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Sample Question Paper 11

Social Science
Class 10th
1. The main contribution of French Revolution to the world is the transfer of sovereignty from the
monarchy to a body of French citizens. (1)
2. The Black Power Movement started in USA in 1966 and lasted till 1975. It was a militant anti-racist
movement advocating even violence, if necessary to end racism in the USA. (1)
3. The community government in Belgium is a good example of ‘social group sharing’ type of power.
(1)
4. Red and yellow soil is found in the foothills of Western Ghats. (1)
5. This movement has successfully resisted deforestation in several areas of the Himalayas. (1)
6. Adequate provisions of basic healthcare and educational facilities alongwith good infrastructure of
healthcare centres are the reasons behind low IMR in Kerala. (1)
7. GDP does not include the earning/profit of Indians outside the country, but includes profit/assets of
foreign companies in the domestic territory. (1)
8. At the time of Swadeshi Movement, a swaraj flag (red, green and yellow) was designed in Bengal by
Mahatma Gandhi. (1)
It features are :
(i) It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India and a crescent moon representing
Hindu-Muslim community.
(ii) It had also tricolour, red, green and white. (2)
(iii) It had a spining wheel in the centre.
9. Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia
and linking Asia with Europe and North Africa. These resulted in a vibrant pre-modern trade.
Through this route, Chinese pottery, Indian textiles and spices from South-East Asia travelled to
Europe and North Africa. In return, gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia.
The most well-known silk route connected China to Europe. West bound Chinese silk cargoes and
Chinese pottery travelled through this route. Trade and cultural exchange always went hand in hand.
Christian missionaries, Muslim preachers, Buddhist monks, all used the silk routes and religions
spread from one region to another. These routes were used to spread religions like Buddhism,
Christianity and Islam.
Thus, it can be conclude that silk routes are a good example of trade and cultural link between distant
parts of the world. (3)
Or
A variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in the export trade in early 18th century. They
were financing production, carrying goods and supplying exporters. The supply merchants linked the
port towns to the inland regions.
They gave advances to the weavers, procured the woven cloth from weaving villages and carried the
supply to the ports. At the port, the big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated
the price and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland. (3)
Or
Bombay was the principal port of the East India Company and considered as the prime city of India.
The three reasons or important facts which made it a prime city are as follows :
(i) It was an important centre for cotton textiles.
(ii) It became an important administrative centre in Western India.
(iii) It was a major industrial centre and dominated the maritime trade of India. (1 ´ 3 = 3)
10. The four characteristics of Kandla sea port are :
(i) Kandla in Kuchchh was the first port developed soon after independence.
(ii) It was developed to reduce the volume of traffic on Mumbai port.
(iii) It is a tidal port.
(iv) It caters to exports and imports of highly productive granary and industrialised states. (3)
11. Important beverage crop introduced by the British in India is tea.
The geographical conditions needed for tea are as follows :
(i) Tea bushes grow well in tropical and subtropical climates. It needs warm and moist climate
throughout the year.
(ii) The soil should be deep and fertile, well-drained, rich is humus and organic matter.
(iii) Frequent showers should be evenly distributed throughout the year for growth of tender leaves.
(1 ´ 3 = 3)
12. The Mayor is the political head of the Municipal Corporation. He acts as the city bureaucrat who is
generally a state-appointed officer. He is usually chosen through direct vote for a term of 5 years. He is
the first citizen of the city.
The functions of a Mayor are : (1)
(i) He acts as the Chairperson of the Municipal Corporation.
(ii) He presides over the meetings of the corporation and regulates the meetings.
(iii) The Mayor generally lacks executive authority. The Municipal Commissioner is the Chief Executive
Officer and all executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner. Mayor is the proper
channel of communication between the Commissioner and the State Government. (2)
13. Caste can take various forms in Indian politics this can be justified from the points below :
(i) When parties choose candidates in elections, they keep in mind the caste composition of the
electorate and nominate candidates from different castes so as to get necessary support to win
elections.
(ii) When governments are formed, political party takes care that representatives of different castes
and tribes should get a place in the ministry.
(iii) During the campaigning, political parties and candidates make appeals to people to give their
votes on the basis of caste. Some political parties are known to favour some castes and are seen
as their representatives. (1 ´ 3 = 3)
14. It is true that multi-party system has both merits and demerits. These are discussed below :
Merits
(i) Multi-party system allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation.
(ii) Here people have an opportunity to make a choice between several candidates. æ 1ö
ç1 ÷
è 2ø
Demerits
(i) This system often appears very messy.
(ii) This system sometimes leads to political instability. æ 1ö
ç1 ÷
è 2ø
15. In the 11th century, Chinese paper reached Europe from China through silk route. Paper made
possible the production of manuscripts carefully written by scribes.
In 1295, Marco Polo, a great explorer returned to Italy after many years of exploration in China and
the Italians began producing books with woodblocks and soon, the technology spread to the other
parts of Europe. Religious preachers like Buddhist were also helpful in spreading this knowledge from
China to Europe. Expensive handwritten books were still preferred by the aristocrats and rich monastic
libraries. Merchants and students bought the cheaper printed edition of books. (3)
Or
In Bengali language, Kabi means poet and larai means contest. Thus, the word Kabirlarai means
contest of the poets or poetry contests. These were a popular form of entertainment. These were usually
patronised and encouraged by the rich people of Calcutta for entertainment. In Kabirlarai, two persons,
who were lyricist and composer at the same time,answered each other in form of songs. It was also
referred to as Kabigan. (3)
16. The countries of the Middle-East may have very high Per Capita Income due to revenues from crude
oil, but they are otherwise not developed in each sector (except Israel). Their literacy rate, life
expectancy at birth and other similar parameters do not match those of developed countries of the
West.
The probable reason is that they have become rich nations recently due to sharp increase in the price
of oil, but their society has not developed accordingly. Most of the wealth is accumulated in few
hands, so, the society has widespread inequality. (3)
17. The significant characteristics of rice cultivation are :
(i) It is the staple food crop of a majority of the people in India.
(ii) India is the second largest producer in the world after China.
(iii) Dense network areas of canal irrigation and tube wells have made it possible to grow rice in areas
of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana and Western UP.
(iv) In Assam, West Bengal and Odisha, three crops of rice in a year namely–Aus, Aman and Boro are
grown. (3)
18. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) provides guaranteed 100 days of employment
per year for one person in every household in the rural areas who wants to work as an unskilled worker.
It was started in the villages of 200 districts and has now been extended to villages in over 600
districts. One-third of the total work is reserved for women. Thus, it provides employment to rural
people in the activities specified under the scheme. Thus, it has helped in reducing the unemployed
population of India. (3)
19. The factors which have enabled globalisation in India are :
(i) During the past 50 years, several improvements in technology have taken place. For example, in
transportation technology, containers are now used for the transportation of goods. This has led to
huge reduction in cost and increase in speed in reaching the markets.
(ii) Telecommunication facilities are used to contact one another around the world and to
communicate from remote areas. Internet enables us to send instant electronic mail and talk
across the world at negligible costs.
(iii) The Government of India has removed barriers or restrictions to trade set earlier. This step, called
liberalisation, has enabled goods and services to be exported and imported easily. Multinationals
have been allowed to set-up factories and offices in India. Due to this, there is greater integration of
production and markets across countries. (5)
20. The consumer movement in India has led to the formation of various organisations locally known
as consumer forums or consumer protection councils.
Following are the importance or functions of consumer forums :
(i) They guide consumers on how to file cases in the consumer court.
(ii) On many occasions, they also represent individual consumers in the consumer courts.
(iii) These voluntary organisations also receive financial support from the government for creating
awareness among the people.
(iv) It works for the protection of the consumer rights.
(v) It imparts knowledge about consumer rights by writing articles and getting it published in
newspaper. (1 ´ 5 = 5)
21. Maharashtra and Gujarat states have the maximum extent of cotton textile growth. (1)
Reasons for the concentration of cotton textile industry in these states are :
(i) Availability of Raw Materials Due to the favourable soil type and other climatic conditions, cotton
is grown in a vast area in these states. So, raw materials are available in plenty.
(ii) Transport These states are well connected to the rest part of the country by rail and road. Also,
they have many large ports from where the textile products can be easily exported.
(iii) Market Though they have locally available big markets, they also enjoy good transport facilities
that enable their reach to the national and international markets.
(iv) Labour Although they have locally available cheap labour force, they are supported by migrant
labours from the Northern states.
(v) Moist Climate For cotton cultivation, moist climate is a must. These states have favourable
climatic conditions. (4)
22. One of the most important features of the Civil Disobedience Movement was the large scale
participation of women. During Gandhiji’s salt march, thousands of women participated in marches,
manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail.
In urban areas, these women were from high caste educated family e.g. Sarojini Naidu, Satyavati Devi,
Kamala Nehru, Vijaylakshmi Pandit, Kasturba Gandhi, etc. In rural areas, women came from rich
peasant households. Bengal being the nerve centre of female education in India, increased the
women’s participation in nationalism. In 1930, women rallied before Bethune College, Calcutta in
support of Gandhiji’s Civil Disobedience Movement.
In Bombay, large section of women of Gujarati community was influenced by Gandhiji’s idealism
and participated in National Movement. But all these participation were symbolic as women did not
hold any position of authority for a long time. (5)
23. Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. Italy was divided into seven states during the middle
of the nineteenth century. Of these seven states only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian
princely house. At that time North of Italy was under Austrian Habsburg, the centre was ruled by Pope
and the Southern regions were ruled by the Bourbon kings of Spain.
Role of Mazzini
During 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had tried to unite Italy. He formed the secret society called young
Italy. But both the uprising in 1831 and 1848 failed. Even the ruling elites also wanted a unified Italy
which would offer economic development and political dominance.
Role of Cavour
The unification of Italy was a result of many wars. Chief Minister Cavour made a tactful diplomatic
alliance with France, and Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
Role of Garibaldi
A large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the unification
movement. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies succeeded to
drive out the Spanish rulers with the help of local people. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed
as king of United Italy. (5)
Or
The Ho Chi Minh trail was an immense network of footpaths and roads. It was used to transport men
and materials from the North to the South. (4)
The importance of the Ho Chi Minh trail is stated in the points below
(i) The story of the Ho Chi Minh trail is one way of understanding the nature of the war that the
Vietnamese fought against the US.
(ii) It symbolises how the Vietnamese used their limited resources against the super power like the
USA.
(iii) The trail was used by about 20,000 North Vietnamese troops who came to the South each month
using this trail. (3)
24. Communist Party of India-Marxist emerged out of a division within the Communist Party of India (CPI).
The following points state their split chronologically :
(i) The undivided Communist Party of India (CPI) had experienced a period of upsurge during the
years following the Second World War.
(ii) Independent India under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru developed close relation with Soviet
Union. But the relation with China deteriorated due to the border disputes between the two
countries.
(iii) The relation between Communist Party of Soviet Union and Communist Party of China deteriorated.
China criticised Soviet Union’s view point as revisionist and deviating from Marxism-Leninism.
(iv) In our country, one section of Communist Party supported Soviet Union and Congress-Nehru
standpoint. They were dubbed as ‘rightist’ in nature. But the other section, who supported China
and its leader Mao Zedong became known as ‘Left Communist Party’.
(v) In 1964, Communist Party of India was divided and the left wing, i.e. the Communist Party of
India-Marxist emerged as a separate party. (1 ´ 5 = 5)
25. An ordinary citizens can play the following role in deepening democracy :
(i) Citizens must learn to tolerate differences and views of all others who disagree with them. Citizens
must accept the principle of mutual tolerance and dissent.
(ii) Citizens must act with the sense of discipline and responsibility. They have a right to express their
dissent. They must express their grievance through channels provided by the democratic system.
(iii) Citizens must participate and seek to influence the public opinion. This, can happen only when they
are well informed on civic matters.
(iv) Citizens must exercise their right to vote. This provides a direction to the whole democratic
process. (5)
26. (i) 1927-Madras (ii) 1929-Lahore

