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STUDIES

IN THE BOOK OF JOB

A. GUILLAUME

M.A., D.D.

IN

STUDIES

THE

BOOK OF JOB

WITH A NEW TRANSLATION

EDITED BY

JOHN MACDONALD

SUPPLEMENT II TO THE ANNUAL OF LEEDS UNIVERSITY ORIENTAL SOCIETY

LEIDEN

E. J. BRILL

1968

University Oriental Society IN THE NETHERLANDS © Copyright 1968 by Leeds All rights reserved. No
University Oriental Society IN THE NETHERLANDS
University
Oriental Society
IN
THE
NETHERLANDS

©

Copyright 1968 by Leeds

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced 01 translated in any form, by print, photoprint, microfilm or any other means without written permission from the publisher

PRINTED

CONTENTS Editor's Preface VII Transliteration of Hebrew and Arabic Consonants IX List of Abbreviations of
CONTENTS
Editor's Preface
VII
Transliteration of Hebrew and Arabic Consonants
IX
List of Abbreviations of Titles and Names
.
.
.
XI
PART A: Introduction .
1
PART B: Translation
17
PART
C: Notes to the Translation
77

A PPENDIX: An Archaeological ·and Philological Note on Job

xxxii. 19 .

I NDICES:

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

I.

Index ofBiblical Passages

IL

Index of Arabic Words

III.

Index ofProper Names

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

141

145

146 148
146
148
EDITOR'S PREFACE The late Professor A. Guillaume was a pioneer in the study of the

EDITOR'S PREFACE

The late Professor A. Guillaume was a pioneer in the study of the Book of Job in that he took an independent line in his researches. He sought diligently and persistently for many years for the proper milieu of the writer and his language, style and outlook. For a con­ siderable time, as he once told me, he had fe lt a lone wolf in this regard. Perhaps Professor Guillaume, having been the holder of professorships in both Hebrew and Arabic, was uniquely endowed with the necessary knowledge for such research. Many years ago­ and even quite recently-there were few who supported his views on job, but today there are many who believe with him that the milieu of the Book of Job was Arabian, and particularly Hijazi. For over a year before his death he had been in correspondence with me about the publication of his book, and it had already been agreed that the book should appear as the second Supplement to the Society's Annual. Unhappily he had not quite completed his work at the time of his death. Much of his material had not yet been arranged and made ready for publication, and some portions of his work were apparently not yet written out, e.g. Chapters xxv-xxviii of the Notes to the Translation. Fortunately his son John was successful in sorting his father's papers and arranging them in order. To him I am deeply indebted, for my task was thus made considerably easier. My task, however,· has been difficult in certain respects. I did not always know Professor Guillaume's exact intention and many details in the Notes were far from clear in the form in which they survived. One thing was certain ; I would not change the meaning of anything he wrote in any way. Thus it was by careful research that I was able to clarify many passages and determine the precise form and meaning intended. Occasionally I have inserted a word or words into the Notes, but always within square brackets. Throughout the Notes, and in a: few places in the Translation, some short and some long passages have been added within square brack­ ets. I am entirely responsible for these. I felt that the many gaps in the available material should be filled by the insertion of relevant ma­ terial from other recent writings by the author. For this I had John Guillaume's agreement. In order to reduce the amount of material

recent writings by the author. For this I had John Guillaume's agreement. In order to reduce
recent writings by the author. For this I had John Guillaume's agreement. In order to reduce
recent writings by the author. For this I had John Guillaume's agreement. In order to reduce

VIII

EDITOR ' S PREFACE

which was lacking in the manuscript I inserted passages from the following articles or chapters (abbreviated as indicated) :

(1) "The First Book to Come Out of Arabia" - PB, (2) "Hebrew and Arabic Lexicography" - HAL, (3) "The Arabic Background of the Book of Job" from Promise

and Fulfilment - PF

(4) "The Unity of the Book of Job" - UBJ.

See the List of Abbreviations of Titles for further bibliographical details. Transliteration of Hebrew and Arabic (and occasionally Assyrian and Syriac) words was a problem, since the author had not reached the stage of standardizing it. I am therefore responsible for the trans­ literation throughout and I hope not too many errors will be encount­ ered. A List of Hebrew and Arabic Transliteration has been added. It is evident that the Translation was completed some considerable time before the Notes and the author had not yet harmonized them. Taking the quotations of his own translation as found in the Notes as his latest work, I have adjusted the Translation to match it, but without altering the sense of the Translation as left by him. In addition I have added the List of Contents, the List of Abbre­ viations of Titles, and the three Indices. By the kind permission of Professor F. F. Bruce I have included as an Appendix a short article published in P.E.Q. in 1961 . All in all the attempt has been made to include as much as possible of Professor Guillaume's writings on the Book of Job. As the first work on the subject devoted entirely to the 'Arabian' theory this book is hereby published by Leeds University Oriental Society in memory of him, the Society's first President.

October 1967

by Leeds University Oriental Society in memory of him, the Society's first President. October 1967 John

John M ACDONALD

by Leeds University Oriental Society in memory of him, the Society's first President. October 1967 John

Jim

Ha'

Jim Ha' TRANSLITERATION OF HEBREW AND ARABIC CONSONANTS HEBREW A leph Bet Gimel Dalet He Waw
Jim Ha' TRANSLITERATION OF HEBREW AND ARABIC CONSONANTS HEBREW A leph Bet Gimel Dalet He Waw
Jim Ha' TRANSLITERATION OF HEBREW AND ARABIC CONSONANTS HEBREW A leph Bet Gimel Dalet He Waw

TRANSLITERATION OF HEBREW AND ARABIC CONSONANTS

HEBREW

A leph

Bet

Gimel

Dalet

He

Waw

Zain

I:Iet

CONSONANTS HEBREW A leph Bet Gimel Dalet He Waw Zain I:Iet bfbh g d h w

bfbh

g

d

h

w

z

J:.i

Tet Yod y Kaph k/kh Lamed 1 Mem m Niln n Samekh s 'Ayin Pe
Tet
Yod
y
Kaph
k/kh
Lamed
1
Mem
m
Niln
n
Samekh s
'Ayin
Pe
p/ph
Tsade
?
Qoph
q
Resh
r
Sin
s
Shin
s
Taw
t
p/ph Tsade ? Qoph q Resh r Sin s Shin s Taw t ARABIC Alif Ba'

ARABIC

Alif

Ba'

Ta'

Tha '

I:Ia '

Ba'

Dal

Dhal

Ra'

Zain

Sin

Shin

Sad

:Qad

Ta'

Z:a '

'Ayin

Ghain

Fa'

Qaf

Kaf

Lam

Mim

Nun

Waw

Ya'

'Ayin Ghain Fa' Qaf Kaf Lam Mim Nun Waw Ya' b t th j J:.i IJ.

b

t

th

j

J:.i

IJ.

d

dh

r

z

s

s

<;l

t

?

'Ayin Ghain Fa' Qaf Kaf Lam Mim Nun Waw Ya' b t th j J:.i IJ.

g

f

q

k

1

m

n

h

w

y

'Ayin Ghain Fa' Qaf Kaf Lam Mim Nun Waw Ya' b t th j J:.i IJ.

LIST OF ABBREVATIONS OF TITLES AND

NAMES

A.V.

Authorised Version

B.D.B.

Brown, Driver & Briggs (Hebrew & English Lexicon)

BH

Biblia Hebraica, R. Kittel/P. Kahle

B SOAS Bulletin of the School of Oriental & African Studies

CIS

Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum

DSis

Dead Sea Isaiah Scroll

FB

"First Book to Come out of Arabia, The" in Islamic Studies, Vol. III, HI, No. 2, 1964, pp. 152-166

G.K.

Gesenius-Kautzsch, Hebrew Grammar, tr. Cowley

HAL

Hebrew and Arabic Lexicography: A Comparative Study. In four parts, in Abr-Nahrain Vols. I-IV (1959-65)

I.C.C.

International Critical Commentary

I.C.C. International Critical Commentary

JRAS

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society

JTS

Journal of Theological Studies

K.B.

Koehler-Baumgartner Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros

M.T.

Masoretic Text

NSI

North Semitic Inscriptions (G.A. Cooke)

North Semitic Inscriptions (G.A. Cooke)
 

O.T.

Old Testament

P.E.Q.

Palestine Exploration Quarterly

PF

Promise and Fulfilment (A. Guillaume)

R.V.

Revised Version

R.V.m.

Revised Version margin

UBJ

"Unity of the Book of Job, The" in Annual of Leeds University Oriental Society, Vol. IV, 1962-63, pp. 26-46.

ZDMG Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesel!schaft

University Oriental Society, Vol. IV, 1962-63, pp. 26-46. ZDMG Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesel!schaft
PART A INTRODUCTION It is all but universally held that the language of Job is

PART A

PART A INTRODUCTION It is all but universally held that the language of Job is a.product

INTRODUCTION

It is all but universally held that the language of Job is a.product of the highest genius. Carlyle wrote that "There is nothing written, I think, in the Bible or out ofit, ofequal literary merit." 1 The inimitable beauty of the Authorised Version, its balanced cadences, and its unfaltering rhythm, have silenced the reader's critical faculty by creating such an atmosphere of aesthetic content, such a thrill of pure pleasure, that he is so carried along by its tide that he is unwil� ling to pause and ask himself if what he has read is always what the poet intended him to understand. However, Hebraists have always recognised that there are a great many words and expressions which have never been satisfactorily explained; and despite the many excellent commentaries on the Book of Job, the last of which in the English language was published as recently as 1947 and 1951, 2 hardly any of the more obscure passages have been elucidated, though commentators at home and abroad have shown great skill and ingenuity in explaining them away.

The fundamental reason for this lack of success lies in the centuries long failure to perceive that the book was written by a poet whose language was impregnated through and through with Arabic. Con­ sequently commentators did not see that the book must have been writtten in Arabia ; and furthermore that the very first chapter told them exactly when and almost exactly where it was written, or rather the time and place where Job lived, for the book could not have been written until Job had been· restored to health and wealth after his sickness and poverty. One who believes that he has something to contribute to the knowledge and understanding of a book in the Bible must make up his mind beforehand whether he should use the R.V. as the basis of his work and write explanatory and exegetical notes on sections or paragraphs and then notes in more detail on the individual verses

and then notes in more detail on the individual verses . 1 2 Leeds On Heroes,
and then notes in more detail on the individual verses . 1 2 Leeds On Heroes,

.

1 2 Leeds
1
2
Leeds

On Heroes, Lecture 2. The New Universal Library edn., p. 67.

W.B. Stevenson, The Poem of Job, The Schweich Lectures of the British Academy, London, 1947; and the same writer's Critical No tes on the Hebrew Te xt of the Poem of job, Aberdeen, 1951.

Critical No tes on the Hebrew Te xt of the Poem of job, Aberdeen, 1951. University

University Oriental Society Suppl. II

Critical No tes on the Hebrew Te xt of the Poem of job, Aberdeen, 1951. University
2
2

INTRODUCTION

2 INTRODUCTION contained therein; or whether he should limit himself to verses or passages which demand

contained therein; or whether he should limit himself to verses or

passages which demand a new translation or a new explanation. The

first is the method pursued in the commentaries of Peake, 1 and

Driver-and-Gray,2 and by almost all European commentators.

Stevenson's study is not a formal commentary, but a new translation

with a great many critical and exegetical notes. His second volume

great many critical and exegetical notes. His second volume is devoted to a more intensive study

is devoted to a more intensive study of the Hebrew text and versions.

In this latter respect he followed the plan of the I.C.C. which provides

in Part I 376 pages of text and commentary, and in Part II 350 pages

of philological notes.

For the general public of biblical students, discussions that presup­

pose knowledge of Hebrew and Arabic lexicography and the relation

of Aramaic to Arabic and to Hebrew, must be segregated in an ap­

pendix or second part of a study, while the facts that emerge from such

researches are left to speak for themselves in the first part of the book.

This is the method adopted here because this book is intended for

is the method adopted here because this book is intended for two classes of readers: the

two classes of readers: the biblical student and the specialist in Semitic

languages. For example when the former for the first time sees that

in xl. 17 the poet says that the tail of the hippopotan;i.us (behemot) is as

rigid as a cedar then he knows that the animal's tail is thick and stiff,

he will doubtless accept the correction and drop the R.V.'s "He

moveth his tail like a cedar" without further ado. Though he may

be ignorant of the shape and texture of the hippopotamus's tail he

knows full well that the cedar does not move with the wind any more

than the oak, for the cedar is a far more familiar sight to the English

today than it is to the inhabitants of its native Lebanon. On the other

hand the Semitics scholar will demand philological warrant for the

correction, and he will find it in its appropriate place in the Notes.

and he will find it in its appropriate place in the Notes. It could, one supposes,

It could, one supposes, be argued that the general trend of this

study is conservative. It may prove to be so; but though I confess

to an instinctive and deep rooted dislike of radical criticism of Holy

Scripture, I am not blind to the great contributions which biblical

critics have made to the understanding of the scriptures, and when I

enter the lists against theories held by some of them I do not use any

but the weapons of an Orientalist's armoury. For example, when I

repudiate the assertion that the speeches of Elihu are the interpolations

of a later writer, or when I claim that the thrillingly beautiful chapters

on the hippopotamus and the crocodile (leviathan) are the work of

1 Century Bible, 1955.

2 International Critical Commentary,

1921.

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION 3 the author of Job hi1Tiself I base my claims on the language of Arabia,

3

the author of Job hi1Tiself I base my claims on the language of Arabia, with which every section of the book abounds, a fact that has been ignored and overlooked for more than two thousand years. Since two of Europe's greatest Orientalists of the last generation, Theodore Noldeke and D. S. Margoliouth, both outstanding and in some respects unequalled Arabists, failed to see why so much of the language of Job was unintelligible to the writers of the ancient ver­ sions and to commentators today, one who makes the claim to have advanced where they failed to go forward must with all due modesty make good his claim. This can be done only by dealing at length with the philological problems that are involved. Here it must be added that were it not for the discovery of the inscription of Nabonidus which gives an account of his conquest and occupation of the principal oases of the J:Iijaz in the sixth century B.C., though it would have been possible to make out a strong case for an Arabian origin of the Book of Job philologically, without this historical evidence it would have been, and would have remained, little more than a theory. But with this and other archaeological discoveries before us it is possible to assert as a fact of history that this

us it is possible to assert as a fact of history that this wonderful book was

wonderful book was written in the I::Iijaz in the latter part .of the sixth century B.C. When and where the book was written has remained a mystery for more than two thousand years; and so the study and evaluation of the clues within the book have not only a profound interest inseparable from an ancient poem on man's faith in God while beset by sufferings physical, mental and spiritual, but also provide the excitement of a detective story. Probably because of the mention of Job side by side with Noah 1 and Daniel 2 in Ezek. xiv. 14 and 20, Jewish authorities in the Talmud 3 believed that Job was a contemporary of Moses, and that Moses himself was the author of the book. Others put it a little later in the time of Jacob; others in the days of the spies [of Joshua] ; others preferred the age of the Judges; others the time of the kingdom of Sheba in the tenth century; others held that Job was one of the exiles who returned from the Babylonian captivity in the sixth century.

.
.

1 The flood of Noah can now be dated c. 2850 B.C. See Prof. M.E.L. Mallo­ wan's authoritative work "Noah's Flood Reconsidered" in Iraq, xxvi, 1964,

pp. 62-82.

2 Not the Biblical Daniel, but a much earlier Daniel mentioned in the Ras Shamra tablets. a Baba Bathra, 14b.

62-82. 2 Not the Biblical Daniel, but a much earlier Daniel mentioned in the Ras Shamra

4

INTRODUCTION

The latter, as we have suggested above, hit upon the right date,

though whether they had any sound historical grounds for their

belief we have no means of determining. Except for the last theory

these opinions were based on midrashic interpretations all of which

have been discussed and rejected by modern scholars.I Lastly one

authority believed that Job lived in the days of Ahasuerus.

