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HISTORY OF

EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

Where Are We Going &


Where Have We Been

Prepared & Modified by


FOR-IAN V. SANDOVAL
Educational
Technology
History of
Objectives: Educational
 To identify events and devices of the Technology

past that contributed to the


technological revolution.
 To examine the organizations and
their viewpoints that have shaped
technology use in the classroom
today.
 To prepare for the future in
educational technology by analyzing
current trends and advances.
Educational
Technology
History of
“Technology is commonly Educational
thought of in terms of gadgets, Technology

instruments, machines and


devices … most (educators)
will defer to technology as
computers.”
(Muffoletto, 1994)

TEA
Educational
Technology
History of
The history of “Educational Educational
technology … can be traced back Technology

to the time when tribal priests


systemized bodies of knowledge,
and early cultures invented
pictographs or sign writing to
record and transmit information.”
(Paul Saettler, 1990)
Educational
Technology
In ancient Greece, the Elder History of
Educational
Sophist used the term “techne” to Technology
refer the process of applying
knowledge systematically to the
practical art of instruction. They
formulated cognitive rules,
systematically analyzed subject
matter designed instructional
technologies and devised effective
instructional materials.
Educational
Technology
During the Middle Age History of
Educational
Advent of Scholastic Philosophy, Technology

Pierre Abelard introduced a


technology of instruction which
was really a new method of
structuring and presenting
materials that helped set the style
of scholastic education.
Educational
Technology
Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel,
Herbart and Montessori contributed their History of
own concept on educational technology Educational
Technology
improving educative process.
John Amos Comenius was
recognized as the pioneer of modern
instructional technology by reason of
his book Orbis Pictus (The World in
Picture) which was illustrated
textbooks for children studying Latin &
Sciences.
Educational
Technology
Edward Thorndike and John Dewey
formulated scientific theory of learning History of
Educational
and the scientific method, respectively. Technology

Thorndike gave emphasis to the use of


empirical investigation as a basis for an
organized process of learning. On his
part, Dewey introduced a method of
instruction in terms scientific method in
broad terms
Educational
Technology
The 19th century paved in the History of
advent of effective technological Educational
Technology
development including the production
of textbooks, use of blackboards and
improvements in writing implements
like pen and ink. Photography was
invented, giving a way to a movement
called “Visual Instruction”.
Educational
Technology
By 1920, visual media became
widely accepted. Then came the History of
Educational
publication of audio-visual media Technology

texts.
In 1926, educational films
were used as instructional media.
In 1927, Pressey wrote on
programmed learning through a
machine which tested and confirmi
a learning task.
Educational
Technology
By 1920, visual media became
widely accepted. Then came the History of
Educational
publication of audio-visual media Technology

texts.
In 1926, educational films
were used as instructional media.
In 1927, Pressey wrote on
programmed learning through a
machine which tested and
confirmed a learning task.
Educational
Technology
In 1932, the first instructional
History of
television program was aired at the Educational
State University of Iowa. About the Technology

same time, the 16 mm sound


motion picture was developed and
this served as the educational
workhorse during the audio-visual
movement of the time.
Educational
Technology
During World War II, the U.S.
government encouraged the History of
Educational
implementation of technology of Technology
instruction for military training
programs. This gave impetus to a
system approach to instruction to
include: micro-teaching, individualized
instruction, Language laboratories,
behavioral laboratories, behavioral
objectives, computer assisted
instruction and among others
History of
“Computers”
 Abacus---Approximately 3000 BC History of
Educational
 Calculators---1600s Technology

 Punched Card Devices---1800s


 First Electronic Computers---1940s
 Mainframes---1950s
 Minicomputers---1960s
 Microcomputers---1970s
 Microcomputer Systems---1980s
 Internet---1990s
Ancient Computing
History
History of
The Abacus Educational
Mechanical aid used for Technology
counting and making
quick calculations.

Still in
use
around
the
world.