(ii)

BIHAR
BANGLADESH

Bisrampur

Warda
Andam

BAY
OF
an and Nicobar Is

BENGAL

(i) Madras 1927


L a k s ha d

land
weep

s (I n
(I n d

d ia
)
ia )

(1 + 1 = 2)
27. The answer map given below

(i) New Delhi (i) Varanasi

(iii) Talcher (Thermal


power plant)

(1 ´ 3 = 3)
Sample Question Paper 12

Social Science
Class 10th
1. French citizens living in Vietnam are called colons. (1)
Or
Wolfe Tone led a Protest Movement against the Protestants in Ireland. (1)
2. Leaching is a process by which soil nutrients get washed away by heavy rains. Laterite soil is
developed due to it. (1)
3. Sri Lanka has adopted Buddhism as its official religion.
4. In 1992, a major step towards decentralisation of powers was taken. (1)
5. Limestone is the basic raw material for the cement industry. (1)
6. Trade barrier is restriction imposed on import and export of goods. It provides protection to domestic
goods from foreign competition. (1)
7. In path of development, most of the nations shift their economic dominance from Primary to
Secondary to Tertiary sector. (1)
8. As the national movement developed, nationalist leaders used more and more symbols and icons in
unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism. In the following ways, icons and
symbols of India developed the sense of belonging use :
(i) During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It
had eight lotuses which represented eight provinces of British India. The crescent moon in the flag
represented Hindus and Muslims.
(ii) By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was also tricolour (red, green and white) and had
a spinning wheel in the centre, which represented the Gandhian values, i.e. self help.
(iii) Carrying the Swaraj flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
(1 ´ 3 = 3)
9. The following three measures can help to solve the problem of land degradation :
(i) Proper management of grazing on permanent pastures should be done.
(ii) In areas where desertification has taken place, thorny bushes can be grown.
(iii) Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents should be done after treatment. (1 ´ 3 = 3)
10. Three water harvesting systems used in India are :
(i) In Rajasthan and Gujarat, the system of using underground tanks is popular for storing water for
domestic use.
(ii) In hilly areas like Himachal Pradesh, the system of using diversion channels called ‘Guls’ and ‘Kuls’
is used for storing water for irrigation.
(iii) In Meghalaya, the bamboo pipe drip irrigation system is used to irrigate crops. (1 ´ 3 = 3)
11. In modern democracy, power sharing arrangement can take many forms. It can be horizontal or
vertical. The difference between the two arrangements are :

