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LTE - RF Drivetest and Coverage

Analysis

http://www.linkedin.com/pub/ray-khastur/36/965/b7a
Different Between TD-LTE & FD-LTE
Item LTE-TDD LTE-FDD

Duplex mode TDD FDD


Frame structure Type 2 Type 1
All subframes can be allocated only for the uplink or
UL and DL Ratio 7 types of UL and DL ratio, flexible
downlink.

A T/R converter is required. The T/R


A duplexer is required and the duplexer brings
RRU Noise Figure converter will bring about the insertion
about the insertion loss of 1 dB.
loss of 2~2.5 dB .

Supported (exchangeability based on Not supported (no exchangeability based on uplink


Beamforming
uplink and downlink channel) and downlink channels)

MIMO Mode Modes 1–8 are supported. Mode 1–6 are supported.

Strict synchronization is required in the


Network Interference Synchronization requirement is not strict.
whole network.

4G LTE – Drivetest and Coverage Analysis| Page 2


Drive Test Peripheral

LTE Dongle
Notebook

GPS

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Reference
Signal Received
Power (RSRP)

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LTE RS Power Allocation
• How to calculate RS Power ?
RRU 3252 run at 4T4R configuration, have total power 80W (Max 20W/Port).
RSRE Power = Psingle port-10*log(12*Nrb)+10*log(1+Pb)
Where ; PSingle Port = PRRU - 10*log(Nport)
ρB/ ρA
Pb is Power Bosting
PB Single Antenna 2 or 4 Antenna
Psingle port = 49-10*log(4) Port Port
= 43 dBm
= 20Watt 0 1 5/4
1 4/5 1
2 3/5 ¾
3 2/5 ½

If operator have 20 MHz for the first carrier and 10 Mhz for second carrier each
carrier can use 10W for first carrier and 5W for second carrier to maintain the
coverage is same. And still have spare about 5W for optimization purposes.

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LTE RS Power Allocation
• RS Power for 20 MHz @ 10W/port Impact on Radio Network
RS = 40dBm – 10*log(12*100) + 10*log(1+1) Performance: A larger value of Pb
results in a larger increase in
= 12.2 dBm ReferenceSignalPwr, better channel
estimation performance, and better
• RS Power for 10 MHz @ 5W/port PDSCH demodulation performance,
but it also leads to lower transmit
RS = 37dBm – 10*log(12*50) + 10*log(1+1) power of the PDSCH (type B) and thus
= 12.2 dBm increases

RS Power for 10 MHz @ 10W/port RS Power for 10 MHz @ 10W/port


RS = 40dBm – 10*log(12*50) + 10*log(1+1) RS = 40dBm – 10*log(12*50) + 10*log(1+1)
= 15.2 dBm = 15.2 dBm
With the same total power, coverage LTE With the same total power, coverage LTE
10 Mhz is larger than with LTE 20 MHz 10 Mhz is larger than with LTE 20 MHz

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LTE RS Power Allocation
• Power Boosting for RS

Bandwidth PB PRS ( dBm)


10M 1 18.2
 P =1 by default
B
15M 1 16.4
20M 1 15.2
• RS Power for 20MHz
= 43 – 10*log(100*12) + 10*log10(PB+1) = 15.2dBm
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RS Power Overhead Comparison with CPICH

Type B Symbol: with RS REs Type A Symbol: without RS REs


• RS power per RE is 15.2dBm (0.033W) for 20MHz
• Total RS power in 20MHz for Type B Symbol is 0.033*2 (RS REs/ RB) * 100 RBs = 6.6W
• Total RS power in 20MHz for Type A Symbol is 0
• Only two symbols carry RS within 0.5ms and hence the RS power overhead is about 6.6/20 * 2/7 = 9.4%
over 1 timeslot

LTE RS power overhead is about 9.4% which is similar to 10% CPICH power overhead
of UMTS
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RxLev, RSRP and RSCP Comparison
Items GSM UMTS LTE

