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UNIT 4A: POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS

STUDENT GUIDE - HONORS


Unit Objectives: Essential Questions:
A student will be able to find the key features What does the degree of a polynomial tell you about its related
of a polynomial using equations, tables and polynomial function?
graphs. You will also be able to perform For a polynomial function, how are factors, zeros and x-
operations on polynomials and use intercepts related?
polynomials to model real world situations. For a polynomial function, how are factors and roots related?

Unit 4 Common Core Standards


F.IF.C.7, F.IF.C.7.c., F.IF.B.4, F.BF.B.3, A.APR.B.3, A.APR.A.1, F.BF.A.1, F.BF.A.1.b, F.IF.C.9,
A.REI.D., A.APR.B.2, A.APR.C.4 , A.APR.C.5 (+)

Day Section and Topic Targets Homework


Sec. 4.1: Introduction to Polynomial
1-2 a, b, c 4.1 Introduction to Polynomial Graphs WS
Graphs
Sec. 4.2: Operations with Polynomials 4.2 Operations with Polynomials Graphically
3 d
Graphically WS
Sec. 4.3: Operations with Polynomials 4.3 Operations with Polynomials
4 e
Algebraically Algebraically WS

5 Review 4.1-4.3 Review 4.1-4.3 WS

6 Quiz 4.1-4.3

7-8 Sec. 4.4a: Polynomial Identities f 4.4a Polynomial Identities WS

Sec. 4.4b: More Binomial Expansion


9 g 4.4b More Binomial Expansion WS
(Pascal’s Triangle and Combinations)

10-11 Sec. 4.5: Factoring Polynomials h 4.5 Factoring Polynomials WS

Sec. 4.6a: Long Division and Synthetic


12 i, j 4.6a Long Division & Synthetic Division WS
Division

13 Review Sec. 4.4-4.5a Review 4.4-4.5a WS

14 Quiz Sec. 4.5-4.5a

15-16 Sec. 4.6b: Remainder and Factor Theorem k ,l 4.6b Remainder and Factor Theorem WS

17 Review Unit 4A Review 4A WS

18 Test Unit 4A

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Targets:

a) I can determine the number of turns of a polynomial function (4.1)


b) I can determine the end behavior of a polynomial function (4.1)
c) I can compare two functions by using their end behavior and rate of change (4.1)
d) I can add, subtract and multiply polynomials graphically (4.2)
e) I can add, subtract and multiply polynomials algebraically (4.3)
f) I can use polynomial identities to multiply polynomials (4.4)
g) I can use a Pascal’s Triangle and Combinations to expand binomials (4.4)
h) I can factor a binomial, trinomial or a polynomial with four terms (4.5)
i) I can divide polynomials using long division (4.6)
j) I can divide polynomials using synthetic division (4.6)
k) I can determine if a linear expression is a factor of a polynomial (4.6)
l) I can determine the remainder for the quotient of two polynomials (4.6)

Unit 4A Resources
Topic Targets Textbook Websites
http://tinyurl.com/ng2o5md (v)
End Behavior and p. 336
a,b,c
Turning Points p. 339-344 http://tinyurl.com/6o8zbmh (w)

http://tinyurl.com/k2tmdtj (v)
Adding, Subtracting,
Multiplying d,e,f p. 346-352 http://tinyurl.com/nnsv555 (v)
Polynomials
http://tinyurl.com/prc6soc (w)

http://tinyurl.com/knmbk6a (w)
Binomial Expansion f,g
http://tinyurl.com/ncbflum (v)

http://tinyurl.com/nyz38wh (v)
Factoring Polynomials h p. 353-359
http://tinyurl.com/m3mbz (w)

http://tinyurl.com/mzxbyg2 (v)
Long Division &
i,j p. 362-368
Synthetic Division http://tinyurl.com/mqs3rq2 (v)

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4.1 Introduction to Polynomial Graphs WS Name ____________________________________

1. The maximum number of turning points in the graph of a polynomial function of degree 6 is _______.

2. The possible numbers of turning points in the graph of a polynomial function of degree 7 is (list all that
apply) __________________________________.

3. Determine the lowest degree polynomial that has the given graph.

_______ ________ _______

4. State the end behaviors of a function with a degree that has the following.

a. even with a positive leading coefficient b. even with a negative leading coefficient

b. odd with a positive leading coefficient d. odd with a negative leading coefficient

For #5-10, complete the chart for each function. Be sure to describe end behavior with the correct notation.
Degree Right side end behavior Left side end behavior

5. f (x) = 3 + 2x

6. g(x) = x4 – 16

7. h(x) = -2(x - 3)(x + 4)

8. p(x) = x3 + 2x2 – x + 5

9. q(x) = -(x3 - 2)(x2 - 5)

10. r(x) = 3(x + 3)4(x - 1)

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11. Which of the following could be the graph of a polynomial with a negative leading coefficient and even
degree? Circle your answer.