Horizontal Power Sharing Vertical Power Sharing


(i) Under the horizontal power sharing, power is In case of vertical power sharing, power is
shared among the different organs of the shared among the different levels of the
government such as the Legislature, the government.
Executive and the Judiciary.
(ii) Under the horizontal distribution of power, the The vertical division of power involves the higher
organs of the government are place at the same and lower levels of the government.
level to exercise different powers.
(iii) In horizontal distribution of power, each organ In vertical power sharing, the lower organ works
check the other organ. under the higher organs.
(1 ´ 3 = 3)
12. No, it is wrong to say that social divisions happen only in big countries like India. Social divisions
happen due to various social differences based on race, religion, culture or language. It depends on
the social diversity of the population of a country.
l
A small country like Belgium is very diverse since it has Dutch speakers as well as French and
German speakers in its population. Sri Lanka is also diverse in respect of religion and language since
it has a majority of Sinhala speakers and a minority of Tamil speakers. Thus, social diversity can take
different forms in different societies. (3)
13. Today, the world has been converted into a global village with the help of efficient and fast moving
transport and communication facilities. The following points support the fact :
(i) Daily flights to different countries and improved technology to develop fast means of transportation
has connected the countries.
(ii) Computer and internet facilities supported by satellite services have made the world a small village
wherein an information can be reached at almost instantly.
(iii) Every country is well-linked with the rest of the world through various means of transport and
communication. (1 ´ 3 = 3)
14. Public facilities are provided by the government.
Examples of such facilities are :
(i) The Public Distribution System (PDS), which provides fair average quality of foodgrains and other
essential items to weaker sections at subsidised prices.
(ii) Government schools which provide elementary education upto class 8 totally free for all children
upto the age of 14 years.
(iii) Healthcare in government hospitals and dispensaries is provided to all at subsidised rates. This
includes outpatient as well as hospitalisation facilities. (1 ´ 3 = 3)
15. Rules and regulations are required in the marketplace to protect consumers against exploitation by
the producers, sellers and service providers. They often indulge in unfair trade practices and also
provide false information about a product or service.
Most consumers are unaware of their rights and thus are often deceived by suppliers. It is in the
interest of consumers to have rules and regulations to take necessary action against such
unscrupulous people. (3)
16. The three reasons for the attraction of Europeans to Africa were :
(i) Africa had abundant land and was rich in mineral resources. Its population was relatively small.
(ii) The Europeans were hoping to establish plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for
export to Europe.
(iii) In Africa, industrial revolution did not take place. Africans were militarily weak and backward.
Europeans thought that they could easily capture the country and use its resource and people for
their own profit. (1 ´ 3 = 3)
Or
Jobbers were people employed by industrialists to recruit the right people from among the job
seekers. Very often the Jobber was an old and trusted worker. The following were the functions of a
Jobber :
(i) He got people from his village and ensured them jobs.
(ii) He helped people to settle them in the city.
(iii) Also provided money in times of crisis. Jobbers became persons with some authority and power.
(1 ´ 3 = 3)
Or
Yes, it is really very difficult to imagine a world without printed matter because
(i) Everywhere in our surroundings, we find evidence of print, i.e. in books, journals, newspapers,
prints of famous paintings, etc.
(ii) We see printed materials in everyday things like theatre programmes, official circulars, calendars,
diaries, advertisements, cinema posters, government notifications etc.
(iii) We read printed literature, see printed images, follow the news through different newspapers and
track public debates that appear in print. We take this world as world of print and often forget that
there was a time before the printing technology was invented. (1 ´ 3 = 3)
17. The two reasons which show that caste alone cannot determine election results in India are :
(i) No party wins the votes of all the voters of a caste or community. When people say, the caste is a
‘vote bank’ of one party, it usually means that a large proportion of voters from that caste vote for that
party.
(ii) No parliamentary constituency in the country has a clear majority of one single caste. So, every
candidate and party needs to win the confidence of more than one caste and community to win
elections. (3)
18. Sultana’s Dream is a classic work of Bengali science fiction, written by Rokeya Hossein in 1905.
Its theme is explained in the points below :
(i) It is a satiric fantasy which is published originally in English in ‘The Indian Ladies Magazine’ of
Madras and is considered a part of Bengali literature.
(ii) It depicts a feminist utopia in which women run everything and take the place of men.
(iii) Crime is eliminated, since men were considered responsible for all of it.
(iv) The religion is one of love and truth. Purity is held above all. (3)
Or
Through the 19th century, there was a series of new innovations in printing technology.
They were :
(i) By the mid-19th century, Richard M Hoe of New York had perfected the power-driven cylindrical
press. It was capable of printing 8000 sheets per hour which was specially useful for printing
newspapers.
(ii) In the late 19th century, the offset press was developed which could print upto six colours at a time.
(iii) From the beginning of the 20th century, electrically operated presses accelerated printing
operations. (1 ´ 3 = 3)
19. The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement was started by the Congress party in January 1921. Initially,
this movement started with middle class participation in the cities.
Thousands of students, teachers and lawyers gave up their institutions and profession and joined the
movement. This movement began in different cities across the country. The Non-Cooperation
Movement dramatically affected the economy of British India.
The effects of Non-Cooperation Movement on economic fronts were as follows :
(i) As foreign goods and foreign clothes were boycotted, the import of foreign clothes halved between
1921 and 1922, and its value dropping from 102 crore to 57 crore rupees.
(ii) In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or invest in foreign trade.
(iii) As people discarded imported clothes and started to use Indian clothes, production of Indian
textile mills and handlooms went up. In this way, the Non-Cooperation Movement helped boost the
Indian economy. (3)
20. Jute is called golden fibre for its colour and high cash value in India. (1)
Geographical conditions
(i) Well-drained fertile soils in the flood plain where soil is renewed every year.
(ii) High temperature during growth period, so hot and humid climate is required.
Among major regions of jute production, West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Odisha and Meghalaya are
important. (2)
Uses
(i) It is used in making carry bags, carpets, ropes, yarn and other artefacts.
(ii) Its stick is also used for fuel in rural belt.
(iii) After refining and proper treatment it can be used for clothes.
(iv) It is cropped for commercial purpose which earns a livelihood for farmer.
(v) Now, it is proposed to replace polythene bags in India to promote pollution free environment. (2)
21. India adopted multi-party system for the following reasons :
(i) Being a vast and diverse country, the multi-party system was needed to accommodate the vast
population.
(ii) The diverse social and geographical features could not be represented with two or three parties.
(iii) The multi-party system in India evolved over a long time, depending on the nature of society, its
social, regional division, its history of politics and its system of elections.
(iv) Multi-party system ensures a healthy competition between different parties and prevents
dictatorship of a single party. Indian Constitution declares India as a democratic country.
Multi-party system fulfils this criteria and provides chance for proper growth of the nation. (5)
22. Organised sector All enterprises which are either registered or came under the purview of any of the
relevant government rule, like Factory Act.
People enjoy working in the organised sector as there is a proper and systematic way to get the work
done from the employees. (1)
Advantages of working in the organised sector are :
(i) Workers enjoy security of employment. They cannot be removed from employment without proper
reasons.
(ii) The workers work only for a fixed number of hours. If they work more, they have to be paid overtime
wages by the employer.
(iii) Many benefits are given to the workers like leave, payment during holidays, provident fund,
gratuity, medical benefits etc.
(iv) Under the laws, the management of the enterprise has to ensure facilities like drinking water and a
safe working environment. (4)
23. The Globalisation has impacted Indian economy in the following ways :
(i) Increase in foreign investment Over the past twenty years, the foreign investment has increased.
(ii) Emergence of Indian companies as multinational Several of the top Indian companies like Tata
Motors, Infosys, Ranbaxy have been able to get benefit from the increased competition created as
a result of Globalisation.
(iii) Creation of new opportunities Globalisation has created new opportunities for Indian companies,
particularly providing services like IT.
(iv) Creation of new jobs For those which are Globalisation has created new jobs and has helped in
reducing unemployment rate to an extent.
(v) Host of Services A host of services such as data entry, accounting, administrative tasks,
engineering are now being done cheaply in India. (1 ´ 5 = 5)
24. The following points explain that economic growth in democracies is accompanied by increased
inequalities among the people :
(i) Democracies are based on political equality.
(ii) All individuals have equal rights in electing representatives.
(iii) Parallel to the process of bringing individuals into the political arena on an equal footing, we find
growing economic inequalities.
(iv) A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and incomes.
Not only that, their share in the total income of the country has been increasing.
(v) Those at the bottom of society have very little to depend upon. Their incomes have been declining.
Sometimes, they find it difficult to meet their basic needs of life such as food, clothing, housing,
education and health. In actual life, democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing
economic inequalities. (1 ´ 5 = 5)
25. The first book printed by Gutenberg was Bible.
Following are the features of Bible :
(i) Gutenberg printed about 180 copies of Bible, of which no more than 50 have survived.
(ii) The book was printed in the new Gutenberg press with metal type, but the borders were carefully
designed, painted and illuminated by the artists.
(iii) No two copies were the same. Every page of each copy was different.
(iv) Elites preferred the uniqueness of the book. What they possessed would not be similar with others.
(v) Gutenberg printed the text in black leaving spaces where the colour could be filled in later. Each
owner could select their own colour and design for the holy book.
(vi) The use of colour within the letters in various places of this book had two functions
(a) It added colour to the page.
(b) It highlighted all the holy words to emphasise their significance. (5)
Or
Advaita Malla Burman is the author of the novel Titash Ekti Nadir Naam. (1)
Titash Ekti Nadir Naam is one of the most amazing literary pieces in Bengali literature because :
(i) This novel is an epic, the author delicately observed the lifestyle of a marginal community, i.e. the
Mallas who live off fishing in the river Titash.
(ii) This novel is about three generations of the Mallas, about their community life, happiness, tragedy
portrayed in great details.
(iii) This novel describes the religious traditions, festivals, bhatiali or boat songs and the threat to the
Malla community.
The life of the community closely tied up with the river. As the river dries up, the community dies too.
(iv) Novelists before Advaita had featured low castes as their protagonists. Titash is special, because
the author is, himself belongs to this low caste Malla, community. (4)
26. The answer map is given below :

(i) Ahmedabad BIHAR


BANGLADESH

Madhya Pradesh
Bisrampur

Warda

Andam
(ii) Dandi
BAY
OF

an and Nicobar Is
BENGAL
Laksha
dw e e

land
s (I n
p (I
nd

d ia
ia)

)
(1 + 1 = 2)
27. The answer map is given below.

