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ESE-2017 : Prelims Exam UPSC Engineering Services Examination Answer Key & Solutions Test 3: Part
ESE-2017 : Prelims Exam UPSC Engineering Services Examination Answer Key & Solutions Test 3: Part
ESE-2017 : Prelims Exam UPSC Engineering Services Examination Answer Key & Solutions Test 3: Part

ESE-2017 : Prelims Exam

UPSC Engineering Services Examination

Answer Key & Solutions

Test 3: Part Syllabus Technical

Heat and Mass Transfer

1.1.1.1.1.

(a)

16.16.16.16.16. (b)

31.31.31.31.31. (b)

46.46.46.46.46. (c)

2.2.2.2.2.

(c)

17.17.17.17.17. (d)

32.32.32.32.32. (b)

47.47.47.47.47. (b)

3.3.3.3.3.

(d)

18.18.18.18.18. (a)

33.33.33.33.33. (d)

48.48.48.48.48. (c)

4.4.4.4.4.

(c)

19.19.19.19.19. (c)

34.34.34.34.34. (b)

49.49.49.49.49. (b)

5.5.5.5.5.

(b)

20.20.20.20.20. (c)

35.35.35.35.35. (b)

50.50.50.50.50. (c)

6.6.6.6.6.

(b)

21.21.21.21.21. (d)

36.36.36.36.36. (c)

51.51.51.51.51. (b)

7.7.7.7.7.

(c)

22.22.22.22.22. (a)

37.37.37.37.37. (b)

52.52.52.52.52. (b)

8.8.8.8.8.

(b)

23.23.23.23.23. (d)

38.38.38.38.38. (a)

53.53.53.53.53. (d)

9.9.9.9.9.

(c)

24.24.24.24.24. (c)

39.39.39.39.39. (b)

54.54.54.54.54. (a)

10.10.10.10.10.

(d)

25.25.25.25.25. (b)

40.40.40.40.40. (d)

55.55.55.55.55. (a)

11.11.11.11.11.

(d)

26.26.26.26.26. (d)

41.41.41.41.41. (a)

56.56.56.56.56. (b)

12.12.12.12.12.

(b)

27.27.27.27.27. (c)

42.42.42.42.42. (a)

57.57.57.57.57. (c)

13.13.13.13.13.

(a)

28.28.28.28.28. (a)

43.43.43.43.43. (b)

58.58.58.58.58. (b)

14.14.14.14.14.

(b)

29.29.29.29.29. (d)

44.44.44.44.44. (a)

59.59.59.59.59. (d)

15.15.15.15.15.

(b)

30.30.30.30.30. (a)

45.45.45.45.45. (a)

60.60.60.60.60. (c)

O FFLIN E

TEST SERIES

MECHANICAL

ENGINEERING

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

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DETAILED EXPLANATIONS

1.1.1.1.1. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a) As the temperature increases, momentum of gas molecules increases due to which collision rate increases, which ultimately increases the thermal conductivity. While pressure change near atmospheric condition does not affect thermal conductivity of gas.

2.2.2.2.2. (c)(c)(c)(c)(c) Poisson’s equation shows steady state heat conduction with heat generation inside the body.

3.3.3.3.3. (d)(d)(d)(d)(d) Consider composite plane wall

T 1 T 2 Equivalent k 1 k 2 δ δ
T 1
T 2
Equivalent
k 1
k 2
δ
δ
T 1 T 2 k eq. 2δ
T 1
T 2
k eq.

So rate of heat transfer for should be same

where

4.4.4.4.4. (c)(c)(c)(c)(c)

− − q = = δδ δ + δ δ δ + = = k
q
=
=
δδ
δ
+
δ
δ
δ
+
=
=
k eq
+
k eq = equivalent thermal conductivity
Q
r c
r

If insulation is provided upto critical radius only it will increase the rate of heat transfer.