The great rabbi of the middle ages, Moses Maimonides, revived an

ancient theory that the basis of the book of Job is fiction "conceived

for the purpose of explaining the different views which people held on

divine providence", and he went on to say that "Those who assumed

that he has existed and that the book is historical are unable to deter­

mine when and where Job lived." 2

Jung wrote: "What we properly call instincts are physiological

urges and are perceived by the senses. But at the same time, they also

are perceived by the senses. But at the same time, they also manifest themselves in fantasies

manifest themselves in fantasies and often reveal their presence only

by symbolic images. These manifestations are the archetypes." 3

The archetype of innocent suffering was called Job. Whether the

original 'Job' was a historical character or a symbolic image is imma­

terial. The 'Job' of the Bible, whatever name may have been given

him at his circumcision, was a creature of flesh and blood who lived

in Saudi-Arabia in the sixth century B.C.

This, and the fact that Daniel is not the Daniel of the lions' den,4

explains the passage in Ezekiel: "Though these three men, Noah,

Daniel and Job, were in it, they should deliver but their own souls

by their righteousness."

Among modern scholars the theory that the story of Job's suf­

ferings is based on ancient tradition is almost universally held.

Indeed had Job not lived on in the popular memory it is difficult

had Job not lived on in the popular memory it is difficult to understand how and

to understand how and why the prophet should have mentioned·

understand how and why the prophet should have mentioned· him. However, when justice is done to

him. However, when justice is done to the allusions to historical

events and to local conditions at the time the book was written the

question whether or not the author was influenced by an ancient

tradition · of a righteous

cance.

Western Orienta.lists have proposed dates ranging from Moses to

the Ptolemies, and so have, as it were, gone one better (or worse)

sufferer sinks into comparative insignifi­

(or worse) sufferer sinks into comparative insignifi­ 1 2 3 4 See S. R. Driver, The

1

2

3

4

See S. R. Driver, The Book ofjob, Edinburgh, 1909, p. lxv.

Guide for the Perplexed, tr. M. Friedlander, London 1925, p. 296.

Jung, Man and his Symbols, p. 69.

Vide supra.

Guide for the Perplexed, tr. M. Friedlander, London 1925, p. 296. Jung, Man and his Symbols,
Guide for the Perplexed, tr. M. Friedlander, London 1925, p. 296. Jung, Man and his Symbols,
Guide for the Perplexed, tr. M. Friedlander, London 1925, p. 296. Jung, Man and his Symbols,
tions
tions
5
5

INTRODUCTION

than their Jewish predecessors. As recently as 1948 Pfeiffer 1 was

able to write: "Unfortunately he (the author) makes no allusion

to known historical events or persons, and consequently the chron­

ological clues are indirect, vague, and subject to various interpreta­

The only conclusions which may be regarded as generally

accepted is that the poet lived between 700 and 200 B. C. "

To a lesser degree the same uncertainty about the scene of the book

underlies all modern studies, though there is general agreement that

it was written outside Palestine. The fact that some rabbis held

that Job was a gentile would seem to indicate that it was recognised

that the bookwas not Palestinian in origin; but whether it was com­

posed in the country east of Palestine as far north as the Hauran,

or in or about Edom, is left in doubt, though the majority of modern

scholars hold to the belief that Edom is to be

The difficulty of determining even approximately what tribal

boundaries in Arabia were in succeeding centuries is notoriously

difficult. From the evidence that the Old Testament provides the

territory of the Edomites embraced the mountainous country be­

of the Edomites embraced the mountainous country be­ preferred. .,,,,,.- tween the Dead Sea and.the Gulf
of the Edomites embraced the mountainous country be­ preferred. .,,,,,.- tween the Dead Sea and.the Gulf

preferred.

.,,,,,.-

tween the Dead Sea and.the Gulf of Aqaba on the east of the Wadi

the Dead Sea and.the Gulf of Aqaba on the east of the Wadi Arabah and the

Arabah and the plateau west of it up to Qadesh; but whether it ex­

tended further south cannot be asserted without archaeological evi­

dence. This is lacking.

Now as it is fundamental to the argument of this commentary that

the underlying language is Arabic, Edom as the Old Testament wri­

ters understood the term is definitely excluded. Noldeke held the

view that the "language of the ancient Edomites probably resembled

that of Israel at least as closely as did the language of the Moabites

In the later period of their history the Edomites, like the Jews,

doubtless spoke the Aramaic language." 2 It must be borne in mind

that the names of the "dukes" and kings of Edom that are recorded

in Gen. xxxvi, save for one or two possible exceptions, are not names

save for one or two possible exceptions, are not names borne by Arabs.Thus if the book

borne by Arabs.Thus if the book of Job were of Edomite origin it

by Arabs.Thus if the book of Job were of Edomite origin it would be all but

would be all but impossible to understand how it was that so much of

its vocabulary was unintelligible to the rabbis and the writers of the

ancient versions. The Edomites were Israel's closest neighbours and

the last kings of the Jews, the House of Herod, were Edomite by race.

In fact, the poetry of the book of Job ought to have been as clear to

the Jewish reader as is the poetry of Robert Burns to an English

1 Introduction to the Old Testament, London 1952, p. 675.

2 Encyclopaedia Bib!ica, p. 1188.

7

7 6 INTRODUCTION r e a d e r . It may be true that occasionally
7 6 INTRODUCTION r e a d e r . It may be true that occasionally

6

INTRODUCTION

7 6 INTRODUCTION r e a d e r . It may be true that occasionally

reader. It may be true that occasionally the Scot used words which are not in use south of the border; but in all but a few instances the meaning is perfectly clear. Few Englishmen can have heard the word

airts, for example, but when they read (or sing), "Of the airts the wind can blaw", they know the meaning instinctively. The parallel may be pressed further: just as Scotland provided England with a dynasty which ruled both peoples, so the Edomites provided Israel with a short-lived line of kings who governed both Jews and Edomites with the same laws. John Hyrcanus (134-104 B.C.) had prepared the way for this fusion by forcibly converting large numbers of Edomites to Judaism. Bearing the facts in mind one must regard it as in the highest degree improbable that words of Edomite origin could have lost all meaning for Hebrew readers a few centuries after they had been written. To support the assertion made above that Job was written in the J:Iijaz in the second half of the sixth century B.C., proper names, allusions to historical events and to local conditions must be re­ examined in the light of recent archaeological discoveries. fa the order of their appearance in the Book of Job these are: 1

(i)

"The land of Uz" in i.

1.

(i) "The land of Uz" in i. 1.

(ii)

"The cows were ploughing" in i. 14 (not "the oxen" as in the

(iii)

R.V.). Note the parallel "she-asses". "The Sabeans plundered and took them away" in i. 15.

R.V.). Note the parallel "she-asses". "The Sabeans plundered and took them away" in i. 15.
 

(iv)

"The Chaldeans fitted out three detachments, raided the camels and carried them off. The herdsmen they slew without quarter" in i. 17.

(v)

"The caravans of Terna" in vi. 19.

 

(vi)

"Did I say 'Make me a gift and offer a bribe for me out of your

own substance?' Or, 'Deliver me from the adversary's hand and redeem me from the hand of the ruthless?' " in vi. 22. It may be but coincidence or it may be significant that the Ba­ bylonians are called 'ruthless' ('ariiJ by the Deutero-Isaiah, Job's contemporary, as well as by Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel. (vii) "He takes all heart from the chiefs of the local inhabitants

All this have

and causes them to wander in a pathless desert I seen with my own eyes" in xii. 24ff.

Before discussing the historical situation it will be well to underline the significance of these pointers. First of all, as we know now froi:n

1 In the course of the commentary other indications will be noted. ·

pointers. First of all, as we know now froi:n 1 In the course of the commentary
and INTRODUCTION 7 inscriptions that have been found in the neighbourhood of Medina and Khaybar,

and

and INTRODUCTION 7 inscriptions that have been found in the neighbourhood of Medina and Khaybar, the

INTRODUCTION

7

inscriptions that have been found in the neighbourhood of Medina

and Khaybar, the opening words of the book place the "land of U?"

(or <aU{) fairly

squarely

in Arabia.1

Secondly, as a straw in the wind will show the direction from which that wind is blowing so i. 14, which says that cows were ploughing while she-asses grazed peacefully near them, is most significant, for it was in the neighbourhood of Terna and Dedan (now al-<Ula) that Doughty 2 saw cows and not oxen put to the yoke. My own obser­ vations, which have been confirmed by Arab friends from almost all parts of the Arabian peninsula, lead to the conclusion that except in unusual circumstances in other parts of Arabia the male of the species is always put to the plough.

THE

H ISTORICAL B ACKGROUND

Now that it is clear that the scene of the book is the country today known as the I:lijaz, and politically in Arabia, what is needed is a demonstration from history of a train of circumstances which can explain how it was that Sabeans and Babylonians were able to plunder Job's cattle and slay his herdsmen ; how it was that he himself was'? hard put to it to find the means to redeem himself from slavery ; and ' how it was that the people of the oases were driven from their homes to take their sorry chance of survival in a waterless desert. Since T.G. Pinches in 1882 published the "Nabonidus-Cyrus Chronicle" 3 it has been known that Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon, was living in Terna for some years though, until Professor Smith published a "Verse account of Nabonidus" 4 oriental scholars were slow to believe that there was any truth in the record of a Ba­ bylonian king having travelled so far from his capital. Since then no voice has been raised against the genuineness and historical character of the story in the Chronicle. In 1956 stelae of extraordinary interest which throw a flood of light on Nabonidus' retreat to Arabia were discovered by the late Dr. D. S. Rice at Barran. The text was. transliterated and translated, and furnished with an erudite philological and historical commentary by Professor C.J. Gadd.5 On this work and the two others just

Professor C.J. Gadd.5 On this work and the two others just 1 A van den Branden,
Professor C.J. Gadd.5 On this work and the two others just 1 A van den Branden,

1 A van den Branden, Les Textes Thamoudeens de Phi/by, Louvain, 1956, II, p. 6.

2 Arabia Deserta

3 See now S. Smith, Babylonian Historical Texts, pp. 98 ff.

4 lb., pp . 27 ff.

5 "The Barran_ Inscriptions of Nabonidus" in Anatolian Studies, VIII, 1958,

pp . 35 ff.

8

INTRODUCTION

mentioned this section of this study is based. Doubt underlies the exact date of Nabonidus' departure from Babylon to Arabia. Professor Smith 1 on the basis of the records he had at his disposal puts the date of the occupation of Terna and the slaying of its "king" as 552 B.C. If this date is accepted (and it cannot be far wrong) then,� Nabonidus stayed in Arabia for ten years, he must have returned to Babylon in 542. He was certainly at Terna in the sixth year of his reign which was 550. Thus the date of the raids on Job's camels and the persecution of the local inhabitants can be fixed within close limits. Incidentally an indication that the writer was contemporary with events he describes-or at any rate was in contact with those who heard or saw what had happened-is latent in the note that the Babylonians surrounded the unfortunate herdsmen and their charges by splitting up their force into three detachments so that their prey had no chance of escape. It has been supposed quite naturally on the basis of the knowledge existing at the time that it was as a sequel to his campaign in Syria that Nabonidus followed his army east of the Jordan to Terna by way of the place called Adum(m)u.2 But the Barran inscription makes it abundantly clear that Nabonidus withdrew direct from Babylon to Terna. A popular insurrection which was stirred up by the priests in Babylon forced him, or at any rate, caused him, to leave his capital while the discontent of the people was exacerbated by epidemic and famine. The king had to abandon his project of restoring the temple of the moon god Sin, his divine patron, a project which was inspired by a dream which he believed emanated from the god. Nabonidus was convalescing in the Lebanon during a part of the year 554, and he did not command his troops in the Syrian campaign personally. Unfortunately the chronicle at the crucial point is mutil­ ated, but it records the capture of a place ending with the letters -dummu.3 Many authorities believe that this is the large oasis known today as al-Jawf of which the principal town is Dumatu-1-Jandal. If that be so it cannot be identified with the biblical Edom with

Oesterley.4

be identified with the biblical Edom with Oesterley.4 Professor Smith rejected the identification of Adumu with
be identified with the biblical Edom with Oesterley.4 Professor Smith rejected the identification of Adumu with
be identified with the biblical Edom with Oesterley.4 Professor Smith rejected the identification of Adumu with
be identified with the biblical Edom with Oesterley.4 Professor Smith rejected the identification of Adumu with

Professor Smith rejected the identification of Adumu with al-Jawf

i 2 Smith, op. cit., p. 37. a 4 Op. cit., p. 15.
i
2
Smith, op. cit., p. 37.
a
4
Op. cit., p. 15.

Op. cit., pp. 77 ff., 100.

So Oes terley in A History of Israel, Oxford, 1932, p. 15 and Sidney Smith

37.

Isaiah, Chapters XL-LV, London, 1944, p.

in A History of Israel, Oxford, 1932, p. 15 and Sidney Smith 37. Isaiah, Chapters XL-LV,
INTRODUCTION 9 because, as we have seen, at the time he wrote it was natural

INTRODUCTION

9

because, as we have seen, at the time he wrote it was natural to sup­

pose that Nabonidus came to Terna with his troops from Syria, and so would have had to traverse a long desert journey across the Nafud. But, as we know now, this, the principal argument against al-Jawf, no longer holds force.1 Either it was captured by Nabonidus himself when he marched from Babylon to Terna, or it was actually seized by the army that had been campaigning in Syria. As there is a direct ca­ ravan route from Babylon to al-Jawf the first alternative best meets · the situation. It is bad military strategy to leave a hostile force on one's lines of communication and though wells are to be found along this and most othertrade routes in Arabia the water and supplies of al-Jawf would be needed for Nabonidus' forces. Furthermore, in order to maintain his communications with Babylon it would be imperative to keep a firm grip on al-Jawf and no plausible reason for

to keep a firm grip on al-Jawf and no plausible reason for a failure to take

a failure to take such an elementary precaution can be advanced. Whether any of the Babylonian soldiers who had taken part in the Syrian campaign joined Nabonidus in Terna cannot be determined; but if they did, one would expect them to avoid the hazardous journey across the desert and to take the track that runs north of the Gulf of Aqaba and turns east to Terna some miles south of Tabuk. It is not impossible, of course, that some of this contingent formed part of the "three bands" that fell upon Job's herds and herdsmen. The passage in the inscription which records the king's withdrawal runs as follows: "I betook myself afar from my city of Babylon (on) the road to Terna, Dadanum, Padakka (a), Khibra, Yadikhu, and as far as Yathribu; ten years I went about amongst them, (and) to my city Babylon I went not in." 2 Nabonidus goes on to record that he

appointed garrisons for the security of his person, and that "the land

of the Arabs and all the kings (who were) hostile sent (messengers)

for peace and good relations." In a damaged section of the inscription

relations." In a damaged section of the inscription "plunder and capture of property" are spoken of,

"plunder and capture of property" are spoken of, and it is said that the weapons of the enemy were destroyed and that they had to bow down before him. Of the Arabian oases which were captured and occupied by Nabonidus Terna and Dedan are familar to biblical readers; Yathrib is the old pre-Islamic name of Medina; Padakhu is the oasis Fadak 3 south of Terna, Khibra is the modern K.haybar; while Yadikhu is

of Terna, Khibra is the modern K.haybar; while Yadikhu is 1 On the philological relation of

1 On the philological relation of Adumu to Dumata, see the Notes.

2 Gadd, op. cit., p. 59.

3
3

There is no letter P in Arabic.

philological relation of Adumu to Dumata, see the Notes. 2 Gadd, op. cit., p. 59. 3
10 INTRODUCTION the little known oasis Yadi < lying between the two last named places.