(i) Naharkatia Oil field

BIHAR
BANGLADESH

Madhya Pradesh

(iii) Warda
Andam

Ankleshwar (ii)
oil field
BAY
Katni Bauxite
OF
Deposit
an and Nicobar Is

BENGAL
Laksha
dw e e

land
s (I n
p (I
nd

d ia
ia)

(1 ´ 3 = 3)
Sample Question Paper 13

Social Science
Class 10th
1. Count Camillo de Cavour was the Chief Minister of Italy, during its unification, so he was
remembered in history.
Or
Early Vietnamese nationalist had a close relationship with Japan and China. (1)
2. The washing down of the soil cover is described as soil erosion. (1)
3. The division of power between higher and lower level of government is known as vertical division of
power. (1)
4. High level of education is one indicator of Human Development Index. (1)
5. The sowing period of kharif crops is the onset of the monsoon in the months of June and July. (1)
6. Decentralisation of power is the basic idea behind the power sharing of Indian federalism. (1)
7. Tertiary sector does not produce any good. It provides services. (1)
8. Way to create more employment opportunities in urban areas are :
(i) Strengthening the information technology sector This involves opening of more call centres,
cyber cafes and software development units.
(ii) Strengthening the tourism sector By opening more hotels, restaurants, amusement parks and
similar other tourism destinations, demand for employment in this sector will increase.
(iii) Improving organised retailing Giving better facilities and allowing more foreign investment will
give many employment opportunities in urban areas. (1 ´ 3 = 3)
9. The differences between National and Regional Party are :
National Party Regional Party
It influences the whole country. It’s influence is limited and region-based.
It takes national as well as international issues. It is interested in promoting regional/state interest
only.
It has to secure at least 6% of the total votes in the It has to secure at least 6% of the total votes in an
Lok Sabha elections or Assembly elections in 4 election to the Legislative Assembly of a state and
states and win at least 4 seats in the Lok Sabha. win at least 2 seats in the State Assembly.

(1 ´ 3 = 3)
10. Since historic times foreign trade been the main channel connecting countries. e.g. silk route connects
India and South Asia to markets both in the East and West.
Foreign trade creates an opportunity for the producers to reach beyond the domestic market. They
can sell their produce not only in domestic market but can also compete in market of other countries.
For the buyers, import of goods produced in another country provided opportunity to extend their
choice of goods beyond what is domestically produced.
Foreign trade thus, results in connecting the markets in different countries. (3)
11. In 1919, the Rowlatt Act was passed hurriedly through the Imperial Legislative Council, despite the
united opposition of the Indian members. This Act gave the British Government enormous powers to
repress political activities.
Effect and Rowlatt Act on Indian Nationlism
According to this law, political prisoners could be detained in prison without trial for two years.
Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust law. Rallies
were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops, and shops closed down.
British administration decided to suppress the nationalists. Local leaders were picked up from
Amritsar, and Mahatma Gandhi was not allowed to enter Delhi. (3)
12. Due to following reasons, the construction of large dams has become a controversial issue :
(i) Local communities have been displaced from their original settlement areas, with consequent loss
of livelihood and income.
(ii) These projects create social gap as rich landlords and big farmers take more benefits than poor
farmers.
(iii) Rise of sedimentation of the reservoirs leads to land degradation while flooding the nearby areas
around the dam. (1 ´ 3 = 3)
13. In the following ways naturally occurring gas (Natural gas) is different from biogas :
Natural Gas Biogas
It is a mixture of hydro-carbons and occur It is formed by the decomposition of animal, plant and farm
frequently with petroleum. wastes.
It occurs naturally. It undergoes a process of formation under
controlled man-made conditions.
It is mainly used in urban areas. It is mainly found in rural areas.