Find out more about the Abacus in Resources.


Early Computing
History
Blaise Pascal History of
Educational
Invented the first Technology
mechanical calculator.
The Pascaline used
cogs and gears to solve
math equations.
Mechanical
Calculators
History of
Joseph Jacquard Educational
Technology
 First “programmable”
machine.
 Used punched cards
(binary instructions) to
automate weaving loom.
 Punched cards were a
staple of early and
modern computer
programming.
Electronic Computer
Systems
History of
First Generation:1943- Educational
Technology
1956
 Used vacuum tubes in
electronic circuits.
 Used punch cards to input
and externally store data.
 Up to 4K of memory.
 Programming in machine
language and assembly
language.
 Required a compiler.
First Generation:
1943-1956
Electronic Numerical Integrator History of
Educational
and Calculator (ENIAC) Technology

World’s first electronic


digital computer.
Used to produce
WWII ballistic firing
tables for the U.S.
Defense Department.

Check out the ENIAC exhibit.


Second Generation: 1957-
1964
History of
1956 IBM 350 RAMAC Educational
Technology
 Used transistors,
developed by Bell Labs.
 Up to 32K of memory.
 Programming in
computer languages,
such as FORTRAN and
COBOL.

Visit the Computing History Timeline in Resources.


Third Generation:
1965-1971
History of
Educational
 Used integrated Technology
circuits.
 Up to 3 million bytes
of memory.
 Lower cost, smaller
size, and increasing
processor speed.
Fourth Generation:
1972-Now
History of
Microcomputer Revolution Begins. Educational
Technology

 1971, Intel develops 4004, the first


microprocessor chip.
 Altair sold in 1975, the first personal
computer. It is a kit that must be
assembled.
 Apple Computer is formed in 1976
and sells 50 Apple I.
 Advances increase memory size,
storage space, and processing
Fourth Generation:
1972-Now
History of
Microcomputers Educational
Technology
 Personal computers or PCs.
 Usually cost about $2,000 or less.
 Process over 1 billion operations per
second.
 “Stand-alone” or connected
to other computers as a
network system.
TEA
1990’s
Connecting the World
History of
Tim Berners-Lee Educational
Technology
 Developed HTML and the World Wide Web
(WWW) was born.
1990’s
Connecting the World
History of
Marc Andreessen Educational
Technology

 An original developer of Mosaic, the


first browser software able to read
HTML.
 Co-founder of Netscape
Communications.
The 21st Century
 Technologies of the Future
History of
 Advanced robotics Educational
Technology
commonplace
 Smart houses
 Wearable computers
 Holodeck virtual reality
 Truly individualized education

Check out Dave Moursund’s view of education in


the year 2015, one of the Resources.
The 21st Century

 Only recently focused on History of


Educational
computers. Technology

 Internet current primary trend.


 Communication with colleagues.
 Lesson plan preparation.
 Student resources.
 Access research and best practices for
teaching.

05:34.0
TEA
Educational
Technology
History of
Educational
Technology

Source information: NCES 2000 Summer Issue


Educational
Technology
Our Definition: History of
Educational
Technology
“A combination of the processes
and tools involved in addressing
educational needs and problems,
with an emphasis on applying the
most current tools: computers
and their related technologies.”
(M. D. Roblyer, 2000)
Educational
Technology
History of
Has technology changed how and Educational
what we teach? Technology
Educational
Technology
History of
Two trends of today’s society: Educational
Technology
 Explosive increase in number and type
of technology resources available.
 Dramatic decrease in total cost of
ownership (TCO).

