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EEE 2002

Semiconductor Devices And


Circuits
Lecture Notes
Dr. D. R. Binu Ben Jose
VIT University, Chennai Campus,
Chennai - 127
Introduction

 Course Name : Semiconductor Devices


and Circuits

 Course Code : EEE 2002

 LTPJC :20244

 Course
Pre-requisites : EEE 1001
VIT University, Chennai Campus, Chennai. 2
Objectives
 To apply the knowledge of solid state devices
principles to analyze electronic circuits.
 To design amplifiers under different
configurations and study their responses
 To understand the concepts underlying the
reliability, stability, thermal and noise analysis
of the semiconductor devices.
 To have a hands on learning experience and
software knowledge by doing practical and
projects.

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Expected Outcome
On the completion of this course the
student will be able to:
 Gain full confidence to work with electronic
devices in various types of circuits.
 Use standard laboratory equipments to
analyze the characteristics of basic electronic
devices and to design and construct simple
circuits containing these devices.
 Use the concepts studied as back ground
knowledge to solve real life problems in
electronics and do a project.
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Student outcomes

 Having an ability to apply mathematics


and science in engineering applications
 Having a clear understanding of the
subject related concepts and of
contemporary issues
 Having problem solving ability- solving
social issues and engineering
problems

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Evaluation Mode
 Continuous Assessment (30 %)
 Assignments / Seminars (30 %)
 Quiz – I – 5 %
 Quiz – II – 5 %
 Assignment – I – 5 %
 Assignment – II – 5 %
 Class notes – 2.5 %
 Attendance – 5 % or Assignment – 3 %
 100 % – 5.0 %
 95 % – 4.0 %
 90 % – 3.5 %
 Attending guest Lecture/Industrial visits – 2.5 %
 Term - End Examination (40 %)
VIT University, Chennai Campus, Chennai. 6
Syllabus

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Unit I
Semiconductor Device physics
 Semi-conductors, charge carriers,
electrons and holes in intrinsic and
extrinsic semi-conductors, carrier
generation, recombination, injection of
carriers, Drift and diffusion, carrier
mobility, conductivity, Formation of
Junction, Junction Capacitance,
breakdown characteristics.
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Unit II
Diodes and Transistors
 Diode equations, Diode Circuits, Clipper
and Clamper Circuits, BJT -
characteristics, Current gains, h-
parameter, MOSFET and UJT –
construction, characteristics, small
signal model of MOSFET.

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Unit III
Amplifiers
 Operating points, load line, Biasing
methods and stabilization, DC and AC
analysis of BJT- Calculation of Gain,
Input Impedance and Output
Impedance. Basic BJT (CE, CB and CC)
and MOSFET (CS, CD and CG) amplifier
configurations. Differential amplifiers
and Power amplifiers.
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Unit IV
Feedback amplifiers and Oscillators
 Basic concepts of Feedback, Negative
Feedback advantages and types-
voltage / current, series, Shunt
feedback –positive feedback, Stability
of Feedback Amplifier, Condition for
oscillations, Phase shift Oscillator,
Wien bridge Oscillator.

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Unit V - Advanced Topics of
Semiconductor Devices
 Reliability, Stability, Thermal and Noise
analysis of Semiconductor Devices and
Circuits, Material reliability, electro
migration, stress and stress instability,
failure mechanisms.

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Reference Books
 D. A. Neamen, „Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design‟
3/e, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2011.
 Kanaan Kano, „Semiconductor Devices‟, PHI, 2005.
 R. L. Boylestad & L. Nashelsky „Electronic Devices
and Circuit Theory‟ 11/e, Pearson Education, Delhi,
2014.
 David. A. Bell, „Electronic Devices and Circuits‟5/e,
Oxford university press, India, 2008.
 Thomas L. Floyd „Electronic Devices: Conventional
Current Version‟, 9/e, Pearson Education, Delhi, 2011.
 A.S. Sedra, K.C. Smith, „Microelectronic Circuits:
Theory with Applications‟ 5/e, Oxford University
Press, New Delhi, 2009.
VIT University, Chennai Campus, Chennai. 13
Unit I
Semiconductor Device physics
 Semi-conductors, charge carriers,
electrons and holes in intrinsic and
extrinsic semi-conductors, carrier
generation, recombination, injection of
carriers, Drift and diffusion, carrier
mobility, conductivity, Formation of
Junction, Junction Capacitance,
breakdown characteristics.
VIT University, Chennai Campus, Chennai. 14
Lecture 1
12.01.2016