10

INTRODUCTION

the little known oasis Yadi< lying between the two last named places. All these oases were centres of Jewish settlers in the time of Muham­ mad, and doubtless owed much of their fertility to their Jewish co­ lonists. The Arabs naturally resisted the newcomers to their utmost, because in a land where in the summer men could live only where there was water the advent of a large force of foreigners with their baggage animals would soon exhaust all the natural resources of the oases. Unfortunately the text is broken at the point where Nabonidus' campaign against the local inhabitants is recorded; but it speaks of an engagement with the Arabs in which the Babylonians were victorious. The Verse Account records the slaying of the king of Terna and the massacre of the inhabitants there and in the surrounding oases. Thamudic inscriptions 1 reveal that the Arabs were not always without success in their campaigns against the invaders, for the author of one boasts that he had taken the "spear of the king of Babel". Another reports that he had taken part in the "war of Dedan". Nabonidus' army <lid not consist only of native troops, for the inscription speaks of "people of the ]j:atti-land" forming part of the garrisons that he established; while the Verse Account explicitly mentions a composite force of men drawn from the various countries that were subject to Babylonia at the time.2 This fact is of great significance for biblical readers because, as we have seen, the oases occupied by the Babylonians were precisely those which were predominantlyJewish until the 7th. century A.D. No information whatever is forthcoming as to when the Jews first settled in the J:Iijaz, or indeed in the Yemen for that matter. But the fact that Nabonidus' army was composed of foreign conscripts makes it easier to hold that Jews formed part of his army than that they were excused military service by their masters. Job's great contemporary, the Deutero-Isaiah, in xl. 2 was referring not only metaphorically but also literally to this very campaign when he wrote "Proclaim to her that her military service 3 is completed" for it was upon Babylon and particularly upon Nabonidus, her last king, that the Lord's ven­ geance was to fall by the hand of his agent Cyrus. But while we may with confidence put the date of the arrival of a considerable Jewish population in the oases in the time of Nabonidus

1 VB, II, p. 54 and Gadd, op. cit., pp. 78 and 84. 2 Gadd, p. 85. 3 This is certainly the sense of the word here and in Job vii. 1, x. 17 and xiv. 14.

and 84. 2 Gadd, p. 85. 3 This is certainly the sense of the word here
INTRODUCTION 1 1 we are still left with the problem of when the family of

INTRODUCTION

11

INTRODUCTION 1 1 we are still left with the problem of when the family of the

we are still left with the problem of when the family of the author of the book of Job first settled in Arabia. It is impossible that anyone could write as the author does with a profound knowledge of Arabic such as no other biblical writer displays, show familiarity with the flora and fauna of the desert and the customs of the country, and the road to Egypt along the Red Sea coast, unless he had lived a con­ siderable time in the country. Neither Arabs nor Jews preserved any t�ustworthy tradition as to when Jews first came to Arabia, and, like the traditions about the date of the book, their guesses cannot be taken seriously. Nebuchadrezzar's conquest of Palestine and depor­ tation of its leading citizens in 579 and 586 may well have prompted some Jews to flee to the south where it is unlikely that Nebuchadrez­

be disposed to µ: the difficulties and dangers of

an arid track in their pursuit. If a body of Jews settled on the oases in 597 there would just, and only just, be time for the next generation to

absorb the language and to become acquainted with the varied charac­ ter of the land. In England second generation Jews from Germany or elsewhere can compete successfully with native born candidates in an Honours School of English; and so there is no difficulty in believ­ ing that Job, the son of a man fleeing from the Babylonian invader of Palestine, could become a master of the Arabic tongue. But against this it may be argued that Job's great wealth and high social standing do seem to imply a long and honourable past in the land of his adoption, and so an earlier date seems more probable. Can this have been a flight from Israel at the time of the Assyrian conquest of Samaria in 722? To sum up: When the stage was set for the argument between Job and his friends and between Job and his God, the Babylonians were in control of the oases of the I:Iijaz, and their inhabitants had been slaughtered or forced to flee into the barren lands. Their suf­ ferings and privations are portrayed in the opening verses of ch. xxx. They�were reduced to feeding on roots and inedible herbs and even dead bodies. Yet another reference to the arrival of the Babylonians is in Job's words in xii. 6 which refer to Nabonidus and his troops:

words in xii. 6 which refer to Nabonidus and his troops: zar's army would The tents

zar's army would

refer to Nabonidus and his troops: zar's army would The tents of the invaders are safe

The tents of the invaders are safe And they that provoke God are secure, Even one who brings a god in his hand!

provoke God are secure, Even one who brings a god in his hand! The god which

The god which Nabonidus brought with him from Barran was

12

INTRODUCTION

12 INTRODUCTION presumably the moon-god Sin, for he devoted himself to the project of restoring Sin's

presumably the moon-god Sin, for he devoted himself to the project of restoring Sin's temple in Barran both before and after he with­ drew to Terna and he brought the work to completion on his return. One visible and tangible evidence of Nabonidus' sojourn in Terna now rests in the Louvre. It is the stone 1 discovered in Terna by Huber in 1880. What definitely connects this inscription with Nabonidus is the close similarity between the figure of the god at Terna and that on the Barran stelae. The problems of the names of the gods on the Terna stone need not be discussed, but it is to be noted that on the Terna stone the priest who composed or caused the text to be written built a temple there to �alm, a name which means "image" as in Hebrew. �alm seems to have been a name given to a divine surrogate and apparently could stand for any god or even for a king. Inevitably the question why the addition of another god to the already well-stocked Arabian pantheon should be such a serious pro­ vocation to God as.Job believed calls for an answer. In a purely pagan environment, apart from the political and social consequences which attended the arrival of a foreign god - cuius regio eitts religio - the . change, for merely a change it was, would hardly be supposed to provoke God to anger. Therefore it seems highly probable that Job was a member of a considerable Jewish community, comparable perhaps with the military colony at Yeb, and that it was the disasters that overtook that community and the suppression of the religion of such staunch monotheists as the author of the Book of Job that made him criticise God's tolerance. He declared that he had never been tempted to kiss his hand to the sun or moon in their splendour, for that would have been to deny the most high God (xxxi. 26-28). As the worship of the heavenly bodies was common throughout Arabia these words need not necessarily refer to the religion of the Babylonian invaders of his country; but they would fittingly apply to them. Explicitly the author tells us nothing about Job's having been dispossessed of all his property, though that would seem to be implicit in what he writes of Job's plight: the great country landlord whose favour was courted by all had confidently expected to live a long life in his house with his children as can be seen from xxix. 18 of which the correct translation, as shown in Part B, is: -

which the correct translation, as shown in Part B, is: - Then I thought, er shall
which the correct translation, as shown in Part B, is: - Then I thought, er shall
which the correct translation, as shown in Part B, is: - Then I thought, er shall

Then I thought, er shall live long with my nestlings, And I shall multiply my days as the phoenix.

1 For the text see CIS, II, 113 and for a transliteration see G.A. Cooke, NSI, pp. 195 ff.

INTRODUCTION 1 3 But instead he had become a homeless outcast, mocked by those he

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION 1 3 But instead he had become a homeless outcast, mocked by those he would

13

But instead he had become a homeless outcast, mocked by those he would have disdained to sit with his dogs until quite recently ; men driven from the oases and reduced to starvation and cannibalism, xxx. 3. It is all but impossible to understand how the starving rabble could have spat upon him and attacked him (xxx. 14) unless, like them, he was a helpless fugitive ; though, as he does not complain of starvation, it would seem that he was able to carry away with him enough sustenance to keep him and his wife alive. In this connection the question might well be raised : if Jews formed a significant part of Nabonidus' invading force, how .is the treatment of Job to be accounted for? In all probability the answer is that in the first onslaught Job's herds and herdsmen fell victims to foraging bands of invaders who would not stop to enquire whose property they were seizing; Needs must when the devil drives and necessity knows no law. Job was a wealthy man with fe rtile lands and livestock, just the kind of property that the Babylonians needed; and it is unlikely that with the best will in the world Jewish soldiers in the Babylonian army could have given any overt support to Job, though if his life was endangered they would no doubt have helped him to escape. It would seem to be clear from vi. 22 that Job escaped servitude and possibly death by paying a ransom from such of his resources as had escaped the rapacity of the incoming army. He reminded his three friends that he had not asked their help in finding his ransom. Moreover, they were so afraid of the enemy that they did not dare to help him. Were they to do so it would be clear to the Babylonians that other sources of plunder were still untapped. It is clear from the epilogue in xlii. 10 ff. where it is said that the Lord restored the prosperity of Job, that the Babylonian occupation of his homeland must have come to an end ; and as we know that it lasted ten years Job's fortunes must have taken a turn for the better soon after 542. This passage contains an interesting indication that there was a Jewish community in the I:Iijaz at the time and that they were comparatively wealthy, for they were able to give him both money 1 and jewelry of gold. It is clear that as soon as it was safe to

1 The coin used was a q"fi/ah. In Abbasid times a coin called a qis/ was current;

its value was 481 dirhams. The dirham weighed an eighth of an ounce in silver so that a silver coin weighing j ust over 6 oz. may have been used. The value in antiquity would have been considerable. Maria Theresa dollars until recently were minted for use among the Arabs who through the centuries have preferred large silver coins. When the treasures of the Persians were looted by the conquering Arabs, a man was heard asking for some

silver coins. When the treasures of the Persians were looted by the conquering Arabs, a man
silver coins. When the treasures of the Persians were looted by the conquering Arabs, a man
silver coins. When the treasures of the Persians were looted by the conquering Arabs, a man
silver coins. When the treasures of the Persians were looted by the conquering Arabs, a man
14 INTRODUCTION do so his relatives and friends conspired together to provide him with the

14

14 INTRODUCTION do so his relatives and friends conspired together to provide him with the capital

INTRODUCTION

do so his relatives and friends conspired together to provide him with the capital that was necessary to restore his ravaged farms and purchase livestock. It was dramatically fitting that a book which began with the horror and suffering of armed invasion from Babylon, Israel's historic enemy, should end happily with the departure of that enemy. Thus it. will be apparent that the epilogue is not, as has been suggested, "a happy ending" supplied by the writer so much as a record of what actually happened to the righteous sufferer.

record of what actually happened to the righteous sufferer. T HE RELATION OF } OB TO
record of what actually happened to the righteous sufferer. T HE RELATION OF } OB TO

T HE RELATION OF }OB TO OTHER BOOKS IN THE O LD T ESTAMENT

T HE RELATION OF } OB TO OTHER BOOKS IN THE O LD T ESTAMENT One

One important and interesting result of the dating of the book of Job is that in some texts where there are verbal similarities between Job and other books in the Old Testament the question of priority is no longer a matter of debate. Further, where it is known, or where there are good grounds for believing that these passages are post­ exilic, it must have been the book of Job which was original. The passages in Job which resemble passages in other books are

is certainly

later than Ps. viii, for in vii. 17 the writer parodies Ps. viii, 5(4) ; if, as is probable, Ps. viii implies familiarity with P, and P was written about 500 B.C., this alone brings down the book of Job at late as the 5th; century B.C." However, since it is now certain that the book dates from the time of the Babylonian occupation of Terna and the surrounding oases it is all but impossible to date Ps. viii later than the days of the monarchy; and so if the psalm is pre-exilic, P, if post-exilic, cannot possibly have had any influence on it.

collected in the I.C.C. 1 where it is said "The book

Job xiv.11

Waters fail from a lake And a river utterly dries up 2

compared with Is. xix. 5 Waters shall be dried up from a lake And a river shall utterly dry up

one to give him a silver for a gold coin. The book of Job supplies a connecting link between the days of Abraham and the days of the Caliphate. There is thus no ground for the suggestion of some that the word is introduced here as a mark of the patriarchal age.

the suggestion of some that the word is introduced here as a mark of the patriarchal

1 P. lxviii.

2 A Hendiadys.

INTRODUCTION 1 5 might well suggest that the author of Job had this verse in

INTRODUCTION

15

might well suggest that the author of Job had this verse in his mind when he wrote, though the context is entirely different. The first enunciates a general truth while the second is a prophecy of the fate that awaits Egypt. The same might be said of Job xii. 24 :ff. compared with Is. xix. 13 :ff. though the Hebrew is not so similar as in the pas­ sages just cited. In any case there is no inherent difficulty in assuming that Job was familar with the pre-exilic portion of the book of Isaiah. Some of the "parallels" that have been cited in the I.C.C. may be no more than coincidences; e.g. Job in iii. 10 :ff. regrets that he had ever been born and curses the day of his birth. The same despairing cry is uttered by Jeremiah in xx. 14-18. If there is any dependence here Job would be the debtor, for Jeremiah belonged to an earlier generation; but thousands who have endured suffering which they felt to be undeserved have wished that they had never been born and have said so! Need we suppose that Shakespeare was indebted either to Jeremiah or to Job when he put into Hamlet's mouth the words:

0 cursed spite That ever I was born to set it right!

No good purpose would be served by going through the long list of "parallels" which emanate from the common stock of Hebrew phrase and idiom, nor need we stop to ask whether the first occurrence of a simile is original to the writer who first makes it in the literature that has come down to us. We do not know who first said of someone that he was "as bold as brass" or "as hard as iron", nor do we want to know. Some of the later psalms and the Book of Lamentations undoubtedly made use of passages in Job; compare Ps. cvii with the passages from Job cited in the I.C.C. It may be inferred from these borrowings that the text of Job was in the hands of Palestinian writers while the canon was still open. The author of Job was a literary genius with such an unsurpassed command of language that it is difficult to believe that he had to go to his predecessors for one or two hemistichs, though of course it is not improbable that he was unconsciously influenced by some of the utterances of the prophets.

though of course it is not improbable that he was unconsciously influenced by some of the
though of course it is not improbable that he was unconsciously influenced by some of the
though of course it is not improbable that he was unconsciously influenced by some of the
PAR TB TRANSLATION C HAPTER I 1 There was a man in the land of
PAR TB TRANSLATION C HAPTER I 1 There was a man in the land of

PAR TB

TRANSLATION

C HAPTER I

1 There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job, a man of

integrity, upright, fearing God and avoiding evil. 2He was the father of seven sons and three daughters. 3He possessed seven thousand sheep, three thousand camels, five hundred yoke of oxen and five hundred she-asses, and very many slaves ; so that this man was greater than any of the children of the East. 4His sons used to go and hold a feast in one another's houses, each one on his day; and they sent and invited their three sisters to eat and drink with them. 5 And when they had completed the round of their feasting days, Job sent and sanctified them, and he would rise up early in the morning and offer burnt sacrifices according to the number of them all; for Job. said:

It may be that my sons have sinned and belittled God in their hearts. Thus did Job continually.

60n the day when the sons of God came to present themselves be­ fore theLord,the Satan came also among them. 7And the Lord said unto the Satan, 'Where have you been?' Then the Satan answered the Lord and said:

'Going to and fro in the earth And walking up and down in it'.

to and fro in the earth And walking up and down in it'. 8And the Lord

8And the Lord said to the Satan, 'Have you considered my servant Job ? There is none like him in the earth, a man of integrity, upright, fearing God and avoiding evi l.' 9Then the Satan answere d the Lord and said, 'Does Job fear God for nothing ? 1 0Have you not made

a hedge about him and his house and all that he has on every side ? You have blessed the work ofhis hands, and his property has increased in the land. 11 But stretch forth your hand now, and touch all his property, and he will surely curse you to your face.'1 2And the Lord said to the Satan, 'All that he has is in your power, only do not stretch forth your hand against the man himself.> So the Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord.