43 43 43 RSRP is the received signal strength


(e)NodeB power per Tx (dBm)
over 15KHz bandwidth while
Bandwidth (MHz) 0.2 5 20
bandwidth of RSCP is 5MHz
Number of RB N/A N/A 100

BCCH Power/ CPICH power 43 33 15.2


/RS power per RE (dBm)
CL (dB) 120 120 120 Only 1/6 REs is used for RS transmission
within one RB and hence the total received RS
-77 -87 -104.8 power is 10*log10(100*12*1/6) = 23dB higher
Rx Lev/RSCP/RSRP (dBm)
than RSRP

Received RS signal strength -81.8


over whole bandwidth

RSRP of LTE is much smaller than RSCP of UMTS under same radio environment
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Factors Influencing LTE Coverage
Frequency
Band
ICIC Data Rate
LTE
Specific
TX Power LTE
RB Number
Factors Affecting LTE Specific
Link Budget

Cell Load MCS LTE


Specific

MIMO Radio Condition Receiver


Interference
Margin LTE Standard Sensitivity
ICIC:Inter Cell Interference Coordination

Some other factors such as site height, BPL, TMA, coverage probability,…
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Weak Coverage and Coverage Holes

The signal quality in cells is poorer than the optimization baseline in an area.
Weak As a result, UEs cannot be registered with the network or accessed services
coverage cannot meet QoS requirements.

If there is no network coverage or coverage levels are excessively low in an area, the area is called a weak
coverage area. The receive level of a UE is less than its minimum access level (RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN) because
Coverage holes downlink receive levels in a weak coverage area are unstable. In this situation, the UE is disconnected from the
network. After entering a weak coverage area, UEs in connected mode cannot be handed over to a high-level
cell, and even service drops occur because of low levels and signal quality.

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Resolving Weak Coverage Problems

Analyze geographical environments and Deploy new eNodeBs if coverage hole Use RRUs, indoor distribution systems,
check the receive levels of adjacent problems cannot be resolved by leaky feeders, and directional antennas to
eNodeBs. adjusting antennas. resolve the problem with blind spots in
Analyze the EIRP of each sector based on Increase coverage by adjacent eNodeBs elevator shafts, tunnels, underground
parameter configurations and ensure to achieve large coverage overlapping garages or basements, and high
EIRPs can reach maximum values if between two eNodeBs and ensure a buildings.
possible. moderate handover area. Analyze the impact of scenarios and
Increase pilot power. Note: Increasing coverage may lead to terrains on coverage.
Adjust antenna azimuths and tilts, co-channel and adjacent-channel
increase antenna height, and use high-gain interference.
antennas.

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Case: Searching for a Weak Coverage Area by Using a Scanner or Performing Drive Tests on
UEs

Perform drive tests in zero-


load environments to obtain
the distribution of signals on
test routes. Then, find a
weak coverage area based
on the distribution, as
shown in the figure.
Weak
Adjust RF parameters of the coverage
eNodeB covering the area. area

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Lack of a Dominant Cell

In an area without a dominant cell, the receive level of the serving cell is similar to the receive levels of its
neighboring cells and the receive levels of downlink signals between different cells are close to cell
reselection thresholds. Receive levels in an area without a dominant cell are also unsatisfactory. The SINR of
Lack of a the serving cell becomes unstable because of frequency reuse, and even receive quality becomes

dominant unsatisfactory. In this situation, a dominant cell is frequently reselected and changed in idle mode. As a
result, frequent handovers or service drops occur on UEs in connected mode because of poor signal quality.
cell An area without a dominant cell can also be regarded as a weak coverage area.

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Resolving Problems with Lack of a Dominant Cell

Determine cells covering an Adjust engineering


area without a dominant cell parameters of a cell that can
during network planning, and optimally cover the area as

adjust antenna tilts and required.

azimuths to increase coverage …


by a cell with strong signals
and decrease coverage of
other cells with weak signals.