14. The three features of the caste system in India are :


(i) It was a hierarchical occupational division of the society.
(ii) The members of the same caste group formed a social community that followed similar
occupation, married within the caste and did not mingle with other castes.
(iii) The people belonging to higher castes started treating others as belonging to lower castes and
then started the practice of untouchability. (1 ´ 3 = 3)
15. Negative impact of waste from the nuclear plants is stated in the points below :
(i) Waste from nuclear plants have radioactive properties and may cause cancers, birth defects and
miscarriages.
(ii) Nuclear wastes are generally dumped in deep sea-water. In case of their unfortunate leakage,
there will be severe threat to aquatic life. (3)
16. The indentured labourers lived in harsh working conditions and had few legal rights.
On arrival at the plantations, labourers found conditions to be different from what they had imagined.
They had to work like bonded labour. If anyone wanted to run away, he was caught and severely
punished.
Thus, 19th century indentured labour has been described as the ‘new system of slavery’. (3)
Or
A series of inventions in the 18th century increased the efficacy of each step of the production
process. They enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more and they now
could make stronger threads and yarn. Richard Arkwright laid the foundation of the factory system by
creating the cotton mill. The Spinning Jenny and other devices were invented to speed up textile
production. Within the mill, all the processes were brought together under one roof and management.
This allowed more careful supervision over the production process, proper check over quality and
regulation of labour. Before the factory system, the production was spread all over the countryside and
carried out within village households. (3)
Or
Chawls were multi-storeyed structures, which had been built from the 1860s in the ‘native’ part of
Bombay. These were owned by private landlords. Each chawl was divided into small one-room
tenements which had no private toilets.
These one-room houses were generally congested, as high rents forced workers to share homes with
their friends, relatives or caste fellows. These chawls were constructed in close proximity in filthy
surroundings and people were plagued by polluted air and lack of water.
The homes being small, streets and neighbourhoods were used for a variety of activities such as
cooking, washing and sleeping. Liquor shops and akharas came up in any empty spot. Chawls were
the place for exchange of news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations. (3)
17. There are many origins of social differences. Three of them are :
(i) A person does not choose his community where he would be born. He just happens to be born in a
particular community. People are tall or short, dark or fair, male or female, more by accident and
not by their own choice. This leads origin of social difference.
(ii) Sometimes people choose to follow or not to follow a particular religion. They can choose their field
of study and the career path, games and cultural activities. This also be leads origin of social
differences.
(iii) Social differences are also created by economic inequalities existing in the society. e.g. rich and
poor persons from the same family often do not keep close relation with each other for they feel
they are very different. This can also lead to origin of social difference. (3)
18. Marco Polo was a great explorer of Italy who stayed for many years in China. He greatly contributed to
the print culture. He returned back to Italy in 1295. The earliest kind of woodblock printing technology
was developed in China. Marco Polo brought this knowledge back with him in Italy.
Then Italians began producing books with woodblocks and soon this technology spread to other parts
of Europe. (3)
Or
Novels in Europe originated at a time when European countries were colonising different parts of the
world. This colonial attitude also gets reflected in the works of the authors.
Example The hero of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe is an adventurer and slave trader.
He treats colonial people not as human beings equal to him, but as inferior creatures. He rescues a
native and makes him his slave. He does not even ask his name but arrogantly calls him Friday, as if
he is a lifeless creature.
Like all other colonial rulers, Crusoe sees colonialism as a natural phenomena. He regards all native
people as primitive barbaric and less than humans. He is of the opinion that colonialism is necessary
to civilise the natives and make them fully human. (3)
19. The Khilafat Movement was launched by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.
The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924), was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by
Muslims in British India to influence the British Government and to protect the Ottoman empire during
the aftermath of First World War. The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey.
There was a fear that the power of the spiritual head of the Islamic world (Khalifa) would be curtailed.
To defend his power, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in 1919. The Khilafat leaders put
pressure upon the British Government to give better treatment to Turkey.
Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national
movement. At the Calcutta Session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced other leaders
to start a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat Movement. (5)
20. In French Revolution, print culture played an important role. Its impact is stated in the points below :
(i) Print materials like newspapers and books popularised the ideas of the enlightned thinkers. They
gave a critical commentary on tradition, superstition and despotism in contemporary society.
They suggested that everything should be judged through application of reason and rationality.
They criticised the sacred authority of church and the power of the state. They questioned about
the legitimacy of a social order based on tradition.
(ii) The writings of Voltaire and Rousseau were read widely. Those who read them developed an
attitude of questioning, criticism and judging on the basis of rationality.
(iii) Print created a new culture of dialogue and debate. All values, norms and institutions were
re-evaluated and public recognised the need to question existing ideas and beliefs.
(iv) By the 1780s, there was an outpouring of literature, cartoons and caricatures which circulated
everywhere and led to the growth of hostile sentiments against the monarchy. In this way,
print helped people to think differently. (5)
Or
Charlotte Bronte was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of three Bronte sisters, who wrote the
famous novel Jane Eyre under the pen-name Currer Bell. Charlotte believed that art was most
convincing when it is based on personal experiences.
The style of Jane Eyre was innovative, as it was written from an intensely first person female
perspective. It tells the story of a plain governess (Jane), who after early life difficulties, falls in love with
her employer, Mr Rochester.
They eventually marry, but only after Mr Rochester’s mad first wife (of whom Jane had no knowledge
initially) dies in a dramatic house fire. This novel was largely accepted by the readers.
After this, Charlotte wrote Shirley and Villette. Shirley is written in third person and lacks the emotional
immediacy of Jane Eyre. Villette was acknowledged by the critics as potent and a sophisticated piece
of writing. She also wrote The Professor and Emma, which were published posthumously. She is
regarded as one of the finest writers of English literature. (5)
21. Democracy means rule by the representatives elected by the people. The government is formed by the
people, for the people and of the people. Through their elected representatives, every citizen takes
part in the decision making process. All the policies, of the government are debated in the Parliament
before taking final decisions. This takes a lot of time and leads to delays in the decision-making.
Although democratic government are expected to be attentive to the needs of the people and less
corrupt, but in actual practice, it does not happen. Democracies often frustrate the needs of the
people and often ignore the demand of a major portion of the population then work on party lines.
Democracy is also not free of corruption as most of the politician are indulged in money making. Thus,
democracy is seen to be good in principle but felt not good in practice. (5)
22. Following are the ways through which democracy can be improved in practical form :
(i) By Legal-Constitutional Change
In most of the cases, this change brings about positive changes but sometimes, their result may be
counter-productive. So, extra care should be taken while implementing these changes. The best
laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reforms. The laws that give political
actors incentives to do good things, have more chances of working. The Right to Information Act is a
good example that brought political reform. (2)
(ii) Through Political Parties
Democratic reforms are to be brought about principally through political parties. The most
important concern should be to increase and improve the quality of political participation by
ordinary men. (1)
(iii) Through Decentralisation of Power
Democratic set-up is successful when even the people at the lowest range have a say in the
system. The Panchayati Raj has strengthened our democracy a lot. When people play an active
role in their self-administration, this increases their faith in democracy. (2)
23. It is true that consumer awareness in India faced so many obstacles and had not been an easy growth.
This can be justified from the points below :
(i) The consumer redressal process is becoming cumbersome, expensive and time consuming.
(ii) Many a time, consumers are required to engage lawyers. These cases require time for filing and
attending the court proceedings, etc.
(iii) Evidence is not easy to gather as most of purchases are done without cash memo.
(iv) Most purchases in the market are small retail sales. The enforcement of laws that protect
consumers especially in the unorganised sectors is weak.
(v) The existing laws are also not very clear on the issue of compensation to consumer injured by
defective products. (1 ´ 5 = 5)
24. Following are the features of an organised sector :
(i) Organised sector covers those enterprises or places of work where the terms of employment are
regular and therefore people have assured work.
(ii) They are registered by the government.
(iii) They have to follow rules and regulations set-up by the government under various laws such as the
Factory Act, Minimum Wages Act, Shops and Establishment Act etc.
(iv) It is called organised because it has some formal processes and procedures.
(v) Some of these people may not be employed by anyone but may work on their own but they too
have to register themselves with the government. (1 ´ 5 = 5)
25. Two inland waterways of India are :
(i) The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri.
(ii) The West–Coast canal in Kerala.
Characteristics of Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri are as follows :
(i) The waterway is 891 km long on river Brahmaputra.
(ii) Long cruise tourist vessels make voyages between Sivsagar near Dibrugarh and Manas Wildlife
Sanctuary near Jogighopa continuously. Thus, making it a commercially beneficial.
(iii) Border security force deployed on this inland is proving to be important base for defense of the
country. (2)
Characteristics of West–Coast canal in India are as follows :
(i) The waterway is 205 km long on the canals of Kerala.
(ii) It provides 24 hours navigation facility in the entire stretch.
(iii) The backwaters of Kerala prove to be cheap means of transport attracting tourists. (2)
26. The answer map is given below.

(ii) Lahore

BIHAR
BANGLADESH

Madhya Pradesh
Bisrampur

Warda (i) Kolkata

Andam
BAY
OF

an and Nicobar Is
BENGAL
Laksha
dw e e

land
s (I n
p (I
nd

d ia
ia)