12. For the WRONG answers in #11 above, explain why each one cannot be the graph of the polynomial
described.

For #13-15, sketch a graph with the end behavior described.

As x  , f  x    As x  , f  x    As x  , f  x   


13. 14. 15.
As x  , f  x    As x  , f  x    As x  , f  x   

16. Sketch out all possible shapes of a 5th degree polynomial with a negative leading coefficient.

17. Explain why an even degree polynomial cannot have an even number of turning points.

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4.2 Operations with Polynomials Graphically WS Name_____________________________________

For #1-6, use f(x) and g(x) as shown. Perform each operation graphically. Use a table of values if needed.

1. f(x) + g(x) 2. f(x) – g(x) 3. f(x) × g(x)

4. f(x) + g(x) 5. f(x) – g(x) 6. f(x) × g(x)

For #7-10, answer the following based on the graphs of #1-6 above.

7. What is the degree of the polynomial formed 8. What is the degree of the polynomial formed
with the sum of two linear functions? with the product of two linear functions?

9. What is the degree of the polynomial formed 10. What is the degree of the polynomial formed
with the sum of a linear and a quadratic with the product of a linear and a quadratic
function? function?

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For #11-14, complete a table of values for each problem and sketch the graph of the answer.
f (x) = x + 1 h(x) = -x + 1 g(x) = 2x + 1 p(x) = 2x2 m(x) = x2 – 2x – 3

11. f (x) + h(x) 12. p(x) – m(x )


x f (x) h(x) f (x) + h(x) x p(x) m(x) p(x) – m(x)

13. g(x) × h(x) 14. m(x) × g(x )


x g(x) h(x) g(x) × h(x) x m(x) g(x) m(x) × g(x)

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4.3 Operations with Polynomials Algebraically WS Name_____________________________________

1. A circular courtyard has an area of 10 – 2x2. There are two rectangular flower
beds in the courtyard. Write an expression that represents the shaded lawn area.

2. Luke noticed that if you take any three consecutive integers, multiply them together, and add the middle
number to the result, the answer always seems to be the middle number cubed.

For example: 3 X 4 X 5 + 4 = 64 = 43
4 X 5 X 6 + 5 = 125 = 53
9 X 10 X 11 + 10 = 1000 = 103

a. In order to prove his observation true, Luke writes down (n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3) + n + 2. What
answer is he hoping to show this expression equals?

b. Use Luke’s model to prove his observation true.

3. The number of pieces of furniture a certain furniture store sold since January can be modeled by the
function N(t) = 10t + 4 and the price per piece of furniture can be modeled by P(t) = 2.5t2 – 12t + 65,
where t is the number of months since January. According to this model, what is the total amount of
revenue generated by the furniture store’s sales?

4. A franchise owner operates two Chili’s restaurants. The sales, S1, in thousands of dollars, for Chili’s #1
2
are represented by S1(t) = 800 – 2t , where t = 0 corresponds to the year 2005. Similarly, the sales for
3 2
Chili’s # 2 are represented by S2(t) = t + 3t + 500.

a. Determine a function that represents the total sales for the two Chili’s.

b. If sales continue according to the individual functions, what would you recommend that the
owner do? Explain using the graphs of the individual functions as well as the function from a.

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For #5-6, find the missing term.

5. (4x + ___) + (2x + 3) – (x + 1) = 5x + 3 6. (x2 + 8x + __) - (___+ 7x + 4) = -3x2 + x + 11

For 7-14, use the given functions.

f(x) = x – 3 g(x) = x + 2 h(x) = -x + 1

m(x) = x2 + 3x + 2 r(x) = 2x3 – x2 + 2x + 1 p(x) = 2x + 1

7. f (x) + m(x) 8. g(x) – h(x)

9. m(x) – r(x) 10. f (x) × g(x)

11. p(x) × f (x) 12. p(x) × m(x)

13. m(x) × r(x) 14. f (x) × g(x) × p(x)

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4.4a Polynomial Identities WS Name ___________________________________

1. Marianne is making an open wooden toy box to hold the building blocks at her day care center. She has
a square panel of cedar with side length of 24 inches. The first step is to cut out congruent squares from
each corner. She needs to know what the side length of the cutout square should be in order for the
finished toy box to have the greatest volume possible.

a. Draw a sketch to help solve the problem

b. Write an equation to represent the volume. Then express the volume as the sum of monomials.

c. Marianne decides to try some possible values for x. She knows that x must be less than 12.
Explain why.

d. Complete the table for each value of x. Round each volume to the nearest cubic inch.

x (in.) 2 3 4 5 6

Volume (cu. in.)

e. Marianne decides that she will use an integer value for x, so that she does not have to cut
fractions of an inch.