Mechanical Engineering | Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 1 3 5.5.5.5.5. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b) For

Mechanical Engineering| Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 1 3 5.5.5.5.5. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b) For dimension of

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Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer

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5.5.5.5.5. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b) For dimension of ‘h’, as its units W/m 2 K

or

Dimension of ‘h’ is [ML 0 θ 1 T 3 ] [Mθ 1 T 3 ]

=

=

×

×

=

θ

6.6.6.6.6. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b) For same heat flux and temperature difference as

As per given condition

Q

Δ

k 1

δ

δ

2

2

=

Δ

δ

= constant =

=

=

=

×

⎠ δ

δ

1 W/mK, δ 1 = 50 cm, k 2 = 2 W/mK

⎜ ⎝

=

δ

= 100 cm

7.7.7.7.7. (c)(c)(c)(c)(c) As for one dimensional heat transfer across a slab

As given

So from equation (i)

∂ ∂ x
x

x

T

x

=

=

α

[without heat generation]

50 + 10 x + 5 x 2 + 2x 3

= 10 + 12 x

= 22

x = ⎛ ⎞ ∂ ∂ α ⎜ ∂ = ⎟ ⎜ ∂ x ⎟
x =
∂ α ⎜
=
x
x =
∂ 0.044 °C/h
=

= 2 × 10 3 × 22

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8.8.8.8.8.

9.9.9.9.9.

10.10.10.10.10.

12.12.12.12.12.

(b)(b)(b)(b)(b) Geometric radius of a hollow sphere is given by

r =

×
×

=

×
×

= 6 cm

[where r 1 = inner radius; r 2 = outer radius]

(c)(c)(c)(c)(c)

As

k ins

h o

=

=

0.2 W/mK 4 W/m 2 K

0.2 W/mK 4 W/m 2 K

Critical radius of insulation r c =

=

= 0.05 m = 5 cm

(d)(d)(d)(d)(d) As for spherical device critical radius of insulation is given by

r c

=

here

and

k ins

h o

0.1 W/mK

= = 5 W/m 2 K

×

So, as radius of the device is greater than critical radius of insulation, os no insulation should be

provided. So option (d) is correct i.e. “no insulation”.

r c

=

= 0.04 m = 4 cm

(b)(b)(b)(b)(b) As per Fouriers law:

Q

k

A

Δ

δ

area

=

= thermal conductivity

=

ΔT = temperature difference

δ = thickness

So from

Q

=

Δ

δ

For a given heat flow rate, temperature drop across two surfaces. ΔT ∝ δ(thickness)

ΔT

and

So temperature drop will be high if thermal conductivity of wall is less.

ΔT

[inversely proportional to ‘k’]

Mechanical Engineering | Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 1 5 13.13.13.13.13. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a) Material

Mechanical Engineering| Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 1 5 13.13.13.13.13. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a) Material Conductivity (W/mK)

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Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer

15

13.13.13.13.13. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a)

Material Conductivity (W/mK) Diamond 2300 Silver 410 Water 0.61 Freon 0.0083
Material
Conductivity (W/mK)
Diamond
2300
Silver
410
Water
0.61
Freon
0.0083

14.14.14.14.14. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b) Temperature distribution for the above condition is given by

Putting values

 

=

=

⎣ ⎢

x

⎥ ⎦

⎜ ⎝

⎟ ⎠

15.15.15.15.15. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b) Drawing resistance circuit:

200 – T = , T = 162.5°C R 2 A R 1 B C
200 – T
=
, T = 162.5°C
R 2
A
R 1
B
C

R 3

So,

R 1

R 2

R 23

R eq

=

=

=

=

δ δ = δ δ R 3 = = × ⎛ δ ⎞⎛ δ ⎞
δ
δ
=
δ
δ
R 3 =
=
×
δ
⎞⎛
δ
⎜ ⎝
⎠⎝ ⎟⎜
⎟ ⎠
δ
=
=
+
δ
× ⎜ ⎝
⎠ ⎟
δ
δ
+
R 1 + R 23 =

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16.16.16.16.16.

(b)(b)(b)(b)(b)

Q conv. Q rad T > 300°C
Q conv.
Q rad
T > 300°C

T > 300°C

i.e. high temperature radiation will be there. And also convection will take place simultaneously.

Q total

=

Q conv. + Q rad.

Both heat transfers taking place together so resistances will be in parallel.

17.17.17.17.17.

18.18.18.18.18.