So learn that you may full and faultless learning gain,


Then in obedience meet to lessons learnt remain.

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RECAP of EEE 1001
Basic Circuit Elements
 Resistor / Resistance (R - ohms)

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Contd…
 Component values

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Electrical Resistivity
and Conductivity of
Selected Materials
at 293 K

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Resistivity vs. Temperature

(a) Resistivity versus temperature for a typical conductor. Notice the linear rise in
resistivity with increasing temperature at all but very low temperatures.
(b) Resistivity versus temperature for a typical conductor at very low
temperatures. Notice that the curve flattens and approaches a nonzero
resistance as T → 0.
(c) Resistivity versus temperature for a typical semiconductor. The resistivity
increases dramatically as T → 0.

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Inductor / Inductance (L - Henrys)

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Capacitor / Capacitance (C - Farads)

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Basic electrical sources

 Voltage source  Current source

 Uncontrolled  Uncontrolled
 Dc  Dc
 Ac  Ac
 Controlled  Controlled
 Dc  Dc
 Ac  Ac

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Basic laws in Electric circuits

 Ohm‟s law
 Equations – different forms

 Kirchoff‟s laws
 Kirchoff‟s current law
 Illustration

 Kirchoff‟s voltage law


 Illustration

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Contd…
 Sinusoidal quantities

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Introduction

 Materials
 Conductors  Low resistivity => “conductor”
 Non-conductors  High resistivity => “insulator”
 Intermediate resistivity =>
 Semi-conductors
“semiconductor”
 conductivity lies between that of
conductors and insulators
 Charge carriers
 generally crystalline in structure
 Electrons for IC devices
 Holes  In recent years, however, non-
crystalline semiconductors have
become commercially very
important

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Atomic Structure
An atom is composed of :
 Nucleus ( which contains positively
charged protons and neutral neutrons)
 Electrons (which are negatively charged
and that orbit the nucleus)

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Valence Electrons

 Electrons are distributed in various shells at


different distances from nucleus
 Electron energy increases as shell radius
increases.
 Electrons in the outermost shell are called
valence electrons
 Elements in the period table are grouped
according to the number of valence electrons

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Valence and Conduction Bands
 The band structures of insulators and semiconductors
resemble each other qualitatively. Normally there exists
in both insulators and semiconductors a filled energy
band (referred to as the valence band) separated from
the next higher band (referred to as the conduction
band) by an energy gap.

 If this gap is at least several electron volts, the material


is an insulator. It is too difficult for an applied field to
overcome that large an energy gap, and thermal
excitations lack the energy to promote sufficient
numbers of electrons to the conduction band.

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Smaller energy gaps create Semiconductors

 For energy gaps smaller than about 1 electron


volt, it is possible for enough electrons to be
excited thermally into the conduction band, so
that an applied electric field can produce a
modest current.

The result is a semiconductor.

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Contd….

This abridged table contains elements with three to five


valence electrons, with Si being the most important.

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Elemental/Compound Semiconductor

 Silicon (Si) and Germanium (Ge) are in


group IV, and are elemental
semiconductors

 Galium arsenide (GaAs) is a goup III-V


compound semiconductor

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Silicon Crystal

 → At 0°K, each electron is in its lowest


possible energy state, and each covalent
bounding position is filled.