1 30n a daywhen his sons and his daughters were eating and drink­

ing wine in their eldest brother's house, 14 a messenger came to

ing wine in their eldest brother's house, 14 a messenger came to Leeds University Oriental Society

Leeds University Oriental Society Suppl. II

2

ing wine in their eldest brother's house, 14 a messenger came to Leeds University Oriental Society
ing wine in their eldest brother's house, 14 a messenger came to Leeds University Oriental Society

18

TRANSLATION

18 TRANSLATION Job saying, 'The cows were ploughing, and the asses feeding beside them; 15and the

Job saying, 'The cows were ploughing, and the asses feeding beside them; 15and the Sabeans plundered and took them away; they have slain the servants without quarter, and I only escaped to tell you.' 1 6While this man was speaking, another came saying, 'The fire of God fell from heaven and burned up the sheep and the young men and consumed them; and I only escaped to tell you.' 17While this man was speaking, another came saying, <The Chaldeans formed themsel­ ves into three bands and made a raid upon the camels and took them away and slew the young men without quarter; and I only escaped to tell you.' 18While he was speaking, another came saying, 'Your sons and your daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house, 19when a great wind came from across the wilderness and struck the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men and they died; and I only escaped to tell you.' 20Then Job arose and rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground and worshipped; 21and he said, 'Naked came I out of my mother's womb, and naked shall I return there; the Lord has given, and the Lord has taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord.' 2 2 In spite of all this, Job did not sin nor did he charge God with deliberate neglect.

did not sin nor did he charge God with deliberate neglect. C HAP TER II 10n
did not sin nor did he charge God with deliberate neglect. C HAP TER II 10n
did not sin nor did he charge God with deliberate neglect. C HAP TER II 10n
did not sin nor did he charge God with deliberate neglect. C HAP TER II 10n
did not sin nor did he charge God with deliberate neglect. C HAP TER II 10n

C HAPTER II

10n the day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, the Satan came also among them to present himself before the Lord. 2And the Lord said to the Satan 'Where have you been?' The Satan answered the Lord and said, 'Going to and fro in the earth and walking up and down in it.' 3And the Lord said to the Satan, 'Have you considered my servant Job? There is none like him in the earth, a man of integrity, upright, fearing God and. avoiding evil; and he still holds fast his integrities although you move me against him to injure him without cause'. 4And the Satan answered the Lord, 'Skin for skin, all that a man has he will give for his life. 5But stretch forth your hand now and touch his bones and his flesh, he will surely curse you to your face.' 6And the Lord said to the Satan, <He is in your power, only spare his life.' 7So the Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord and smote Job with malignant boils from the sole of his foot to the crown of his head. 8And he took a potsherd to scrape himself with as he sat among the ashes. 9Then his wife said to him, 'Do you still hold fast your

TRANSLATION 19 integrity? Curse God and die.' 10He answered, 'You speak as one of the

TRANSLATION

19

integrity? Curse God and die.' 10He answered, 'You speak as one of the ignoble women speak. Shall we receive good from God and shall we not receive evil ?' In all this Job did not sin with his lips. 11When Job's three friends heard of all this misfortune that had come upon him, each of them came from his own place : Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the ' Naamathite : and they made an appointment together to come and condole with him and to comfort him. 12And when they lifted up their eyes, they did not recognise him and they lifted up their voice and wept : and they rent each one his mantle and sprinkled dust on their heads towards heaven. 13They sat down with him on the ground seven days and seven nights and no one spoke a word to him, for they saw that his pain was very great.

a word to him, for they saw that his pain was very great. C HAPTER III
C HAPTER III
C HAPTER III

(First cycle of speeches .' Ill-XIV)

1After this Job opened his mouth and cursed the day of his birth.

2And Job answered

3'Perish the day on which I was born And the night on which a man child was conceived. 4Let that day be darkness!

and said :

Let not God regard it from above ;

Neither let the light shine upon it. 5Let darkness and black gloom shut it in ; Let a cloud dwell upon it. Let all that makes the day black overwhelm it. 6That night, let thick darkness take it!

Let it not be united to the days of the year ; Let it not come into the number of the months. 7Let that night be barren ;

Let no joyful voice come therein. 8Let them curse it that curse the day, Who are ready to rouse up Leviathan.

it that curse the day, Who are ready to rouse up Leviathan. 9Let the stars of

9Let the stars of the twilight thereof be dark;

Let it look for light,

Neither let it behold the eyelids of the morning ; 1 0Because it shut not up the doors of my mother's womb, Nor hid trouble from mine eyes. 11Why did I not die from the womb?

but have none ;

up the doors of my mother's womb, Nor hid trouble from mine eyes. 11Why did I
2 0 TRANSLATION Why did I not come forth from the belly and perish? 12Why
2 0 TRANSLATION Why did I not come forth from the belly and perish? 12Why
2 0 TRANSLATION Why did I not come forth from the belly and perish? 12Why

20

TRANSLATION

Why did I not come forth from the belly and perish?

12Why did the knees receive me?

Or why the breasts that I should suck?

13For then I should have lain down and been quiet;

I

14With kings and counsellors of the earth,

should have slept ; then I should have been at rest;

Who rebuilt ruined palaces for themselves;

1sor with princes that had gold,

Who filled their houses with silver;

160r as a hidden untimely birth I had not been;

As infants which never saw light.

17There the wicked cease from raging

A , nd there the weary are at rest.

18The prisoners are at ease together; ,

They hear not the voice of the taskmaster.

19The small and great are there,

And the servant is free from his master.

2°Why is light given to him that is in misery,

And life unto the bitter in soul,

21Who long for death but it comes not;

the bitter in soul, 21Who long for death but it comes not; And dig for it
the bitter in soul, 21Who long for death but it comes not; And dig for it

And dig for it more than for hid treasures;

22Who rejoice when they come to the grave?

Who are glad when they find the grave?

23Why is light given to a man whose way is hidden,

And whom God has hedged in?

24For my sighing comes like my food

And my roarings are poured out like water.

25For the thing which I fear comes upon me,

And that which I dread comes to me.

26 J have no ease and no quiet;

I have no rest, but turmoil comes.'

ease and no quiet; I have no rest, but turmoil comes.' C HAPTER IV 1Then answered

C HAPTER IV

1Then answered Eliphaz the Temanite saying :

2'If one attempts a word with you, will you be impatient?

But who can refrain from speaking?

ayou have instructed many,

And you have strengthened weak hands.

4Your words have held up the stumbling

TRANSLATION

21

And you have .given strength to the knees.

5But now when it is come to you, you are faltering ;

It touches you and you are dismayed.

6Is not your fear of God your confidence, And your hope the integrity of your ways ? 7Remember, I pray you, whoever perished, being innocent? Or where were the upright cut off? 8According to what I have seen, they that plough iniquity

And sow trouble, reap the same. 9By the breath of God they perish And by the blast of his anger they are consumed.

1 0The roaring of the lion, and the voice of the fierce lion And the teeth of the young lions are no more. 11 The old lion perishes for lack of prey, And the whelps of the lioness are scattered abroad.

1 2Now a word was secretly brought to me And my ear received a whisper of it.

1 3In thoughts from the visions of the night, When deep sleep falls on men,

1 4Fear came upon me and trembling

Which filled my bones with dread. isA spirit passed before my face ; The hair of my flesh bristled.

1 6It stood still, but I could not discern its appearance,

A form was before my eyes ;

I heard a still voice saying,

1

Or can a man be pure before his maker?

1 BHe puts no trust in his servants

And he charges his angels with folly.

1 9How much less them that dwell in houses of clay, Whose foundation is in the dust,

Which are crushed like a moth. 2°Between morning and evening they are reduced to pieces ; They perish forever without any regarding it.

12 Is not their tent cord plucked up within them ?

They die, and that without wisdom.

7Can a mortal be just before God ?

12 Is not their tent cord plucked up within them ? They die, and that without
12 Is not their tent cord plucked up within them ? They die, and that without

22

TRANSLATION

C HAPTER v

1Call now ; Is there any that will answer you? And to which of the holy ones will you turn? 2For resentment kills the foolish man, And jealousy slays the silly one. 3I have seen the foolish taking root ; And suddenly his shoots rotted. . 4His children are far from safety, And they are crushed in the gate, With none to deliver them. 5Whose harvest the hungry eat,

And take it to their famished ones, And the foodless are eager for their substance.

6 For

Neither does trouble spring out of the ground ; 7But man is born unto trouble,

As the birds fly upward.

8But for my part I would seek unto God, And unto God would I state my cause;

9Who does great things

affliction comes not forth from the dust,

and unsearchable ;

Marvellous things without number; 1 0 Who gives rain upon the earth, And send� waters upon the fields ; 11Who sets on high those that be low ; And those who mourn are exalted to safety. 12He frustrates the devices of the crafty, So that their hands cannot achieve success. 13He takes the wise in their own craftiness ; And the counsel of the tortuous is hurried away. 14They meet with darkness in the daytime, And grope at noonday as in the night. 15But he saves their captives . from the sword,

And the needy from the hands of the mighty. 16 So the poor have hope, And iniquity stops her mouth. 17Happy is the man whom God corrects; Therefore despise not the chastening of the Almighty. 18For he · inflicts pain a d binds up ; He wounds and his hands heal.

not the chastening of the Almighty. 18For he · inflicts pain a � d binds up
not the chastening of the Almighty. 18For he · inflicts pain a � d binds up
TRANSLATION 19He will deliver you in six troubles ; Yea, in seven no evil will

TRANSLATION

19He will deliver you in six troubles ;

Yea, in seven no evil will touch you. 20 1n famine he will ransom you from death, And in war from the power of the sword. 2 1 You will be hidden from the scourge of the tongue

2 1 You will be hidden from the scourge of the tongue And you will not

And you will not be afraid of calumny when it comes. 22At destruction and dearth you may laugh And be not afraid of the beasts of the earth. 23For you will be in league with the stones of the field, And the plants of the field shall be at peace with you.

24And you shall know that your tent is in peace,

And you shall visit your habitation and shall miss nothing.

2 5You shall know also that your seed shall be great, And your offspring as the grass of the earth.

26You shall come to your grave in full strength

As a shock of corn comes up in its season.

2 7Lo this, we have searched it, so it is;

Hear it and know for yourself.'

23

CH APTER VI

1 Then Job answered and said:- 2'Would that my resentment and my ruin

Could be weighed one against the other!

3For it would be heavier tl?-an the sands of the seas; For this reason my words have been wild.

4For the arrows of the Almighty are within me, My spirit drinks up their poison;

The terrors of God set themselves in array against me.

The terrors of God set themselves in array against me. 5Does the wild ass bray when

5Does the wild ass bray when he has grass ?

against me. 5Does the wild ass bray when he has grass ? Or does the ox

Or does the ox low over his fodder ? 6Can the savourless be eaten without salt ?

white of an egg ?

Or is there taste in the

without salt ? white of an egg ? Or is there taste in the 7My appetite

7My appetite refuses to eat it, My bowels sound as with an echo.

80h

And that God would grant me the thing that I hope for!

9That it would please God to crush me;

That he would let loose his hand and cut me off. 1 0 Then this would be my comfort;

that I might have my request ;

24 TRANSLATION And I would exult in anguish that spares not, For I have not

24

24 TRANSLATION And I would exult in anguish that spares not, For I have not disowned

TRANSLATION

And I would exult in anguish that spares not,

For I have not disowned the words of the Holy One.

1 1What is my strength that

And what is my end that I should be patient ?

12 1 s my strength

Or is my flesh of bronze ?

1a1s it not that I have no help in me,

And that sound

14Verily one that despairs of his friends' kindness

Could forsake the fear of the Almighty.

1 5My brethren have dealt deceitfully as a wadi,

As the channel of wadis that pass away ;

16Which are turbid by reason of the ice

When the snow hides itself upon them ;

I7When they melt they vanish ;

When it is hot they are consumed out of their place.

18Caravans that travel by way of them take a devious route ;

They go up into the waste and perish.

19The caravans of Terna looked,

The companies of Sheba waited for them.

20They were disappointed because they had hoped ;

They came there and were abashed.

21For now you have become (just) that.

You see a terror and are afraid.

I should

wait ?

that. You see a terror and are afraid. I should wait ? the strength of stones

the strength of stones ?

and are afraid. I should wait ? the strength of stones ? wisdom is driven quite

wisdom is driven quite from me ?

22Did I say, "Give unto me?"

quite from me ? 22Did I say, "Give unto me?" Or, "Offer a bribe for me

Or, "Offer a bribe for me out of your resources?"

230r, "Deliver me from the adversaries' hand ? "

Or, "Redeem me from the hand of the oppressors? "

24Teach me and I will be silent;

And make me understand wherein I have erred.

25How hypocritical are words of uprightness!

But what

2sno you think to reprove words

And to still the speeches of one that

27Yea, you would cast lots upon the fatherless,

And make merchandise of your friend.

28Now therefore be good enough to look at me ;

For surely I shall not lie to your face.

29Withdraw I pray, let there be no injustice ;

Withdraw, my cause is still righteous.

does your arguing prove ?

is desperate ?

I pray, let there be no injustice ; Withdraw, my cause is still righteous. does your
I pray, let there be no injustice ; Withdraw, my cause is still righteous. does your
I pray, let there be no injustice ; Withdraw, my cause is still righteous. does your
I pray, let there be no injustice ; Withdraw, my cause is still righteous. does your

TRANSLATION

25

30Js there injustice on my tongue?

Cannot my taste discriminate calamities?

C HAPTER VII

1Has not a man military service upon earth?

And are not his days like the days of a hireling?

2As a servant that earnestly longs for the shade,

And as a hireling that looks for his wages;

3So am I made to possess months of uselessness,

And nights of misery are appointed to me.

4When I lie down, I think :

When shall I arise? But the night is long;

And I am full of restlessness until the dawning of the day.

5My flesh is closed with rottenness and clods of dust;

My skin grows again and breaks out afresh.

6 My

And are come to an end without hope.

breaks out afresh. 6 My And are come to an end without hope. . days are

.

days are swifter than a weaver's shuttle,

hope. . days are swifter than a weaver's shuttle, " 7Remember that my life is wind;

" 7Remember that my life is wind;

My eye will no more see good.

8The eye of him that sees me will behold me no more;

Your eyes will be upon me, but I shall not be.

9A cloud comes to an end and passes away,

So he that goes down to Sheol will come up no more.

10He will return no more to his house,

Nor will his place know him any more.

111 will not refrain from speech;

I will speak in the anguish of my spirit;

I will complain in the bitterness of my soul.

13Am I a sea or a sea monster,

That you set a watch over me?

13When I say, "My bed shall comfort me,

My couch shall ease my complaint,"

14Then you frighten me with dreams,

And terrify me through visions;

15So that my soul chooses strangling

And death rather than my pains.

1 61 am in despair;

Let.me alone; for my days are as a breath.

17What is man that you should think him important?

I shall not live forever.

Let.me alone; for my days are as a breath. 17What is man that you should think

26

TRANSLATION

And that you should pay attention to him, 18And that you should visit him every morning, And trust him every moment? 19How long will you not look away from me, Nor let me alone till I swallow down my spittle ? 201£ I sinned what do I unto you, Oh watcher of men? Why have you set me as a mark for your attacks, So that I am a burden to myself? 21And why do you not pardon my transgressions, and take away my iniquity? For now I shall lie down in the dust; And you shall seek me diligently, but I shall not be.'

C HAl?T'ER VIII

1Then answered Bildad the. Shuhite and said, 2'How long will you speak these things ? And how long will the words of your mouth be like a mighty wind ? 3Does God pervert judgement? Or does the Almighty commit injustice? · 41£ your sons have sinned against him, Then he has delivered them into the hand of their transgression. 51£ you would seek diligently unto God And make your supplication to the Almighty; 6 1£ you are pure and upright; Surely now he will arise himself on your behalf, And make your righteous habitation prosperous, 7And though your beginning was small, Your latter end should greatly increase. 8For enquire, pray, of the former generations And apply yourself to that which their fathers have searched out :

9For we are but of yesterday and know nothing, because our days upon earth are a shadow :

10Shall not they teach you and tell you And utter words out of their understanding? 11Does the rush grow up without mud? Can the reed grow without water? 12Whilst it is still green and not cut down, It withers before any other herb. 13So are the paths of all that forget God;

TRANSLATION And the hope of the godless man perishes ; 14Whose confidence is as gossamer,

TRANSLATION

And the hope of the godless man perishes ; 14Whose confidence is as gossamer, And whose trust is a spider's web. 15He shall lean upon his house but it will not stand:

If he takes fast hold of it it will not endure. 16He is full of sap before the sun, And his shoots go forth over his garden. 17His roots are entwined over the heap ; He comes against the place of stones. 18If he be destroyed from his place, 1'hen it shall deny him saying, "I have not seen you." 191'his is the ruin of his way, And out of the dust shall another spring. 20Be assured God will not reject a man of integrity, Nor will he take the evil doers by the hand. 21He will yet fill your mouth with laughter, And your lips with a shout of joy. 22They that hate you shall be clothed with shame, And the tent of the wicked shall be no more.'

shame, And the tent of the wicked shall be no more.' C HAPTER IX 11'hen Job
shame, And the tent of the wicked shall be no more.' C HAPTER IX 11'hen Job
shame, And the tent of the wicked shall be no more.' C HAPTER IX 11'hen Job

C HAPTER IX

11'hen Job answered and said, 2'I know very well that it is so :

But how can man be just with God? 3If he wished to contend with him, He could not answer him one question in a thousand. 4He is wise in heart, and mighty in strength ; Who has behaved boldly against him and. prospered ? 5Who removes mountains, When he overturns them in his anger. 6Who shakes the earth out of her place, And the pillars thereof tremble. 7Who commands the sun not to shine And seals up the stars. 8Who alone stretches out the heavens, And treads on the high storm waves. 9Who makes the Bear, Orion, and the Pleiades, And the chambers of the south. 10 Who does great things past finding out;

9Who makes the Bear, Orion, and the Pleiades, And the chambers of the south. 10 Who
9Who makes the Bear, Orion, and the Pleiades, And the chambers of the south. 10 Who
9Who makes the Bear, Orion, and the Pleiades, And the chambers of the south. 10 Who

27

9Who makes the Bear, Orion, and the Pleiades, And the chambers of the south. 10 Who

28

TRANSLATION

Marvels without number. 11If he goes by me I do not see him; If he passes on also I do not perceive him. 12If he seizes the prey who can turn him back? Who will say to him, "What are you doing ?" 13God will not withdraw his anger; The helpers of Rahab stooped under him. 14How much less can I answer him ? And choose my words to reason with him ? 15Though I were in the right I could not answer him.