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Case: Searching for an Area Without a Dominant Cell

 Symptom
UEs frequently perform cell reselections or
handovers between identical cells.
 Analysis
Analysis can be based on signaling procedures and
PCI distribution.
According to PCI distribution shown in the figure,
PCIs alternate in two or more colors if there is no
dominant cell.
 Solution
According to the coverage plan, cell 337 is a
dominant cell covering the area and cell 49 also has
strong signals. To ensure handovers between cells 337
and 49 at crossroads, increase tilts in cell 49.
Lack of a
dominant
cell

1.PCI distribution in cluster xx

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Cross Coverage

Cross coverage means that the coverage scope of an eNodeB exceeds the planned one and generates
discontinuous dominant areas in the coverage scope of other eNodeBs. For example, if the height of a site is
much higher than the average height of surrounding buildings, its transmit signals propagate far along hills or
roads and form dominant coverage in the coverage scope of other eNodeBs. This is an “island” phenomenon.

Cross If a call is connected to an island that is far away from an eNodeB but is still served by the eNodeB, and cells
around the island are not configured as neighboring cells of the current cell when cell handover parameters
coverage are configured, call drops may occur immediately once UEs leave the island. If neighboring cells are
configured but the island is excessively small, call drops may also occur because UEs are not promptly
handed over. In addition, cross coverage occurs on two sides of a bay because a short distance between the
two sides. Therefore, eNodeBs on two sides of a bay must be specifically designed.

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Resolving Cross Coverage Problems

Adjust antenna azimuths properly Adjust antenna tilts or replace Decrease the antenna height for
so that the direction of the main antennas with large-tilt antennas a high site.
lobe slightly obliques from the while ensuring proper antenna Decrease transmit power of
direction of a street. This reduces azimuths. Tilt adjustment is the carriers when cell performance is
excessively far coverage by electric most effective approach to control not affected.
waves because of reflection from coverage. Tilts are classified into
buildings on two sides of the street. …
electrical tilts and mechanical tilts.
Electrical tilts are preferentially
adjusted if possible.

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Case: Cross Coverage Caused by Improper Tilt Settings
 Symptom
As shown in the upper right figure, cross coverage
occurs in a cell whose PCI is 288. Therefore, the cell
interferes with other cells, which increases the
probability of service drops.
 Analysis
The most possible cause for cross coverage is
excessively antenna height or improper tilt settings.
According to a check on the current engineering
parameter settings, the tilt is set to an excessively
small value. Therefore, it is recommended that the tilt
be increased.
 Solution
Adjust the tilt of cell 288 from 3 to 6. As shown in the
lower right figure, cross coverage of cell 288 is
significantly reduced after the tilt is adjusted.

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Case: Inverse Connections Involved in the Antenna System
 Symptom
The RSRPs of cells 0 and 2 at the Expo Village site are low and
high respectively in the red area shown in the figure. The signal
quality of cells 0 and 2 is satisfactory in the areas covered by
cells 2 and 0 respectively.
 Analysis
After installation and commissioning are complete, the RSRP in
the direction of the main lobe in cell 0 is low. After cell 0 is
disabled and cell 2 is enabled, the RSRP in cell 2 is normal and
the SINR is higher than that tested in cell 0. Therefore, this
problem may occur because the antenna systems in the two
cells are connected inversely. Test results are as expected after
optical fibers on the baseband board are swapped.
 Solution
Swap optical fibers on the baseband board or adjust feeders and
antennas properly. It is recommended that optical fibers on the
baseband board be swapped because this operation can be
performed in the equipment room.
 Suggestions
Network planning personnel must participate in installation.
Alternatively, customer service personnel have detailed network
planning materials and strictly supervise project constructors for
installation. After installation is complete, labels must be
attached and installation materials must be filed.

