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Go outdoors at night and look up at the sky. There

are twinkling points of light everywhere. You are
seeing thousands of stars that are millions of miles
away. The stars look tiny because they are so
distant. But if you could see those stars up close,
you would see huge balls of fire.

The closest star to you on Earth is the Sun. The Sun

is a star at the center of our solar system. Our Sun is
about 4.6 billion years old. There are stars that are
older or younger than our Sun. There are stars that
are much bigger. There are stars that have exploded
and stars that are just being born.

A star is a big ball of hot, glowing gas. The gas is mostly
hydrogen and helium. Stars give off heat, light, and other
kinds of energy.

A star has several layers. The part at the center of a star

is called its core. A star shines because of its core. The
core is so hot and tightly packed that atoms crunch
together. Atoms are tiny bits of matter much too small to
see. Hydrogen atoms crunch together and become helium
atoms. This is called nuclear fusion. Nuclear fusion gives
off enough energy to make the stars shine.

Stars are part of groups called galaxies. Our Sun is in the
Milky Way Galaxy.
People in ancient times grouped stars by patterns they
thought they saw in the sky. The patterns are called
constellations. They thought the patterns looked like
people, animals, or objects. The Big Dipper is a
constellation of seven stars in the shape of a dipping ladle.
Astronomers map where the stars are in the sky using the


Stars come in different colors. They can be deep red,
orange, yellow, white, or even blue. The color of a star
depends on how hot the star is. The coolest stars are
reddish and the hottest stars are bluish.

It is hard to imagine how hot a star can be. The

temperature at the surface of red stars is about 5400°
Fahrenheit (about 3000° Celsius). Yellow stars have
surface temperatures about 11,000° Fahrenheit (about
6000° Celsius). Our Sun is a yellow star. White stars are
about 18,000° Fahrenheit (about 10,000° Celsius)!

A star looks as if it is just one color. Starlight, however, is

made up of many colors. Light from our Sun has all the
colors of the rainbow. Astronomers study the light of other
stars. Patterns in the light can tell astronomers what the
stars are made of and how hot they are.


Some stars in the sky look brighter than others. Some
stars really are brighter. Other stars just look brighter
because they are closer.

Some stars are not nearly as bright as the Sun. Other

stars are as much as 500,000 times brighter.
The Sun is huge compared to Earth. If the Sun were
hollow, a million Earths could fit inside it!

Astronomers compare the size of other stars to the size of

the Sun. For example, a star called Betelgeuse is about
1,000 times bigger than the Sun.


Stars are born from swirling clouds of gas and dust.
Gravity pulls the gas and dust together. The gas and dust
form a spinning ball. As it spins, it gets hotter. The gas
and dust get tightly packed. Finally, nuclear fusion begins
and the star starts to shine.

There are different stages in a star’s life, just as there are
different stages in the lives of people. Right after a star is
born it starts to get smaller. After a million years of
shrinking, the star enters the main sequence of its life.

After about 10 billion years, the star’s core runs out of

fuel. The star grows many times larger than it was during
the main sequence. At this stage the star is called a red
giant. What happens next depends on the size of the star.


Medium-sized stars like our Sun become white dwarfs.
White dwarfs can explode. The outside gas layers blow off
and make clouds called nebulas. The core keeps shrinking.
A spoonful of white dwarf core could weigh more than a
dump truck. After several billion years, the star loses all
its energy and becomes a cold black dwarf.
Really big stars become supergiants. Supergiants become
supernovas, which are big exploding stars. The explosion
sends gas and dust into space to make new stars. The
core gets packed tighter and tighter. Some cores then turn
to iron and become neutron stars. Some supernova cores
turn into black holes, which swallow everything around
them in space. Not even light can escape from a black


Stars beyond our solar system are too far away for a
spacecraft to reach. The closest star is Proxima Centauri.
It is more than 4 light-years from Earth. A light-year is the
distance light travels in a year, about 6 trillion miles
(about 9 trillion kilometers) Most stars are much farther
away than Proxima Centauri. No spaceship can travel fast
enough to reach even the nearest star during an
astronaut’s lifetime. It takes billions of years for even light
to reach the most distant stars.
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