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EEK260 Electrical Machines

Chapter 3
AC Machinery Fundamentals

PM Ir. Dr. Dahaman Ishak


dahaman@usm.my
Voltage Induced in a Simple Rotating Loop

eind  v  B  l  2vBl sin 


Only sides ab and cd contribute to the production of induced
voltage. Sides bc and da do not contribute anything.
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Voltage Induced in a Simple Rotating Loop
The loop is rotating at constant speed ω , then the angle θ will increase linearly with
time such that:
  t v  r
 e  2vBL sin   2rBL sin t  AB sin t
ind

Recall   BA , then eind  max sin t

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Torque Induced in a Current-Carrying Loop

 
Force Fˆ  i lˆ  Bˆ

Torque Tind  Fr  2rilB sin 

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Stator Permanent Magnet
Rotor
Synchronous Machine

Synchronous Machine

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Dr. Dahaman Ishak
Rotating Magnetic Field

Sinusoidal currents in each phase winding:


ia t   I m sin t H a t   H m sin t  0 0
ib t   I m sin t  120 0  H b t   H m sin t  120 0  120
ic t   I m sin t  240 0  H c t   H m sin t  240 0  240 0
6 Magnetic field strength for each phase winding
Rotating Magnetic Field
Flux density from Magnetic field strength for each phase winding :
Ba t   Bm sin t  0 0
Bb t   Bm sin t  120 0  120
Bc t   Bm sin t  240 0  240 0
Total magnetic flux density from all three coils added together will yield:
Bnet t   Ba t   Bb t   Bc t 
Bnet t   Bm sin t  0  Bm sin t  120 0  120 0  Bm sin t  240 0  240 0

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Rotating Magnetic Field
For example at t = 0sec, then ωt=00 : Ba t  0  0  0 0

Bb t  0  Bm sin  120 0  120 0  


3
Bm  120 0
2

Bc t  0  Bm sin  240  240 


3
0
Bm  240 0
0

Therefore : Bnet t  0  1.5Bm    90 0

Similarly at ωt=900 :

Bnet  1.5Bm  0 0

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Rotating Magnetic Field

9
Rotating Magnetic Field

The resultant magnetic


flux Bnet is rotating
synchronously at angular
speed of supply frequency

P n nP
fe     Hz
 
2 60 120
where n is speed in rpm

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Relationship between Electrical Freq and Rotational Speed
Space distribution of the air-gap flux density in a idealized,
four-pole synchronous generator

P
 e    m where P  pole numbers
2

P P
fe    f m or e    m
2 2

P n nP
fe     Hz where n is speed in rpm
 
2 60 120

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The Induced Voltage in a Stator Coil
  
Induced emf e  2v  B  l  2vBl sin t  2rBl sin t
ind

 e   2rlB sin t   sin t


ind
for single turn coil

 e  N 2rlB sin t  N  sin t


ind c c
for Nc turns coil

Rms induced voltage:


2
E  fN   4.44 fN 
rms c c
12 2
If we have three sets of coil which are displaced 1200 from each other,
then the induced voltages in each coil are given by:-

e ind _ a
 N  sin t
c

e ind _ b
 N  sin t  120
c
0

e ind _ b
 N  sin t  240
c
0

Rms induced voltage per coil is the same:

N  2
E  rms
c
 fN   4.44 fN 
c c
2 2
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Dr. Dahaman Ishak
Example 3-2:
A three-phase two-pole generator is shown here. The peak flux density of the rotor
magnetic field is 0.2T and the mechanical rate of rotation of the shaft is 3600 rpm. The
stator diameter of the machine is 0.5m, its coil length is 0.3m and there are 15 turns per
coil. The machine is Y-connected.
a) What are the three-phase voltages of the generator as a function of time?
b) What is the rms phase voltage of this generator?
c) What is the rms terminal voltage of this generator?

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Dr. Dahaman Ishak
The Induced Voltage in a Three-Phase Set of Coils
Cross-sectional view of an elementary three-phase ac machine.
The dc current which is flowing
in the rotor winding will create a
rotor field whose fundamental
space harmonic is given by :
 poles 
B f  B peak cos r 
 2 
4 0  kf Nf 
B peak    I f
g  poles 

Flux per pole due to rotor current


if is given by :
  / poles
 poles 
p  Bf A   B peak
cos  r lrd r
 / poles  2  

 2    poles   2 
p oles

 p  Bpeak  lr sin  r    2 B peak lr


15  poles    2  poles
  poles 
As the rotor turns, the flux linkage varies cosinusoidally with the angle between the
magnetic axes of the stator coil and rotor. If the rotor is spinning at constant angular
speed ωm , then the flux linkage with the phase A of the stator winding is given by:
 poles 
a  k w N ph p cos m t   k w N ph p cosmet 
 2 

From Faraday’s Law, the induced voltage in phase A winding is:


da
ea   me k w N ph p sin met 
dt

The peak value / amplitude of the induced voltage per phase :

Emax  me k w N ph p  2f me k w N ph p or Emax  me Laf i f

The rms induced voltage per phase :


2
E rms  f me k w N ph p  2  f me k w N ph p  4.44 fk w N ph p
2
1
or E rms   me Laf i f
16 2
Efficiency of AC Machine
Pout Pin  Ploss
Efficiency  100%  100%
Pin Pin

Losses in AC machines :-
a) Electrical or copper losses ( I2R )
b) Core losses (hysteresis loss + eddy current loss)
c) Mechanical losses (friction loss and windage loss)
d) Stray load losses

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Losses in AC Machines

Generator

Motor
18
Class Exercise 1:
A simple loop rotating in a uniform magnetic field is
shown here. Assume :
B = 1.0 T r = 0.1m
l = 0.3m ωm = 314 rads/s

a) Calculate the voltage induced in this rotating loop.


b) What is the frequency of the induced voltage?
c) Suppose that a 10Ω resistor is connected across the loop terminals. Calculate
the current that would flow through the resistor.
d) Calculate the magnitude and direction of the induced torque on the loop.
e) Calculate the instantaneous and average electric power being generated by
the loop.

 e  N 2rlB sin t  N  sin t


ind c c
for Nc turns coil

2
E rms
fN   4.44 fN 
c c
2

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Dr. Dahaman Ishak
Class Exercise 2:

A three-phase, Y-connected, two-pole winding is installed in 12 slots on a stator. There


are 40 turns of wire in each slot of the windings. All coils in each phase are connected in
series. The flux per pole in the machine is 0.060 Wb, and the speed of the rotation of
the magnetic field is 1500rpm.
a) What is the frequency of the voltage produced in this winding?
b) What are the resulting phase and terminal voltages of this stator?

P n nP
fe     Hz where n is speed in rpm
 
2 60 120

 e  N 2rlB sin t  N  sin t


ind c c
for Nc turns coil

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Dr. Dahaman Ishak
End of Lecture Note

Chapter 3 - AC Fundamentals

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Dr. Dahaman Ishak