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Imbalance Between Uplink and Downlink
When UE transmit power is less than eNodeB transmit power, UEs in idle mode may receive eNodeB signals and
successfully register in cells. However, the eNodeB cannot receive uplink signals because of limited power
when UEs perform random access or upload data. In this situation, the uplink coverage distance is less than

Imbalance the downlink coverage distance. Imbalance between uplink and downlink involves limited uplink or downlink
coverage. In limited uplink coverage, UE transmit power reaches its maximum but still cannot meet the
between requirement for uplink BLERs. In limited downlink coverage, the downlink DCH transmit code power reaches
uplink and its maximum but still cannot meet the requirement for the downlink BLER. Imbalance between uplink and
downlink leads to service drops. The most common cause is limited uplink coverage.
downlink

Downlink coverage area


Uplink coverage area

coverage area

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Resolving Problems with Imbalance Between Uplink and Downlink

If no performance data is available for RF If uplink interference leads to imbalance between
optimization, trace a single user in the OMC uplink and downlink, monitor eNodeB alarms to
equipment room to obtain uplink measurement check for interference.
reports on the Uu interface, and then analyze the Check whether equipment works properly and
measurement reports and drive test files. whether alarms are generated if imbalance between
If performance data is available, check each uplink and downlink is caused by other factors, for
carrier in each cell for imbalance between uplink example, uplink and downlink gains of repeaters and
and downlink based on uplink and downlink trunk amplifiers …
are set incorrectly, the antenna
balance measurements. system for receive diversity is faulty when reception
and transmission are separated, or power amplifiers
are faulty. If equipment works properly or alarms are
generated, take measures such as replacement,
isolation, and adjustment.

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Signal to Noise
& Interference
Ratio (SINR)

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Traditional Frequency Planning
1*3*3 Frequency Planning

Advantage
 Lower interference and larger coverage radius

Disadvantage
 Lower spectrum efficiency

Suitable Scenario
 Abundant frequency resource or inconsecutive spectrum scenarios large coverage
scenarios. 1*3*3

1*3*1 Frequency Planning

Advantage
 Higher spectrum efficiency

Disadvantage
 Lower cell edge throughput due to serious interference

Suitable Scenario
 Lacking frequency resource
 Capacity requirement scenarios, such as dense urban and urban areas during network
initial stage
1*3*1
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Interference and Capacity Comparison 1*3*3 Vs 1*3*1
1*3*3 10MHz channel (30MHz) compare with 1*3*1 10MHz channel (10MHz)
The downlink service channel SINR of 1×3×1
and 1×3×3
1
0.8
0.6
CDF

0.4
0.2
0
-10 0 10 20 30 40
SINR
1×3×1 1×3×3

SINR distribution comparison Average sector capacity comparison


1*3*3 with low interference because of more frequency resource.

1*3*3 with high sector capacity because of low interference.

 More frequency resource required for 1*3*3

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SINR
The SINR is not specifically defined in 3GPP specifications. A common formula is as follows:
SINR = S/(I + N)
 S: indicates the power of measured usable signals. Reference signals (RS) and physical downlink shared
channels (PDSCHs) are mainly involved.
 I: indicates the power of measured signals or channel interference signals from other cells in the current
system and from inter-RAT cells.
 N: indicates background noise, which is related to measurement bandwidths and receiver noise
coefficients.

Empirical SINR at the edge of a cell:


The SINR is greater than -3 dB in 99% areas in Norway.
The SINR is greater than -3 dB in 99.25% areas in the Huayang field in Chengdu.

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Signal Quality (SINR is mainly involved)

⑤ Antenna
azimuths
③ Site ⑥ Antenna tilts
selection
④ Antenna
② Cell layout
height
① Frequency
plan

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Resolving Signal Quality Problems Caused by Improper Parameter Settings
Optimizing Change and optimize frequencies based on drive test and
frequencies
performance measurement data.