 →If a small electric field is applied, the


electrons will not move → silicon is an
insulator

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Silicon Atom Diagram at 0°K

Si has four valence


electrons. Therefore, it
can form covalent
bonds with four of its
neighbors.

When temperature goes


up, electrons in the
covalent bond can
become free.

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Contd…
 Semiconductors
 Intrinsic Semiconductors
 Extrinsic Semiconductors
 P-type
 N-type

 Impurities
 Pentavalent
 Trivalent

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Intrinsic Silicon

 → If the temperature increases, the valence


electrons will gain some thermal energy, and
breaks free from the covalent bond → It
leaves a positively charged hole
 → In order to break from the covalent bond, a
valence electron must gain a minimun
energy Eg: Bandgap energy

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Thermoelectric Effect
 In one dimension the induced electric field E in a
semiconductor is proportional to the temperature gradient,
so that

where Q is called the thermoelectric power.

 The direction of the induced field depends on whether the


semiconductor is p-type or n-type, so the thermoelectric
effect can be used to determine the extent to which n- or p-
type carriers dominate in a complex system.

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Contd…
 When there is a temperature gradient in a thermoelectric
material, an electric field appears.
 This happens in a pure metal since we can assume the
system acts as a gas of free electrons.
 As in an ideal gas, the density of free electrons is greater at

the colder end of the wire, and therefore the electrical


potential should be higher at the warmer end and lower at the
colder end.
 The free-electron model is not valid for semiconductors;

nevertheless, the conducting properties of a semiconductor


are temperature dependent, as we have seen, and therefore it
is reasonable to believe that semiconductors should exhibit a
thermoelectric effect.
 This thermoelectric effect is sometimes called the Seebeck
effect.
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The Thomson and Peltier Effects
 In a normal conductor, heat is generated at the rate
of I2R. But a temperature gradient across the
conductor causes additional heat to be generated.
This is the Thomson Effect.
Here heat is generated if current flows toward the
higher temperature and absorbed if toward the
lower.

 The Peltier Effect occurs when heat is generated at a


junction between two conductors as current passes
through the junction.
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The Thermocouple

 An important application of the Seebeck


thermoelectric effect is in thermometry. The
thermoelectric power of a given conductor
varies as a function of temperature, and the
variation can be quite different for two
different conductors.

This difference makes possible the


operation of a thermocouple.
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Silicon Atom Diagram at Ambient
Temperature

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Insulators/Conductors

 Materials that have large bandgap


energies (in the range of 3 to 6 electron-
volts (eV)) are insulators, because at room
temperature, essentially no free electron
exists in the material

 Materials that contain very large number


of free electrons at room temperature are
conductors
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Semiconductors

 → In a semiconductor, the bandgap energy is


in the order of 1 eV. The net flow of free
electrons causes a current.

 → In a semiconductor, two types of charged


particles contribute to the current: the
negatively charged electrons and the
positively charged holes

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Movement of Holes

With free electrons


breaking off covalent
bonds, holes are
generated.

Holes can be filled by


absorbing other free
electrons, so
effectively there is a
flow of charge carriers.

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Semiconductor Constants
 The concentration of electrons and holes
directly influence the magnitude of the
current
 In an intrinsic semiconductor (a single
crystal semiconductor) the densities of
holes and electrons are equal.

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Intrinsic Carrier Concentration
 ni: intrinsic carrier concentration for free
electrons (same for holes)

 B: constant related to specific semiconductor material


 Eg: Bandgap energy (eV), T: Temperature (°K)
 K: Boltzman Constant (86 E-06 eV/°K)
 Eg
ni  5.2 10 T exp
15 3/ 2
electrons / cm3
2kT
For Silicon ni (T  3000 K )  1.08 1010 electrons / cm3
ni (T  6000 K )  1.54 1015 electrons / cm3

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Extrinsic Semiconductor

 The electron or hole concentration can be


greatly increased by adding controlled
amounts of certain impurities
 For silicon, it is desirable to use impurities
from the group III and V.
 An N-type semiconductor can be created by
adding phosphorus or arsenic

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Semiconductor impurity

 The phosphorus (group V) atom is called


donor impurity because it donates an
electron that is free to move
 The boron (group III) has accepted a
valence electron (or donated a hole), it is
therefore called acceptor impurity

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N-Type Semiconductor

Pure Si can be doped


with other elements to
change its electrical
properties.

