicle by the people has Partnership, Centre on Energy, Climate and
caused EV a failure. It has more charging time, less top Sustainable Development Technical University of
speed and less speed per charge made the consumers Denmark, Washington, DC, 2013.
to avoid EV in our country. Also there is lack of [8] NEXANT INC., India Zero Emission Transportation
government schemes implementation for the motivation Program, 2002
of the consumers. And above all the power crises is one [9] RITE Ltd., “Transport Demand Forecast Study and
of the major reasons which make these chargeable Development of an Integrated Road cum Multi-Modal
electric vehicles non-usable in our country. Public Transport Network for NCT of Delhi,” Report
for the Government of NCT of Delhi Transport
6. CONCLUSION Department, 2008.

Due to the urbanization and industrialization the carbon


emissions has been increased in environment drastically
which has boosted the concept of green in the last
decade. EVs has gained much attention over past few
years. But in India it faces difficulties due to coal based
power source, high cost, population, human behavior
and lack of support. Emission of EV is more than
average vehicles. To overcome all this problems various
steps are required to be taken by the government and
private sector for the research and development for
various infrastructures, technology and power source.
Concept of EV can flourish in India only after the
betterment of this problems, motivation and awareness
among the people. This concept needs to be developed
and researched in India with various projects, case study
and research work by government as well as private
manufactures as India has many future scope and
potential market in vehicle industry.

7. REFERENCES

[1] AhmetTeke, Kamil Cag˘atay Bayindir, Mehmet Ali


Gozukucuk, “A comprehensive overview of hybrid
electric vehicle: Powertrain configurations,
powertrain control techniques and electronic control
units”, Energy conversion and management,
vol.52(2), 2012

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