19.19.19.19.19.

21.21.21.21.21.

22.22.22.22.22.

23.23.23.23.23.

(d)(d)(d)(d)(d) All the points causes non-linear temperature profile.

(a)(a)(a)(a)(a) For cylindrical surface temperature profile will be logarithmic and for spherical it will be hyperbolic.

(c)(c)(c)(c)(c) For constant heat flux is

here

and

(

δ 1

k 1

)

=

=

=

=

(

)

δ

b, δ 2 = 2b

k;

k 2 = 2k

(

)

2T = 354°C

T = 177°C

=−

(

)

δ

(d)(d)(d)(d)(d) In region ‘D’ bubbles cover the hot solid surface and forms a blanket. Now as in bubbles gas are filled and also it occurs at very high temperature so radiation heat transfer dominates over others.

(a)(a)(a)(a)(a) In this case liquid above the hot surface is stagnant and its motion near the surface is due to free convection.

(d)(d)(d)(d)(d)

Fourier number, f 0 =

τ

Mechanical Engineering | Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 17 25.25.25.25.25. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b) δ δ
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Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer
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25.25.25.25.25.
(b)(b)(b)(b)(b)
δ
δ ;
Biot number =
or =
=
26.26.26.26.26.
(d)(d)(d)(d)(d)

27.27.27.27.27.

28.28.28.28.28.

29.29.29.29.29.

30.30.30.30.30.

32.32.32.32.32.

i.e.

As time constant, t =

t

h large

=

ρ

t will be small

(c)(c)(c)(c)(c)

ν

Prandtl number =

Prandtl number > 1

α

If

Hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness will be more and vice-versa.

(a)(a)(a)(a)(a) Reynold analogy shows inter-relationship between fluid friction and Newton’s Law of viscosity. According

to this

x

ρ

= Stanton No. =

x

(d)(d)(d)(d)(d) Critical value of Reynold number at which thermal boundary layer changes from laminar to turbulent depends on all the points as given above.

(a)(a)(a)(a)(a) Grashoff number is related to free convection.

(b)(b)(b)(b)(b) Under constant heat flux condition and for fully developed laminar flow through pipe Nusselt

number is given as

Nu

=

=

here

d = diameter = 10 cm

k

= conductivity of fluid = 0.11 W/mK

×

=

h

= 4.8 W/m 2 K

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33.33.33.33.33.

36.36.36.36.36.

38.38.38.38.38.

39.39.39.39.39.

40.40.40.40.40.

41.41.41.41.41.

(d)(d)(d)(d)(d)

As surface area of cube = 6a 2

= 6 × 10 2 × 10 4 m 2

= 0.06 m 2

Heat transfer rate, Q = hAΔt

= 5 × 0.06 × (320 – 20) = 90 W

(c)(c)(c)(c)(c) As thickness of hydrodynamic boundary layer for parabolic velocity

For constant Prandtl no.

x x δ = = ⎛ ρ x ⎞ x ⎜ ⎝ μ ⎟ ⎠
x
x
δ
=
=
⎛ ρ x ⎞
x
⎜ ⎝
μ
⎟ ⎠
δ∝
x
δ
δ t
x
δ x
=
x
δ
x
δ
=
x
δ t

(a)(a)(a)(a)(a) Schmidt number is the ratio of kinematic viscosity to diffusion coefficient in mass transfer.

S c

=

ν

(b)(b)(b)(b)(b) Pohlhausen relation shows how thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layers are related with each other.

(d)(d)(d)(d)(d) In addition to the above, other assumptions are as follows:

thermal conductivity of fin material is constant.

 

heat transfer coefficient over the surface is constant.

 

one-dimensional heat transfer.

(a)(a)(a)(a)(a)

 

As fin effectiveness, =

  As fin effectiveness, ∈ =  
 
 

∈∝

⇒ ∈∝ ∝ ∝ ∝

⇒ ∈∝ ∝ ∝ ∝

⇒ ∈∝ ∝ ∝ ∝

⇒ ∈∝ ∝ ∝ ∝

So perimeter and thermal conductivity should be high and sectional area and heat transfer coefficient of ambient medium should be low.

