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UNIT 1 AQA 2009 SPECIMENT PAPER

2 Antibodies are proteins. The diagram shows an antibody.

(a)(i) Name the monomers that form the heavy and light chains

(i) Amino acids; 1

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(ii) the chemical bonds that join these monomers.

Peptide; 1
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(2 marks)

(b) The specificity of an antibody depends on its variable regions. Explain how.
(b) Contains specific sequence of amino acids;
Complimentary shape enables attachment to antigen; 2
(2 marks)

(c) In a pregnant woman, some antibodies cross the placenta from the mother to the
fetus.
These antibodies only provide short-term immunity for newborn babies. Explain why
these antibodies only provide short-term immunity.

(c) (Maternal antibodies) are antigens;


Destroyed by (fetal) antibodies / lymphocytes; 2
(Q Do not credit marks where source of antigens or antibodies/
lymphocytes is ambiguous.)
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(2 marks)

6 (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis is spread from one person to another by droplet infection.
Explain how tuberculosis is spread by droplet infection.
(a) Bacteria attached to/carried by;
Droplets of mucus/water; 2

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(2 marks)

(b) The table shows the number of cases of tuberculosis in different regions of England
between 2000 and 2005

(i) The number of cases of tuberculosis varies between different regions. Suggest
two reasons for this.
1 .................................................................................................................................
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2 .................................................................................................................................
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(b) Vaccination rates;
Immigration;
Different strains of TB;
Living conditions related to transmission / diet; 2 max
(2 marks)

(ii) Calculate the percentage increase on the number of cases of tuberculosis in the
south west region of England from 2000 to 2004. Show your working.
Answer................................................ (c) 0.7
4.6 x 100;
15.2; 2
(Correct answer = 2 marks)

(2 marks)

7 Read the following passage


Cholera is a water-borne disease. It is caused by a bacterium. The bacterium
produces a toxin which acts on the epithelial cells of the small intestine and causes
changes in membrane permeability. The cholera toxin affects the movement of ions
through the intestinal wall. It causes the loss of chloride ions from the blood into the
5 lumen of the small intestine. This prevents the movement of sodium ions from the
lumen of the small intestine into the blood. The resulting high concentration of
ions causes diarrhoea.
Vaccination can produce immunity to cholera. A new vaccine appears to provide
better immunity and has fewer side effects than previously available vaccines. This
10 vaccine is taken orally. For long-term immunity, a booster dose is required after two
years.
Use information from the passage and your own knowledge to answer the following
questions.
(a) The cholera toxin only affects the epithelial cells of the small intestine (line 2).
Suggest why.
(a) Receptor;
Reference to tertiary structure of protein;
Complementary shape; 3
(Q Do not credit .same shape. but allow suitable description of
complimentary shape.)
1..........................................................................................................................................
...
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.
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.
(3 marks)

(b) (i) Sodium ions normally enter the blood from cells of the intestinal wall against a
concentration gradient. Describe how.
(b) (i) Active transport;
Using ATP;
Carrier proteins; 3
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(3 marks)
13 Turn over ►
(ii) The high concentration of ions in the small intestine of a person with cholera
causes diarrhoea. (lines 6-7). Explain why.
(ii) Water potential lowered in small intestine;
Osmotic loss of water; 2
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(2 marks)

(c) The new vaccine for cholera is taken orally (line 10) but some vaccines are not taken
orally. Suggest one reason why some vaccines are not taken orally.
(QWC First mark only credited if water potential is clearly linked to
intestine or blood)
(c) Broken down by enzymes / not absorbed as molecules are too large; 1
(1 mark)

(d) A booster dose of vaccine is required to provide long-term immunity. Suggest why.
Ensures memory cells produced;
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(1 mark)