)
(1 + 1 = 2)
27. (i) Punjab
(ii) West-Bengal
(iii) Rajasthan

(i) Punjab

(iii) Rajasthan

(ii) e
Wst Bengal

(1 ´ 3 = 3)
Sample Question Paper 14

Social Science
Class 10th
1. In January 1915, Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa. (1)
2. Terrace cultivation has important role in hilly areas as it reduces the speed of water and ultimately
avoids soil erosion. (1)
3. Ladang in Indonesia and Ray in Vietnam are some primitive agricultural practices in South-East Asia.
(1)
4. The Black Power Movement started in USA in 1966 and lasted till 1975. It was a militant anti-racist
movement advocating even violence, if necessary to end racism in the USA. (1)
5. Modern democracy cannot value only the voice of majority, but it also respects the minority as well.
(1)
6. Promotion of horticulture, pisciculture like allied activities can provide regular employment to
neutralise disguised unemployment. (1)
7. To minimise cost of production and maximise profit earnings, MNCs set-up their offices and factories
in regions where they get cheap labour and other resources. (1)
8. (a) The effects of civil disobedience movement were :
(i) The National Movement was further strengthened.
(ii) Political consciousness and a deep sense of patriotism was created in the minds of the people.
(iii) Women came out of their homes and became equal partners in the freedom struggle.
(v) The British Government realise the need for constitutional reform. As a result the Government
of India Act, 1935 was passed. (2)
(b) From the Civil Disobedience Movement, I have learnt the value of patriotism, non-violence, passive
resistance, mass-centric policy, tolerance, democratic principles, etc. (1)
9. It is justified that industrialisation and urbanisation go hand in hand because :
(i) Industrialisation causes growth in available factory jobs. Thus, as employment rate increases it
pulls people from various places and leads urbanisation.
(ii) People start moving towards cities for jobs and they gradually develop into urban centres.
Sometimes industries are located in or near cities.
(iii) Cities provide markets and also provide services such as banking, insurance, transport, labour,
consultants and financial advice, etc to the industry. (3)
10. The three factors that determine the economic viability are as follows :
(i) The quality and quantity of mineral concentration in the ore.
(ii) The cost of extraction.
(iii) Location of mines and availability of transport. (3)
11. Gram Sabha includes all the adult citizen voters of the village. It is empowered to support or topple
down the Gram Panchayat body. The functions of Gram Sabha are :
(i) It elects the members of the Gram Panchayat.
(ii) It supervises the work of the Gram Panchayat.
(iii) It approves the annual budget of the Panchayat.
(iv) It reviews the performance of the Gram Panchayat. (3)
12. Economic development is only one attribute of human development, although it is a major one, as it
influences the other attributes also. The other human development attributes are :
(i) Infant Mortality Rate This is the number of children that die before the age of 1 year as a
proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.
(ii) Literacy rate This is the total percentage of the population of an area at a particular time aged
7 years or above who can read and write with understanding.
(iii) Net Attendance Ratio This is the total number of children in the age group 14-15 years attending
school as a percentage of the total number of children in the same age group. (3)
13. There is a need for consumer consciousness so that the customers can take action against retailers
who are dishonest. The following two examples state the need of consumer consciousness : (1)
(i) The ISI and Agmark logos are quality certifications on certain classes of products. Consumers
must look for such certifications while purchasing items requiring these marks.
(ii) Consumers must have an adequate knowledge about the products that they are buying, so that
they can make an informed choice of the correct product to buy. (2)
14. Caste can take various forms in Indian politics as follows :
(i) When parties choose candidates in elections, they keep in mind the caste composition of the
electorate and nominate candidates from different castes so as to get necessary support to win
elections.
(ii) When governments are formed, political party takes care that representatives of different castes
and tribes should get a place in the ministry.
(iii) During the campaigning, political parties and candidates make appeals to people to give their votes
on the basis of caste. Some political parties are known to favour some castes and are seen as their
representatives. (3)
15. Regional Political Party It exists, operates and functions at the regional level. It gives prominence to
regional issues, specific problems of the region and it has influence only on the people of that region.
It lays more stress on regional culture identity, which it wants to preserve and promote.
Conditions required to be recognised as a regional political party are
(i) It should have polled at least 6% valid votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly.
(ii) It has reach in at least three states in last general election.
(iii) It had won at least 2 seats in Legislative Assembly elections. (3)
16. Martin Luther said that the printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one. Martin Luther was
highly critical of the excesses of the Roman Catholic Church.
He wanted people to know about these excesses. In 1517, he wrote a book titled ‘Ninety Five Theses’.
In this book, he criticised many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. It
challenged the Church to debate his ideas. His writings were reproduced in large numbers and
read widely. This brought about a division within the Church and ultimately the Protestant
Reformation began.
Thus, print brought about a new intellectual atmosphere and helped spread the new ideas that led to
reformation.
Or
Charles Dickens wrote about the terrible effects of industrialisation and its effect on people’s lives.
Dickens criticised the idea that transformed human beings into simple instruments of production.
Charles Dickens threw light on terrible conditions of urban life and also highlighted the exploitation
and helplessness of orphans in his famous novel Oliver Twist. In his another novel Hard Times, he
described the grim picture of the industrialisation and the miserable condition of the workers. (3)
17. An area or region having ample water resources may face water scarcity due to pollution of the
available water and inefficient management, of water sources.
Domestic and industrial wastes are dumped into rivers and lakes without treatment, thus making
these water sources unfit to be used. Over exploitation, wastage or excessive use of the available
water resource causes water scarcity. Unequal access of rainfall also causes scarcity. (3)
18. The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship or crisis in Europe.
The following are the arguments to support this statement :
(i) There was an enormous increase in population all over Europe. As a result unemployment became
a common feature in most of the countries.
(ii) Migration of rural people to the cities further made the situation worse. Small scale producers in
towns sometimes faced with stiff competition from rural areas where production was carried out
mainly in homes or small workshops. These products imported from rural areas were obviously
cheaper than the town-made products.
(iii) Due to population, the demand of foods increased. It led to the rise of food prices. This increased
price along with a year of bond harvests led to widespread pauperism in town and country. (3)
19. Significance of mass communication is shown in the following points :
(i) Mass communication is required to spread the flow of information upto the grassroot level.
Therefore government has made special provision to extend 24 hours STD facility to every village in
the country.
(ii) All India Radio (Akashwani) broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local
languages for various categories of people spread over different parts of the country.
(iii) Doordarshan broadcasts a variety of programmes for entertainment, educational programmes to
sports, etc., for people of different age groups.
(iv) India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals annually.
(v) India is the largest producer of feature films in the world. It produces short films, video feature films
and video short films. (5)
20. Gandhiji’s ‘Salt March’ marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement all over India.
Thousands of people in different parts of the country broke the salt law by manufacturing salt and
giving demonstrations in front of government salt factories. The following points state how the Civil
Disobedience Movement came into force in various parts of the country : (2)
(i) With the spread of the movement, foreign cloth was boycotted and liquor shops were picketed.
Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes. Village officials resigned from their post.
Forest people violated forest law. They went into reserved forests to collect wood and graze cattle.
(ii) In the countryside, rich peasant communities viz, Patidars of Gujarat and the jats of Uttar Pradesh
became the supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement. They inspired their communities,
sometime forced the reluctant members to participate in the boycott programmes.
The poorer peasantry, often led by the socialist and the communist, joined a variety of radical
movements for the remission of their unpaid rent to the landlords.
Industrialists led by Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G D Birla supported the Civil Disobedience
Movement. Moreover railway workers, dock workers, mine workers from Chota nagpur and large
number of women from all over India participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement. (3)
21. Public facilities are those provided by the government, instead of the individuals or private sources.
For this reason, they may be either highly subsidised or totally free of cost. They are important
because many persons do not have enough income to be able to avail facilities provided by the private
sector, resulting in difficulties faced like inadequate healthcare, poor nutrition, lack of education etc.
The utility of two public facilities available in India are : (3)
(i) One public facility is the Public Distribution System (PDS) which provides fair average quality of
foodgrains and other essential items to the weaker sections of the population at subsidised price.
(ii) The other is healthcare in government hospitals and dispensaries, which is provided to all at
subsidised rates. This includes outpatient as well as hospitalisation facilities. (2)
22. Disillusioned by the government’s Majoritarian Policy, the Sri Lankan Tamil started their struggle. They
wanted recognition of Tamil as an official language, regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in
securing education and jobs. These were their three demands.
But i . e ., the demands of the Sri Lankan Tamils for more autonomy to provinces populated by the
Tamils were repeatedly rejected. By the 1980s, several political organisations were formed demanding
an independent Tamil Eelam (state) in Northern and Eastern parts of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankan Tamil launched their own political party LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam). The
conflict between the two communities turned into widespread conflict and it soon turned into a Civil
War.
As a result, thousands of people of both the communities have been killed and this caused a terrible
setback to the social, cultural and economic life of the country. (5)
23. The most popular definition of democracy is “Democracy is a government of the people, for the
people and by the people”. This definition holds good position in political context. But in social context
or in our daily lives, it may be redefined as : (1)
(i) The rulers elected by the people must take all the major decisions.
(ii) Elections must offer a choice and opportunity to all the people to change the current rulers.
(iii) This choice and opportunity should be available to all the people on an equal basis.
(iv) The exercise of this choice must lead to a government, limited by basic rules of the Constitution and
citizens’ rights. (4)
24. Unemployment is a major problem in India and it is prevalent in both rural and urban areas.
Underemployment is also visible as disguised unemployment in agricultural sector in rural
areas and as unorganised service sector in urban areas. These issues need to be addressed
properly. (2)
The steps that should be taken to increase employment can be :
(i) Education and health sector can create massive employment in urban as well as rural
areas. Proper planning needs to strengthen these sectors. Vocational training also creates
massive employment.
(ii) Allied activities like horticulture, pisciculture should be promoted through financial assistance,
awareness programmes which will create employment in rural areas.
(iii) Promotion of small scale industries and self-help groups will create employment in urban areas.
(iv) Tertiary activities like inclusive banking, promotion of market etc can penetrate service sector to
rural areas and induce mobilisation and growth in Primary sector and ultimately create
employment.
(v) Cheap credit for creation of new enterprises and encouraging foreign investment can also create
employment in both rural and urban areas.
(vi) Social safety programmes like NREGA, NRLM (National Rural Livelihood Mission) etc generate
massive employment in rural and urban areas respectively. (3)
25. The European employers found it difficult to recruit labour in Africa because historically Africa had
abundant land and a relatively small population.
For centuries, land and livestock sustained African livelihoods and people had no need to work for a
wage. In late 19th century Africa, there were few consumer goods, so there was little reason to work for
a wage. Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and mineral.
They came to Africa hoping to establish plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for
export to Europe. But there was an acute problem of shortage of labour. The Europeans then used
some methods to recruit and retain labour : (3)
(i) Heavy taxes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and
mines.
(ii) Inheritance laws were changed so that peasants were displaced from lands. Only one member of a
family was allowed to inherit land, as a result of which the others were pushed into labour markets.
(2)
Or
By the first decade of the 20th century, a series of changes affected the pattern of industrialisation in
India. (1)
These are explained in the following points :
(i) Effect of Swadeshi and Boycott Movement After the partition of Bengal, Swadeshi Movement
was developed. It has two sides : positive and negative. In the positive side, nationalists urged
people to use only swadeshi goods and in the negative side they mobilised people to boycott
foreign goods. This movement had an immense effect on economy. There was an increase in the
demand of Indian goods, specially clothes.
(ii) Aim of industrial groups Industrial groups organised themselves to protect their collective
interests. They pressurised the government to increase tariff protection and grant other
concessions.
(iii) Decline of exports to China From 1906, the export of Indian yarn to China declined as produce
from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese markets. Thus, industrialist in India began
shifting from yarn to cloth production. Cotton goods production in India doubled between 1900
and 1912.
(iv) Result of First World War Till the First World War, industrial growth was slow. British mills became
busy with war production, thus Manchester imports to India declined. Suddenly Indian mills got a
vast home market to supply. As the war prolonged Indian factories had to supply different war
needs. This led to set-up new factories and multiple shifts for the old factories. Indian industry
developed immensely at that period. After the war, Manchester could not recapture its old position
in Indian market. (4)
Or
Comparison between London and Bombay are
(i) Both the cities faced the problem of high density of population due to migrant population.
(ii) Both the cities faced housing crisis, growth of slums and increasing pressure on health and
sanitation issues.
(iii) Both these cities were marked by contrasts of affluence and extreme poverty.
(iv) For housing the migrant population, both saw the growth of tenements, which were largely owned
by private landlords. In Bombay, these multi-storeyed structures were known as chawls. In both
Bombay and London, houses were small, and streets and neighbourhood were used for a variety
of activities like cooking, washing and leisure by the poor. æ 1ö
ç2 ÷
è 2ø
Contrast between London and Bombay are
(i) Bombay, unlike London, from its earliest days, did not grow according to any plan.
(ii) While every Londoner in the 1840s enjoyed an average space of 155 square yards, Bombay had a
mere 9.5 square yards.
(iii) Since India was a colonial country, Bombay was developed with a racial pattern. The Bombay Fort
area, which formed the heart of the city, was divided into ‘native town’ and ‘white section’. But there
was no such division in London city.
(iv) While town planning in London emerged from fears of social revolution, planning in Bombay was
done to prevent a plague epidemic. æ 1ö
ç2 ÷
è 2ø
26. The answer map is given below

