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MID-TERM

JANUARY 27, 2018

A. Human behaviour is universal; it is the core of leadership, followership, communication, decision making, and the process in the
organization. Cite the fundamental reasons for studying human behaviour; support them with citations. Among those reasons, which ones
are applicable in your organization? Support by citing examples.

1. Through studying human behaviour we learned how to predict human behavior and, then, apply it in some useful way to make the
organization more effective. It helps in effective utilization of people working in the organization guarantees success of the organization.

In our section this concept was applied, we try to observe and know something about a person. We have this one co-employee that
once given a bottled of alcohol will let himself get drunk till dawn, causing him to take absences from the office. This was always been
observed. And since every transaction will start the process with him, it causes some delay. So as an action, his supervisor asked him
to inform her whenever there will be an occasion/ unavoidable instances that he will drink, so that important transactions will be taken
as his priority before his absence. And those papers that have been left be given to the person who will take in charge for a while. I
think for now it is the best solution because it is very hard to control someone for prohibiting him to do things.

2. Helps the managers to understand the basis of motivation and what he should do to motivate his subordinates.

There is a simple way of motivating a person especially at work by just recognizing his/her/the team for a job well done. Giving
him/her/the team a treat outside. But there are persons who excel more at their work if their supervisors take him down because the
more they want to prove their selves and feel challenged.

3. Helps managers and executives to better understand their fellow workers and channelize their skills and resources to achieve goals of
the organization

Knowing the specialization of your employees and their work experiences will help managers to assign the right tasks and realistic
workloads. For example, when an Auditing Firm has new applicants, a fresh graduate accountancy students and an applicant with a 2
years experience in auditing. At this moment, he can assigned the fresh graduate accountancy students at the office as a way of
observing first whether his shy type, and how he make his works. This can be the basis if this person has the potential to be emerged in
the field where lots of client’s interactions. Of course the applicant with 2 years experience can be put immediately to the field but still
under observation because we want to know if he can manage to handle some arguments and build a good relationship with the clients.

B. Prepare a framework that will best explain motivation on your respective organization.
Consider models and theories in the discussion of your framework. Indicate your own concept based on what you have learned.
DPWH MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK

NEED DEFICIENCIES
-belonging needs
-recognition/appreciation
-continuing learning potential
REASSESSMENT OF NEEDS -realistic workload
employees reassessed their needs after
receiving reward or punishment WAYS TO SATISFY NEEDS
- effective and without bias in communicating
information and application of policies
- praise him with a public announcement or post the
employee’s achievement on the bulletin board

REWARDS OR PUNISHMENT
The - personalize the rewards by thinking about what kind
of reward would make a particular employee most
happy ( giving a vacation day, letting him work at

employee
-benefits such as change in job titles and job home)
responsibilities
- giving an equal opportunity for all regardless of
-celebrating when there's a progress status of work to participate in a seminar and training
- These are signals to employees that their - Deadlines should be practical too ( ex. submission of
needs for advancement and recognition and report on Jan. 2, 2018 is impractical)
their behaviours are appropriate
-personal matters of supervisors should not be taken
care of by the employee

GOAL
PERFORMANCE
Goal directed to focus on the assigned task, to put
A satisfactory performance- employees strive to effort to do the task right without rushing and to
advance at their work and performance think innovatively . Thus they be able to deliver
quality output.
C. Application of “quid pro quo” or something for something is sometimes observable in an organization. Take a stand on this and
exemplify its effects to motivation, communication, and leadership.

The Latin term quid pro quo typically used in financial circles to describe a mutual agreement between two parties in which each party
provides a good or service in return for a good or service. Similar meaning is "give and take". “Quid pro quo” agreements are sometimes
viewed negatively. For example, this “quid pro quo” was used as communication strategy in a corporation. Only those stakeholders who can
give valuable resources that the organization needs, such as financing, skills, and connections/contacts are given privileged to access
information and received more communication efforts. Otherwise, stakeholders received less communication efforts or being left out of the
process. Thus, it lacks openness of Communication since it become selective to involvement of stakeholders. In my view, this leads to need
deficiency of belongingness that causes to feel demotivated like the case in our office. There is a memorandum stating that there will be no
more Job orders in the following year. Only those who have eligibility will be hired. Admin became selective on disseminating this information.
Only those people who they want to stay in the office because of connections are given information on what alternative programs, trainings or
exams they may take to qualify for next year change of policy. This ineffective communication of information make some employees feel they
don’t belong to the crowd. The reason why they feel demotivated.

As to leadership, system of quid pro quo can be seen in transactional leadership model where people are motivated by rewards and
punishment. If a person does something well then they can expect to be rewarded, if they do something poorly they can expect to be
punished. But we should not assume that transactional leadership will yield the same results across different cultures and different
individuals. I believe that instead of giving punishment for poor performance it would be best if we hear from that person the reason why and
explain to him the impact it cause because in that way he will still feel that he plays an important role. We cannot expect an absolutely no
performance error. Giving punishment will make people to focus on not getting punishment. They may feel pressured and rattled especially if
there’s a quota or target to reach wherein quality are sacrifice over the output. For example, some people will take short-cuts in their work to
achieve the reward offer for the period and avoid punishment – not knowing full well that further down the track there could be consequences
that could be severe for the organization.

Though application of “quid pro quo” has positive impact especially if the company has limited resources for communication because it
reduces the time, effort and resources that must be devoted for communication. This communication strategy becomes more efficient.
Overall, strategy to be applied for motivation, communication and leadership highly depends on the current situations of a company as to its
financial resources, type and behavior of its individual, and other factors. A deep assessment should be made to come up with the best
strategy that would compliment/ cater the needs of the organization.
Communication of information that affects an employee’s work
D. Evaluate the leadership style in your own organization in terms of the four forces influencing the human behaviour. Determine the
theories/ models that support such description; then, synthesize and present your own interpretation of such style.
Based on my observation, the agency where I belong, DPWH, demonstrate a TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE because the
District Engineer with the help of Human Resource Management/Administrative Section concentrate on how to transform employees as
instrument to achieve the DPWH VISION as an effective and efficient government agency that will improve the life of every Filipino through
quality infrastructure. And they consider too the development of value system of employees as to Public
Service, Integrity, Professionalism, Excellence and Teamwork. They totally focus on people development.
According to Bass, the aim of transformational leadership would be to “transform‟ people and organizations inside a literal sense - to alter
them in the mind and heart enlarge vision, insight and understanding clarify reasons make behavior congruent with values, concepts and
brings about changes which are permanent, self-perpetuating and momentum building. Bruce et al said that transformational leaders are able
to define and articulate a vision for their organizations and their leadership style can influence or “transform” individual-level variables such
as increasing motivation and organization-level variables, such as mediating conflict among groups or teams. Based on Voon et al study Of
Malaysian executives working in public sectors, Malaysia, the results showed that transformational leadership style has a stronger relationship
with job satisfaction. This implies that transformational leadership is deemed suitable for managing government organizations.