I should have made supplication to my adversary.

16If I had called and he had answered me ;

I do not believe that he would give ear to my voice.

17For he destroys me with a tempest, Multiplies my wounds without cause. 18He will not let me take my breath, But fills me with bitterness. 19If it be a question of the strength of the mighty, Lo it is he. And if of judgement, who will appoint me a time ? 20Though I were righteous my mouth would condemn me ; Though I were a man of integrity, he would declare me perverse. 211 am a man of integrity; I care not for myself;

I despise my life.

22It is all one; therefore I say, "He brings to an end the perfect and the wicked".

23If a scourge slay suddenly,

He mocks at the despair of the innocent. 24The earth is given into the hand of the wicked ; He covers the faces of the judges thereof;

If it be not he, who then is it ?

25Now my days are swifter than a post; They flee away, they see no good. 26They go past like skiffs of papyrus, Like an eagle that swoops on the prey. 27If I say, "I will forget my complaint,

I will put off my sad countenance and brighten up",

2s1 am terrified of all my pains ; I know that you will not hold me innocent. 29J shall be condemned ; Why then do I labour in vain ?

of all my pains ; I know that you will not hold me innocent. 29J shall
of all my pains ; I know that you will not hold me innocent. 29J shall
of all my pains ; I know that you will not hold me innocent. 29J shall
of all my pains ; I know that you will not hold me innocent. 29J shall
of all my pains ; I know that you will not hold me innocent. 29J shall
TRANSLATION 30If I wash myself with snow water, And clean my hands with lye, 31Then

TRANSLATION

30If I wash myself with snow water, And clean my hands with lye, 31Then you will plunge me ip. the ditch ; My clothes will make me loathsome. 32For he is not a man as I am that I can answer him, That we can come together in judgement. 33There is no arbiter between us, That might lay his hand upon us both. 34Let him take his rod away from me, And let not his terror make me afraid; 35Then would I speak and not fear him ; For I am not so in myself.

CHAPTER x
CHAPTER x

lMy soul loathes my life ;

I will give free course to my complaint ;

I will speak in the bitterness of my soul.

21 will say unto God, "Do not condemn me; Show me why you contend with me. 3ls it good for you that you should oppress, That you should despise the work of your hands, And shine upon the counsel of the wicked? 4Have you eyes of flesh, Or do you see as a man sees ? 5Are your days as the days of man, Or your years as man's days, 6That you seek after my iniquity, And search after my sin, 7Although you know that I am not wicked ; And there is none that can deliver out of your hand? 8Your hands have framed me and fashioned me Together round about ; Yet you do destroy me. 9Remember, I pray, that you have fashioned me as clay, And will you bring me to dust again ? 10Have you not poured me out as milk, And curdled me like cheese? uyou have clothed me with skin and flesh. And knit me together with bones and sinews.

3 0 TRANSLATION 12You have granted me life and kindness, And your visitation has preserved

30

TRANSLATION

12You have granted me life and kindness, And your visitation has preserved my spirit. 13Yet these things you did hide in your heart ;

I know that this was in your mind ;

14If I were to sin you would watch me, And would not acquit me from my iniquity. 15If I were wicked, then woe to me ; And if I were righteous, yet should I not lift up my head; Being filled with ignominy And sated with my affliction. 16And if my head exalted itself you would hunt me as a lion, And again and again would show your marvellous power against me. 17You renew your attack against me, And increase your resentment against me ; Military service and relief duty are my portion. 18Why then have you brought me forth out of the womb ?

I ought to have died, and no eye ought to have seen me. 19! should have been as though I had not been ;

I should have been carried from the womb to the grave. 20Are not my days few ? Cease then, And let me alone that I may brighten up a little, 21Before I go whence I shall not return, To the land of darkness and dense gloom; 22A land of thick darkness as darkness itself; A land of dense gloom without any order, And where the very light has gone." '

any order, And where the very light has gone." ' CHAPTER XI 1Then answered Zophar the

CHAPTER XI

1Then answered Zophar the Naamathite and said, 2 ' Should not the multitude of words be answered? And should a man full of talk be justified ? 3Should your boastings make men hold their peace ? And when you mock, shall no man put you to shame ? 4For you say, "My doctrine is pure, And I am clean in Thine eyes". 5But Oh that God would speak,

And open his lips with you ;

6And that he would tell you the secrets of wisdom,

For they are marvellous in effectual working.

TRANSLATION 31 Know then that God will ignore some of your iniquity. 7Can you find
TRANSLATION 31 Know then that God will ignore some of your iniquity. 7Can you find

TRANSLATION

31

Know then that God will ignore some of your iniquity. 7Can you find out the immensity of God? Can you attain to the limits of the Almighty? 8They are higher than Heaven; what can you do ? Deeper than Sheol ; what can you know ? 9Longer in measure than the earth And broader than the sea.

1 0If he passes by and arrests,

And if he rebukes severely, then who can answer him ? 11For he knows vain men ; He sees iniquity also, even though he considers it not. 12But an empty man will get understanding When a wild ass's colt is born a man. 13If you set your heart aright

ass's colt is born a man. 13If you set your heart aright And stretch out your

And stretch out your hands towards him, 14If iniquity be in your hand, put it far away And let not unrighteousness dwell in your tents. 15Surely you can lift up your face without spot And you will be established and will not fear. I6For you will forget your misery And remember it as waters that have passed away. 17And your life shall be clearer than the noonday ; Though it be dark, it shall be as the morning. 18And you will be secure, because there is hope ; You will be protected and can lie down in safety. 19You can lie down with none to make you afraid, And many shall seek your favour. 20But the eyes of the wicked shall fail, And they shall have no way to flee, And their hope is the giving up of the ghost.'

you ;
you ;

CHAPTER XII

as well as

1Then Job answered and said,

2

'No doubt but you are the people, And wisdom will die with you.

3But I have understanding

I am not inferior to you ;

4Who does not know such things as these?

I

am as one who is a laughing stock to his neighbour,

32

TRANSLATION

3 2 TRANSLATION A man that called upon God and he afflicted him; The just man

A man that called upon God and he afflicted him; The just man is a laughing stock. 5The man of integrity suffers calamity. There is contempt for the stumbling of a magnate, Mockery for those whose foot slips. 6The tents of the invaders are free from anxiety, And they that provoke God are secure ; Even he who brings a god in his hand. 7But now ask the beasts and they shall teach you, And the birds of the air they shall tell you ; 80r the crawling things of the earth - they shall teach you ; And the fishes of the sea shall declare unto you. 9Who does not know all these things, That the hand of the Lord has wrought this ? 1 0 In whose hand is the soul of every living thing, And the breath of all mankind. 11Does not the ear test words Even as the palate tastes food? 12with aged men is wisdom, And length of days is understanding. 13With him is wisdom and power; He has counsel and understanding. 14He tears down and it cannot be built again; He shuts up a man and there can be no release. 15He witholds the waters and they dry up ; Again he sends them out and they overturn the earth. 16With Him is strength and effectual working ; He who errs and he who leads into error are his. 17He leads counsellors away in fetters, And makes fools of judges. 1sHe looses the bond imposed by kings, And binds their loins with a waist cloth. 19He leads priests away in fetters, And overthrows the firmly established.

20 He deprives the trusty of

And takes away the discretion of the elders. 21He pours contempt upon princes,

And looses the belt of the nobles. 22He reveals deep things out of darkness, And brings out to light the deepest gloom,

the belt of the nobles. 22He reveals deep things out of darkness, And brings out to
the belt of the nobles. 22He reveals deep things out of darkness, And brings out to
the belt of the nobles. 22He reveals deep things out of darkness, And brings out to

their speech,

the belt of the nobles. 22He reveals deep things out of darkness, And brings out to
the belt of the nobles. 22He reveals deep things out of darkness, And brings out to

TRANSLATION

TRANSLATION 33 23He increases the nations and destroys them; He spreads peoples abroad and displaces them

33

23He increases the nations and destroys them; He spreads peoples abroad and displaces them

24He tak;es away the heart of the

And causes them to wander in a pathless desert. 25They grope in the dark without light, And he makes them wander about like a drunken man.

chiefs of the people of the land,

about like a drunken man. chiefs of the people of the land, CHAPTER XIII 1My eye

CHAPTER XIII

1My eye has seen all this, My ear has heard and understood it. 2What you know I know also; I am not inferior to you. 3But I would speak to the Almighty, And I desire to argue with God. 4But you are plasterers of lies, You are all worthless physicians. 50h that you would but be silent! That would be wise of you.

6Hear now my rep roof,

be silent! That would be wise of you. 6Hear now my rep roof, And attend to

And attend to the pleadings of my lips. 7Will you speak unrighteously for God, And talk deceitfully for him ? 8Will you show partiality for him? Will you contend for God? 9Is it good that he should search you out ?

Or as one deceives a man will you deceive him ? 10He will surely reprove you, If you show partiality secretly. 11Shall not his loftiness make you afraid, And his dread fall upon you ?

12 Y our reminders are proverbs of

ashes,

Your replies are dusty answers. 13Hold your peace, let me alone that I may speak, And let come on me what will. . 141 will take my flesh in my teeth, And put my life in my hand.

15Though he slay me yet � ill I wait for him ; Nevertheless I will maintain my ways before him. 16Moreover what assures me of ·success

I will maintain my ways before him. 16Moreover what assures me of ·success Leeds University Oriental

Leeds University Oriental Society Suppl. II

I will maintain my ways before him. 16Moreover what assures me of ·success Leeds University Oriental

3

3 4 TRANSLATION Is that a godless man cannot come before him . 17Listen carefully
3 4 TRANSLATION Is that a godless man cannot come before him . 17Listen carefully
3 4 TRANSLATION Is that a godless man cannot come before him . 17Listen carefully

34

TRANSLATION

Is that a godless man cannot come before him. 17Listen carefully to my word And let my voice be in your ears. ISTake note, pray, that I have set out my case; I know that I am in the right. 19Who is he that will contend with me ? For then would I be silent and give up my life. 20But do not do two things to me, Then I will not hide myself from your face; 21Withdraw your hand far from me ; And let not your terror make me afraid. 22Then call and I will answer ; Or let me speak and answer me. 23How many are my iniquities and sins ? Make me know my transgression and my sin. 24Why do you hide your face, And treat me as an enemy? 25Will you harass a driven leaf? And will you pursue the dry stubble ? 2 sy ou write bitter things against me,

And make me inherit the iniquities of my youth ;

27You put my feet in the stocks and mark all my paths ; You draw a line about the soles of my feet;

28I am like a wine skin that wears out, Like a garment that is moth-eaten.

wine skin that wears out, Like a garment that is moth-eaten. . CHAPTER XIV 1Man that

.

skin that wears out, Like a garment that is moth-eaten. . CHAPTER XIV 1Man that is

CHAPTER XIV

1Man that is born of a woman Is of few days and full of trouble. 2He comes forth like a flower and is cut down ; He flees as a shadow and continues not. 3And do you open your eyes upon such a one, And bring me into judgement with you ? 40h that a clean thing could come out of an unclean thing! Not one can. 5Ifhis days are determined, the number of his months is known to you, And you have appointed his limit that he cannot pass ; 6Look away from him and let him alone, Until he can enj oy like a hireling his day.

his limit that he cannot pass ; 6Look away from him and let him alone, Until
his limit that he cannot pass ; 6Look away from him and let him alone, Until

TRANSLATION

35

7For there is hope of a tree if it be cut down, That it will sprout again, And that its shoot will not cease. 8Though its root wax old in the earth, and its stump die in the ground ; 9At the scent of water it will bud, And put forth boughs like a plant. IOBut man dies and passes away; Man gives up the ghost and where is he ? 11Waters fail from a lake, And a river utterly dries up ; I2So man lies down and rises not ; Till the heavens be no more. They shall not awake, Nor be roused out of their sleep. 130h that you would hide me in Sheol And you would keep me secret until your wrath tire, That you would appoint me a limit and remember me! I4If a man die, shall he live again ? All the days of my military service would I wait, Till my relief should come. 15You would call and I would answer you ; You would long for the work of your hands. 16But now you number my steps ; Do you not watch over my sin? 17My transgression is sealed up in a bag, And you fasten up my iniquity. 18But as a mountain falling wears away, And rock is removed out of its place, 19Waters wear away the stones ; And its overflowings wash away the dust of the earth ; 20So you destroy the hope of man. You prevail forever against him and he passes away ; You change his countenance and send him away. 21His sons come to honour and he knows it not ; They are brought low but he perceives it not of them. 220nly his flesh upon him has pain, And his soul upon him mourns.'

are brought low but he perceives it not of them. 220nly his flesh upon him has
are brought low but he perceives it not of them. 220nly his flesh upon him has
are brought low but he perceives it not of them. 220nly his flesh upon him has

36

TRANSLATION

36 TRANSLATION CHAPTER XV (Second ry cle of speeches : XV-XX!) 1Then answered Eliphaz the Temanite

CHAPTER XV

(Second ry cle of speeches : XV-XX!)

1Then answered Eliphaz the Temanite and said; 2'Should a wise man answer with vain knowledge, And fill his belly with the east wind ? 3Should he argue with unprofitable talk, And with speeches wherewith he can do no good? 4Yea, you do away with fear, And restrain devotion before God. 5For your iniquity teaches your mouth, And you choose the tongue of the crafty. 6Your own mouth condemns you and not I; And your own lips testify against you. 7Were you the first man to be born ? And were you brought forth before the hills ? 8 Do you listen to the secret counsel of God? And do you monopolise wisdom to yourself? 9What do you know that we do not know ?

What do you understand which we do not ? 10 Among us are both the grey-headed and the aged, Older than your father in days.

1 1Are the consolations of God too

small for you,

And the word spoken gently with you ?

12Why does your heart make

And what do your eyes hint at? 13That you turn your spirit against God,

you defiant ?

at? 13That you turn your spirit against God, you defiant ? . And let such words

. And let such words go out of your mouth. 14What is man that he should be clean:? ·And that one born of woman should be righteous ? 15He puts no trust in his holy ones ; And the heavens are not clean in his sight. 16How much less one that is abominable and tainted, A man that drinks iniquity like water! 1 71 will tell you, listen to me; And that which I have seen I will declare;

1 s (Which wise men declare

From their fathers without hiding it; 19To whom alone the land was given, And no foreigner stayed long among them;)

From their fathers without hiding it; 19To whom alone the land was given, And no foreigner

TRANSLATION

37

20The wicked man travails with pain all his days, And the number of years that are laid up for the oppressor. 21A sound of terrors is in his ears ;

In prosperity the invader shall come upon him ;

his ears ; In prosperity the invader shall come upon him ; 22He has no confidence

22He has no confidence that he will return from darkness,

And he is reserved for the sword; 23He wanders about for bread, saying "Where is it?" He knows that the day of darkness is ready at his hand. 24Distress and anguish make him afraid; They prevail against him as a king ready to the battle ; 25Because he has stretched out his hand against God And behaves himself proudly against the Almighty; 26He runs against him with a stiff neck,

With the thick bosses of his

bucklers ;

with a stiff neck, With the thick bosses of his bucklers ; 27Because he has covered

27Because he has covered his face with his fatness, And made collops of fat on his flanks ; 28And he has dwelt in ruined cities, In houses which no man should inhabit, Which were destined to become heaps. 29He will not become rich; neither shall his substance endure. Neither shall their produce bend to the earth. 3'0He shall not depart out of darkness ; The flame dries up his shoots, And his bud is carried away by the wind. 31Let him not trust in tyrannous wares ;

For ruin will be his recompense. 32It shall be paid in full before his time, And his branch will not flourish. 33He shakes off his unripe grape as the vine, And casts off his flower as the olive. 34For the company of the godless is sterile, And fire consumes the tents of bribery. 35They conceive mischief and bring forth iniquity, And their belly prepares deceit.'

bring forth iniquity, And their belly prepares deceit.' CHAPTER XVI 1Then Job answered a n d
bring forth iniquity, And their belly prepares deceit.' CHAPTER XVI 1Then Job answered a n d
bring forth iniquity, And their belly prepares deceit.' CHAPTER XVI 1Then Job answered a n d

CHAPTER XVI

1Then Job answered a n d said, 2'I have heard all this before ; Wearisome comforters are you all.