What value for x should she choose? Explain why this is the best choice.

What are the dimensions of her finished toy box?

2. A Pythagorean Triple is a set of integers that satisfies the Pythagorean Theorem (ie. 3, 4, 5 or 5, 12, 13).
If two shorter sides of a Pythagorean Triple (the legs) are x 2  y 2 and 2xy , determine an expression for
the longest side (hypotenuse). Remember that a2 + b2 = c2.

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3. For the following figures, write an equation showing that the area of the large rectangle is equal to the
sum of the areas of the smaller rectangles.

a. 1 b. 1
1
x
x x 1
x 1 1

For #4-7, calculate each of the following using what you have learned about special binomials. Do not use
area models and do not use a calculator.

4. (l02)(98) 5. (34)(26)

6. 542 7. (105)3

For #8-15, use multiplication of polynomials and the identities we have learned to multiply the following.

8. (4x2 + 15)(4x2 – 15) 9. (2x - y) (4x2 + 2xy + y2)

10. (2x – 3y)2 11. (px - qy)3

12. (x – 4i)(x + 4i) 13. (2xr – w)(2xr + w)

14. (3x + y)3 15. (2x + 3y)(4x2 – 6xy + 9y2)

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4.4b More Binomial Expansion WS Name ____________________________________

For #1-4, find each coefficient described.

1. Coefficient of x2 in expansion of (x + 2)5 2. Coefficient of x3 in expansion of (x – 3)4

3. Coefficient of x3y2 in expansion of (2x + 3y)5 4. Coefficient of x6y3 in expansion of (2x – 5y)9

For #5-8, find each term described.

5. 2nd term in expansion of (2x – 5y)10 6. 4th term in expansion of (2x – 5y)10

7. 3rd term in expansion of (x + 4y)9 8. 6th term in expansion of (x + 4y)9

9. Kate Gosselin knew she was having sextuplets, but did not know the sex of each child. Of the possible
combinations of boys and girls, how many possible groups would have at least three boys?

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For #10-13, expand completely.

10. (3x + 2y)4

11. (x + 4y)5

12. (3x – 4y)6

13. (x – 2y)7

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4.5 Factoring Polynomials WS Name _________________________________

For #1-12, factor each polynomial completely. Use linear factors when possible.

1. x4  x2  12 2. 5x 4  9 x2  4 3. 3x3  4 x2  9 x  12

4. 2 x6  13x4  6 x2 5. 2 x3  5x2  6 x  15 6. x6  2 x3  3

7. 6 x3  48 8. 16 x 4  81y 2 9. x6  27

10.
2
y  8 y  16  4 x
2 2 2
11. x  y  2 x  2 y 12. 16 y 2  9 x2  6 x  1

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For #13-18, factor each polynomial completely. Then find all solutions using the zero-product property.

13. x4  3x2  4  0 14. x3  3x2  2 x  6  0

15. x3  125  0 16. 3x5  15x3  18x  0

17. x4  2 x3  25x2  50 x  0 18. 27 x3  8  0

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4.6a Long Division and Synthetic Division WS Name ____________________________________

1. Divide 6x2 – 26x + 12 by (x – 4). 2. Divide 2x3 + 5x – 9 by (x + 3)

f ( x)
3. Given f  x   x3  2 x 2  3x  1 and g  x   x 2  1 , write as a polynomial.
g ( x)

4. What is the quotient of m(x) and k(x) for m  x   3x3  4 x 2  5x  2 and k  x   3x  1 ? Show BOTH
long division and synthetic division. Compare the results.

5.   
Find 2 x5  3x 4  14 x3  12 x 2  16 x  20  x 2  4 x  3 

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4.6b Remainder and Factor Theorem WS Name ____________________________________

1. Use the remainder theorem to evaluate f  x   x3  5x 2  10 x  12 at x = -2

2. Show that (x – 3) is a factor of x3  2 x2  5x  6 . Explain your answer.

3. Find the remainder when 2 x3  2 x  7 is divided by (x + 2).

4. Find m so that x = 2 is a zero of p  x   x3  3x2  mx  24

For g  x   x  7 x  6 , show that p(1) = 0 and then factor g(x) completely.


3
5.

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6. Given that x3  x2  16 x  20 is divisible by (x – 2)2, find the remaining factors.

7. Complete the table of values for p  x   2 x3  11x 2  19 x  10 . Use the results to factor p(x) completely.

x -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
p(x)

8. The volume of a prism is x3 – 4x2 – 7x + 10. Given that two of its dimensions are (x + 2) and (x – 5),
find the missing dimension.

9. Complete the table of values for q  x   6 x4  19 x3  9 x 2  76 x  60 . Factor q(x) completely.

x -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
p(x)

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