MAY JUNE 2016 CIE 22

Globally, measles is an important disease that mainly affects children. Many deaths from
measles occur in children under five years of age.
Table 3.1 shows the population of six countries in Africa in 2009 and the number of cases of
measles per 100 000 people for the four years 2009 to 2012.
All six countries are classified as low-income countries.
(a) (i) The actual number of cases of measles in Chad in 2009 was 165 and in Eritrea was 82.
Calculate the actual number of cases of measles in Ethiopia in 2009.
Show your working.
[2]
1179 ;;
one mark if not to the whole person e.g. 1179.24 / 1179.2 or
if calculation correct but answer incorrect
e.g. 1.39 × 848.38 or 1.39 × (84 838 000/100 000) or
if no calculation to check but answer given as 1180

Fig. 3.1 shows the percentage of children vaccinated against measles over a ten year period
from 2003 to 2012.
• The percentage vaccinated represents children under one year of age who have been given
at least one dose of the vaccine against measles in the given year.
• The data are for the six African countries shown in Table 3.1.

Vaccination is known to protect populations against infectious diseases.


Some of the data in Table 3.1 (on page 4) and Fig. 3.1 (on page 6) support this statement.
Describe the data that support this statement and comment on the data that do not support
this statement.

can give values of percentage vaccinated to describe ‘increasing / decreasing’


percentage vaccination
support
1 Gambia high percentage vaccinated (throughout) and low number of cases ;
A Eritrea
2 data to support ; e.g. a percentage vaccination for a year and number of
cases (same, or following, year after vaccination) or a range given for
percentage vaccinations over the whole, or stated, number of years or a
compilation of the two
partial / weak, support
3 Central African Republic decreasing vaccination and number of cases in
2011, higher / 15.31 ;
4 Chad (from 2008) increasing percentage vaccination and, low / stated,
number of cases,
2009 / 2010 / 2012 ;
1.45 1.66 0.96
do not support
5 Niger / Ethiopia / Chad, (generally) increasing percentage vaccinated and
number of cases, fluctuates / increase and decrease (ora) / AW ;
A stated correct data to show increase and decrease
A for Chad if mp 4 given and ref. to increase / 71.6 in 2011
6 (generally) increasing percentage vaccinated and number of cases,
increases / goes from 2.34–4.67, in 2011 in Niger or
increases / goes from 1.39–4.86, in 2010 in Ethiopia or
increases / goes from 1.66–71.6, in 2011 in Chad A 1.45–1.66 in 2010 ;
7 Central African Republic decreasing vaccination and low number of cases in,
2009 / 2010 / 2012 ;
8 / 9 AVP ;; e.g.
• idea that most values for number of cases are low irrespective of
vaccination percentage
• ref.to needs, high / 90%, vaccination to be effective
A < 80% / low, vaccination ineffective
• idea that generally Gambia / Eritrea, have higher percentage
vaccinated and have lower number of cases than, (three of)
Ethiopia, Chad, Central African Republic, Niger / the other countries
• ref. to Chad / Central African Republic, in 2011 and,
epidemics / inability to keep number of cases down / ineffectiveness
of vaccination programme I ref. to 71.6 (Chad) or 15.31 (Central
African Republic)
• Eritrea 2012 high vaccination but, increase in / 3.16, cases
• ref. to increasing percentage of vaccination in Niger and decrease in
cases, 2009–2010 from 5.23 to 2.34 / 2011–2012 from 4.67–1.59
A 2009–2012 from 5.23 to1.59

b. State precisely the type of immunity gained by receiving a measles vaccine.

active artificial / artificial active ; treat as neutral acquired


..............[1]

1.
Macrophages are antigen presenting cells (APCs). Antigens from pathogens such as the
bacteria are presented to helper T-lymphocytes as shown in below.

Very few helper T-lymphocytes respond to the presence of APCs by binding in the way shown
above. Suggest reason for this. (2)

1 idea that only, a few / some / small number / AW, with correct specificity ;
2 (different) T-lymphocytes are specific to different antigens ;
3 (T cell) receptor is, complementary (in shape to antigen) ;
4 AVP ;
e.g. this may be during a primary immune response so no memory cells
e.g. disease state (HIV / AIDS and leukaemia) or treatment where few
T-lymphocytes in the body

3 Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease of the joints in the human body.