CHAPTER XVI 1Then Job answered a n d said, 2'I have heard all this before ;
CHAPTER XVI 1Then Job answered a n d said, 2'I have heard all this before ;

38

3 8 TRANSLATION 3Shall windy words have an end ? Or what provokes you that you

TRANSLATION

3Shall windy words have an end ? Or what provokes you that you answer? 41 could say the same as you ; If I were in your position,

I could compose sentences against you, And shake my head at you. 51 could strengthen you with my mouth, And the movement of my lips would not stop.

6Were I to speak, my pain would not

be kept back ;

Were I to stop talking, how should I be eased ? 7But now he has wearied me. You have made desolate all my company and laid hold on me, 8It is a witness and has risen up against me; My leanness testifies to my face. 9Wrath has torn me and with hatred persecuted me. He has gnashed upon me with his teeth ; My adversary looks sharply upon me. lOThey gape upon me with their mouth ;

They

They gather themselves together against me. 11God has delivered me to the ungodly, And thrown me into the hands of the wicked.

121 was at ease and he roughly disturbed me;

He took me by the scruff of the neck and savaged me ;

He has set me up for his target. 13His archers surround me; He cuts open my kidneys asunder without pity ; He spills my gall upon the ground. 14He breaks me with breach upon breach ; He runs upon me like a warrior.

151 have sewn sackcloth upon my skin,

And have lain my horn in the dust. 16My face is red with weeping, And on my eyelids is thick darkness ; 17Although there is no violence in my hands, And my prayer is pure. 1soh earth, do not cover my blood, And let my cry have no resting place. 19Even now my witness is in heaven, And he that vouches for me is on high.

resting place. 19Even now my witness is in heaven, And he that vouches for me is

smite my cheeks reproachfully ;

resting place. 19Even now my witness is in heaven, And he that vouches for me is
resting place. 19Even now my witness is in heaven, And he that vouches for me is
resting place. 19Even now my witness is in heaven, And he that vouches for me is
resting place. 19Even now my witness is in heaven, And he that vouches for me is

TRANSLATION

39

20 My friends scorn me; But my eye pours out tears to God; 21That he would decide for a man with God, And between a son of man and his neighbour. 22For a few years will come, And I shall go the way whence I shall not return.

will come, And I shall go the way whence I shall not return. CHAPTER XVII 1My

CHAPTER XVII

1My life is precarious, my days are shortened, The grave awaits me. 2Surely there are mockers with me, And my eye continually suffers their provocation. 3Give now a pledge, be surety for me with yourself; Who is there that will strike his hands to mine ? 4For you have hidden their heart from understanding ; Therefore you will not exalt them. 5He that denounces his friends for a prey, · Even the eyes of his children shall fail. 6He has made me a byword of the peoples ; And I am become as one in whose face they spit. 7My eye also is dimmed by reason of vexation, And all my members are as a shadow. 8Upright men are astonished at this, And the innocent stirs himself against the godless. 9Yet the righteous holds his way, And he that has clean hands waxes stronger and stronger. 10But return you, all of you, and come now ; And I shall not find a wise man among you. 11My days are past, my purposes are broken off, Even the desires of my heart. 12They change the night into day; The light they say is near to darkness. 13If I look for Sheol as my house ; -If I have spread my couch in the darkness ; 14If I have said to the pit "You are my father" ; To the worm "You are my mother and my sister" ; 15Where then is my hope and who will see my steadfast piety ? 16Will they go down to the bars of Sheol Or shall we descend together to the dust ?'

who will see my steadfast piety ? 16Will they go down to the bars of Sheol
who will see my steadfast piety ? 16Will they go down to the bars of Sheol
who will see my steadfast piety ? 16Will they go down to the bars of Sheol

40

TRANSLATION

40 TRANSLATION CHAPTER XVIII 1Then answered Bildad the Shuhite and said : 2'How long will you

CHAPTER XVIII

1Then answered Bildad the Shuhite and said :

2'How long will you lay snares for words ? Express yourself plainly, And afterwards we can speak. 3Why are we counted as beasts, Why are we [regarded as stupid] in your sight ? 4You that tear yourself in your anger, .Shall the earth be forsaken on your account ? Or shall a rock be removed from its place ? 5The light of the wicked is extinguished, And the flame of his fire does not shine. 6The light is dark in his tent, And his lamp above him is extinguished.

7The steps of his strength are narrowed, And his own counsel casts him down. 8For he is brought into a net by his own feet, And he walks upon the toils. 9A gin takes him by the heel� The snare catches him . 10A noose is hid for him in the ground, And a trap for him on the way. 11Terrors frighten him on every side, And dog his every step ; 12His strength becomes weak, And calamity is ready for his stumbling. 13His body is eaten away by disease; The firstborn of death devours his members. 14He is torn out of his tent wherein he trusted, And he is brought to the king of terrors. 15There dwells in his tent that which is none of his ; Brimstone is scattered upon his habitation. 16His roots are dried up beneath, And above his branch is cut off. 17His remembrance perishes from the earth, And he has no name in the open country. lSHe is thrust from the light into darkness, And chased out of the world. 19He has neither kith nor kin among his people,

is thrust from the light into darkness, And chased out of the world. 19He has neither
is thrust from the light into darkness, And chased out of the world. 19He has neither
is thrust from the light into darkness, And chased out of the world. 19He has neither
41
41

TRANSLATION

Nor any survivor

where he soj ourned.

20They that come after shall be appalled at his day, As they that went before are horrified. 21surely such are the dwellings of the unrighteous, And this is the place of him that knows not God.'

CHAPTER XIX

1Then Job answered and said :

2'How long will you pain my soul, And wound me with words ? 3These ten times have you insulted me ;

You are not ashamed to wrong me. 4If indeed I have unwittingly erred, My error remains with myself. 5If indeed you dispute with me, And argue against my reproach ; 6Know that God has subverted me in my cause, And has drawn his net round me. 7If I cry out "Violence", I am not heard ; If I cry for help, there is no judgement. 8He has walled up my way that I cannot pass, And has set a thorn hedge 'on my paths. 9He has stripped me of my glory, And taken the crown from my head. 10He has broken me down on every side,

And I am gone ;

And my hope he has plucked up like a tree. 11He has kindled his wrath against me, And he counts me as one of his adversaries. 12His troops come in a body and cast up their way against me, And encamp round about my tent. 13He has put my blood brethren far from me, And my acquaintances are wholly estranged from me. 14My kinsmen and my familiar friends have failed, Guests in my house have forgotten me. 15My maids regard me as a stranger and I have become a foreigner in their eyes. 161 call to my servant and he does n.ot answer ;

regard me as a stranger and I have become a foreigner in their eyes. 161 call
regard me as a stranger and I have become a foreigner in their eyes. 161 call
42 TRANSLATION I must use words of entreaty. 17My breath is strange to my wife,

42

TRANSLATION

42 TRANSLATION I must use words of entreaty. 17My breath is strange to my wife, And

I must use words of entreaty. 17My breath is strange to my wife,

And my supplication to the children of my mother's womb . 18Even young children despise me ;

of my mother's womb . 18Even young children despise me ; I would arise and they

I

would arise and they speak against me. 19All my intimate friends abhor me; And they whom I loved are turned against me. 20My bone cleaves to my skin and to my flesh ; And I am escaped with the skin of my teeth. 21Have pity upon me, have pity upon me, you my friends ; For the hand of God has touched me. 22W h y do you persecute me as God, And are not satisfied with my flesh ? 2awould that my words were written! That they were inscribed on bronze! 24That with an iron pen and lead They were graven in the rock forever! 251 know in my heart that my redeemer lives, And that the eternal shall stand upon the earth ; 26And after my body has perished,

I shall see my vindicator, God himself.

27Him I shall see on my side, And my eyes shall see him unestranged; My reins fail with longing within me.

281 £

Seeing that the root of the matter is found in him",

29Be afraid of the sword ; For in wrath fall the punishments of the sword, And you may know there is a judgement.'

of the sword, And you may know there is a judgement.' you say "How we will

you say "How we will persecute him

is a judgement.' you say "How we will persecute him CHAPTER XX 1Then answered Zophar the

CHAPTER XX

you say "How we will persecute him CHAPTER XX 1Then answered Zophar the Naamathite and said,

1Then answered Zophar the Naamathite and said, 2'My thoughts provide me with an answer, And after further thought boldness rises within me. 3Must I listen to harsh criticism of what I said, When out of my understanding a spirit enables me to reply. 4Do you know this (as being) of old, Since man was placed upon earth, 5That the triumphing of the wicked is short,

reply. 4Do you know this (as being) of old, Since man was placed upon earth, 5That

TRANSLATION

43

And the joy of the godless but for a moment ?

6Though his head mount up to the heavens, And hls crown reach up to the clouds,

7Yet he perishes forever like his own dung ;

They who see him say "Where is he?"

8He flies away as a dream and is not to be found ;

He is chased away as a vision of the night.

9The eye which saw him sees him no more ;

of the night. 9The eye which saw him sees him no more ; Neither does his

Neither does his place any more behold him.

10His childeren seek the favour of the poor,

And his hands give back his wealth

11His bones are full of his youth,

But it will lie down with him in the dust. 12Though wickedness be sweet in his mouth,

Though he hide it under his tongue ;

be sweet in his mouth, Though he hide it under his tongue ; 13Though he spare

13Though he spare it and does not let it go,

But keeps it still within his mouth ;

14Yet his food in his bowels is turned,

The gall of asps is within him.

15He swallows down riches and vomits them up again ;

God makes his belly reject them.

16He sucks the poison of asps ;

The viper's tongue slays him.

17He shall not look upon the rivers, The flowing streams of honey and butter.

18Restoring that which he laboured for he does not swallow it;

The money he makes by trading brings him but little satisfaction,

19For he demolishes the house restored by the poor;

He takes it as his own property and does not rebuild it.

20For he knows no quietness in his belly, He will not escape with his possessions.

21Nothing escapes his greed;

Therefore his prosperity does not endure. 22In the fullness of his sufficiency he is in straits ;

The hand of everyone that is in misery comes upon him.

23May his belly be filled! May God send the heat of his wrath into it,

And rain it upon him into his very bowels!

24Let him flee from the iron weapon. The bow of brass shall strike him through.

44

TRANSLATION

2sHe draws it forth, And it comes out of his middle, And the glittering point out of his gall; Terrors come upon him.

26Nothing but darkness is laid up

A fire not blown by man devours him ; The survivor in his tent is terrified. 27The heavens reveal his iniquity, And the earth rises up against him . 28The increase of his house departs, As things swept away in the day of his wrath. 29This is the portion of a wicked man from God, And the heritage appointed him by God.'

for his treasures ;

heritage appointed him by God.' for his treasures ; CHA'.PTER XXI 1Then Job answered and said,

CHA'.PTER XXI

1Then Job answered and said, 2'Listen carefully to what I say, And let this be your consolation. 3Bear with me while I speak, And after I have spoken you may sneer. 4As for me, is my complaint of man, And why should I not be impatient? 5Mark me and be astonished, And lay your hand upon your mouth. 6Even when I remember I am dismayed And horror takes hold of my flesh. 7Why do wicked men live, Prosper and become exceeding rich? 8Their seed is established with them in their sight, And their offspring before their eyes. 9Their houses are safe from fear, Neither is the rod of God upon them. 10Their bull impregnates and fails not; Their cow calves without miscarriage. 11They send forth their little ones like a flock, And their children dance. 12They rejoice with the timbrel and harp, And are merry at the sound of the pipe. 13They end their days in prosperity,

12They rejoice with the timbrel and harp, And are merry at the sound of the pipe.
12They rejoice with the timbrel and harp, And are merry at the sound of the pipe.

TRANSLATION

And in a moment they go down to Sheol. 14Yet they said unto God "Depart from us ; For we desire not the knowledge of thy ways. 15What is the Almighty that we should serve him ?

And what profit should we

16Behold their prosperity is not in their hand ; The counsel of the wicked is far from me. 1 7How often is the lamp of the wicked put out? And their calamity comes upon them? And God distributes ruin in his anger? 18That they are as stubble before the wind, And as chaff that the storm carries away? 19You say "God lays up his iniquity for his children". Let him recompense it to the man himself that he may know it. 20Let his own eyes see his calamity,

that he may know it. 20Let his own eyes see his calamity, have if we pray

have if we pray unto him ?"

own eyes see his calamity, have if we pray unto him ?" And let him drink
own eyes see his calamity, have if we pray unto him ?" And let him drink

And let him drink of the wrath of the Almighty. 21For what interest has he in his house after him, When the number of his months is brought to an end? 22Shall any teach God knowledge Seeing he judges those that are high ? 230ne man dies in his full strength, Being wholly at ease and quiet ; 24His breasts are full of fat, And the marrow of his bones is moistened. 25And another man dies with a bitter soul, And never tastes anything good. 26Together they lie down in the dust, And the worm covers them. 271 know full well what you are thinking, And what you wrongfully whisper against me. 28For you say "Where is the house of the prince ? J\nd where is the tent wherein the wicked dwelt ?" 29Have you not asked the wayfarers ? And do you not repudiate what they say ? 30That the evil man is withheld for the day of calamity? That they are smitten with disease on the day of wrath ? 31Who shall declare his way to his face? And who shall repay him what he has done ? 32Yet he is borne to the grave, And watch is kept over the tomb.

his face? And who shall repay him what he has done ? 32Yet he is borne

45

his face? And who shall repay him what he has done ? 32Yet he is borne

46

4 6 TRANSLATION 33The clods of the valley are sweet unto him, And all men will

TRANSLATION

4 6 TRANSLATION 33The clods of the valley are sweet unto him, And all men will

33The clods of the valley are sweet unto him, And all men will draw after him, As there were innumerable before him. 34How then comfort you me in vain, Seeing in your answers there remains only fraud?'

CH.Al?TER XXII

(Third cycle of speeches : XXII-XXXI)

CH.Al?TER XXII (Third cycle of speeches : XXII-XXXI) 1Then answered Eliphaz the Temanite and said, 2'Can

1Then answered Eliphaz the Temanite and said, 2'Can a man be profitable unto God? No, but he that acts wisely is profitable unto himself. 3ls it any interest to the Almighty that you are righteous ? Or gain that you make your ways perfect? 4Is it for your fear of him that he reproves you, That he enters with you into judgement ? 5ls not your wickedness great? And there is no end to your iniquities. 6For you have taken pledges of your brother for nothing, And stripped the naked of their clothing. 7You have not given water to the weary to drink, And you have withheld bread from the hungry 8The man with power held the land, And the man who enjoyed respect dwelt in it. 9Widows you have sent empty away, And the arms of the fatherless have been broken. 10Therefore snares are round about you, And sudden fear dismays you. 11All darkness that you cannot see, And abundance of waters cover you. 12Is not God in the height of heaven And sees the highest of the stars, How high they be? 13And you say "What does God know? Can he judge through the thick darkness? 14Thick clouds are a covering to him and he does not see, And he walks on the vault of heaven." 15Will you keep the old way Which wicked men trod? 16Who were snatched away before their time, Whose foundation was poured out as a stream;

old way Which wicked men trod? 16Who were snatched away before their time, Whose foundation was

TRANSLATION

47

17Who said to God "Depart from us" ; And "What can the Almighty do to us ?" 1 8Yet he filled their houses with good things; But the counsel of the wicked is far from me. 19The righteous saw it and were glad; And the innocent laughed them to scorn; 20Saying "Surely they that rose us against us are cut off, And the remnant of them fire has consumed." 21Accustom yourself to him, and be at peace ; Thereby your increase will be good. 22Receive, I pray you, direction from his mouth, And lay up his words in your heart. 231£ you return to the Almighty, You will be built up ; If you put away unrighteousness far from your tents, 24And lay gold ore in the dust, And the gold of Ophir among the stones of the wadis ; 25Then the Almighty shall be your gold ore, And as the finest silver unto you. 26For then you can delight in the Almighty, And lift up your face unto God. 27You can make your prayer unto him and he will hear you; And you can pay your vows. 28You can decree a thing and it will be established for you; And light will shine upon your ways. 29When they cast you down you shall say there is lifting up ; And the humble person he shall save. 30He shall deliver whomsoever is innocent; And you will be delivered through the cleanness of your hands.'