TEA
Educational
Technology
IBM unveils first PC in 1981. History of
Educational
Technology
 CPU: Intel 4.77 MHz 8088
 Memory: 64K
 Storage: Single-sided, 160K 5” floppy disk drive
 Display: 12 inch monochrome
 Price: $2880.00

Read about
IBM Through the Years
in Resources.
Educational
Technology
History of
Change in educational philosophy Educational
of what constitutes basic skills Technology

 No longer just three R’s


 “Learning to learn” skills essential
 Lifelong learning

TEA
Four Different Views

 Association for Educational History of


Educational
Communications & Technology Technology
(AECT)
 International Society for
Performance Improvement (ISPI)
 International Technology Education
Association (ITEA)
 International Society for Technology
in Education (ISTE)
Four Different Views

AECT History of
Educational
Technology
 Audiovisual Media Communications.
 Begun in 1923.
 Initially centered on radio.
 Quickly extended focus to include instructional
film strips and educational television.
 Today, it includes global satellite broadcasting,
two-way audio, and visual communications.
Four Different Views
AECT
History of
 “Branch of educational theory and Educational
Technology
practice concerned primarily with
the design and use of messages
which control the learning process.”
(Saettler, 1990, p. 9)
 Publications:
 TechTrends
 Handbook of Research for Educational
Communications and Technology

Vis it th e AE CT we b s ite from R e s ourc e s .


Four Different Views

History of
ISPI Educational
Technology
 Instructional systems approach
based on Behaviorist theories
 “Systematic approach to
designing, developing, and
delivering instruction matched
to carefully identified needs.”
(Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino, 1997)
Four Different Views

History of
ISPI Educational
Technology
 Publications:
 Performance Improvement Journal
 Performance Improvement Quarterly

E xplore IS P I re s ourc e s a t th e IS P I we b s ite .


Four Different Views

History of
ITEA Educational
Technology
 Industry trainers and vocational
teachers.
 Schools should prepare
students for work force Learning
about technology as used in the
“real world” is essential.
Four Different Views

History of
ITEA Educational
Technology
 Includes robotics,
manufacturing systems,
computer-assisted design
(CAD).
 Publications:
 The Technology Teacher
 Technology and Children
 The Journal of Technology Education

Find out more at the ITEA web site.


Four Different Views

History of
ISTE Educational
 Primary focus encompassed both Technology

instructional and support


applications of computers.
 Begun by trainers and educators who
predicted that computers would
revolutionize education.
 Influenced by technical personnel,
such as programmers and systems
analysts.
Four Different Views

History of
ISTE Educational
Technology
 National Educational
Technology Standards for
Students and Teachers (NETS)
 Publications:
 Learning and Leading with Technology
(formerly The Computing Teacher)
 Journal of Research on Computing in
Education

ISTE’s website is one of the Resources.


Modern Educational
Technology History
History of
Mainframe Computer Systems Educational
Technology

 First instructional use of computers


was as a flight simulator used to
train pilots at MIT in 1950.
Modern Educational
Technology History
History of
Mainframe Computer Systems Educational
Technology

 First use in public schools taught


New York elementary students
binary arithmetic in 1959.
Modern Educational
Technology History
History of
Mainframe Computer Systems Educational
Technology

 Federal funds supported many


large-scale projects in
mainframe computer-assisted
instruction (CAI) in schools,
colleges, and universities
through the middle of 1970’s.
Modern Educational
Technology History
History of
Mainframe Computer Systems Educational
Technology

 Stanford University – first multimedia


learning station, Course writer
 Programmed Logic for Automatic
Teaching Operations (PLATO)
 BYU – Time-shared Interactive
Computer-Controlled Information
Television (TICCIT)
Modern Educational
Technology History
History of
Mainframe Computer Systems Educational
Technology

Designed to support personalized


mastery learning
 Individually Prescribed Instruction
(IPI) - University of Pittsburgh
 Program for Learning in Accordance
with Needs (PLAN) - American
Institutes of Research
Modern Educational
Technology History
National Education Computing History of
Educational
Conference (NECC) Technology