For example, if Si is
doped with P
(phosphorous), then it
has more electrons, or
becomes type N
(electron).

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P-Type Semiconductor

If Si is doped with
B (boron), then it
has more holes, or
becomes type P.

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Summary of Charge Carriers
Majority carriers

minority carriers

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Electron and Hole Densities
np  ni
2

Majority Carriers : p  NA
2
n
Minority Carriers : n i
NA
Majority Carriers : n  ND
2
n
Minority Carriers : p i
ND

 The product of electron and hole densities is


ALWAYS equal to the square of intrinsic electron
density regardless of doping levels.
 NA – Number of acceptor atoms
 ND – Number of donar atoms
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Terminology
 donor: impurity atom that increases n
 acceptor: impurity atom that increases p

 N-type material: contains more electrons than holes


 P-type material: contains more holes than electrons

 majority carrier: the most abundant carrier


 minority carrier: the least abundant carrier

 intrinsic semiconductor: n = p = ni
 extrinsic semiconductor: doped semiconductor
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Summary
 The band gap energy is the energy required to free
an electron from a covalent bond.
 Eg for Si at 300K = 1.12 eV
 In a pure Si crystal, conduction electrons and holes
are formed in pairs.
 Holes can be considered as positively charged mobile
particles which exist inside a semiconductor.
 Both holes and electrons can conduct current.
 Substitutional dopants in Si:
 Group-V elements (donors) contribute conduction electrons
 Group-III elements (acceptors) contribute holes
 Very low ionization energies (< 50 meV)

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Lecture 2, 3
14, 19.01.2016
If you win, you need not have to explain...If
you lose, you should not be there to explain
– Adolf Hitler

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Carrier conduction in metals
 The average number of electrons passing
through any area per unit time is zero. Thus
the average current flow in the metal is zero.

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Various terms
Drift Velocity
 Electric field causes conduction current. The force on an individual
electron is

 Energy is lost with each collision of electrons so that the average


velocity approaches a constant or steady-state value. The average
velocity is called the drift velocity.

μe - electron mobility
Mean free path: The average
distance that the electron travels
between collisions with the
bound ions

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Contd…

 Charge Density ρ (C/m3)


 charge per unit volume

 Current Density, J (A/m2)


 the current per unit area

 Conductivity, σ ( Ω−1m−1)
 Ability of a conductor to conduct

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Numerical Problems
1. Aluminum has three valence electrons per atom, an atomic weight
of 0.02698 kg/mol, a density of 2700 kg/m3, and a conductivity of 3.54
× 107 Ω−1m−1. Calculate the electron mobility in aluminium. Assume
that all three valence electrons in each atom are free.
Solution
A mole of any substance is a quantity equal to its atomic weight and
contains a number of molecules equal to Avogadro‟s number which is
6.02 × 1023. Hence for Al

Electron density in the Al is n = 3× 6.024 × 1028 = 1.807 × 1029 per m3.

The mobility is given by

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Contd…
2. The conductivity of copper is 5.8 × 107 Ω−1m−1. If a 1 m
length of copper wire has a resistance of 1 Ω, what is
the thickness of the wire? Assume a circular cross
section.

Answer: d = 0.148 mm

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How many atoms does Si contain
 The atomic mass of silicon is 28.1 g which contains
Avagadro‟s number of atoms.

 Avagadro‟s number N is 6.02 x 1023 atoms/mol .