CHAPTER XXIII

1Then Job answered and said, 2'Even today is my complaint bitter;

His hand is heavy upon my groaning. 30h that I knew where that I might find him, That I might come even to his seat!

41 would set out my case before him,

And fill my mouth with arguments.

51

would set out my case before him , And fill my mouth with arguments. 51 would
would set out my case before him , And fill my mouth with arguments. 51 would
would set out my case before him , And fill my mouth with arguments. 51 would

would know the words which he would answer me,

4 8 TRANSLATION And understand what he would say to me. 6Would he contend with
4 8 TRANSLATION And understand what he would say to me. 6Would he contend with
4 8 TRANSLATION And understand what he would say to me. 6Would he contend with

48

TRANSLATION

And understand what he would say to me. 6Would he contend with me in the greatness of his power? No; but he would give heed to me. 7There an upright man would be arguing with him ; And I should be delivered forever from my judge. 8If I go forward he is not there ; And if I go backward I cannot perceive him; 9When he goes to the left I cannot behold him: ; When he turns to the right I cannot see him. 1°For he knows the way that I take; If he tries me I shall come forth as gold. 11My foot has held fast to his steps; His way have I kept and turned not aside. 121 have not gone back from the commandments of his lips ; I have treasured up the words of his mouth more than my necessary food. 13But he is unique, and who can oppose him? He does whatever he wishes. 14For he will complete that which is appointed for me ; And the many similar plans he has. 15Therefore I am dismayed at his presence ; When I consider I am afraid of him. 16For God has made my heart faint, And the Almighty has dismayed me ; 17But I am not put to silence because of the darkness, Nor because of the thick darkness which covers my face.

Nor because of the thick darkness which covers my face. CHAPTER XXIV 1Why are times not
Nor because of the thick darkness which covers my face. CHAPTER XXIV 1Why are times not

CHAPTER XXIV

1Why are times not laid up by the Almighty? And why do not they which know him see his days ? 2They remove landmarks; They violently take away flocks and feed them. 3They drive away the ass of the fatherless, They take the widow's ox for a pledge. 4They turn the needy out of the way ; The poor of the land hide themselves together. 5Behold, as wild asses in the desert That go forth on their business, They go early to the steppe for meat,

together. 5Behold, as wild asses in the desert That go forth on their business, They go

TRANSLATION

49
49

(To see) if there be food for their children. 6They cut their provender in the field ; And they glean the vintage of the rich. 7They lie all night naked without clothing, And have no covering in the cold. 8They are wet with the showers ofthe mountains, And embrace the rock for want of a shelter. 9There are they that pluck the fatherless from the breast, And take a pledge of the poor; 10So that they go about naked without clothing, And being hungry they carry the sheaves; 11They make oil within the walls of these men ; They tread their wine presses, and suffer thirst, 12From out of the populous city men groan, · And the soul of the wounded cries out; Yet God imputes it not for folly. 13These are of those that rebel against the light ; They know not the ways thereof. 14The murderer rises with the light, he kills the poor ' and needy; And in the night he is as a thief. 15The eye also of the adulterer waits for the twilight, Saying "No eye shall see me" ; And he disguises his face. 16In the dark they dig through the houses ;

They

They know not the light. 17The darkness is to all of them as morning ;

For they repudiate all fear of wrong doing. 18He is swift upon the face of the waters ;

Their portion is cursed in the earth; None shall turn by the way of the vineyards. 19When drought and heat are great The snow waters fail to flow. 20May the womb that bore him forget him;

May

And may unrighteousness be uprooted as a tree. 21He devours the barren that bear not; And does not good to the widow. 22He draws away the mighty also by his power; He rises up, and no man is sure of life.

also by his power; He rises up, and no man is sure of life. shut themselves
also by his power; He rises up, and no man is sure of life. shut themselves

shut themselves up in the daytime ;

no man is sure of life. shut themselves up in the daytime ; his grave be

his grave be no more remembered ;

shut themselves up in the daytime ; his grave be no more remembered ; Leeds University

Leeds University Oriental Society Suppl. II

4

shut themselves up in the daytime ; his grave be no more remembered ; Leeds University
50 TRANSLATION 23God gives them to be in insecurity, and they rest thereon; And his

50

TRANSLATION

23God gives them to be in insecurity, and they rest thereon; And his eyes are upon their ways. 24They are exalted ; yet a little while and they are gone ; Yea they are brought low, they are taken out of the way as all others, And are cut off as the tops of the ears of corn. 25And if it be not so now, who will prove me a liar

And make
And make

my speech nothing worth ?'

CHAPTER XXV

'

1Then answered Bildad the Shuhite and said, 2'Dominion and fear are with him; He makes peace in his high places. 3ls there any number to his armies? And upon whom does not his light arise? 4How then can man be just with God? Or how can he be clean that is born of a woman? 5Behold even the moon has no brightness And the stars are not pure in his sight. 6How much less man that is a worm! And the son of man which is a worm!'

CHAPTE , R XXVI

IThen Job answered and said, 2'How have you helped him that is without power! How have you saved the arm that has no strength! 3How have you counselled him that has no wisdom, And plentifully declared sound knowledge! 4To whom have you uttered words ? And whose spirit came forth from you? 5They that are deceased tremble beneath the waters and the inhabitants thereof. 6Sheol is naked before him and Abaddon has no covering. 7He stretches out the north over empty space, And hangs the earth on nothing. 8He binds up the waters in his thick clouds; And the cloud is not rent under them. 9He closes in the face of his throne, and spreads his cloud upon it.

51 TRANSLATION 10 H e has described a boundary upon the face of the waters,
51
51

TRANSLATION

10 He has described a boundary upon the face of the waters, To the confines of night and darkness. 11The pillars of heaven tremble And are astonished at his rebuke. 12He stirs. up the sea with his power And by his understanding he smites through Rahab. 13By his spirit the heavens are garnished; His hand has pierced the swift serpent. 14Behold, these are but the outskirts of his ways ; A nd how small a whisper do we hear of him! But the thunder of his power who can understand?'

CHAPTER XXVII

1And Job again took up his parable and said :- 2'As God lives, who has taken away my right;

And the Almighty, who has

3(For my life is yet whole in me, And the spirit of God is in my nostrils) 4Surely my lips shall not speak unrighteously, Neither shall my tongue utter deceit. 5God forbid that I should justify you; Till I die I will not put away my integrity from me. 6My righteousness I hold fast and will not let it go ; My mind will not change as long as I live. 7Let my enemy be as the wicked, And let him that rises up against me be as the unrighteous. 8For what is the hope of the godless, even though he gets profit, When God demands his life? 9Will God hear his cry When trouble comes upon him? 10Will. he delight himself in the Almighty, And call upon God at all times ? 111 will teach you about the hand of God; That which is with the Almighty I will not conceal. 12Behold all you yourselves have seen it; Why then have you become altogether vain? 13This is the portion of a wicked man with God, And the heritage of oppressors which they receive from the Almighty. 14Are his children multiplied for the sword ?

embittered my soul ;

of oppressors which they receive from the Almighty. 14Are his children multiplied for the sword ?
' TRANSLATION the tempest steal him away in the night ? CHAPTER XXVIII 52 And

'

TRANSLATION the tempest steal him away in the night ? CHAPTER XXVIII
TRANSLATION
the tempest steal him away in the night ?
CHAPTER XXVIII

52

And are his offspring not satisfied with food ? 15Are those that remain of him buried in death, While his widows shall make no lamentation?

16Though he heap up silver as the dust, And prepare raiment as the clay ; 17Does he prepare it and the just wear it, And the innocent divide the silver? 18Does he build his house as the spider,

And as a booth which the keeper makes ? 19Does he lie down rich and shall he not be gathered?

Does he open his eyes and find that he is not ? 20Do terrors overtake him like waters ?

Does

21Does the east wind carry him away so that he departs ? Does it sweep him out of his place ?

22Does God hurl at him unsparingly, So that he would fain flee out of his hand ? 23Do men clap their hands at him, And hiss him out of his place?

1Surely there is a mine for silver, And a place for gold which they refine. 2Iron is taken out · of the earth,

And brass is molten out of the stone. · 3Man sets an end to darkness, And searches out to the furthest bound The stones ofthickdarkness and of the shadow of death. 4He cuts a shaft through the covering of chalk. 1'hose who are swept off their feet Hang suspended far from men, swinging to and fro. 5As for the earth, out of it cometh bread;

And underneath it is turned up as it were by fire. 6The stones of it are the place of sapphires,

And it has dust of gold. · 7That path no bird of prey knows,

Nor has the falcon's eye seen it; 8The proud beasts have not trodden it, Nor has the fierce lion passed thereby. 9He puts forth his hand upon the flinty rock ;

TRANSLATION

. 53

He overturns the mountains by the roots. 10He cuts out channels among the rocks ; And his eye sees every precious thing. nHe binds the streams that they trickle not; And a thing that is hidden brings he forth to light. · I2But where shall wisdom be found?

light. · I 2 B u t where shall wisdom be found? And where is the

And where is the

13Man does not know the price of it; Neither is it found in the land of the li v ing. 14The deep says "It is not in me" ; And the sea says "It is not with me". I5Jt cannot be got for gold, Nor shall silver be weighed for the price thereof. 16It cannot be valued with the gold of Ophir, With the precious onyx or the sapphire. 17Gold and glass cannot equal it; Neither shall the exhange thereof be jewels of fine gold. 18No mention shall be made of coral or of crystal ; The price of wisdom is above rubies. 19The topaz of Ethiopia shall not equal it, Neither shall it be valued with pure gold. 20Where then does wisdom come from? And where is the place of understanding? 21Seeing it is hid from the eyes of all living, And kept close from the fowls of the air. 22Destruction and death say, "We have heard a rumour of it with our ears". 23God understands the way of it,

And he knows the place of it. 24For he looks to the ends of the earth, And sees under the whole heaven; 25To make a weight for the wind; He measures out the waters by measure. 26When he made a decree for the rain, And a way for the clouds ; 27Then did he see it and declare it ; He established it, and searched it out.

2 s And unto man he

"Behold the fear of the Lord that is wisdom; And to depart from evil is understanding" '.

place of understanding ?

the fear of the Lord that is wisdom; And to depart from evil is understanding" '.
the fear of the Lord that is wisdom; And to depart from evil is understanding" '.

said,

the fear of the Lord that is wisdom; And to depart from evil is understanding" '.

54

54 TRANSLATION CHAPTER XXIX 1And Job again took up his parable and said, 2'0h that I

TRANSLATION

CHAPTER XXIX

1And Job again took up his parable and said, 2'0h that I were as in the months of old, As in the days when God watched over me; 3When his lamp shined upon my head, And by his light I walked through darkness ; 4As I was in the prime of life, When my tent was under God's protection; 5When the Almighty was yet with me, And my children were about me ; 6When my steps were washed with butter, And the rock poured me out rivers of oil! 7When I went out of the gate to the city, When I prepared my seat in the broad place, 8The young men saw me and hid themselves, And the aged rose up and stood; 9The princes refrained from talking, And laid their hand on their mouth; 10The voice of the nobles was hushed, And their tongue clave to the roof of their mouth.

hushed, And their tongue clave to the roof of their mouth. 11For when the ear heard

11For when the ear heard me then it blessed me ; And when the eye saw me it gave witness unto me; · 12Because I delivered the poor that cried, The fatherless also that had none to help him. 13The blessing of him that was ready to perish came upon me; And I caused the widow's heart to sing for joy.

141 put on righteousness, and it clothed me ;

My justice was as a robe and a turban.

151 was eyes to the blind,

And feet was I to the lame.

161 was a father to the needy;

And the cause of him that I knew not I searched out. 17And I broke the great teeth of the unrighteous, And plucked the prey out of his teeth. 18Then I thought, "I shall live long with my nestlings, And I shall multiply my days as the phoenix;

19My root open to the waters, And the night mist lodging in my branches, 20My glory fresh in me,

my days as the phoenix; 19My root open to the waters, And the night mist lodging
my days as the phoenix; 19My root open to the waters, And the night mist lodging
my days as the phoenix; 19My root open to the waters, And the night mist lodging
TRANSLATION 55 CHAPTER XXX . ·
TRANSLATION
55
CHAPTER XXX
.
·

And my bow pliable in my hand" . 21Men listened to me and waited and kept silence for my counsel. 22After I had spoken, they said no more, And my speech dropped on them. 2aThey waited for me as the rain, And they opened their mouth wide as for the latter rain. 24If I laughed on them they believed it not; And the light of my countenance they cast not down. 2s1 chose out their way, and sat as chief, And dwelt as a king in the army, As one who comforts the mourners.

1But now they that are younger than I have me in derision, Whose fathers I disdained to set with the dogs of my flock.

2The strength of their hands whereto should it profi:t me - Men in whom vigour is perished? 3They are gaunt with want and famine ; They gnaw a dead twig, chewing it in destitution and desolation. 4They pluck saltwort by �he bushes ; And the roots of the broom are their food. 5They are driven forth from the low ground ; They cry after them as after a thief. 6In the sides of the valleys they mu st dwell, In holes of the earth and high ground. 7Among the. bushes they bray, Under the nettles they are gathered together. 8They are children of the ignoble, children of nobodies ; They were driven out of the land. 9And now I have become their song, Yea I am a byword to them. 10They hate me, they stand aloof from me, And spare not to spit in my face. 11My bow string is slack and they have afflicted me, And they have abandoned the bridle of respect at my presence. I 2Upon my right hand rise the rabble ; They thrust aside my feet, And they cast up against me their ways of destruction. 1aThey break up my path,

the rabble ; They thrust aside my feet, And they cast up against me their ways
the rabble ; They thrust aside my feet, And they cast up against me their ways
the rabble ; They thrust aside my feet, And they cast up against me their ways
the rabble ; They thrust aside my feet, And they cast up against me their ways
5 6 TRANSLATION They set forward my calamity, There is none to restrain them. I4They

56

TRANSLATION

They set forward my calamity, There is none to restrain them. I4They come as through a breach; Where the gap is made they advance. 15Terrors are turned upon me, My honour is driven away as with the wind; And my welfare is passed away as a cloud. 16And now my soul is poured out upon me; Days of affliction have taken hold of me. 17In the night season my bones are pierced in me, And the pai n s that gnaw me take no rest. 1 8My clothing is saturated with much supuration, It sticks to me like an undergarment. 19He has cast me into the dirt, And I am become like dust and ashes.

201 cry unto you and you do not answer me;

I stand up and you look at me.

21You are turned to be cruel to me; With the might of your hand you persecute me. 22You lift me up to the wind, you cause me to ride upon it; And you toss me in the storm. 23For I know that you will bring me to death, And to the house appointed for all living. 24Surely one should not put forth his hand against the helpless; Or is he to be smitten in his calamity? 25Did I not weep for him that was in trouble ? Was not my soul grieved for the needy ?

26When I looked for good then evil came;

And when I waited for light, there came darkness. 27My bowels boil, and rest not; Days of affiiction are come upon me.

281 go blackened but not by the sun;

I stand up in the assembly and cry for help.

291 am a brother to jackals,

And a companion to ostriches. 30My skin is black and falls from me, And my bones are burnt with heat. 31Therefore is my harp turned to mourning, And my pipe unto the voice of them that weep.

And my bones are burnt with heat. 31Therefore is my harp turned to mourning, And my

TRANSLATION

57

CHAPTER XXXI .

11 made a covenant with my eyes ; How then could I look upon a maid ? 2For what is the portion allotted by God from above, And the heritage by the Almighty from on high?