Mechanical Engineering | Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 19 42.42.42.42.42. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a) Efficiency of
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Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer
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42.42.42.42.42.
(a)(a)(a)(a)(a)
Efficiency of infinitely long fin
=
=
=
×
43.43.43.43.43.
(b)(b)(b)(b)(b)
As fin efficiency,
η
=
η∝
So as length increases, efficiency decreases.
Whereas increase in length increases heat transfer area so heat transfer rate will increase which
increases effectiveness of fin.
44.44.44.44.44.
(a)(a)(a)(a)(a)
As heat loss from infinity large fin
=
(
)
q ∞
Heat loss from finite fin q f =
(
)
or
or
for both to be equal tanh mL ≥ 0.99
mL ≥ 2.646
≥ 2.646
L ≥
1
So
L
1 m
45.45.45.45.45.
(a)(a)(a)(a)(a)
NTU =
As
NTU ∝
A
Where
A = area of heat transfer
NTU is associated with size of the heat exchanger.
47.47.47.47.47.
(b)(b)(b)(b)(b)
(
+
)
As parallel flow H.E. ∈ =
+
If capacity ratio i.e. C
=
1
=
48.48.48.48.48.
(c)(c)(c)(c)(c)
In space vehicle compact heat exchangers are used to reduce the space requirement.
In air preheters recuperative i.e. indirect contact type heat exchangers are used.

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49.49.49.49.49. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b) As outlet temperature of cold fluid is more than outlet temperature of hot fluid, so it will be counterflow heat exchanger.

50.50.50.50.50. (c)(c)(c)(c)(c) Let C 1 and C 2 be capacities of hot and cold gases

450°C hot gas 170°C cold gas C 1 (450 – 150) = C 2 (170
450°C
hot gas
170°C
cold gas
C 1 (450 – 150) = C 2 (170 – 20)

150°C

20°C

Capacity ratio,

51.51.51.51.51. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b)

= = 0.5 T h i = 150°C oil T he T ce = 40°C
=
= 0.5
T h i = 150°C
oil
T he
T ce = 40°C
110°C
cooling fluid
T c i

For oil

and for coolant

m 0

c 0

m c

m 0 c 0 (T h i T he )

T ci

=

5 kg/s

=

15 J/kgK

=

10 kg/s, c c = 30 J/kgK

=

m c c c (T ce T c i )

=

30°C

52.52.52.52.52. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b)

As for capacity ratio = 1 in counter flow heat exchanger, effectiveness is given by

53.53.53.53.53. (d)(d)(d)(d)(d)

As

where

As here

=

+

+

=

+

+

=

=

NTU =

= A = Heat transfer area

U

Overall heat transfer coefficient

C min = Heat capacity (minimum of both)

U

= 120 W/m 2 K,

Mechanical Engineering | Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 2 1 ⇒ 54.54.54.54.54. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a)

Mechanical Engineering| Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 2 1 ⇒ 54.54.54.54.54. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a) A =

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54.54.54.54.54. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a)

A =

NTU =

25 m 2 , C min = 1000 J/K

×

= 3

Radiosity = Energy emitted from surface + Reflected energy

J

=

εE b + ρG

55.55.55.55.55. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a) Wavelength range for thermal radiation lies between 10 1 to 10 2 μm.

56.56.56.56.56. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b) As if body 1 enclosed by body 2 and if body 2 is large

A 2 >>> A 1

+

⎝ ⎜ ε

ε

=

ε

= ε

If size difference between them is small then A 1 can not be neglected in comparison to A 2 .

57.57.57.57.57. (c)(c)(c)(c)(c) Absorptivity and emissivity of a grey body does not depends on wavelength of radiation.

58.58.58.58.58. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b) As per Wein’s displacement law

here

λT =

2898 μmK

T = 1449K

λ

=

2 μm

59.59.59.59.59. (d)(d)(d)(d)(d) For spherical shape as radiation will be emitted in perpendicular direction and emitted radiation will not collide with its surface so view factor will be zero with respect to itself.