(a) RA is classed as an auto-immune disease where the immune system treats some self
antigens as non-self.
Explain what is meant by the term non-self antigens.
non-self
foreign / AW ; A not from the person’s own body
triggers / AW, an immune response / production of antibodies ;
A other events in immune response described
antigen
protein / glycoprotein ; A polysaccharide
ref.to, binding of specific antibody / formation of antigen-antibody complex ;

(b) The symptoms of RA include inflammation of the joints which causes pain and difficulty in
movement of the joint.
The inflammation is triggered by a chemical known as TNF-, produced by macrophages.
One approach to the treatment of RA is by the use of monoclonal antibody against TNF-.
Fig. 3.1 is a diagram of an antibody molecule.
(i) Name the parts of the antibody molecule labelled P, Q and R.
P .....................................................................
Q ....................................................................
R .....................................................................

P antigen-binding site / site for antigen attachment ; A variable region


Q hinge region ;
R constant region / site of attachment to receptors on phagocytes / AW ;

(ii) Name the type of bonds that hold the polypeptide chains together in the antibody
structure.

disulfide (bonds) ; R if more than one type of bond stated

(c) (i) Outline how monoclonal antibody against TNF-is produced.


1 TNF-α / antigen, introduced into, mice / small mammals / named ;
2 (antibody-producing), B-cells / B-lymphocytes / plasma cells / splenocytes,
isolated (from spleen) ; A produced
3 fused with myeloma cells ;
4 using fusogen / PEG ;
5 hybridoma cells formed ;
6 ref. to screening / testing, for hybridoma producing desired antibody ;
7 ref. to scaling up / large-scale production ;
8 AVP ; e.g. HAT medium for, hybridoma growth / inhibiting myeloma
growth
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(ii) Suggest how monoclonal antibody against TNF-can reduce the symptoms of RA.

antibodies bind to TNF-α ;


inactivate / destroy TNF-α ;
inflammation cannot be triggered / AW ; in context of destroying TNF- α
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.......................................................................................................................................[2]

Which statement describes how passive natural immunity is obtained?


A A vaccination containing dead microorganisms is given.
B An immunisation containing specific antigens is given.
C Antibodies are passed from mother to developing baby.
D Antibodies from another individual are injected.

39 What describes a non-specific immune response?


A activation of killer T-lymphocytes by infected cells
B cloning of B-lymphocytes to form plasma cells
C ingestion of a bacterial cell by a neutrophil
D presentation of antigens on the cell surface of macrophages

40 What explains why monoclonal antibodies can be used to target cancer cells?
A Cancer cells have different antigens from normal body cells.
B Specific cancer drugs can be attached to the monoclonal antibody.
C They are one type of a specific antibody that binds to an antigen.
D They are secreted by hybridomas of cancer cells and B-lymphocytes.

39 Rabies is a viral disease which can be spread to humans by a bite from an infected animal.
One method of treatment is to inject the patient with antibodies specific to the rabies virus.
Which statements about this treatment are correct?
1 The patient will have natural passive immunity to rabies.
2 The injected antibodies will be broken down by the patient.
3 The patient’s memory cells will be able to produce this antibody more rapidly in the
future.
4 The immunity provided will only be of short duration.

A 1 and 3 B 1 and 4 C 2 and 3 D 2 and 4

40 What are the functions of T-lymphocytes during an immune response?


1 destroy infected body cells
2 differentiate into memory cells
3 secrete antibodies
A 1 and 2 B 2 and 3 C 1 only D 3 only

The graph shows the antibody response when a person is injected first with antigen X and later
with antigens X and Y.
Which curve shows the primary response to antigen Y?
Answer :c

40 Which row describes passive immunity?