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Activity 1  Quota Sampling - the assembled sample has the

Sampling method same proportions of individuals as the entire


population with respect to known characteristics,
Sampling – is the process of getting a small portion traits or focused phenomenon.
(known as sample) from the whole (known as  Purposive sampling - starts with a purpose in mind
population). and the sample is thus selected to include people of
Sample – a representative of the population interest and exclude those who do not suit the
Population – entire group or measurement purpose. Use when you want to access a particular
A sufficient number of sample can best represent the subset of people.
entire population
A sampling technique should be used to plot or collect Total Area = Length x Width
the samples Actual Total Area = Total Area x Equivalent Size
In this activity simple random method was used, it will Compute the sample size of the total area using 5%
be applied using a square plot called quadrant error instead of 10%.
Where: N – total area
2 main types of sampling methods: e – percentage error
1. Probability sampling – one in which every unit in n – sample size
the population has a chance ( >0) of being selected
in the sample
Type of Probability Sampling Method Total Area
 Simple Random Sampling - the basic sampling Sample size = -----------------------------
technique where we select a group of subjects (a 1 + (Total Area x e2)
sample) for study from a larger group (a Sampling selection
population). Each individual is chosen entirely by Quadrant sampling is one of the methods used to
chance and each member of the population has an obtain a sample from the field. A quadrant is any
equal chance of being included in the sample. circular, rectangular, or square plot used to count the
 Systematic Sampling - statistical method involving sample.
the selection of elements from an ordered sampling Compute for the number of quadrats using a 25 mm2
frame. The most common form of systematic quadrant size.
sampling is an equal-probability method. Sample Size
 Stratified Sampling - the researcher divides the Number of Quadrats = ------------------------
entire population into different subgroups or strata, Quadrant Size
then randomly selects the final subjects
proportionally from the different strata. Activity 2
 Probability Proportional to Size Sampling - It is a Topographic map
method of sampling that takes the varying size of
each item within the population into account when Map descriptions
selecting the audit sample.  Maps – are diagrammatic representation of the
 Cluster or Multistage Sampling - when "natural" but surface of the earth
relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a It includes:
statistical population. It is often used in marketing - Compass rose – indicates which way is north,
research. In this technique, the total population is south, east, and west
divided into these groups (or clusters) and a simple - Scale – to estimate distance
random sample of the groups is selected.  Cartography – study and practice of map making
 Included in a map is:
2. Non-probability sampling - any sampling method 1. Orientation - direction
where some elements of the population have no 2. Scale – represented in ratio
chance of selection 3. Data – depending on usage and map features
Type of Non-probability sampling Method
 Accidental Sampling - is a type of non-probability Types of maps:
sampling that involves the sample being drawn  Climate maps – gives general information about the
from that part of the population that is close to climate and precipitation of a region
hand.
- Cartographers/mapmakers – use colors to show Rules in reading topographic maps
different climate or precipitation zones  Rule of V’s – sharp pointed v’s usually are in stream
 Economic/resource maps – features the type of valleys, with the drainage channel passing through
natural resources or economic activity that the point of V
dominates an area - V – Pointing upstream, downstream is the flow
- Cartographers/mapmakers – use symbols to of water. A consequence of erosion
show the locations of natural resources or  Rule of O’s – closed loops are normally an uphill on
economic activities the inside and downhill on the outside
 Political maps – they indicate state, national - Innermost loop – the highest area
boundaries, capital, and major cities - Loop – represents a depression
- Capital city – usually marked with a star within a - Hachures – a loop with lines radiating from the
circle inside of the loop, like volcanoes
 Physical map – illustrates the physical features of an  Spacing of contours
area such as mountains, rivers, and lakes. - Steep slope – close contours
- Colors – are used to show relief - Shallow slope – distant contours
- Water is shown in – Blue - Cliff – two or more contour line merging
- Lower elevations is shown in – Green
- Higher elevations is shown in – Orange/Brown Activity 3
 Road maps – it shows major and minor highways, it Terrestrial climatic factors
also shows roads, airport, railroad tracks, cities, etc.
- Used by people to plan trips and for driving  Ecosystem – a complex unit of environment
directions consisting of major biotic communities and their
 Topographic/contour maps – includes contour lines interactions with the abiotic factors
to show the shape and elevation of an area.  Can be classified as terrestrial and aquatic biomes
- Lines that are  Biome – a distinct ecosystem with define vegetation
close together and climatic components
indicate - steep
terrain Abiotic factors – non-living components of the
- Lines that are ecosystem
far apart indicate - Classified into climatic and physiographic
a - flat terrain Climatic factors consists:
- Characterized 1. Light – an electromagnetic radiation consisting of
by large-scale visible and non-visible light
detail and - It is absorbed, reflected, and converted to other
quantitative forms and end up us heat energy
representation of - Direct light – light that directly felt
elevations - Reflected light – light that is scattered due to
depicted by shade
contour lines - Dispersed light – light that is bended
- Isohype – Importance of light:
contour lines that  Affects the water temperature
connect  Affects the biological process
contiguous points  For photosynthesis
of the same Factors affecting light:
altitude  Cloudiness
Parts of topographic map  Vegetation cover
- shows topography, or land contours  Seasonal patterns
represented by contour lines 2. Temperature – measurement of intensity of heat
- contour lines – curves that connect contiguous and cold
points of the same altitude - Difference between the soil and air
temperature varies, the sun and air heats the
soil. Air losses heat easy while soil holds the
heat.
- Soil is warmer than air in the night Factors affecting humidity:
- air is warmer than the soil in the day  Air temperature
Factors affecting temperature:  Amount of water vapor in the air
 latitude Measurement used in the activity:
 altitude  Light meter
 cloud cover  Soil thermometer
 winds and ocean current  GPS
 aspect  Sling psychrometer
 length of day
Importance of temperature Formulas:
 affects the life cycle of plants and animals %light = reflected light
 influences weather and tides ------------------------ x100
 controls the freeze and thaws of ice caps Direct light
3. Wind – creates a mass density that gives pressure
the lower elevation the less in high altitude %light = dispersed light
- Barometer – instrument used to measure air ------------------------ x100
pressure Direct light
- Anemometer – instrument used to measure
wind speed %relative humidity = water vapor density
- Air movement – result of uneven heating of the ------------------------------------- x100
earth Saturation water vapor density
- Coriolis effect – the rotation of the earth causes
the wind to move horizontally and be deflected Activity 4
- Wind gradient – the rate of increase of wind Soil Analysis
strength with unit increase in height above
ground level Soil characteristics
- Elevation is responsible for the difference in air  Soil – the edaphic factor of the ecosystem which
pressure has physio-chemical characteristics
- Air pressure decreases as the elevation - Physical characteristics – particles present,
increases, air becomes thinner profile, and moisture content
Importance of wind: - Chemical characteristics – nutrients and trace
 Creates weather system in the atmosphere elements
 Responsible for different conditions - The availability of these elements from the soil
(morphological features and adaptations for depends on soil pH, organic matter content,
different organisms) and soil texture
Factors affecting air pressure:  Soil texture – influences the drainage characteristics
 Temperature which affect the transport of the elements
 Altitude
4. Fire/Heat – result of converting the light to heat, air Composition of soil
will tend to rise when temperature increase  Soil is the product of physical, chemical, and
5. Moisture /Humidity – amount of water vapor biological weathering.
present in the air  Soil is composed of :
- Sling psychrometer – consists of wet and dry - 40% minerals
thermometer used to measure humidity - 10% organic matter
- Relative humidity – measurement of water - 25% water
content of air relative to saturation water vapor - 25% air
density
- Relative humidity decreases when the Soil moisture
temperature is high  Gravitational water – when water saturates the soil
- The higher the temperature the water vapor air and drains
can hold increases  Capillary water – water that is left in the soil pores,
- Saturation water vapor density is lower when the one used by plants
the temperature is low
 Hygroscopic water – water that is present in the
molecules of soil, can be removed only by oven Guide Question:
drying 1. Why are pore spaces so important in soils?
Answer:
Soil texture Pore spaces are important in the soil, because it
 Soil has 3 main size particles consisting of clay, silt, determines the nature of living space, the amount of
and sand water and air it can hold.
 Particle size analysis – the determination of soil
texture 2. Why is it important for soil to have good drainage?
 Clay particles = less than 0.002 mm Answer:
 Silt particles = 0.002 mm to 0.02 mm Soil that has good drainage helps plants to grow. It
 Sand particles = 0.02 mm to 0.2 mm provides adequate oxygen to the roots of the plants to
encourage proper root development.
Profiles of soil
 Soil profile can be observed through the direct 3. What are the traits of the soil perfectly suited for
observation of the layers or horizons of the soil. agricultural field?
Answer:
 O horizon – A soil must be deep, well drained, neutral and retain
organic materials sufficient soil moisture for crop growth. A soil must
consisting of litter, contain a mixture of both clay and sand, allowing for a
humus, and other gradual passage of both water and air to circulate
decomposing around plant roots. It will also add a valuable amount of
materials nutrition to the soil to feed new plants.
 A horizon – the CONT.…
topsoil Loam is composed of sand, silt and clay in relatively
even concentration (about 40-40-20% concentration
 E horizon – thin
respectively. It generally contain more nutrients and
layer, boundary
humus than sandy soils, have better infiltration and
between A and B
drainage than silty soils, and are easier to till than clay
horizons
soils. Loams are gritty, moist, and retain water easily. It
- The
retains nutrients well and retains water while still
accumulation area
allowing the water to flow freely.
-
 B horizon – the subsoil
4. What are the traits of the soil perfectly suited for a
- Where clays, soluble salts, and leached humus
large building or major highway?
are stored
Answer:
 C horizon – composed of disintegrated rocks and
- Should be low in organic matter content and native
other particles from the parent material
fertility, low in ability to retain moisture and nutrients,
 R horizon – parent material, composed of huge rock
low in cation exchange and buffer capacities, and
which is the foundation
rapidly permeable (i.e., they permit rapid movement of
water and air). Sandy soils usually have high bulk
Soil nutrients
densities and are therefore well-suited for road
 3 major elements composing the soils: foundations and building sites.
- Nitrogen
- Phosphorus
- Potassium 6. What does your pH value mean?
 These are the main components of commercial Answer:
fertilizers Soils may be classified as either acid or alkaline on
 The soil organic matter came from decaying plants a pH scale running from 0, the most acid to 14, the most
and animals such as the complex substance humus alkaline, with a neutral at 7. Acidity is a function of
 Decomposition of organic materials or other waste chemical composition of parent material, rate of
materials can cause the decrease the soil pH making leaching which in turn is closely related to the amount
the soil acidic
of rainfall. Plants mostly prefer neutral or slightly acid
soil.

7. What factors affect the soil pH?


Answer:
Parent material – either basic or acid rock
Rainfall - Water passing through the soil leaches basic
nutrients such as calcium and magnesium from the soil.
They are replaced by acidic elements such as aluminum
and iron. For this reason, soils formed under high
rainfall conditions are more acidic than those formed
under arid (dry) conditions.
Cont.
Fertilizers – both organic and chemical fertilizer makes
the soil acidic
Plant uptake- Plants take up basic cations such as K+,
Ca++, and Mg++. When these are removed from the
soil, they are replaced with H+ in order to maintain
neutrality.
Organic or decaying matter – makes the soil acidic