 The density of silicon: 2.3 x 103 kg/m3

 so 1 cm3 of silicon weighs 2.3 gram and so contains

6.02  1023
 2.3  4.93  1022 atoms
28.1

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Conduction in Intrinsic Semiconductors
 A semiconductor is said to be intrinsic if it is not contaminated with
impurity atoms.
 because of the small number of free electrons, the conductivity of an
intrinsic semiconductor is much lower than that of a metal.
 mechanical vibration of the lattice can cause an ion to capture a valence
electron from a neighbouring atom to replace the missing one.
 Recombination
 Electron-hole pairs are continually created by thermal agitation of a
semiconductor lattice, it might seem that the number of holes and free electrons
would continually increase with time.
 This does not happen because free electrons are continually combining with
holes called recombination.
 The mean lifetime τn (s) of a free electron is the average time that the
electron exists in the free state before recombination.
 In the intrinsic semiconductor, τn is equal to τp
 addition of an impurity to the semiconductor lattice can cause the
mean lifetimes to be unequal
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Intrinsic Concentration
 The number of free electrons per m3 in a semiconductor is n and the
number of holes per m3 is p.
 hole concentration must equal the electron concentration

 where no is a constant, T is the absolute temperature, VG is the


semiconductor bandgap voltage,
 and VT is the thermal voltage. (The bandgap voltage multiplied by q
represents the minimum energy required to cause a bound valence
electron to become a free electron.) For silicon, the bandgap voltage
at T = 300K has the value VG = 1.11V. The thermal voltage is related to
the temperature by

 k is the Boltzmann constant (k = 1.381 × 10−23 J/K). At T = 300 K, the


thermal voltage has the value VT = 0.0259 V.

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Conductivity
 Free electrons drift with a velocity

 Free holes drift with a velocity

 The total conduction current density is

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Numerical Problems
3. A rod of intrinsic silicon is 1 cm long and has a diameter of 1 mm.
At room temperature, the intrinsic concentration in the silicon is ni =
1.5 × 1016 per m3. The electron and hole mobilities are μe = 0.13 m2
V−1s−1 and μh = 0.05 m2 V−1s−1. Calculate the conductivity σ of the
silicon and the resistance R of the rod.

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Conduction in Extrinsic Semiconductors
 Let ND be the number of donor atoms per m3 and NA the
number of acceptor atoms per m3
 Because the semiconductor is electrically neutral

 In an n-type semiconductor, NA = 0 and p << n so that


the above equation can be solved for n to obtain

 The approximation in this equation can be used to solve


for the hole concentration p in n-type semiconductor

 Similarly, in a p-type semiconductor,

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Numerical Problems
4. In the example 3, the number of silicon atoms per m3 is 5 × 1028.
A donor impurity is added to the silicon in the concentration of one
donor atom per 108 atoms of silicon. Calculate the new resistance
of the rod. Assume that each donor atom contributes one free
electron.
Solution.
The donor concentration in the silicon is

Hence the resistance is

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Conduction in Extrinsic Semiconductors
 If ND > NA, the semiconductor becomes n-type.

 Similarly if NA > ND, the semiconductor becomes p-type

 Conductivity
conduction current density
Hence, conductivity

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Diffusion current
 In an n-type or a p-type semiconductor, it is possible to
have a component of current that is not a conduction
current.
 Current due to the non-uniform density of free electrons
or holes is called diffusion current.
 To achieve a non-uniform density of free electrons or
holes, the doping concentration in the semiconductor is
not constant. It is a function of position. Such a
concentration is called a graded doping concentration.
 Diffusion current density due to holes
 Dh is the hole diffusion constant
 ∇p is the gradient

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Contd…
 In an n-type semiconductor

 n is the electron concentration function and De is the


electron diffusion constant
 The diffusion constants are related to the mobility
constants by the relation

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Total Current
 Total current in a semiconductor is written as the
sum of the electron and hole conduction currents
and the electron and hole diffusion currents

 E is the electric field intensity and σ is the


conductivity
 If we set J = 0, the above equation predicts an
electric field in the open-circuited semiconductor

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Lecture 4
21.01.2016
Do not go where the path may lead, go instead
where there is no path and leave the trail
– R. W. Emerson

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Contd…
 Conduction in semiconductors
V
 n - type Si + -
V
E
n – type Si L

e-
Vd
Electric field
Electron movement
Current flow

Current carriers are mostly electrons.