3Is not calamity for the unrighteous, And disaster for the workers of iniquity? 4Does he not see my ways, And number all my steps ? 5If I have walked with vanity, And my foot has hasted to deceit ; 6(Let me be weighed in an even balance, That God may know my integrity;) 7If my step has turned out of the way, And my heart walked after my eyes, And if any spot has cleaved to my hands ; 8Then let me sow and let another eat; Let my produce be rooted out. 9If my heart has been enticed unto a woman, And if I have laid wait at my neighbour's door ; 10Then let my wife grind for another, And let others bow down upon her. 11For that were an heinous crime ; It were an iniquity to be punished by the judges ; 12For that were a fire that would consume unto destruction, And would burn all my crops. 13If I refused to listen to the cause of my manservant or of my maidservant, When they contended with me :

i 4What then shall I do when God rises up ? And when he comes to enquire, what shall I answer him ?

15Did not he that made me in the womb make him ? And did not one fashion us in the womb ? 1 6If I have withheld the poor from their desire, Or have caused the eyes of the widow to fail ; 170r have eaten my morsel alone, And the fatherless has not eaten thereof; 18(Nay from my youth he grew up with me as with a father, And I have been her guide from my mother's w o mb ;)

18(Nay from my youth he grew up with me as with a father, And I have
18(Nay from my youth he grew up with me as with a father, And I have
18(Nay from my youth he grew up with me as with a father, And I have

58

58 TRANSLATION 19If I have seen any perish for want of clothing, Or that the needy

TRANSLATION

58 TRANSLATION 19If I have seen any perish for want of clothing, Or that the needy

19If I have seen any perish for want of clothing, Or that the needy had no covering ; 20lf·his loins have not blessed me, And if he were not warmed with the fleece of my sheep ; 21If I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless,

Because I saw

22Then let my shoulder fall from the shoulder-blade, And my arm be broken from the bone. 23For calamity from God was a terror to me, And by reason of his loftiness I could do nothing. 24If I have made gold my hope, And said to the fine gold "Thou art my confidence" ; 25If I rejoiced because my wealth was great, And because my hand had got much; 26If I beheld the sun when it shined, Or the moon moving in calm dignity ; 27And my heart has been enticed, And my mouth has kissed my hand. 28This also were an iniquity to be punished by the judges ; For I should have denied God that is above. 29If I rejoiced at the destruction of him that hated me, Or was glad when evil befell him; 30(Yea I suffered not my mouth to sin By asking his life with a curse;) 31If the men of my tent said not, "Who can find one that has not been satisfied with his flesh?" 32The stranger did not lodge in the street ;

his flesh?" 32The stranger did not lodge in the street ; my help in the gate

my help in the gate ;

stranger did not lodge in the street ; my help in the gate ; But I
stranger did not lodge in the street ; my help in the gate ; But I

But I opened my doors to the traveller; 33If like Adam I covered my transgressions, By hiding my iniquity in my bosom; 34Because I feared the great multitude, And the contempt of families terrified me, So that I kept silent, And went not out of the door - 35Qh that I had one to hear me! (Lo, here is my signature ! Let the Almighty answer me!) And that I had the indictment which my adversary had written! 36Surely I would carry it upon my shoulder ; I would bind it unto me as a crown. 371 would declare to him the number of my steps ;

TRANSLATION As a prince would I present it to him. 3Slf my land cry out

TRANSLATION

As a prince would I present it to him. 3Slf my land cry out against me, And the furrows thereof weep together ; . 39If I have eaten the fruits thereof without money, Or have affiicted the soul of its owners ; 40Let thorns grow instead of wheat, And noisome weeds instead of barley." The words of Job are ended.

weeds instead of barley." The words of Job are ended. 59 CHAPTER XXXII (The speeches of

59

CHAPTER XXXII

(The speeches of Elihu: XXXII-XXXVII)

1So these three men ceased to answer Job, because he was righteous

was kindled the wrath of Elihu the son of

Barachel the Buzite of the family of Ram ; against Job was his wrath kindled, because he justified himself rather than God. 3Also against his three friends was his wrath kindled, because they found no answer and yet had condemned Job. 4Now Elihu had waited to speak unto Job because they were older than he 5and when Elihu saw that there was no answer in the mouth of these three men, his wrath was kindled. 6And Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite answered and said,

'I am young and you are very old; Wherefore I was in dread and did not dare show you my opinion. 71 said "Days should speak, And multitude of years should teach wisdom. 8But there is a spirit in man, And the breath of the Almighty which gives them understanding. 9lt is not the old that are wise, Nor the aged that understand judgement. l OTherefore I say "Hearken to me; I also will show my opinion". 11Behold I waited for your words, I listened for your reasons, While you searched out what to say. �2Yea I attended unto you, And behold there was none that convicted Job, Or that answered his words among you. 13Beware lest you say "We have found wisdom; God may vanquish him, not man". 14For he has not attacked me in his discourse;

in his own eyes

2Then

found wisdom; God may vanquish him, not man". 14For he has not attacked me in his
found wisdom; God may vanquish him, not man". 14For he has not attacked me in his
60 TRANSLATION And so I shall not answer him with your sayings. 15They are amazed,

60

60 TRANSLATION And so I shall not answer him with your sayings. 15They are amazed, they

TRANSLATION

And so I shall not answer him with your sayings. 15They are amazed, they answer no more; They have not a word to say. 16And shall I wait because they speak not, Because they stand still and answer no more ? 171 also will answer my part,

I also will show my opinion.

18For I am full of words ; The breath in my belly constrains me. 19Behold my belly is as wine which has no. vent; Like jars filled with new wine it is ready to burst. 20Let me speak that I may find relief; Let me open my lips and answer. 21Let me not, I pray you, respect any man's person; Nor will I give flattery and titles unto any man. 22For I know not to give flattering titles; Else would my maker soon take me away.

flattering titles; Else would my maker soon take me away. CHA'.PTER XXXIII 1Howbeit, Job, I pray

CHA'.PTER XXXIII

1Howbeit, Job, I pray you hear my speech And hearken to all my words. 2Behold now, I have opened my mouth, My tongue has spoken in my palate. 3My heart is rich in words of knowledge, And my lips speak that which is pure. 4The spirit of God has made me,

And the breath of the Almighty gives me life. 5If you can, answer me ; Dispute before me, stand forth. 6Behold I am towards God even as you are ; I also am formed out of clay. 7Behold my terror shall not make you afraid, Nor shall my weight be heavy upon you. 8Nevertheless you said in my hearing - And I heard the voice of your words -

9" 1 am pure without transgression; I am clean, neither is there iniquity in me.

I O Behold he finds occasions against He counts me for his enemy;

me,

I am clean, neither is there iniquity in me. I O Behold he finds occasions against
I am clean, neither is there iniquity in me. I O Behold he finds occasions against
TRANSLATION 61 11He puts my feet in the stocks, He marks all my paths". 12Beh
TRANSLATION
61
11He puts my feet in the stocks,
He marks all my paths".
12Beh o ld I will answer you ; in this you are not in the right.
For God is exalted above man.
13Why do you contend with him ?
For all that he says is unanswerable.
14For God speaks once,
Y ea, twice without man's perceiving· it.
15In a dream in a vision of the night,
When deep sleep falls upon men,
In slumberings upon the bed;
16Then he opens the ears of men,
And frightens them with warnings ;
17That he may remove man's blindness,
And take away his pride;
18He keeps back his soul from the p it,
And his life from sudden death.
19He is chastened also with pain upon his bed,
And his bone s ache unceasingly;
2oso that his life abhors bread,
And his soul dainty meat.
21And his flesh wastes away without moisture; ·
And his bones are dried up unrefreshed.
22 Y ea his soul draws near :unto the pit,
And his life to the destroyers.
23If there be with him an angel,
An interpreter, one among a thousand,
To show unto man what is right for him;
24Then he is gracious unto him and says
"Spare him from going down unto the pit,
I have fol.lnd a ransom."
25His flesh shall be fresher than a child's;
He returns to the days of his youth ;
26He prays to God and he is favourable unto him;
So that he sees his face with joy;
And he restores to man righteousness.
27He rejoices before men and says,
"I have sinned and perverted that which was right,
And it did not profit me;
28He has redeemed my soul from going into the pit,

62

TRANSLATION

62 TRANSLATION And my life shall behold the light." 29Behold all these things God works, Twice,

And my life shall behold the light." 29Behold all these things God works, Twice, yea thrice, with a man,

30To bring back his soul from the pit, That he may be enlightened with the light of the living. 31Mark well, OhJob, hearken unto me; Hold your peace and I will speak.

32If you have anything

Speak for I desire to justify you. 33If not, hearken unto me. Hold your peace and I will teach you wisdom.'

to say, answer me ;

CHAPTER XXXIV

1Moreover Elihu answered and said, 2'Hear my words, you wise men ; And give ear unto me, you that have knowledge. 3For the ear tries words As the palate tastes meat. 4Let us choose for us that which is right; Let us know among ourselves what is good. 5For Job has said "I am righteous, And God has taken away my right ; 6Notwithstanding my right I am accounted a liar ; My state is desperate, though I have done no wrong." 7What man is like Job, Who drinks up scorning like water? 8Who goes in company with the workers of iniquity, And walks with wicked men. 9For he has said "It profits a man nothing That he should delight himself with God." 10Therefore hearken unto me, you men of understanding; Far be it from God that he should do wickedness ; And from the Almighty that he should commit iniquity. 11For the work of a man shall he render unto him, And cause every man to find according to his ways. 12Yea of a surety God will not do wickedly, Neither will the Almighty pervert judgement. 13Who gave him a charge over the earth? Or who has given him the governance of the whole world?

pervert judgement. 13Who gave him a charge over the earth? Or who has given him the
pervert judgement. 13Who gave him a charge over the earth? Or who has given him the
TRANSLATION 14If he were to cause his spirit to return to himself, And were to

TRANSLATION

TRANSLATION 14If he were to cause his spirit to return to himself, And were to gather

14If he were to cause his spirit to return to himself, And were to gather unto himself his breath ; 15All flesh would perish together, And man would turn again unto dust. I6If now you have understanding hear this; Hark to the voice of my words. I7Shall even one that hates right govern? And will you call the mighty and just one wicked? I B Who says to a king "Villain", Or to nobles "You are wicked" ? 19How much less to him that respects not the persons of princes, Nor regards the rich more than the poor? For they all are the work of his hands. 20In a moment they die; even at midnight The rich perish and pass away, And the mighty are taken away without (help of) hand. 21For his eyes are upon the ways of a man, And he sees all his goings. · 22There is no darkness nor deep gloom Where the workers of iniquity may hide themselves. 23For he does not appoint a set time for a man, That he should go before God in judgement. 24He breaks in pieces mighty men in ways past finding out; And sets others in their stead. 25Therefore he takes knowledge of their works ; And he overturns them in the night, 26And the basest scoundrels are destroyed. He strikes them in the open sight of others ; 27Because they turned aside from following him, And would not have regard to any of his ways ; 28So that they caused the cry of the poor to come unto hirri, And he heard the cry of the afflicted. 29If he declares a man just, who then can condemn him? And when he hides his face who can behold him ? He sets a limit to a nation or a man 30And the godless man may not reign, And there be none to ensnare the people. 3IFor has any said to God, "l have borne chastisement though guilty of no great offence. 32That which I see not teach me;

any said to God, "l have borne chastisement though guilty of no great offence. 32That which

63

any said to God, "l have borne chastisement though guilty of no great offence. 32That which
64
64

TRANSLATION

If I have done iniquity I will do it no more" ? 33Shall his recompense be as you will because you: are stubborn? For you must choose, not I; Therefore speak what you know. 34Men of understanding will say unto me, Indeed every wise man that hears me, 35"Job speaks without knowledge, And his words are without wisdom". 36Does Job wish to be tried unto the end, Because of his answering like wicked men? 37For he adds rebellion unto his sin; In our presence he is shameless, And multiplies his words against God':

he is shameless, And multiplies his words against God': CHAPTER XXXV 1Moreover Elihu answered and said,
CHAPTER XXXV
CHAPTER XXXV
And multiplies his words against God': CHAPTER XXXV 1Moreover Elihu answered and said, 2'Do you think

1Moreover Elihu answered and said, 2'Do you think this to be your right, · Or do you say "My righteousness is more than God's", 3That you say "What advantage will it be unto you" ? And "What profit shall I have more than if I had sinned" ? 4I will answer you, And your companions with you. 5Look to the heavens and see; And behold the skies which are higher than you. 6If you have sinned what do you against him? And if your transgressions be multiplied what do you unto him ?

7If you be righteous what do you give him? Or what does he receive from your hand? 8Your wickedness may hurt a man as you are ; And your righteousness may profit a son of man. 9By reason of the multitude of oppressions they cry out ; They cry for help by reason of the arm of the mighty. 10But none says "Where is God my maker,

of the mighty. 10But none says "Where is God my maker, Who gives songs in the

Who gives songs in the night ;

11Who teaches us more than the beasts of the earth,

And makes us wi ser than the fowls of heaven ?" 12There they cry but he answers not, Because of the pride of evil men. 13Surely God will not hear vanity,

of heaven ?" 12There they cry but he answers not, Because of the pride of evil

TRANSLATION

65

TRANSLATION 65 Neither will the Almighty regard it. 14How much less when you say you behold
TRANSLATION 65 Neither will the Almighty regard it. 14How much less when you say you behold

Neither will the Almighty regard it. 14How much less when you say you behold him not! Submit yourself to him and wait for him! I5But now because he has not visited in his anger, Neither does he give heed to stupidity, 16Therefore Job opens his mouth in vanity; He multiplies words without knowledge'.

CHAPTER XXXVI

1Elihu also proceeded and said, 2'Suffer me a little and I will show you ; For I have yet something to say on God's behalf. 31 will fetch my knowledge from afar, And will ascribe righteousness to my Maker. 4For truly my words are not false; One that is perfect in knowledge is with you. 5Behold God is mighty and does not despise any; He is mighty in strength of understanding. 6He preserves not the life of the wicked; But gives to the afflicted their right. 7He withdraws not his eyes from the righteous ; But with kings upon the throne He sets them forever and they are exalted. 8And if they be bound in fetters, And be taken in the cords of affliction; 9Then he shows them their work, And their transgressions that they have behaved themselves proudly. 10He opens also their ear to instruction, And commands that they return from iniquity. 11If they hearken and serve him, They shall spend their days in prosperity, And their years in pleasures. 12But if they hearken not they shall suffer sudden death, And they shall perish unawares. 13But they that are godless in heart conceal their anger; They cry not for help when he chastises them. I4They die in youth, And their life perishes among the unclean. 15He delivers the afflicted by his affliction,

perishes among the unclean. 15He delivers the afflicted by his affliction, Leeds University Oriental Society Suppl.

Leeds

University

Oriental Society

Suppl. II

5

perishes among the unclean. 15He delivers the afflicted by his affliction, Leeds University Oriental Society Suppl.
6 6 TRANSLATION And opens their ear in oppression. 16Sumptuous living has enticed you from

66

6 6 TRANSLATION And opens their ear in oppression. 16Sumptuous living has enticed you from the

TRANSLATION

6 6 TRANSLATION And opens their ear in oppression. 16Sumptuous living has enticed you from the

And opens their ear in oppression. 16Sumptuous living has enticed you from the mouth of the starving, And that which was set on your table was full of fatness. 17But you are full of a rich man's food; Judgement and justice take hold of you, 18Pay a ransom lest you be tempted by meanness, And let not the high price of the ransom deter you. 19Will your riches suffice without affliction, Or all the forces of your strength? 20Desire not the night, When peoples are cut off in their place. 21Take heed, regard not iniquity; For you have chosen impatience rather than resignation. 22Behold God dooms to destruction; Who is so terrible as he? 23Who has assigned to him his way? Or who can say "You have wrought unrighteousness" ? 24Remember that you magnify his work, Whereat men rejoice. 25All men have looked thereon ; Man beholds it afar off. 26Behold God is great and we know him not ; The number of his years is unsearchable. 27For he holds back the drops of water, Which distil in rain at the time of his mist, 28Whlch the skies pour down And drop upon many men. 29Yea, can any understand the spreadings of the clouds, The thunderings of his pavilion? 30Behold he spreads his mist over him; And he covers him with a mist from the sea. 31For by these he feeds the peoples ; He gives meat in abundance. 32He covers his hands with the lightning; And gi