60.60.60.60.60. (c)(c)(c)(c)(c) As according to Stefan Boltzmann’s law

E b

T 4

= ⎜ ⎝

⎟ ⎠

=

+

⎞⎛⎞ =

⎟⎜⎟

+

= 1 : 16

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61.61.61.61.61. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a)

For surface 1 area

=

π rs = πr(3r) = 3πr 2 = A 1

For surface 2 area ‘A 2 ’ = πr 2

As

62.62.62.62.62. (c)(c)(c)(c)(c)

As area of surface 1.

A 1 F 12

(3πr 2 )F 12

F 12

F 21

A 1

= A 2 F 21 πr 2 (1) = 0.33 = = 1 1 2
=
A 2 F 21
πr 2 (1)
= 0.33
=
=
1
1
2
r
=
2πr 2

for surface 2, πr 2 =

A 2

From reciprocity relation, A 1 F 12 = A 2 F 21

As F 21

=

1

(2πr 2 )F 12

=

πr 2 (1)

F 12

=

0.5

63.63.63.63.63. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a)

As

Radiosity

= Emissive power + Fraction of irradiation that is reflected

J

=

εE b + ρG

J

=

εE b + (1 – ε)G

[As α + ρ = 1 and α = ε]

30

=

0.5 × E b + (1 – 0.5) × 50

E b

=

10 W/m 2

64.64.64.64.64. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a) Emissivity of a body will be equal to its absorptivity only if the body is in thermal equilibrium with its surrounding.

65.65.65.65.65. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b) Total emissive power from a ideal surface in hemispherical direction will be equal to π times of intensity of radiation.

66.66.66.66.66. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a) As if shield and radiating surfaces have same emissivity

After placing ‘n’ shields rate of heat exchange = (

+

) × rate of heat exchange without shields

67.67.67.67.67. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b) For gases H 2 , O 2 , N 2 transmissivity is practically unity.

68.68.68.68.68. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a) In radiation, heat transfer takes place by mechanism of photon emission or electromagnetic wave emission which does not require any material medium. For example : Energy emitted by sun.

Mechanical Engineering | Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 2 3 69.69.69.69.69. (d)(d)(d)(d)(d) Assertion

Mechanical Engineering| Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 2 3 69.69.69.69.69. (d)(d)(d)(d)(d) Assertion is wrong,

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Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer

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69.69.69.69.69. (d)(d)(d)(d)(d) Assertion is wrong, as in case of steady state heat conduction with constant thermal conductivity in a plane will if there is heat generation then profile will not be linear. So temperature profile depends not only on thermal conductivity but also on various other parameters.

As thermal diffusivity, α =

ρ

⇒ α∝ k i.e. thermal conductivity high = α will be high.

70.70.70.70.70. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a) In dropwise condensation when vapour comes in contact of solid surface it get condensed and it does not wet the surface so no film formation takes place. Liquid drops falls freely and thus plate surface will be exposed for vapour and free heat transfer takes place.

71.71.71.71.71. (a)(a)(a)(a)(a) If thermocouple will have low value of specific heat then it will require low amount of heat to change its temperature i.e. less time to come in equilibrium with its surroundings and will give quick response.

72.72.72.72.72. (d)(d)(d)(d)(d) Prandtl number for mercury is very low and is about 0.025 at 20°C because its thermal conductivity is high.

or

Pr

Pr

=

μ

73.73.73.73.73. (b)(b)(b)(b)(b) For fully developed laminar flow through pipe

Nu

=

, in case of fully developed laminar flow

h = constant

While in turbulent flow

Nu = So, here Nusselt number is not constant.

Nu = Constant

=

c Re 0.8 Pr a
c Re 0.8
Pr a

74.74.74.74.74. (d)(d)(d)(d)(d)

As fin effectiveness, fin

For infinitely long fin

So,

So, fin will be more effective in a medium having small value of ‘h’. Hence (A) is wrong.

having small value of ‘h’. Hence (A) is wrong. ∈ ∝ 75.75.75.75.75. (d)(d)(d)(d)(d) Assertion is wrong.

75.75.75.75.75. (d)(d)(d)(d)(d) Assertion is wrong. Recuperators are also known as direct transfer type or indirect contact type heat exchangers in which heat transfer between two fluids takes place through a dividing wall. Reason is correct.