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Contd…
V
+ -
V
p – type Si E
L
hole
Vd
Electric field
Hole movement
Current flow

Current carriers are mostly holes.

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Contd…

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Formation of PN Junction

 A p-n junction is the junction between an n-


type semiconductor and a p-type
semiconductor.
 It is fabricated by introducing
 donor impurities into one side of an intrinsic
semiconductor
 acceptor impurities into the other side.
 The transition between the two regions occurs
in a very small distance, typically 0.5 μm.

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Open-Circuited p-n Junction

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Depletion Region
 The region about the junction in which the uncovered
charges exist is called the depletion region.
 Other names for this are the space-charge region and
the transition region.

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Built-In Potential
 There is an electric field in the depletion region of a p-n
junction that is directed from the n-type side to the p-
type side
 It follows that there is a difference in potential or
voltage across the junction.
 This voltage difference is called the built-in potential or
the contact potential.

 the built-in potential VB is given by

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Numerical Problems
 An open-circuited p-n junction is fabricated from
silicon. The acceptor and donor concentrations are
NA = ND = 5×1020 per m3. The intrinsic concentration
is ni = 1.5×1016 per m3. Solve for the built-in
potential at room temperature.
 The thermal voltage at room temperature is VT =
0.0259 V.
 The built-in potential is then

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Short-Circuited p-n Junction

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Biased p-n Junction
 Forward Bias

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Contd…
 Reverse Bias

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Characteristics of a PN junction in
forward and reverse bias

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Junction capacitance
 The junction capacitance of a open circuited PN junction
or a reverse biased PN junction is called depletion layer
capacitance or depletion region capacitance or space-
charge capacitance or transition capacitance

𝑲
 Open circuited PN junction, CD = 𝑽𝑩 𝒏
𝜺𝒒 𝑵𝑨𝑵𝑫
 K=A𝟐 is a constant depending on the nature of the
𝑵𝑨+𝑵𝑫
semiconductor material
 VB – barrier voltage
 n – constant based on the grading of the PN junction (1/2 for an
abrupt junction, 1/3 for a linearly graded junction)

𝑲
 Reverse biased PN junction, CD = 𝑽𝑩 − 𝑽 𝒏

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Contd…
 The junction capacitance of a forward biased PN junction
is called Diffusion or Storage capacitance
𝝉𝑰
 Forward biased PN junction, CS =
𝜼 𝑽𝑻
 𝝉 – Mean life time of the carriers
 I – magnitude of forward current
 𝜼 – a constant (1 – for germanium, 2 – for silicon)
 VT – volt equivalent of temperature

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Unit II
Diodes and Transistors
 Diode equations, Diode Circuits, Clipper
and Clamper Circuits, BJT -
characteristics, Current gains, h-
parameter, MOSFET and UJT –
construction, characteristics, small
signal model of MOSFET.

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Lecture 5
23.01.2016
In the middle of difficulty lies the opportunity
- Albert Einstein

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PN Junction diodes

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Diode equation
 Current equation of a PN junction diode

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Diode Circuits
 Diode Characteristics
 Forward, reverse characteristics
 Static and dynamic resistances

Effect of Temperature on
diode characteristics

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Rectifier circuits
 Half wave rectifier without filter
 A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating
current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct
current (DC), which flows in only one direction.
 Circuit, Waveforms and Operation