(i)
Lahore

(ii)
Kheda

(1 + 1 = 2)
27. The answer map is given below

BIHAR
BANGLADESH

Bisrampur

Warda
(iii)
Andam

Gandhi BAY
nagar OF
an and Nicobar Is

BENGAL
L a k s ha d

(ii) Bhadravati

(i) Coimbatore
land
weep

s (I n
(I n d

d ia
)
ia )

(1 ´ 3 = 3)
Sample Question Paper 15

Social Science
Class 10th
1. In the Lahore Congress session (1929), Jawaharlal Nehru called for ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full
independence for India. (1)
2. Multi-purpose projects are popularly known as ‘The Temples of Modern India’ and it was first termed
by our first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. (1)
3. Commercial farming is a type of farming which is done on a large scale and aim for industrial inputs or
export oriented. (1)
4. Walloon, a language very closely related to French mainly used in rural regions, is the historical
language of Southern Belgium. (1)
5. Holding together federation is a federation where a large country decides to divide the powers
between the Central Government and the governments of the states. e.g. India.
6. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is an international organisation that publishes
Human Development Report every year. (1)
7. Final goods are those goods which are directly consumed by the consumers and are not meant for
further production or processing. (1)
8. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) provides guaranteed 100 days of employment
per year for one person in every household in the rural areas who wants to work as an unskilled worker.
It was started in the villages of 200 districts and has now been extended to villages in over 600
districts. One-third of the total work is reserved for women. Thus, it provides employment to rural
people in the activities specified under the scheme. Thus, it has helped in reducing the unemployed
population of India. (3)
9. The Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside. The following points state its spread :
(i) In Awadh, peasants under the leadership of Baba Ram Chandra revolted against the talukdars and
the landlords who demanded very high rent and different taxes from them. The peasant demanded
reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords. In many
places, local leaders told peasants that Gandhiji had declared that no taxes were to be paid and
land was to be redistributed among the poor. æ 1ö
ç1 ÷
è 2ø
(ii) In the Gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh, a Militant Guerrilla Movement spread. The colonial
government had closed large forest areas which affected the livelihood of the forest people. When
the government forced them to contribute begar or free labour, they revolted. Alluri Sitaram Raju
inspired by Gandhiji’s ideals came to lead them and the Gudem rebels attacked police stations
and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving Swaraj. æ 1ö
ç1 ÷
è 2ø
10. The vast territory lying between the Black sea and the Adriatic sea comprising the modern states of
Romania, Albania, Greece, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro was
known as the Balkans. All these states were once the part of the Ottoman Empire and were
inhabited by people broadly known as Slavs.
The spread of the ideas of Romantic nationalism and the disintegration of Ottoman Empire made
this region very explosive. The Balkans states were fiercely jealous of each other and each
hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others. (3)
Or
Like other colonial powers, France considered Vietnam as the source of natural resources and other
essential commodities. It took following three steps to achieve the aim to exploit the natural resources
of Vietnam and to build colonial economy.
These steps were :
(i) The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.
(ii) A trans-Indo-China railway network was constructed. It linked the Northern and Southern parts of
Vietnam and China.
(iii) The second link was built, linking Vietnam to Siam (Thailand) via the Cambodian capital of Phnom
Penh. To ensure higher level of profit, French businessmen pressurised the government in Vietnam
to develop the infrastructure. (3)
11. Classification of resources is tabulated below :
Class of Resource Explanation Examples
Individual Resources owned by individuals. Plot of land, house
Community Resources accessible to all members of Public parks, burial grounds
the community.
National Resources owned by the government Roads, railways, water resources,
and its agencies within its political forests, wildlife
boundaries and territorial waters.
International Oceanic resources beyond the Exclusive Fisheries in international waters, minerals
Economic Zone of countries and those in in Antarctica
polar regions which are regulated
by international institutions.