Adjust antenna azimuths and tilts to change the distribution of signals in an


Adjusting the
interfered area by increasing the level of a dominant sector and decreasing levels of
antenna
other sectors.
system

Increase power of a cell and decrease power of other cells to form a dominant
Adding dominant
coverage cell.

Decrease RS power to reduce coverage if the antenna pattern is distorted because


Adjusting power of a large antenna tilt.
Power adjustment and antenna system adjustment can be used together.

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Case: Adjusting Antenna Azimuths and Tilts to Reduce Interference
 Symptom
Cross coverage occurs at sites 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, and co-channel interference occurs
in many areas.
 Analysis
According to the analysis of engineering parameters and drive test data, cell density is large in
coverage areas. Coverage by each cell can be reduced by adjusting antenna azimuths and tilts.
 Solution
Change the tilt in cell 28 from 2 degrees to 4 degrees so that the direction points to a
demonstration route. Change the tilt in cell 33 from 3 degrees to 6 degrees so that the direction
points to the Wanke Pavilion. Change the tilt in cells 50 and 51 from 3 degrees to 6 degrees so
that the direction points to the Communication Pavilion. Decrease the transmit power in cell 33 by
3 dB to reduce its interference to overhead footpaths near China Pavilion.

Poor signal
quality before
optimization

SINR before optimization in Puxi SINR after optimization in Puxi


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Case: Changing PCIs of Intra-frequency Cells to Reduce Interference
 Symptom
Near Japan Pavilion, UEs access a cell whose PCI is 3 and SINRs are low. UEs are about 200 m away from the
eNodeB. This problem may be caused by co-channel interference.
 Analysis
This problem is not caused by co-channel interference because no neighboring cell has the same frequency as the
current cell. Cell 6 interferes with cell 3. SINRs increase after cell 6 is disabled. In theory, staggered PCIs can
reduce interference.
 Solution
Change PCI 6 to PCI 8. Test results show that SINRs increase by about 10 dB.

SINR when cell 6 is enabled SINR when cell 6 is disabled SINR when PCI 6 is changed to PCI 8

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Case: Handover Failure Caused by Severe Interference
 Symptom
During a test, handovers from PCI 281 to PCI 279 fail.
 Analysis
Cell 281 is a source cell and is interfered by cells 279 and 178. Delivered handover commands always
fail and cannot be received correctly by UEs. Cell 279 is a target cell for handover, and its coverage is
not adjusted preferentially because the signal strength in the handover area can ensure signal quality
after handovers. Therefore, cell 178 must be adjusted to reduce its interference to cell 281.
 Solution
Adjust antenna tilts to decrease coverage by cell 178.

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SINR Improvement
INITIAL PLAN AFTER ACP

In the inner city of Jakarta where ZTE antenna configuration taken


into the initial planning show there are so much SINR around 0~5
(dB). After do the ACP Optimization the SINR much improve with
much blue color (SINR >=15 dB)

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Initial Plan

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After ACP

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Radio Parameter @ GENEX Probe

PCI (Physical Cell Identifier)


Value range : 0 – 839, cross-check any cross
feeder problem when conducting moving test.

RSRP (Reference Signal Receive Power)


 -70 dBm to -90 dBm → Good
 -91 dBm to -110 dBm → Normal
 -110 dBm to -130 dBm → Bad

SINR (Signal to Interference+Noise Ratio)


 16 dB to 30 dB → Good
 1 dB to 15 dB → Normal
 -10 dB to 0 dB → Bad

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Radio Parameter @ GENEX Probe…cont
Modulation Coding Scheme

64 QAM → Good
16 QAM → Normal
QPSK → Bad

Neighboring cell Downlink EARFCN

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On-Site Hardware

MIMO Antenna

BBU : Baseband Unit

RRU : Radio Remote Unit

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Signal quality overview plot (Serving PCI)
RNO-1

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Signal quality overview plot (RSRP)

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Signal quality overview plot (SINR)

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Signal quality overview plot (DL Throughput)

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Signal quality overview plot (UL Throughput)

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