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Contd…
 Various performance parameters
 Average output voltage, Vdc
 Average output current, Idc
 RMS output voltage, Vrms
 RMS output current = RMS input current, Irms
 Average power output, Pdc
 AC power output, Pac
 Rectification efficiency, ηrec
 Form factor, FF and Ripple factor, RF
 Transformer utilization factor, TUF
 Peak inverse voltage, PIV
 Crest factor, CF
 Power factor, Pf
 Regulation, %
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Various performance parameters
 Average output voltage, Vdc and current, Idc
1 1
V   v (t )dt
T

T
dc
0
L f 
T
  2 f
T
1
V  V sin tdt
2

dc m
T 0

T V
V 
V
 1) V  m
 0.318V
(cos 
m
dc m

T
dc
2
V 0.318V
I dc
 dc m

R R
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Contd…
 RMS output voltage, Vrms and
 RMS output current = RMS input current, Irms
1

  1 T
 2

T 
V v (t )dt 2

rms
0
L

1

V    (V sin t ) dt 

T
1 2
2
2

T 
rms m
0

V
V  rms
 0.5V m
m
2
V 0.5V
I  rms
 rms m

R R
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Contd…
 Average power output, Pdc
 AC power output, Pac
 Rectification efficiency, ηrec

(0.318V ) 2

P 
dc
m

R
(0.5V ) 2

P 
ac
m

R
(0.318V ) 2

  40.5% m

(0.5V ) m
2

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Contd…
 Form factor, FF and Ripple factor, RF

V 0.5V
FF  
rms m

V dc
0.318V m

FF  1.57  157%
R F  FF  1 2

R F  1.57  1  1.21  121%


2

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Contd…
 Transformer utilization factor, TUF
1

V   1 
 (V sin t ) dt 
T V
 0.707V 2
2
m
s
T 0  m
2
m

0.5V
I I 
s load
m

R
(0.318V ) m
2

P R
T UF   dc

VI 0.5V
(0.707V )(
s s ) m
m

R
T UF  0.286
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Contd…
 Peak inverse voltage, PIV
 PIV is the maximum (peak) voltage that appears across the
diode when reverse biased. Here, PIV = Vm.``

- - PIV +

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Contd…
I s ( peak )
 Crest (peak) factor, CF CF 
Is
Vm
I s ( peak ) 
R
0.5Vm
Is 
R
Vm
CF  R  2
0.5Vm
R
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Contd…
 Power factor, Pf Pac
PF  cos  
VA
(0.5Vm ) 2
PF  R  0.707
0.5Vm
(0.707Vm )( )
R
 Regulation, %
 The variation of the output voltage as a function of dc load
current is called regulation. Percentage regulation is given as
% Regulation = {(Vdc no-load – Vdc full-load)/ Vdc full-load}* 100
 For an ideal power supply, the output voltage should be
independent of load current and the percentage regulation
should be equal to zero.

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Half wave rectifier - summary
 RF = 121% High

 Efficiency = 40.5 % Low

 TUF = 0.286 Low


 1/TUF = 3.496
 transformer must be 3.496 times larger than when
using a pure ac voltage source

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Contd…
 Half wave rectifier with filter

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Rectifier circuits
 Full wave rectifier without filter
 A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating
current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct
current (DC), which flows in only one direction.
 Circuit, Waveforms and Operation

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Contd…
 Various performance parameters
 Average output voltage, Vdc
 Average output current, Idc
 RMS output voltage, Vrms
 RMS output current = RMS input current, Irms
 Average power output, Pdc
 AC power output, Pac
 Rectification efficiency, ηrec
 Form factor, FF and Ripple factor, RF
 Transformer utilization factor, TUF
 Peak inverse voltage, PIV
 Crest factor, CF
 Power factor, Pf
 Regulation, %

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Average output voltage

T
2
2
Vdc   Vm sin t
T 0
2Vm
Vdc 

Vdc  0.636Vm
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Lecture 8
04.02.2016
Dream, Dream, Dream. Dream transforms into
thoughts, and thoughts result in action" &
“we should not give up and we should not allow
the problem to defeat us.
- Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

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Contd…
 Full wave rectifier with filter

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Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier

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Wave shaping circuits
 Clippers
 Series
 unbiased – positive and negative
 Biased – positive and negative
 Shunt
 unbiased – positive and negative
 Biased – positive and negative
 Combination clipper
 Clampers
 unbiased – positive and negative
 Biased – positive and negative
 Voltage doubler
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Summary – Clipper

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Summary – Clamper

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Zener Diode
+IF
The zener diode exhibits a constant voltage
drop when sufficiently reversed-biased.
This property allows the use of the zener zener
diode as a simple voltage regulator. point

-6 -3
+VF
1 2 3
+V

Constant
breakdown
voltage
R
Here, Vr will be equal to the reverse breakdown voltage of
the zener diode and should be constant. What is the purpose
Vr
of the resistor in this circuit? Its job is to limit the current
flowing through the zener diode:
D V  Vr
I
R
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Bipolar Junction Transistor
The transistor is a versatile device usually configured to perform as a
switch or as an amplifier. The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is the
most common type and has three leads:

3 3
Collector Collector
2 2
Base Base
1 Emitter 1 Emitter

PNP Transistor NPN Transistor

In a transistor, the flow of current from the collector to the emitter is controlled
by the amount of current flowing into the base of the transistor. If no current
flows into the base, no current will flow from the collector to the emitter (it acts
like an open switch). If current flows into the base, then a proportional amount
of current flows from the collector to the emitter (somewhat like a closed switch).

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Basic Structure

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Typical Transistors

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NPN Transistor
R c R c
b +
b +
b b IC
+ e + e
- -
- Re - IB Re

No current flows from base to emitter, Current now flows through the transistor
so the transistor acts like an open from base to emitter. This causes the
switch and no current flows from transistor to allow current to flow from the
collector to emitter. collector to the emitter. The size of the
collector current depends on the size of
(Note: current never flows from base to the base current and the beta b of the

b  IC I B
collector or vice versa, regardless of transistor:
the base current.)

A typical transistor has a beta of about 100.

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Base and Collector Currents
What‟s the base current IB? Use
Kirchhoff‟s voltage law:
RB c
b
E  I B RB  ( I B  I C ) RE  0.7V IC +

E
E  I B ( RB  (1  b ) RE )  0.7V
e
-
E  0.7V 0.7 volts is lost at the IB RE
IB  junction of the base
RB  (1  b ) RE and emitter

What‟s the maximum value for the


Now find the collector current IC: collector current?

IC  b  I B E
IC 
RE

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PNP Transistor

R c
b -
b Ic
I e
+
b
Re

The PNP transistor behaves identically to the NPN transistor, except that all
polarities are reversed. The voltages are applied with opposite polarity, and
the currents run opposite to those in the NPN transistor, but all other behaviors
are the same.

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Transistor Characteristics

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Contd…
 Transistor in common base configuration

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Contd…
 Transistor in common emitter configuration

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Modes of operation
 Cutoff: In cutoff, both junctions reverse biased. There is very little current flow,
which corresponds to a logical "off", or an open switch.

 Forward-active (or simply, active): The emitter-base junction is forward biased


and the base-collector junction is reverse biased. Most bipolar transistors are
designed to afford the greatest common-emitter current gain, β in forward-
active mode. If this is the case, the collector-emitter current is approximately
proportional to the base current, but many times larger, for small base current
variations.

 Reverse-active (or inverse-active or inverted): By reversing the biasing


conditions of the forward-active region, a bipolar transistor goes into reverse-
active mode. In this mode, the emitter and collector regions switch roles. Since
most BJTs are designed to maximize current gain in forward-active mode, the β
in inverted mode is several times smaller. This transistor mode is seldom used.
The reverse bias breakdown voltage to the base may be an order of magnitude
lower in this region.

 Saturation: With both junctions forward-biased, a BJT is in saturation mode and


facilitates current conduction from the emitter to the collector. This mode
corresponds to a logical "on", or a closed switch.

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