 Created by mainframe programming


enthusiasts from universities
nationwide.
 First conference held in1979.
 Today is the largest educational
technology conference in U.S. with
attendance of 10,000+ people.
Modern Educational
Technology History
History of
Microcomputers in Education Educational
Technology
 Introduced in late 1970’s.
 Adopted by public school systems
during 1980’s.
 Apple II
 Commodore PET
 Radio Shack TRS - 80
Modern Educational
Technology History
History of
Software Educational
Technology
 Early courseware developed for
mainframes were provided by:
 Large hardware manufacturers
 Software systems companies
 University development projects

 New microcomputer software


market driven primarily by
educators.
Modern Educational
Technology History
History of
Software Educational
Technology
 Minnesota Educational Computing
Consortium (MECC)
 Initially largest provider of educational
software.
 Funded by National Science Foundation.

 MicroSift, EPIE
 Provided courseware evaluations.
Modern Educational
Technology History
History of
Software Educational
Technology
 Authoring systems
 Response to educators quest for
input into design of educational
software.
 Allowed educators to develop their
own courseware.

TEA 15:05.0
Modern Educational
Technology History
History of
Software Educational
Technology
 Authoring systems
 Required extensive expertise.
 Extended time commitment.
 Expanded work investment.

TEA
Modern Educational
Technology History
History of
Computer Literacy Educational
Technology
 Originally defined as programming
skills and tools such as word
processing.
 Today’s world can only agree that
the term refers to skills that are
constantly changing.

15:45.0
Modern Educational
Technology History
History of
Seymour Papert Educational
Technology
 Educational theorist mentored by
Jean Piaget.
 Developed programming language
for young children based on
constructivist theory of education.
 Raised national consciousness
about potential of technology to
change the educational system.
16:25.0
Modern Educational
Technology History
History of
The Internet and the WWW Educational
Technology
Biggest challenge for the public
educational system has been how
to prepare schools physically and
train teachers effectively for its use
in the classroom.

16:50.0
TEA
What We’ve
Learned
History of
 Computer literacy or knowledge of Educational
computer applications is a moving Technology

target.
 Teaching students technical skills
for today is valuable.
 More important are “learning to
learn” tools for tomorrow and years
to come.

17:20.0
What We’ve
Learned
History of
 Computer-based materials are just Educational
one component of resources Technology

available to educational system.


 Integration of technology as a tool
to advance learning in the content
areas adds to the effectiveness of
other resources and teacher
created activities.

18:00.0
What We’ve
Learned
Development of technology History of
Educational
materials and integration strategies Technology

is time intensive and should not be


a classroom teacher’s primary
responsibility – You’ve got enough
to do!

18:20.0
TEA
What We’ve
Learned
History of
 Educators must keep pace with Educational
technological advances. Technology

 But often times technology


changes faster than the
educational environment.
 Business and Industry must do it’s
part in providing economical
technology solutions.

18:40.0
What We’ve
Learned
History of
 Teachers will always be necessary! Educational
Technology
 Definition of learning environments
are changing.
 Identity of classrooms must
change.

19:03.0
TEA
What We’ve
Learned
History of
 Our models of effective instruction Educational
Technology
must change too!
 Educators must be more than:
 Sage on the Stage
 Guide on the Side

19:40.0
What We’ve
Learned
History of
Vet in the Net Educational
Technology
Today’s teacher must be willing to be:
 A participating learner in the classroom.
 One who will take the same risks and
not always have the right answer.
 A veteran learner in a network of
learners called the classroom.

20:10.0
Enrichment
Activity 2
E-mail your answer to History of
lspu_eductech1@yahoo.com Educational
Technology

 Create a graphic organizer showing


the historical development of
educational technology.
 Discuss educational programs on
television: how effective are these in
enriching the educational process in
Philippine schools? What are their
flaws ad limitations.

20:10.0
Reference
“EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY”
by Dr. Paz I. Lucido & Dr. History of
Educational
Milagros L. Borabo Technology

Web Link
http://www.tcet.unt.edu/weblibrary2/overview

20:10.0