12. HVJ is the 1700 km long gas pipeline that is known as Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur pipeline. (1)
It is important for India because it links Mumbai high and Bassein with the Western and Northern India.
This pipeline acts as an artery to provide power to fertiliser industries and for other commercial uses.
(2)
13. The two measures to integrate the people belonging to different ethnic group in a society are :
(i) Everyone, including political leaders, social reformers and general people, should discourage
casteism and work for socio-economic and political harmony.
(ii) The political and regional political parties based on caste should be removed. The name and aim of
educational institutions referring to castes should be given up. (3)
14. The Balance of Trade of a country is the difference between its export and import. (1)
In following situations, it is favourable and unfavourable :
(i) When the value of export exceeds the value of imports, it is called a favourable balance of trade.
(ii) On the contrary, if the value of imports exceeds the value of exports, it is termed as unfavourable
balance of trade. (2)
15. Louise-Sebastien Mercier was a French novelist of 18th century.
The following points state his opinion on the printing press :
(i) He believed that the printing press was the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion.
(ii) Printing popularised the ideas of enlightened thinkers.
(iii) Print created a new culture of dialogue and debate.
(iv) Print criticised the morality of the royalty and raised questions about the existing social order. (3)
Or
After 1740 there was enhancement in readership of novels in England. The reasons behind these
changes were :
(i) People had easier access to books with the introduction of circulating libraries.
(ii) Technological improvements in printing brought down the price of books and innovation in
marketing led to expanded sales. This increased the readership of novels.
(iii) The world created by novels were absorbing and believable. While reading the novel, the reader
was transported to another world which gave him immense joy. Novels allowed him the pleasure of
reading in private and also the joy of discussion about it with friends or relatives. (3)
16. When some social differences overlap other differences, it creates overlapping of social differences.
This kind of situation produces social divisions, when one kind of social difference becomes more
important than the other and people start feeling that they belong to different communities.
Overlapping differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions. (1)
The following examples explain the overlapping of differences :
(i) The difference between the Blacks and Whites became a social division in the US because the
Blacks always tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.
(ii) In our country, Dalits tend to be poor and landless as they often face injustice and discrimination.
(2)
17. The opposition party plays a very important role in a democracy. It is stated in the points below :
(i) It acts as pressure group.
(ii) It mobilises the government.
(iii) It keeps a check on the working of the ruling party.
(iv) It puts different views in the Parliament and criticise the government for its failures or wrong
policies. (3)
18. (a) Globalisation means unification on integration of the domestic economy with the world
economy through trade, capital and technology flows. (1)
Government can ensure fair globalisation to its people by ensuring that the labour laws of the
country are followed so that workers are not exploited. It can support small producers to improve
their performance so that they remain viable in the face of competition from MNCs.
(b) Form the above questions I have learnt, the values of fairness, equality and cooperation. (1)
19. Some of the political reforms which should be implemented in India are :
(i) Legal and constitutional reforms—Some of the acts are century old and need to be amended as
per the current needs.
(ii) Administrative reforms to corruption in the political circles and the bureaucracy.
(iii) The law of universal literacy should be implemented.
(iv) Poverty alleviation to provide wages and employment to landless and the poor.
(v) Elimination of gender discrimination through social-economic reforms.
(vi) The regional imbalances should be redressed
(vii) Sustainable development in terms of economic, social and environmental reforms.
(viii) Improve quality of political parties by competent people’s participation. (5)
20. Due to the following reasons, democracy is not considered simply a rule of majority :
(i) In democratic set-up, the majority always needs to work with the minority, so that governments
represent the general view.
(ii) Majority and minority opinions are not permanent.
(iii) The rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion, race,
linguistic groups, etc.
(iv) Rule by majority means that in case of every decision and election, different persons and groups
may and can form a majority.
(v) Democracy remains democracy only when every citizen of a country has a chance of being
majority at some point of time.
(vi) If someone is barred from being in majority on the basis of birth, i.e. on the basis of caste and
religion then the democratic rules are not applicable for that persons or groups. (5)
21. Least cost factor plays the most dominant role for the ideal location of an industry. (1)
The three reasons in support of this factor are :
(i) Cost of obtaining raw material at the factory site should be minimum i.e. raw materials should be
available nearby or may be transported cheaply to the industrial location.
(ii) The factory should be so located that the manufactured products may easily be distributed or
transported to the market at the least cost by rail, road or water transport.
(iii) Cost of manufacturing at the factory site should be low. This means that trained experienced labour
should be readily available locally or in nearby areas, electric power supply should be readily
available and cheap. Also, land for locating the industry should be available cheaply. (4)
22. The number of consumer groups in India is about 700, but only about 20-25 are recognised by the
government. Although, the activities of the groups have increased substantially in recent years, the
redressal process is still expensive and time consuming. The existing laws are not as effective as far
as compensation for defective products is concerned.
Even after more than 25 years of the enacting of the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA), a large
section of consumers are unaware of their rights.
Rules and regulations applicable to the marketplace are often not followed. The Consumer Movement
can become more effective only when consumers are made aware of their rights and their role in
getting justice. (5)
23. Over the 19th century, the British manufacturers flooded the Indian market. Foodgrain and raw
material which were exported from India to Britain increased.
The value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. Thus,
Britain had a ‘trade surplus’ with India and used this surplus to balance its trade deficits with other
countries.
In this way, a multilateral settlement system works. It allows one country’s deficit with another country
to be settled by its surplus with a third country.
India played a significant role in world economy by helping Britain balance its deficits. This trade
surplus of Britain helped the home charges i.e. private remittances of British officials, traders, interest
payments on external debt and pensions of British officials in India. (5)
Or
The first underground railways in London was opened on 10th January, 1863.
The five problems of travelling in the underground railway of London were :
(i) Huge number of people travelled by the railways causing overcrowded situation in it.
(ii) The compartments were full of smoke by pipes used by the passengers.
(iii) The atmosphere in the compartments was a mixture of sulphur, coal dust and foul fumes from the
gas lamp in the compartment, which made it very unhealthy.
(iv) Many felt that this ‘iron monster’ added to the mess and unhealthiness of the city.
(v) Sometimes, the overcrowded compartments caused almost death to passengers due to
asphyxiation and heat.
Some thought that this underground railways might soon be discontinued. (5)
Or
By the end of the 19th century, Indian textile industry started to decline due to the following reasons :
(i) East India Company gained power Once the East India Company established political power, it
asserted a monopoly right to trade. It proceeded to develop a system of management and control
that would eliminate competition, control costs and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk
goods.
(ii) Growth of cotton industries in England As cotton industries developed in England, industrial
group became worried about the imports from other countries. They pressurised the government
to impose import duties on cotton textile, so that Manchester goods could easily sell in Britain
without facing any competition from outside.
Further the industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British products forcefully in
Indian market.
(iii) The result of two edge policy To sell British products in India the East India Company followed a
two edged policy, i.e. no taxes on imports but high taxes on exports. Due to this policy, local Indian
market shrank and flooded with cheap Manchester machine made products.
(iv) Shortage of raw material Due to the American Civil War, cotton supplies from the US cut off,
Britain turned to India. As raw cotton exports from India increased, Indian weavers faced the
problem due to the shortage of raw materials for textile industry. (5)
24. One of the most important features of the Civil Disobedience Movement was the large scale
participation of women. During Gandhiji’s salt march, thousands of women participated in marches,
manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail.
In urban areas, these women were from high caste educated family e.g. Sarojini Naidu, Satyavati Devi,
Kamala Nehru, Vijaylakshmi Pandit, Kasturba Gandhi, etc. In rural areas, women came from rich
peasant households. Bengal being the nerve centre of female education in India, increased the
women’s participation in nationalism. In 1930, women rallied before Bethune College, Calcutta in
support of Gandhiji’s Civil Disobedience Movement.
In Bombay, large section of women of Gujarati community was influenced by Gandhiji’s idealism
and participated in National Movement. But all these participation were symbolic as women did not
hold any position of authority for a long time. (5)
25. Globalisation is two faced because of the following reasons :
(i) Not everyone has benefitted from globalisation. People with education, skill and wealth have made
the best use of the new opportunities.
(ii) On the other hand, many small producers and workers have suffered as the result of the rising
competition. They have not shared the benefits of globalisation.
(iii) Globalisation is beneficial to MNCs but quite harmful to workers, small industries and traders who
can not compete with MNCs.
(iv) It has enabled some large Indian companies to emerge as multinational such as Tata Motors,
Infosys, Ranbaxy, etc. While many small scale industries had to close down their units.
(v) The globalisation and greater competition amongst the producers have been of great advantage to
the consumers. They have now greater choice and improved quality at lower prices. (5)
26. The answer map is given below.

BIHAR
BANGLADESH

Warda (ii)
Champaran

Andam
(i) Bardoli

an and Nicobar Is
Laksha
dw e e

land
s (I n
p (I
nd

d ia
ia)

)
(1 + 1 = 2)

27. The answer map is given below.

(i) Jaipur

(iii)
(ii) Paradwip
Black soil

(1 ´ 3 = 3)